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TECHNIQUE COST OF CULTIVATION UNIT COST OF FOREST NURSERY IN 0.25 HA RETURNS BENEFICIARIES CONTRIBUTION QUANTUM OF REFINANCE RATE OF INTEREST
NURSERY TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPORTANT TREE SPECIES
Forestry as a sector plays a vital role in the socio-economic and rural development of a country apart from its role in maintaining ecological stability particularly in a developing country like India. Forests are a traditional source of a multitude of products particularly with regard to fuelwood, fodder, small and constructional timber and have sustained large masses of population. The vast potential of forests to generate employment especially in rural areas, thereby contributing to rural incomes and poverty alleviation has remained unutilized. The country's forests are under tremendous pressure due to the indiscriminate removal of timber, fuelwood, fodder and other forest produce. Though there are various afforestation and plantation programmes being implemented by the State Forest Departments, Forest based industries, NGOs, etc., availability of quality planting material well in time and in close proximity to areas where afforestation is to be taken up remains a major constraint in taking up large scale afforestation of wastelands, private lands, etc. NEED FOR RAISING NURSERIES FOR LARGE SCALE AFFORESTATION The National Forest Policy stipulates that one third geographic area of the country should be brought under forest/tree cover. Keeping the same in focus, the Approach Paper to the X Five Year Plan has targeted to bring 25 percent area under forest/tree cover by the end of the Tenth Plan period and 33 percent by the end of the Eleventh Plan period. It also emphasises on establishment of modern nurseries on a catchment area
The proposed large scale afforestation will require establishment of decentralised nurseries through credit support. Forest nurseries will be one of the means for active participation of the communities in future forest regeneration programmes. fuel. The 1. The size of the nursery may be increased according to the borrowers category. fruits. 10 sq m. The number of polybeds required at this stage is at 1:12 ratio i. The steady depletion of forest resources and increasing deforestation has brought into focus the realisation that the active participation of the communities is necessary for the success of any forest regeneration programme. SELECTION OF SPECIES Top The nurseries should plan to produce healthy plants covering timber. The nursery should be on a gently sloping land to ensure proper drainage. Ten seed polybeds would be raised of 10m x 1m i. SHGs.25 lakh seedlings can be raised. The shape will be rectangular and would measure 100m x 25 m. etc. 12 polybeds for each of the primary/seed polybeds.basis to provide quality planting material. .e.20 lakh seedlings would be raised in polybags and remaining 5000 will be naked rooted seedlings. NGOs. Besides this the prevailing agroclimatic conditions in the area should also be taken into consideration while selecting the species. non-wood forest produce and even ornamental species having good demand in the locality. State Forest Development Corporations. BENEFICIARIES Top The decentralised nurseries can be established by farmers. Promotion of decentralised nurseries through credit in the rural areas will lead to easy and timely availability of planting material and in the process lead to creation of employment opportunities and income generation in the rural areas. has been considered for a viable nursery wherein 1. NURSERY TECHNIQUE Top An area of 0. forest based industries. Initially the nursery will be raised in mother beds and will be pricked out in polypots. Site preparation will be done by ploughing and hoeing the land. It should have water as a perennial source to ensure adequate supply in hot weather and to reduce costs. capacity and demand for planting material.25 ha. It is also well known that village communities would have little incentive to participate unless they benefit directly.25 lakh seedlings will be raised in a total of 120 polybeds (1000 seedlings per polybed) of which 1.e. fodder.
Bamboo mats can also be used for providing shade.) 400 4500 500 2000 25000 1500 2500 5000 5000 30000 76400 3820 80220 .50/MD Sr. COST OF CULTIVATION The total cost of raising a nursery with 1. shading may be provided by using polythene sheets or shading nets.1.25 lakh seedlings has been estimated at Rs. UNIT COST OF FOREST NURSERY IN 0.The seedlings will be hardened in the nursery by reducing the water supply over a period of time and exposing them to sunlight over different durations. Protection measures may be taken like fencing the area with barbed wire.25 lakh seedlings Wage Rate: Rs. The nurseries are temporary in nature and are of five year duration.No.0.15/RMT LS LS 100 MD LS Cost. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Particulars of works Fixed Cost Site Preparation Fencing with barbed wire for 150 RMT Preparation of compost pit.30/RMT 10 MD LS LS Rs.2. This would make them capable of facing adverse weather conditions once they are transplanted onto the field.50/. (Rs. The detailed item wise and year wise unit cost is furnished below assuming a wage rate of Rs.37 lakh. nursery path Maintenance of irrigation source 5 HP Diesel Pumpset Cost of pipeline for irrigation (100 mts. The capital cost works out to Rs.) Cost of implements for nursery operations Cost of Water Tank Preparation of Polybeds (120) Cost of Net for providing shade and installation SubTotal Contingency 5% Total Unit 8 MD Rs.802 lakh to be incurred in the first year.25 HA Top 1.172 lakh for the first year. During the summer months.per manday. The recurring cost works out to Rs.
1000/month 12000 21 Subtotal 130550 Cost of supervision 5% 6527 22 Total 137077 23 Grand Total 217297 Yield and Income Saleable seedlings @ 90% 112500 112500 112500 112500 Actual Sale @ 90% 101250 101250 101250 101250 Income @ Rs.2. /hr @ Rs.Total MD for establishment for 0.25 ha(0.25 ha.120/MT 30000 6 Cost of fertilizer @ 10 gm/polybag Rs. unloading @ 2 kg/bag Rs. of Saplings 125000 125000 125000 125000 . Rs.No.625Acr) /1.50 per sapling 253125 253125 253125 253125 Year 1 2 3 4 No.Particulars of works Unit Cost.25 laks seedlingsof 5”x9” 118 MD For 1lk =95MDX120=11400 Recurring Cost Sr.10/kg 12000 7 Cost of chemicals for plant protection LS 2500 8 Cost of diesel and lubricants for pumpsets @ 1.22/ltr.5 hrs for 100 days 1 ltr. (Rs. 3300 9 Cost of thatching material LS 1000 10 Cost of sowing on seed beds 10 MD 500 11 Cost of weeding and hoeing 50 MD 2500 12 Cost of picking up from germi beds 50 MD 2500 13 Filling up of polybags @ 200 Polybags /MD 625 MD 31250 14 Shifting of polybags 50 MD 2500 15 Cost of labour for irrigation 100 MD 5000 16 Cost of fertilizer application 25 MD 1250 17 Cost of application of insecticides 25 MD 1250 18 Maintenance of paths 10 MD 500 19 Maintenance of pumpset LS 2500 20 Watch and ward Rs.40/kg 12000 5 Cost of Pot mixture including loading.) 1 Rent for land 0.2500/yr 2500 2 Preparation of Seed beds (10) 10MD 500 3 Cost of seeds LS 5000 4 Cost of Polybags (400 Polybags/kg) Rs.
25 ha. The returns have been calculated by taking 10% mortality and 90% of actual sale of the surviving saplings. .625Acr/1.e. Beneficiaries own labour can also be taken as his contribution towards the margin money requirement. 1 Years Cost Benefits Net Benefit 217297 253125 35828 2 137077 253125 116048 3 137077 253125 116048 4 137077 253125 116048 5 137077 253125 116048 PWC@ 15% 529259. small and other farmers in accordance with NABARD's norms. The cost has been considered at Rs.25lak/5”X9” 950 MD For 1lk =760MDX120=91200 Economics of Forest Nursery on 0.per sapling. QUANTUM OF REFINANCE Top The loans extended by the banks to individual farmers and / or groups of individuals such as co-operatives under Wasteland development projects are eligible for refinance from NABARD to the extent of 100% of Bank loan.5 125000 112500 101250 253125 Total MD for Recurring for 0.89 PWB@ 15% 848514.50/.. BENEFICIARIES CONTRIBUTION Top The beneficiaries may contribute towards down payment ranging from 5 to 25% depending upon their category.25 ha=0. i.60 IRR > 50% RETURNS Top Since the saplings would be ready for plantation anywhere from the 6th month to 12th month depending on the species.26 BCR 1.2. returns will be generated from the first year onwards.
for 15 days or more.org (18) TECTONA GRANDIS (TEAK. This process helps to soften the outer hard coating of the seeds.In the weathering method. teak leaves are in a layer at the bottom and also on the . • Alternate soaking and drying for 48 hours each. The seed is turned upside down after every two to three days so that every seed. The seeds are dried and kept in gunny bags or baskets for use in April-May or even next year.nabard. The rate of interest to be charged to the ultimate borrowers would be decided by the financing banks. • Seeds can be placed in a paste of cowdung and water or in fresh dung heap for a few days. Reference: www. SAGWAN) • Seeds are immersed in cold water for several days • Weathering method. seeds are spread over on the ground or a cemented platform in the first week of August. However for working out the financial viability and bankability of the model project we have assumed the rate of interest as 12%. • Teak seeds can be treated with conc. The 14 thickness of spread should be nearly 6 to 9 inches. The seeds are allowed to be weathered up for 6-8 weeks. The seeds remain wet either due to rains or are kept wet by pouring water over them. • Pit method—The pit is thoroughly watered.RATE OF INTEREST Top The rate of interest on refinance from NABARD will be as per the circulars issued by NABARD from time to time. gets sunlight and shade alternately and constantly. After the water is absorbed by the pit. Sulphuric acid or boiling water. Too much wetting is not desirable as some seeds may start germinating.
and good seedcrops are produced by plantations less than 20 years old (Troup 1921). seed is collected. For convenience in handling and storage. extraction. one in middle and one at each corner are placed in position with holes drilled into them. when only 3 years Teak has borne viable seeds old (Schubert 1974). The fruits can be swept up from the ground beneath the trees as they fall or else clipped with pruning poles or shaken from the branches. five bamboo tubes. Too much watering should be avoided. and storage. the involucre can be removed in a mechanical dehusker or by working a cloth bag half-filled with dried fruits against the ground with a foot and then winnowing to separate the fruits from the chaff. Teak fruits in Honduras average 705/kg (320/lb) with the involucres intact and 880/kg (400/lb) with the involucres removed (Chable . The pit is then opened. Collection.sides of the pit. Seeds are soaked for 48 hours outside the pit and then laid in the pit with alternate layers of teak leaves in between the seed. so that water can reach to all seed layers through them. Drying can be completed by spreading the fruits on racks in the sun. dried and kept ready for sowing. The bladder-like involucre turns from green to brown when the seeds are ripe. The seed is retained in the pit for about 10 to 15 days and watered alternate days. But before doing so.
Keiding (1985) reported that seeds stored at 0 to 4 EC and about 12% moisture for 7 years lost no viability. In other parts of the world. Pretreatment to stimulate germination should be 6 repetitions of soaking the fruits in water. teak Cut tests of fruits on 56 collections from across the range of revealed a potential mean viability of 71% and ranged from 40 to 96% (Danish/FAO Forest Tree Seed Centre 1973). Teak seeds are true orthodox in storage behavior and keep best at low temperatures and moisture contents. often low and unpredictable germination. Seeds extracted from the fruits and treated with fungicide gave a germination of 54% in 12 days (Dabral 1976).1969).070/kg (400 to 1. Germination tests. Seeds from fruits stored in sacks in dry warehouses retained their viability for about 2 years (Kushalappa 1977). Troup 1921). Because it is difficult to extract teak seeds from their fruits and untreated teak fruits give protracted. followed by 3 days of drying (ISTA 1993). some fruit pretreatment in . Parry 1956). the number of clean fruits per weight varies from a low of 880 to a high of 3. Longer periods of storage have not been needed in most areas because teak produces good seedcrops almost every year (Mahapol 1954. Germination in nursery beds in various parts of the world has varied from 0 to 96% in periods varying from 10 days to 3 months.400/lb) (Champion and Brasnett 1958. The seeds make up about 3% of the weight of the cleaned fruits (Dabral 1976). Laboratory germination tests should be carried out in sand at a constant 30 EC for 28 days.
water soak (30%) or scarification (28%). Various pretreatments to hasten or improve germination have been used. Seeds inoculated with Scytalidium sp. In one test. after which it gradually decreased. Soaking the fruits in water for several days.usually applied. It is felt that nutrient deficiencies in some of the . a cellulolytic fungus isolated from teak litter.. Weathering of the epicarp and mesocarp aids germination. and kept moist for 21 days had 96% germination compared to 20% for uninoculated control (Dadwal and Jamaluddin 1988). Germination 68 days after sowing was 61% of the total number of fruits sown (Schubert 1974). White and Cameron nd). clean fruits were pretreated by 5 cycles of alternate soaking in water for 24 hours and drying in the sun for 48 hours and then sown. Increases in germination of 5 to 12% over controls (21% germination) were obtained with treatments of IAA and GA alone and in combination at various concentrations (Uanikrishnan and Rajeeve 1990). or alternate wetting and drying as in laboratory testing. Troup 1921. have proven effective (Schubert 1959. Germination began 18 days after sowing and continued to increase for 15 days. A novel method reported from Thailand is to expose the fruits to ants for 1 to 2 weeks: they attack and remove the felty covering and thus speed up germination without loss of viability (Bryndum 1966). Soaking of fruits from 11 Indian tectona--2provenances in a nutrient solution resulted in a higher seedling yield (34%) than control (18%).
watering should gradually be reduced. larger fruits yield a significantly higher number of seedlings per fruit. The stump plants are grown in the nursery until they reach 1. soil.5 cm (2 to x1 in) of sand. A seedling yield of about 25% can be expected from good seedlots (White and Cameron nd).5 cm (2 to 1 in) in diameter at the root collar which have had the top cut back to about 2. A temperature of 30 EC appears to be optimal for germinating teak seeds (Dabral 1976). or sawdust (Schubert 1956.2 to 2. Mahapol 1954. Because they tend to have a greater number of seeds per fruit. Some seeds that were stored for several months germinated better than fresh seeds (Champion and Brasnett 1958. It is recommended that fruits smaller than 14 mm in diameter be culled (Banik 1977). The beds should be watered just enough to keep them moist. White and Cameron nd). covered with Teak fruits are usually broadcast in nursery beds and 1.2 to 2.5 cm (1 in) and the taproot cut back to 18 . Seeds from dry regions frequently are more difficult to germinate (Troup 1921). probably because seeds need a period of after-ripening (Coster 1933). Field planting is generally done with Astump@ plants (seedlings with the tops removed) or potted plants grown in plastic nursery bags. Once the seedlings have become established.sources resulted in lower germination or early seedling failure (Gupta and Pattanath 1975). Troup 1921). Germination is epigeal (Troup 1921). Nursery practice.
Ideally.0 to 7. Teak can also be reproduced by coppicing.or 20 cm (7.9 in) in length (Schubert 1956. Direct seeding is also practiced. . White and Cameron nd). Sowing of the nursery beds should be timed so that the proper size is reached in time for planting at the start of the rainy season. Another approach is to harvest in the dry season and store the dormant stumps in beds of dry sand for 3 months before planting at the start of the wet season (Kushalappa 1977). In Thailand (Kushalappa 1977) and India (Gupta and Pattanath 1975) at least some nurseries undercut the beds and remove seedlings large enough for stump plants after 1 year and allow the rest to grow another year when the whole bed is harvested. Early growth is slow and often high mortality results (Weaver 1993). It requires prepared seed spots. because cut stumps produce very vigorous sprouts. plants of suitable size can be grown in 6 to 9 months.
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