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REORDER NO.
6337
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS A N D SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT N A S 7100 No.
Internal Office Memorandum Translation No. 33 THE PHYSICS O F NUCLEAR FISSION (Sections 5
 8)
A. Kraut
Translated by D o r r i s Wallenbroek from Nueleonik, Vol. 2, June 1960
Copy No
~
JET P R O P U L S I O N L A B O R A T O R Y
C A L I F O R N I A INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY
PASADENA, LIFORNIA CA
February 15, 1963
CONTENTS 5. Kinetic Energy of the Fission Products 5.1
...............
..............
1
The Kinetic Energy of Fission Products Within the Framework of Energy Balance Measured Energy Magnitudes and Their Correlation
1
5.2 5.3
..........................
.......................
3
KineticEnergy Distribution of Individual FissionProducts.
6
5.4
Range Distribution of Individual Fission Products inAbsorbers. Distribution of the Total Kinetic Energy T1 f Th for the Fixed Fission Ratio Ah/Al
.........................
..............
8
5.5
9
6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Anisotropy of the FissionFragment Emission . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6.2 Photofission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.3 Thermal Fission of Oriented Nuclei . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Fission by Particles With Energies E < 10 MeV. . . . . . . 2 1 6.5 Nuclear Charge of the Fission Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 7.1 Introduction .......................... 27 7.2 MeasuredResults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
7.3 7.4 Postulate for the Charge Distribution for Fixed MassNumber 6.4 Fission by Neutrons With Energies 0.4 MeV 10MeV..
5.6
The Total Kinetic Energy of A l l FissionProduct Pairs..
S, En <
7.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Proof of the Postulates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1
CONTENTS (Cont d) 8. Prompt Neutrons and Gamma Rays 8.1
8.2
8.3
................ Introduction ......................... Prompt Neutrons ...................... Prompt GammaRadiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
...............................
TABLES’ Measurements of the energy distribution and range of fission products
35 35 36
48
52
References.
5.2
6.1
7.2 1 1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
62
Measurements of the anisotropy of fissionfragment emissions..
........................
Specific independent and specific cumulative yields of fission products for spontaneous and thermal fission
7.212
8.211 8.212 8.22 8.23 8.3
. . . 63 Measurement of independent yields of fission products at bombardment energies E > 5 MeV . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Mean number of neutrons emitted per fission for spontaneous and thermal fission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5 Mean numbers of neutrons emitted per fission for 66 f i s s i o n b y neutrons .....................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Measured probable emission of exactly v neutrons per fission. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
Measurements and computations for prompt gammaradiation FIGURES Measurements and computations of the energy spectra of prompt neutrons
......................
69
5.211
Contour diagram for the thermal or spontaneous fission of the compound nucleus Pu242 (Sm 571)
.....
70
 iv 
.. 72 6.52 Anisotropy of the fissionfragment emission for the fission of various target nuclei by deuterons and @particles as a function of parameter Z2/A of the compound nucleus (Co 582).4 ......... ..............................FIGURES (Cont Id) 5.54 74 75 7................532 .............. Anisotropy in fission by 22MeV protons as a function of the fission ratio (Co 551) . 73 6..... 70 5.......... Anisotropy of the fissionfragment emission in fission by v e r y fast protons as a function of their energy (Ha 5911..... computed from a number of data (Table 5........... Te 591) Anisotropies in the photofission of various nuclei as a function of the maximum energy of the continuous radiation (Wi 561). .531 Most probable total kinetic energy of the fission product as a function of the fission ratio for the fission of Bi and T a by 450MeV protons Mean energy magnitudes (averaged like TI +Th) as functions of the fission ratio for the spontaneous fission of Cf 252 (St 583) 71 5. ...................... ...53 .6 Mean total kinetic energy of a l l fissionfragment p a i r s 2 a s a function of Zz/A1L3....... 70 5....21 ........411 Charge distribution for fixed m a s s number i n the thermal fission of V235 according to postulate b .............. 71 5.3 Distribution of the kinetic energy of individual fission products in the fission of U235 by neutrons of various e n e r g i e s . 72 6.........2............. v .......222 Distribution of the total kinetic energy of the fission products for various areas of the fission r a t i o in the thermal or spontaneous fission of the compound nucleus Pu242 (Sm 571). 72 6.... 73 6.. Anisotropy of the fissionfragment emission and effective c r o s s section for the fission of Th232 by neutrons as a function of their energy (He 561) .
.... 79 8......................413 The most probable charge < Z > f o r isobars of a m a s s number A as a function of A..............FIGURES (Cont d) 7...412 Charge distribution f o r fixed m a s s number i n thermal fission according to postulate b .. ...........22 Measured energy spectrum and computed energy spectra of prompt neutrons in the spontaneous fission of Cf252 (Te 591) Measured and computed probability for the emission of exactly u neutrons as a function of u f o r the spontaneous fission of several nuclei (Le562)........ 77 8...214 Z J a s a function of the total kinetic energy of the fission products in the spontaneous fission ofCf252 .. 76 7..........23 ... according toWa581 ............. . 79 8..............................2131 Relative probability of neutron emission from light and heavy fission fragments and from both types of fission fragments as a function of the fission ratio for the thermal fission of U233 (Fr 541) Number of neutrons emitted from one fission fragment a s a function of the m a s s number of this fission fragment i n the spontaneous fission of Cf252 (Wh 591) .... 78 8........... 78 8.................vi  80 8............ ..42 Charge distribution f o r fixed m a s s number as a function of bombardment energy (Pa 581) 77 8.....212 u for several target nuclei and the spontaneously splitting nucleus Pu240 as a function of the bombardingneutron energy (Le 581+)  .......32 Energy spectrum of the prom t gammaradiation in the thermal fission of U238and the spontaneous fissionof~f252 80 .. 76 7............. .....2132 ..
thus. KINETIC ENERGY OF THE FISSION PRODUCTS 5. respectively. UL f U supplies the energy for the emission of prompt neutrons H and gammarays (91 8): 1 .1. The Kinetic Energy of Fission Products Within the Framework of Energy Balance The kinetic energy T L F TH of the two fission fragments appears to stem essentially from the Coulomb energy between the fission fragments (considered in t e r m s of the point a t which the latter already exist but have not yet separated). The deforma tion energy of the fission fragments (at that point at which they already exist but have not yet separated) would then have to be transformed into excitation energy. of the excitation of the splitting nucleus (9 5. let UL and UH be the excitations of the light and heavy fission fragments. Kraut Translated by Dorris Wallenbrock 5.6). Following this transformation. 6 ) .THE PHYSICS OF NUCLEAR FISSION by A. TL f TH is nearly independent of the bom bardment energy and. and a rough estimate of the Coulomb energy is known to yield a value which agrees with the measured mean values of TL t TH (41 5 .
En 4.431. . Deviations from this assumption would not result in any great e r r o r s . lower case subscripts r e f e r to fission products.33 and 1.UH.. Within the limits of measurement accuracy. e. the kinetic energy of a.14) ME) 4. (5. fission fragments and fission products"' can often be equated. C' (Mz  ML  (5.Bn for fission by slow neutrons. if Equation (5.13) is valid.It is assumed here that the fission products (i. it does contain the binding energy of the prompt neutrons. nor the energy liberated through the /%emission o r Kcapture o r the emission of delayed neutrons on the part of the fission products. because the excitations of isomeric nuclei a r e generally small compared with UL 4. then.13) On the other hand. The energy liberated during fission is F does not contain the energy of the light particles which may have been emitted before fission (9 1. however. the fission fragments after the emission of the prompt neutrons) exist i n the ground state. after the entire prompt gammaradiation has been emitted. for spontaneous fission. 7.2  . Capital subscripts refer to fission fragments..
5. 5.Ah t E A. Measurements of T1 and Th in the case of fissionproduct p a i r s (i. On the basis of the above equations. In establishing the conservation theorem for mass numbers A and momentum Av. ML.) The equations c a r r y the further restriction that the projectile energy be s o small that the projectile momentum can be neglected and a compound nucleus is formed.2.. (5. the following approximations a r e usually applicable: A1 4. for a pair of complementary (originated in the same act of fission) fission products.6 is written for fission products instead of fission fragments. 1 . En and Bn are the kinetic and binding energies of the bombarding neutron. the light fission fragment.M. . one can calculate. .3  . and the heavy fission fragment.e.15) (Eq. and MH denote the groundstate masses of the compound nucleus. Also. fission products originating from a 5.2 1. the masses and energies from the velocities and the velocities and masses from the energies.. Measured Energy Magnitudes and Their Correlation Measurements of fissionproduct p a i r s .
4  . 2 1 . weighted by the frequency of the appropriate Ah/A1 (of the a r e a below the distribution curve). along a line T1/Th = const. with a plane vertical to the drawing plane. the distribution of T1 k Th for a fixed fission ratio Ah/A1 results (if the bombardment energy is sufficiently small). if the bombardment energy is sufficiently low. they a r e also constants of the fission ratio Ah/Al (Eq. The group of diagonally descending lines consists of lines of constant (Ti Th). 5.Th) for the Ah/A1 under consideration.211). the mean total kinetic energy T1 + Th of all fissionproduct pairs is yielded. Figure 5 . 5. The group of diagonally rising lines consists of lines of constant Tl/Th. In addition.2 shows such distributions for the fission of the compound nucleus Pu242.single act of fission) a r e shown in contour diagrams (Fig. Ah/A1. 5. The value of T1 + a t the maximum is the most probable total kinetic energy (TI 4.15).T h over all calculated for each Ah/Al. the mean total energy T i 4.T h can be By averaging T i 4. 17) and the mass numbers A1 and Ah (Eq. If w e cut the contour diagram (visualized a s threedimensional). The contour lines a r e curves of equal frequency of pairs of fission products with energies between T1 and T1 + dT1 o r between Th and Th + dTh. .
the distributions of A (primary m a s s distribution.1) and of v (velocity distribution). e. Measurements of v1 and vh of fissionproduct pairs a r e shown in similar contour diagrams. they can be converted into T1ThCOntour diagrams. 5.2 gives a general view of the energy and velocity measurements carried out on fissionproduct pairs. Measurements of fission products without consideration of their paired origin. The latter was determined in this manner 5 . a l l the magnitudes in R 5. and thus. such measurements a r e shown in Table 5. s e e cil 4. 5.2.If we drop the difference between T1 and Q.1.22.dT a s a function of T. consider only the frequency of measured fissionproduct energies between T and T 4. Using 9 5. Measurements of the velocity v of individual fission products yield only the distribution of v. Such distributions a r e shown in Fig.21 a r e again obtained. whose coordinates a r e vi and %. Using W 5. Measurements of the kinetic energy T of individual fission products yield only the distribution of T. then we obtain the distribution of the energy T of individual fission products.3. and concurrently. Table 5. can be determined from T1 and Th. the mass numbers A1 and Ah and the velocities v1 and vh.. i.1.
1 are no longer valid. the equations of W 5. KineticEnergy Distribution of Individual Fission Products Figure 5.1. according to R 5.only for the thermal fission of U233J U235.3. The transition from a doublehump curve to a singlehump curve with increasing En corresponds . the most probable kinetic energy (TI 4.21). pertain to the fission of Bi by protons with energies between 50 and 2. Measurements of energy TI of fission products with a fixed m a s s number A1 can.531). 5. this is true when subscripts The measurements performed 1 and h a r e interchanged. on the basis of the energy and impulse balance. Ah w a s estimated with the aid of the measured distribution of the fissionproduct masses (Table 4. after A1 had been measured. and thus. Thus. for such bombarding energies. 5.Th) w a s determined (Fig. also yield Ah and Th.3 shows the shape of the energy distribution during the fission of U235 by neutrons of various energies En. Correspondingly. assuming a sufficiently low bombardment energy. and P u239 (Le 521).Th f o r fixed fission one ratio Ah/A1. in Po 572. Finally.200 MeV (Su 561) and the fission of Bi and Ta by 450MeV protons (Po 572). the distribution of T1 i.6  .
5. Mo 58l).7  . one must not conclude from this that the doublehump energy distribution is an . the energy distributions f o r thermally split U239 and spontaneously splitting Pu240 (Se 541. as well as those for thermally s p l i t Pu241 and spontaneously splitting Pu 2 42 (Sm 571) a r e not markedly different..221). The two energydistribution maxima move closer together with increasing bombardment energy . the energy distribution does not manifest a strong dependence on m a s s number and atomic number Zt of the target nucleus (for Zt > 90) any more than does the m a s s distribution. and thus also with increasing excitation of the splitting nucleus (Fig.to the parallel change in the m a s s distribution (9 4. 3). F r o m the above.. tion depends only slightly upon U. 5 5 MeV. the energy distribu Thus. The same transition takes place with the target nucleus Ra226 in the far narrower En region of 3 to 15 MeV (No 581). This is clearly demonstrated in the comparison between the energy distribution for the spzmtaneous fission (KO 584) and the photofission (KO 561. However. and Cf252. it is apparent that a singlehump (doublehump) energy distribution curve corresponds to a single hump (double hump) massdistribution curve. F o r compoundnucleus excitations U. There a r e still other mathematical interrelationships which are valid for both types of distributions. With constant U. KO 591) of U238: The distance between the maxima is smaller in photofission. This is clearly visible in the contour diagram for the spontaneous fission of Pu242. Cm2 42 .
sa 552). In the fission of Bi by 660MeV protons. 2 2 1 and 4. range distributions were frequently measured in photoemulsions and interpreted under the assumption that the number of maxima corresponds for range. until uk has reached 60 to 100MeV. Range Distribution of Individual Fission Products in Absorbers In the case of very high bombardment energies. they then lead to similar results as measurements of the m a s s distribution.inversion of the doublehump m a s s distribution: A very heavy fission product is generated.4. with higher uk. is preferably paired with a light fission product with aboveaverage energy TI. energy. the probability of equal ranges of the two fission products increases with the increasing excitation uk of the residual nucleus remaining after the cascade. on the other hand (see Fig.24) . Therefore. a heavy fission product with aboveaverage energy Ts. it is difficult to measure energy distributions of fission products. A t similarly high bombardment energies ( R 4 .8  . the range distribution becomes broader again ( P e 551.211). Those measurements of range distribution which have been interpreted in this manner as substitutes for energy distributions a r e shown in Table 5.2. In the case of the target nuclei U238 and Bi2O9. and mass distribution and that a narrow (broad) range distribution corresponds to a narrow (broad) energy and m a s s distribution. together with a very light fission product. 5. a Uk region is reported in which the range distribution appears to be . 5.
A systematic discussion of the ranges of fission products in absorbers is not the object of this paper. The width of the distribution can be determined for each ratio Ah/A1 from the measurements of T 1 and Th or v1 and V of fissionproduct p a i r s (Table 5. h For individual fission ratios. Pe 551.5. With very light target nuclei (Ag. 280MeVn+ mesons.21). Iv 563.24): U One maximum c o r r e s  ponds to the fissions. 1 Width of the distribution. Br) and high bombardment energies (EP = 300  660 MeV). Iv 582). Iv 5711.21 shows the distribution as a function of Ah/A1 for the fission of the compound nucleus Pu242. The range distributions for the fission of uranium T by 350MeV protons (Iv 562.2. and slow mesons (Be 551.9  . Figure 5. P e 554. 9 5. . and two outer maxima (Sa 581) correspond to the spallations. 5.threehumped (Da 591).5 Distribution of the Total Kinetic Energy T 1 Fission Ratio Ah/A1 e + Th for the Fixed 5. Iv 571) are singlehumped and nearly equal (Iv 581. the width of the distribution w a s also determined i n an indirect manner for the thermal splitting of U235 (Co 561) and for the fission of U233 and $35 by fission neutrons (Go 561). the range distribution also has an appearance similar to that of the mass distribution (9 4.
5 13 and 5. the width of the distribution turns out to be about 10 to 13%of the probable total energy (T1 + Th>. only in the case of Cf252 was a weak minimum observed at the most probable Ah/Al (Mi 581). and thus ( 9 5 .In all cases. The width of the distribution does not necessarily appear to depend on the splitting nucleus and the fission ratio. The statistical theory (Fo 561) gives the inadequate value of of the distribution. However. Br 491. 5. in different T I k Th.  10  . the distrif bution of T1 k Th and the distribution of the nuclear charge (both with fixed Ah/A1. 52 670 of (TI + Th) for the width Interpretation of the distribution. which result in various Coulomb energies. s e e 9 7 . The simplest explanation for the fact that the total kinetic energy can assume a whole range of values with a fixed fission ratio would be based on the fact that the nuclear charges of the fission product can have several values. If w e assume the excitation UL k U ~ o the fission fragments to be constant. calculations showed that the b charge distribution resulting f r o m the (Ti Th) distribution is completely incompatible with the measured charge distri bution ( 9 7. 1 ) obviously determine each other (Eqs.l ) . with new energy values: M i 5 6 . l).41.14). and hence. fixed mass numbers A1 and Ah.
and that a much too small (T1 + Th) distribution ( M i 561) follows from the measured charge distribution. 5. results f r o m the measured (TI 4. the distribution of T1 k 121. 9 8.23). the Th must stem primarily from the fluc tuation of the excitation UL amount of T1 4 + UH. then calculate the distribution of UL k UH and finally. even though the total Th is given primarily by the Coulomb energy (41 5. fluctuations in T1 f Thus. 13). If. F r o m the distribution of UL k UH the evaporation theory yields the probability for the emission of exactly v neutrons per fission as a function of v ( 41 8. according to Eq.4'7'. (5. 11%of the most probable total energy (Co 561) is yielded a s the width of this last distribution.23). 1). the probability for the emission of the exactly v neutrons per fission agrees satisfactorily with the measured probability (Le 56 2.11). tion of UL If the calculation is based on that distribu + UH which. according to Eq. from this. The value measured in Co 561  11  . on the other hand. we consider the measured probability for the emission of exactly v neutrons per fission on the basis of being a function of v . Fluctuations of UL t UH correspond to fluctuations of the energy yielded in the form of prompt neutrons and gammarays (Eq. (5.Th) distribution. amounts to 11.13).
e.. the maximum of T1 f Th is at &/A1 N 1. also. The most probable and mean total kinetic energy.Th) and the mean total kinetic energy T1 t Th ( 9 5. Fr 541. were found for the thermal fission of Th229 (Sm 58l). and. The most probable total kinetic energy (Ti 4. for a symmetrical splitting.532 shows this for Similar results Cf252 (St 583. i.53.5. St 5 7 . U 233 (Br 501. A similar maximum can be  12  . They should increase with a decreasing if T1 t Th stem from the Coulomb energy of the fission fragments ( W 5. Figure 5. In thermal and spontaneous fission. Actually. reaches a maximum of TI f The range of the fission products Th at Ah/A1 = 1 as a function of A h / A l (Do 541) in the fission of U238 by 18MeV deuterons and 335MeV protons. the maximum of (TI t Th) exists only with high bombardment energies E 2 2 0 MeVfor Ah/A1 = 1. Hi 571 and M i 581).31 shows this for the fission of Ta and Bi by 450MeVprotons ( P o 572). this product has a maximum for Z L = ZH.2. St 571) U235 (Br 501.1): The Coulomb energy is proportional to the product Z ~ z ~ o f the fissionfragment charges.l ) . because of the condition ZL f Z H = const.2 1) differ only slightly and w i l l not always be kept strictly apart. Fig u r e 5. St 571). and Pu239 ( B r 502.
35.14).Th of all fissionproduct pairs is derived. Thus f a r . (5. The only suggested explan ations offered so far a r e the dependence of the measured results on Ah/A1 (Mi 561) and large systematic e r r o r s in measuring the fission products. we can also determine the mean kinetic energy TL 4. Ka 481). The Total Kinetic Energy of A l l FissionProduct P a i r s The mean total kinetic energy T1 4. If we take into account mathematically the emission of prompt neutrons.assumed from the shape of the fissionproduct range dependent upon %/A1 (thermal fission of Pu239. 2 1. which a r e rarely even close to symmetrical (St 583).T ~ o a l l fission fragments (before f  13  . is entered as a function of Ah/A1.13) and once Eq. 5. the sum F> com puted from the mean kinetic and mean excitation energies (the latter average was T i t Th). The two curves agree satisfactorily for Ah/A1 > 1. according to 9 5 . once using Eq. from the contour diagrams o r through direct calorimetric measurement (Le 551. In Fig. 5.6. 5. but not at a l l for Ah/A1 < 1. In Fig. UL t U ~ s h o w s maximum f o r the no 1. (5.1.532. theory has been unable to explain this position of the maximum.1.532. most probable fission ratio Ah/A1 This is contradic tory to the statistical theory of fission ( F o 561). Gu 571).
J u 491 and P o 572 f o r Zt 290). 5 8 MeV and 90 5 Z.  14  . A new magic number (N = 152) is the end result (see 9 3. With moderate excitation of the compound nucleus U. Sm 571). 5 . Sm 582). which is not further defined. = 100 (Fm254. T1 4. Sm 571). The maximum at Z. T i + Th is only very weakly dependent on excitation of the compound nucleus or bombardment energy (Wa 541. In the case of a fixed target nucleus. = 98 is accompanied by a sudden increase in the most probable mass number of heavy fission products and a discontinuity in the ardecay systematology (Gh 541. T1 k Th increases with increasing nuclear charge Zt of the target nucleus (Sm 582 for Zt 2 90. The Coulomb energy between the fission fragments. 56 for Te 591.T H ( T 591) can be read from Fig. increases in the same direction. of course. 6 by averaging numerous measurement data. 5 98 but is followed by a decrease beyond Z.TH depends roughly linearly on the theoretically mean ingless parameter Z g / A i / 3 (Fig. A s a function of Zg/AZ. Apparently. F r o m an overall point of view. T1 + Th yields a rising curve for 90 2 Z. ~ Computed optimum values for TL 4. The differences between the individual values a r e small and often insignificant. is given. Gh 561). TL 4. a most probable total kinetic energy.neutron emission). 5 98.3).Th decreases somewhat with increasing bombardment energy (Ju 491). Sometimes.
Otherwise. the angle between the incident particle and the direction of the fission fragment is measured.15  . This angle is now . the distribution of the fission products with respect t o angular distribution) can be given by a b (the + + 2 b cos #) + c cos4#)or a b sin2#) + c sin46. fragments a r e emitted nonrandomly at at In general.1.6. Frequently. In the laboratory system. the fission 16 = 0 in the f i r s t distribution and b = 90 deg i n the second. ANISOTROPY OF THE FISSIONFRAGMENT EMISSION 6. the distributions with c = 0 a r e approximated with sufficient exactness. b / a serves a s a measure of the anisotropy. with nonnegative a and b. or some similar L ( 9 0 deg) of the fission fragments emitted at 16 = 90 r elations hip. the measure of the anisotropy is the number L (0 deg) of the fission fragments emitted at fl = 0. divided by the number deg. Such nonrandom orientations can be achieved by orienting the target nuclei in appropriate chemical combinations at very low temperatures (Ro 571) or by means of changes to which the angularmomentum directions of the compound nuclei a r e subjected ( a s a result of the orbitalangular momentum of the bombarding particles contained in them). then. Introduction The fission fragments do not fly apart isotropically i f the symmetry axes of the splitting nuclei a r e oriented nonrandomly t o the direction of bombardment at certain angles. If b is the angle between the incident particle and the direction of flight of the fission product i n the centerofmass system of the splitting nucleus.
1 shows a survey of the measurements which have been made. Ka 581.1. Ba 581). 2. P e 551. PuZ3’. U238 but not in the evenodd and oddeven nuclei of U233. since here the results a r e generally discussed only qualitatively. with c = 0 (Wi 561. only part of them can be explained by underestimation of the statistical measurement fluctuation ( F a 58. Refinements such as the above need not be considered in the following. For quantitative comparisons with theories. especially in angular distributions. Ba 581). Sometimes the angle projected on a plane (photoplate) is used (Lo 551.2. and the abovementioned refinements can be significant. and Am 241 . The angular distribution can be approxi mated by a t b sin2@ c sin4@ t (Re 551. 6. Dependence of angular distribution of target nucleus and maximum photon energy. Anisotropy was observed in the eveneven target nuclei of Th230. The preferred emission angle ( i f any anisotropy exists at all) is 6 = 9 0 deg. Table 6 . Np 237. U 23 5 .2). some authors a r e content with this distribution. Os 561. The cause of the discrepancies which a r i s e because of this is not quite clear. Photofission 6. Ba 571. Ba 571. F a 582.considerably different from fl at higher bombardment energies.  16  . extremely exact measurements a r e necessary (CO 582). Th232. Co 591).
.. this means that the symmetry axis is nonrandomly perpendicular t o the direction of bombardment. then. none of the channels will be nonrandom any longer. = 90 deg. follows. the projection of Iz onto the nuclear symmetry axis has the quantum number K = 0. and the levels corresponding to the various K a r e  17  . For the lowest levels of the nucleus at the saddle point of the fission. becomes correspondingly higher does the nonrandom direc tion 8 = 0 demanded by K = 1 enter the competition and reduce the anisotropy. An evenodd o r eveneven compound nucleus can have different I.The anisotropy decreases with increasing maximum photon energy E. and disappears entirely when Ee (Fig. 6. has the angular momentum I. 16 MeV St 563). The eveneven compound nucleus. and the anisotropy must disappear. The levels with K = 1 in the eveneven nucleus a r e about 1 MeV higher than those with K = 0. Only when E. 21). Fur t h e r analysis w i l l also result in the observed distribution a f b sin2@. from which the preferred emission angle for the fission fragments. This is precisely the qualitative theoretical expectation if electrical dipole absorption (1 = 1) is assumed (Bo 561. With even higher E. = 1 in the direction of the photon ray.
the fission will proceed through more than one channel. Therefore.denser (closer together). 2 2 1 ) . Dependence of the angular distribution on the fission ratio Thus far. increases The significance of this is (St 563. no anisotropy w i l l therefore be achieved (Bo 561). w e find that the anisotropy nearly disappears i n symmetrical fission and increases strongly only as Ah/A (Wi 5 6 . according to 91 6 . about which only provisional results are available (Ro 571. If we consider it as a function of Ah/A1. 2 1 . Ro 582). which. the anisotropy was assumed to be averaged over all Ah/A1. the electrical dipole absorption always dominates.3 Thermal Fission of Oriented Nuclei The thermal fission of oriented U233 nuclei leads to a weakly anisotropic fissionfragment emission. The t e r m c sin4@ the angular distribution denotes in noticeable electrical quadrupole absorption (Ba 5 7 l).1 ) . However. Co 582. Ha 582) that compound or residual nuclei with small excitation.5 MeV (Ba 581). also split l e s s symmetrically than nuclei with greater excitation ( 9 4 . even with the smallest possible Ee. Orientation is effected by means of electrical . which appears strongest a t E. Ha 581.22. 6. 6. = 7.18  . split particularly anisotropically.
quadrupole coupling in crystals of U02Rb(N03l3 at temperatures of about
1°K. According to theory, such anisotropy is t o be expected, because in
thermal fission only a few channels with specified angularmomentum quantum numbers Iz and K a r e available (Bo 561, Ro 582). Fission by Neutrons With Energies 0.4 MeV S En <, 1 0 MeV
6.4
In the case of eveneven target nuclei with a neutron threshold energy
Ek > 0 (Th 232s U238)J $ = 90 deg is the preferred emission angle in the
region in which the fission crosssection
Of
r i s e s to the first plateau
(9 1.32).
F o r higher En, the preferred angle changes to
8
= 0;
the amount
of anisotropy fluctuates a s a function of En (Fig. 6. 4). anisotropy coincide with increases in
Of
Maximum amounts of
(E 1 i. e. ; n
they apparently occur
when new fission channels become available ( 9 1,321). This is particularly apparent a s u f (E,) r i s e s t o the second plateau ( 91
33).
It appears clear that a tendency toward small projections of the compoundnucleus angular momentum I, exists in the impulse direction; this tendency will be proportionately greater a s the orbitalangular momentum (perpendicular to the bombardment direction) of the bombarding particles increases and a s the compoundnucleus angular momentum I decreases. t
A
further tendency toward small projections K of I, toward the symmetry axis of the nucleus (Bo 561, St 572), that is, in the direction of the fissionfragment emission, then leads to the preferred @ = 0 for this emission. The
observed angular distribution, too, follows on the basis of the above and of

19

further statistical analyses (St 572).
The preferred direction J = 0 w i l l ! j
be especially pronounced when a specific channel with small K makes a particularly strong contribution, as appears to be the case in the increase of Of(E )(Bo 561). n The emission angle
@
= 90
deg in the region of the
neutron threshold energy can be explained by appropriate corollary assumptions about K and 1 (1 = 3)(Wi 562). F o r evenodd target nuclei (U233, U235, P U ~ ~ = 0 is always 6 ~ ) , the direction of preferred emission (for En > 0 . 4 MeV). Here, too, the anisotropy fluctuates a s a function of En, but it remains smaller (under about 1 . 3 ) than in the case of eveneven target nuclei ( B r 551; further provisional results in B1 591, He 591, La 592). A maximum of anisotropy again appears to point to a new fission channel (La 592). The
smaller amounts of anisotropy a r e understandable, because more channels a r e available and because the target nuclei do not have the angular momentum It = 0 (see above). However, the amount of It (U233: 5 / 2 ;
U235: 7/2; P u ~ ~ ’1 / 2 ) does not appear to affect the magnitude of the :
anisotropy systematically (He 5911,
With En a s high a s perhaps 10 MeV, theory leads u s to expect fur
ther anisotropy maxima in the case of eveneven and evenodd nuclei i f the reactions (n, 2nf), (n, 3nf), etc., become possible (Ha 582). Meas
urements in this energy region (He 561, B1 591) a r e still not sufficiently numerous to permit clear recognition of maxima. However, here, too,
the average anisotropy is smaller for evenodd nuclei than for eveneven nuclei. This appears to be based, at least partially, on the various fission

20

probabilities: In the evenodd nuclei U233 and Pu239 (B1 5911, the r e a c 
tion (n, f) is quite predominant over (n, nf), (n, Znf), etc., so that highly excited compound nuclei split. This makes possible large K and thus
requires smaller anisotropies (Ha 58 2; s e e above). 6.5 Fission by P a r t i c l e s With Energies E > 10 MeV
6 . 5 1.
General With particle energies of more than about 10 MeV, the fission fragments a r e almost always emitted anisotropically.
;S E
The direction of preferred emission for 10 MeV
= 0; the angular distribution has the
5 50 MeV is $
form a
+
b cos 2 $
+
c cos4$ (Br 541, Br 551, Co 582).
With particle energies of about 100 MeV, the emission angle can be changed to
$
= 90
deg; the angular distribu
tion, in this case, can be represented by a otherwise, by a
+
b sin26;
(a and b
+
b cos2b ( P o 572, Wo 571).
a r e always nonnegative. ) The dependence of the anisotropy on the angular momentum of the target nucleus is insignificant compared to the dependence on Z2/A of the compound nucleus (see
9 6.4., conclusion), should the latter be formed.
6.52. Dependence of the angular distribution on the target nucleus, the compound nucleus, and the excitation of the latter. For a fixed bombarding particle of fixed energy, the anisotropy generally decreases noticeably as ZZ/A,
 21 
increases (for neutrons: Br 541, Pr 583; for protons, deuterons, and aparticles: Co 582; for protons of very
high energies: P o 572; for C12nuclei: Po 591). Figure 6.52, for example, shows anisotropy for the fission of seven target nuclei by deuterons and aparticles a s a
2 function of Zz/AZ. The curves a r e quite smooth, even
though the angular momentum It of the target nuclei fluctuates within broad limits. The anisotropy does not appear More
to depend intrinsically on It (Go 582, Pr 583).
detailed arguments (elimination of the dependence on Z2/A and comparison of I and the transferred orbitalz z
t
angular momentum 1) reinforce this conclusion
(CO582).
The relationship between the anisotropy and the parameter Zg/AZ of the liquid drop model appears unclear at first. However, it becomes understandable if the possibility of neutron emission before fission is considered
(Co 582, Ha 581, Ha 582, s e e 8 6.4, conclusion). F o r '
excitation barely above the activation energy, the anisotropy decreases with increasing excitation Uz (Fig. 6.4). The
high anisotropy at small Zg/AZ can now come about in the following manner: small Zg/AZ indicate great probability of neutron emission; from the latter, a residual nucleus with a smaller excitation is formed; this excitation, in
 22 
Theory (Ha 582) leads us to expect maxima of anisotropy beyond this. the anisotropy increases slowly.53. With increasing transmitted orbi tal angular momentum. as they were observed with smaller E ( 9 6. He 561. after the emission of an additional neutron. for a fixed target nucleus. angle.4).23  . the anisotropy increases with increasing particle mass i f E is fixed (Figure 6. If. the measured data a r e so sparse that the possibility that further maxima might be found appears likely. light residual nuclei a r e created. the anisotropy increases considerably. This is probably the case because particles with greater mass can transmit a greater orbital angular momentum.52). Dependence of angular distribution on energy. F o r a fixed target nucleus. another fission possibility presents itself.turn (when the residual nucleus is split). with increasing energy E of a fixed bombarding particle (Br 551. . leads to high anisotropy. and generally smoothly. This is connected with the fact that. the bombarding particle is varied. Thus far. i f . In the reactions Ra 226 + d a n d B i209 + Ly. Co 582). on the average. and orbital angular momentum of the bombarding particles. for which the above arguments are not valid without modification (Ha 58 2) 6. particles of higher energy also transmit a higher orbital angular momentum (see below).
The fission of the compound nucleus Pu239 yields L(O")/ L(90") = 1. because fewer directions a r e available to the angular momentum I. However.38. fl = Ois (as other wise at small E) the preferred emission angle. aparticles transmit about 1 . fl = 90 deg. The increase in aniso tropy with increasing orbital angular momentum 1 is understandable. the bombarding particle releases a nucleon cascade ( 9 1. compound nuclei a r e no longer formed. instead.19 or 1. the same is true for the fission of U238 by fast neutrons (Os 561) and of T a by 450MeV protons (Po 572). At bombardment energies E > 100 MeV. 1). a r e selected in such a way that the compoundnucleus excitation is equal in both cases (Co 582). of the compound nucleus i f 1 is large (St 563). In this example. F i g u r e 6. the fission fragments a r e generally no longer emitted nonrandomly in or against the bombardment direction (at fi nonrandomly at = 0) but rather. in the fission of Bi by 450MeV protons. The generally anomalous anisotropy (preferred emission angle b = 90 deg) at E 2 100 MeV stems from the fact that with such high E. depending upon whether it w a s created by Np237 + d or by U235 + a. P e 551. Ed and E. Me 581). The bombarding particle essentially retains its  24  .53 shows this for the fission of U238 by protons (Lo 551. 7 times more orbitalangular momentum than deuterons.
This explanation appears unsatisfactory in view of the different kind of behavior of Ta. if only weakly. In essence.4). the impacted nucleons. on the other hand. Os 561). it was found that (for u k 2 50 MeV) the aniso tropy appeared to increase.direction of flight. This means that the fission frag ments fly off nonrandomly perpendicular to the direction of the primary bombarding particles (Ha 591). i t should be the residual nuclei with small excitation Uk that remain after the cascade which a r e responsible for the high anisotropies (see 9 6. a s was observed i n the case of weakly excited compound nuclei. A semiquantitative observation yields an approximation of the noted angular distribution a + b sin2b. during which the fission fragments a r e emitted nonrandomly in the direction of the absorbed particles. fissions a r e not possible with small excitations (Ha 59 . P e 551.25  . with increasing Uk (Lo 551. attain nonrandom velocities perpendicular to the bombardment direction and only very low kinetic energies. These nucleons a r e again partially absorbed by the nucleus and a r e capable of exciting it to fission. . Besides. Thus. the divergent behavior of Bi might be explained by the fact that with such light target nuclei.1).
appears to be connected with the different excitations of splitting nuclei (see 9 6. 6. the interpretation is the same ( 41 6.54. conclusion). Only in the fission on Np237 by neutrons were considerably more heavy fission products discovered for for fi fi = 0 (in the direction of the bombarding particles) than = 180 deg (Br 551). the anisotropy w a s understood to be averaged over all Ah/A1. In general.52. To this point. the anisotropy disappears during symmetrical fission and increases only a s Ah/A1 increases (fission by neutrons: Pr 582. by protons: Co 541. Co 551. If it is considered a s the function of Ah/A1. The law also holds for photofission. M e 581. no preferred emission angle was determined for heavy fission fragments (as opposed to light fission fragments). . Dependence of the angular distribution on the fission ratio Ah/A1. Fig.6. This. too.22). The transition of the preferred emission angle fi = 0 to fl = 90 deg for fission by neutrons and protons with energies of about 100 MeV occurs at higher E for Ah/A1 N 1 than it does for Ah/A1 > 1 (Me 581). This law appears to be valid even for the fission of Ta with 450MeV protons. although the data a r e very inexact ( P o 572).54).26  .
F o r a fixed m a s s number A.1). 1. Shielded nuclides a r e those which could not have been Their cumulative yield. NUCLEAR CHARGE O F THE FISSION PRODUCTS 7. The specific cumulative yield is the cumulative yield divided by the associated chain yield from a smoothed mass distribution. divided by the associated chain yield. computation on a chain yield which comes from a smoothed mass distribution (without microstructure). their independent yield. The independent yield. The cumulative yield of a nuclide is the sum of the independent yield of this nuclide a s a fission product and the cumulative yield of its 6decay predecessor (recursive definition). is equal to created through 0decay.7. The sum of all the independent outputs for a fixed Z (neg lecting A). therefore. a f e w new concepts a r e introduced. It is customary to base its In the appendix to 41 4. is the distribution of all fission products with respect to their nuclear charge. is designated a s the specific independent yield. the specific independent yield as a function of nuclear charge Z yields the charge distribution for this fixed mass number. Introduction The nuclear charge of a fission product is interpreted to be its nuclear charge before the first 6decay ( 41 4.1. written as a function of Z .  27  .
Table 7 . Independent yields. If we a r e content merely to determine the width of a charge distribution.7. The reason for this is that fission at high energies is connected with the emission of a greater number of neutrons ( 41 1.2. Therefore. a way other than the measurement of independent yields is available. 2 shows studies in which independent yields have been determined. only upper data (Table 7 .28  . Measured Results 7. on the average. In fission by faster particles.22. 2 1 .21. There fore. Width of the charge distribution for a fixed m a s s number. independent yields can be determined more easily. limits can be given. the specific independent yields do not fluctuate in such broad limits a s they do in thermal fission.1) a r e very limited. the width of a charge distribution can be determined through deflection . An exact determination of charge distribution pre supposes the measurement of independent yields. a r e more stable against Pdecay.43). 2 1. Since the mean total charge of a fission product depends upon i t s nuclear charge. 7. because the fission products. Such mea surements a r e very difficult to make for thermal and spontaneous fissions. because the half lives of the fission product often amount to m e r e seconds. the measured Frequently.
which was constructed from specific independent yields in thermal and spontaneous fission. 2 (Eq. 7. 5 (Co 581). The distribution (in thermal fission) has two maxima. reports a width of only 1. on the other hand.570 for the light fissionproduct group (most probable Z : 40) and 1770f o r the heavy group (most probable Z : 56) (Sk 591). s e e 9 7.32). Postulate f o r the Charge Distribution for Fixed M a s s Number It is not possible to construct a charge distribution for every mass number A from the few known independent yields.41). The width of the maxima can be estimated. Width of the distribution of all fission products with respect to their nuclear charge.23. Therefore. 7. from the width of the maxima of the XrayK spectrum of the fission products (see 41 8. 42) increases with increasing bombardment energy. using Moseley's law. The charge distribution. as does the mass distribution. we postulate that the chargedistribution curves for all A can be made to coincide if Z (Z>  29  .in a magnetic field: in the thermal fission of U235. the charge distribution f o r the m a s s number A = 97 is a gaussian curve with a width of 2. 511. The width of the maxima (for thermal fission of U235) was found to be about 14. The width of the charge distribution ( 9 ?.3.2. The statistical theory of fission (Fo 56l). has a width of about 2 .4 fO.
30  . where (Z) is the charge number of the appropriate isobars which will most probably appear (not necessarily the whole charge number). this assumption. The following postulates were suggested for the determination of (Z). created in fission) fission products: one (7. chains. a. The postulate of inhomogeneous charge distribution (Pr 47 1) states that the Coulomb repulsion of the nuclear charges leads . then. b. The postulate of regular charge distribution (Eq. 511) requires equal lengths of the Pdecay chain for all complementary (i. This postulate is in agreement with statistical In addition. They a r e either empirical o r a r e based on theoretical considerations. 511+) is based on the liquid drop model.can be entered on the abscissa instead of Z. e . has been proven to be a good one. a r e longer for light fission products than for heavy ones in thermal fission.3) Different assumptions about Z' lead to different (Z} ( 41 7. too. it is usually theory (Fo 561) and has given good results. The (not necessarily whole) charge number of the (hypothetically) most stable isobar for the A under consideration has been designated by Z'. The splitting nucleus and the fission The Pdecay fragments should have equal charge densities.4)c. assumed that the charge distribution is independent of the target nucleus if the excitations of the splitting nuclei a r e all Comparable. The postulate of equal decaychain lengths (Eq. .
P a 561). In agree ment with Co 581. Originally (Eq. the charge distribution f o r fixed mass numbers is generally nearly a gaussian curve. depending upon the choice of Z ' . 2 2 ) . thus. The resulting @decaychains a r e shorter for the light fission products than for the heavy ones. Postulates b and e have proved to be usable.4. 2 (Eq. s e e 9 7 . 4 1 1. Wa 491) requires such a distribution of the charge among the fission fragments that the sum of the Coulomb and binding energies of the fission fragments has a minimum. Consideration of the and shell effect leads to an unstable function Z' (A) (Co 531) thus. approximately 2 . the .31  . The postulate of the greatest liberating energy (Ke 561) requires a minimum for the sum of the two fissionfragment masses (computed a s in Ku 5521. Thermal and spontaneous fission. various ( Z ) result. to an unstable function(2) (A) (Pa 531. 7. Proof of the Postulates 7. distribution is shown in Fig. 51 . ( Z ) (A) was also smooth.1 ) was used.l ) . 511. e. 7 . In postulate b.41. The postulate of minimum potential energy (Wa 481. . a smooth function Z' (A) The charge Its width is (Wa 4 4 .to charge transpositions in which a greater mean charge density results for the light fission fragment than for the heavy fission fragment d.
the(Z) for U235 were also determined empirically (Wa 581): according to Eq. measured cumulative yields (Table 7. the(Z) were recomputed according to postulates b and e (Gr 572). and St 562. P a 561. 4 1 3 shows the function which was . The basic purpose of postulate e is to allow for shell effects not only for Z' but also for@>.dispersion of the measured points about the charge distribution curve decreased (Fig. the(Z) (A) lead essentially to the same charge distribution curve. 511. Postulate b was confirmed quite satisfactorily.211) were also taken into consideration. Because of the lackof clarity concerning the most suitable method for calculating the function <Z>(A) from postulate b. On the basis of newer data for the nuclear masses (Wa 552. 1130) f i t the chargedistribution curve better (Ke 561). postulate e resulted in a smaller influence of closed shells on ( Z ) than in Ke 561 and yielded an unsymmetrical charge distribution. The latter was retained. Figure 7 . Ca 571. and the(Z) were fixed in such a way that each measured independent yield lay precisely on the curve. Ha 571). On the basis of postu late e. A similarly narrow dispersion of the measured points resulted when mean values were taken for the unstable function Z' (A)in the region of magic numbers (St 562).32  . two new independent yields (I128. 7.41 2).
Pa 583+. if the data a r e matched to postulate a (Gi 561) o r b (Fa 58l). La 572. 7. Pa 581). 2 1 2 with these and the following references). The MonteCarlo .42. In the fission of Tal8'. the charge distribution is no longer a gaussian curve. 50 MeV. A1 571. postu late a appears valid according to K r 551 and postulate b according to Po 57 2. J o 551. A l e s s direct method (Pa 583) for confirming the validity of the postulate is the MonteCarlo computation of the total reaction and comparison of the computed ratio N / Z of the neutron and proton number of the fission product with experimentally determined N / Z (La 572. Analysis of measured independent yields gives the following results: for bombardment energies E < 15 Mex postulate b is effective. ? K r 551. In the region 1 5 MeV E <. they partially contradict the results. In general. P o 572). none of the postulates is confirmed satisfactorily. 51 1). Wa 551. The charge distribution is nearly in the form of a gaussian curve (Fo 531.33  . F o 551. Although postulates a and b have proved usable. It is essentially smooth.thus obtained. postulate a has been satisfactory for E . Fission by bombarding particles with energies E 2 5 MeV. a s is the one originally computed (Eq. compare Table 7 . 75 MeV (Go 491.
and making a simple assumption about the dependence of rn/ + f.f on Z 2 /A f o r the reaction Th232 + p (EP = 8 MeV). and U238 p (EP = 83 and 450 MeV). can be estimated from a charge disThe widening of the curves corresponds to the increasing number of possible splitting nuclei with different excitations i f E increases (a. The displacement of the maximum is required by the number of emitted neutrons. postulate b was found valid.34  .44). 4 2 (Pa 581) shows the dependence of the charge distribution on bombardment energy E. tribution (Wa 582). Me 582. Me 583. (Z)moves closer to Z'. Figure 7 . which r i s e s as E increases. . 2 f o r E 5 2 5 MeVto 3 .computation was accomplished using Do 581. and the width of the curve increases (from 2 . 1. 2 ) . In each case. A s E increases.
nf)reactions.33). the number v of the neutrons emitted per fission ( 3 8. and with higher U. even (n. They a r e not treated in this paper. have been determined experimentally (in the thermal fission of P U ~ ~ ~ ) for the . about the nature and time of whose origin no precise statements can be made ( 9 1.35  . The neutrons emitted before fission a r e considered prompt by definition and a r e also contained in the number v ( 9 8. certain statements (e. about angular relationships) do not apply to them (this w i l l not be pointed out again in this paper). the fission is connected with the emission of even more numerous lighter particles. g.8. etc. Delayed neutrons (Ke 581) and delayed gamma rays a r e emitted in connection with the p. Introduction The neutrons and gamma r a y s which a r e emitted no later than 5 x sec after fission a r e designated as prompt.delays and K.212). 2nf)reactions. . The upper limits.. 2 20 MeV.23) by definition also contains the delayed neutrons. sec ( E r 571+) and 4 x sec (Fr 5 2 .98 is applicable only to fission processes in which no compoundnucleus excitations higher than 20 MeV occur.43). P R O M P T NEUTRONS AND GAMMA RAYS 8. Since the latter amount to only 1%of the total neutrons (Ke 58l).1. (n. In compoundnucleus excitations U. However. > 1 0 MeV.2 1 and ' 8. a r e possible ( 9 1. their contribution to v (which is generally smaller than the measurement e r r o r ) is not considered further.l ) . For U. Hence.captures of the fission products. Of course.
conclusion).21. 2 1 1 l i s t s the mea 8 . Gammaradiation is emitted until about sec after fission (because of isomeric transitions). 2 1 1 . Dependence of eous and thermal fission. sured for thermal and spontaneous fission processes. 3 3 ) .times in which the major portion of the prompt neutrons is emitted. but the energy of the radiation emitted between 5 x and s e c after fission amounts to an average of only 570 of the energy of the prompt gammaradiation ( thermal fission of U235. 3 2 and 8 . In the following paragraphs. 8. Mean number 5of neutrons emitted per fission on the compound nucleus in spontanTable 8 . prompt neutrons and gamma rays could be emitted from the splitting nucleus o r from the fission fragments. which means that the neutrons a r e emitted a t least ation of the fission fragments (Te 591). Prompt Neutrons 8. Basically. s e c after the s e p a r  In the case of gammaradiation. the experimental indications of fissionfragment origin a r e l e s s numerous ( 9 8 . of the compound .36  . v increases with increasing mass number A.2. 32. These explanations a r e based on the assumption that the fission frag ments have already attained their full velocity during the neutron emission. 22 and 8. Ma 581).24). a number of experimental results a r e cited for neutrons. It does not appear impossible that at least a portion of the radiation is emitted during the acceleration of the fission fragments ( 9 8. which can be explained by assuming emission f r o m the fission fragments ( 9 8.
on simple observations of energy using experimental results.. in narrower En regions.) for various nuclear charges Z. Np237. and Pu239 a t bombarding neutron energies En between 0. The simpler provisional computations (KO 581) lead to the same results within the range of computation accuracy. T i n c r e a s e s linearly with increasing En (spontaneous fission of the compound nucleus). which is based on Eq.212 shows a s a function of En for F o r En < 0. A computation. P u ~ ~ Oa n d P u 24 1 . The function is only very roughly linear.14. and was then written as a function of A. Table 8. U235..212.37  . Le 581+ contains a comprehensive table of the measurement values.nucleus. 5. (Bo 583). U238. With the aid of the results from 4 8. This is to .212 gives additions to this table.025 ev and 15 MeV f o r the target nuclei Th 232 .an extrapolation of 7 f o r thermal fission was made for U. = 0. to which the experi mentally determined points have a reasonably good fit (Bo 583). Dependence of 7 on bombardment energy. v was measured for the target nuclei U233. yields separate curves J (A. and on a simplified distribution of the fissionproduct masses. 8. Systematic mathematical interrelationships in can be expected only after conversion to equal compoundnucleus excitations U.212. ~ Figure 8. too. some nuclei.
Le 581. the spontaneous fission of Cf252 (Hi 571. Bo 582. nf)reactions. 'v varies very little from Similar observations apply to En 2 13 MeV if (n. nucleus to nucleus.l ) . 1 ) . f)reactions. V does not change measurably (Au 551. 8. Sm 583). L e 562. Bo 581).) that 7 for 0 .be expected for En 5 Mev [as long a s no (n. because the neutron binding energies in the compound nucleus and the fission fragments a r e approximately equal and. However. Wh 5 9 . and the fission of U238 by deuterons (Su 571). St 583. The explanation for this r e s t s upon the fact that with (n. Sa 562. The fission fragments thus generally emit fewer neutrons with (n. nf)reactions a r e possible) (Le 561+.38  . Ka 561. nf)reactions the excitation of the splitting nucleus is lower than that of the splitting compound nucleus with (n.5 ev. It is in accord with the linear variation of 7 (E. Measurements of U233 a r e not always . Te 571.l ) .  V(En) continues to increase nearly linearly up to En = 15 MeV.213. and this nearly compensates for the emission of a neutron before fission (Bo 583. with fixed excitations. Dependence of T on the fission ratio AhIA1 and on the mass number A of the emitting fission fragment. Bo 583) i f the bombardment energy affects only the excitation of the fission fragments but not their kinetic energy ( 9 5 . 0 2 5 ev S E n 50. Experiments were performed with the thermal fission of U233 (Fr 5 4 . 2nf)reactions have become possible.
The magic number N = 82 (A = 133  134) could contribute to this change which is not reflected in the . On the average. 8 . the light fission fragment emits 1 . the likelihood of emission has a broad maximum. according to Fig.1 shows the likelihood of neutron emission a s a function of Ah/Al for U 2 3 3 separately. The majority of the neu trons a r e emitted from the heaviest fission fragments of the light group and from the heaviest fission fragments of the heavy group. 2 1 3 .39  . 2 4 times more neutrons than the heavy one. On the average. 8. The number of neutrons emitted by a fission fragment was measured for Cf252 as a function of the mass number A (Wh 591). for the light and heavy fission fragments. The sudden change in the neutron number near AH/AL = 1 also occurs for U233. The results (Fig.02 times more neutrons than the heavy one.in agreement with those of Cf252 (perhaps as a result of the smaller probability of provable neutrons). 2 1 3 . In the approximate region of the most probable Ah/A1. It indicates that the light fission fragment is excited to a much greater extent than the heavy one if fission is nearly symmetrical. 2131. the light fission fragment emits 1. as has been predicted in the statical theory (Fo 561). Figure 8 .2 ) include the assump tion that the neutrons a r e emitted isotropically in the centerofmass system of the fission fragment.
In addition. &/AI) can be constructed from Fig. The function 8. . The maximum of J a t the most probable Ah/A1 which was observed for U233 is not yielded in the case of Cf252. in that case. 8. it might only be apparent. In the fission of U238 by deuterons.214 shows in this region a s + Th of the fission products. the assumption of isotropic neutron emission would have to be entirely false (Wh 591). (Ah/A1) in Hi 571 and Bo 582 have a somewhat different appearance (apparently as a result of lower measured results). . (St 583). the number of neutrons emitted per fission decreases roughly with increasing Ah /A1 (Su 571. Dependence of on the total kinetic energy TI Figure 8. Of course.decreases Ah/Al increases.213 2. G as a function of T1 + Th for various ranges of the fission ratio Ah/Al and various ranges of T 1 I as a function of &/Ai for Th were also determined (Hi 571. function of Ti as a + Q for the spontaneous fission of Cf 252 (according to St 583). s e e Table 1. r a t h e r .432). too. The corresponding curves in Hi 571 and Bo 582 have a somewhat different appearance (apparently a s a result of lower measured results).40  .214.distribution of the fissionproduct masses (9 4). Direct measurements give the best agreement The curves .
3 ) on the fissionfragment excitation UL 8. 2 2 supplies information about measurements of the distribution of prompt neutrons with respect to their energy Tn (their energy spectrum in the laboratory system). St 583) also lie.4 (except for small fluctuations caused by different fissionfragment nuclear charges). In the thermal fission of U233 (Fr 5 4 . the evaporation theory yields a (negative) value for 8 / [ d ( ~ ~ ~ ) ](Le 5 7 . / [d(T1+ Th)] can be estimated theoretically. 5 . the differential quotient was found to be approximately zero. The spectra for the various fission processes a r e . since the sum F of kinetic and excita tion energy for a given Ah/A1 is fixed by Eq. on the other hand. and thus. a decrease in T1 + T h must result in an increase of the entire fissionfragment excitation UL U + H and. 1 . + UH. (Eq.St 583).22. . hence. Assuming UL + UH to be distributed evenly over all nucleons of the fission fragments. According to Eq.3 .41  . 1 .l ) . 5 .l ) . The results agreed in that they showed P to be a linear function of both arguments in the region of the most probable Ah/A1 and T1 + Th. T1 This would mean that 7 can depend on + Th only through Ah/A1. a larger 7. Energy spectrum Table 8 . 1 . 8. 5 . +T around which the experimentally determined values (Hi 57 1.
2 2 a r e averaged from values yielded by Eqs. (KO 583).42  .1 and 2. Some of the values of Tn in Table 8 . Tn increases with increasing The measured spectra can be reproduced very well within the experimental accuracy. assuming isotropic neutron evaporation in the fissionfragment center of mass system. if isotropic emission with a Maxwell distribution of neutron energies is assumed in the centerofmass system of the fission fragment. The first is the Maxwell distribution (8.1 . together with experimental data for Cf252. c ) e . Te 591). 2 2 shows both distributions. 8 . The second distribution Tn Nn(Tn) = f(b.l + ) follows. by two different distributions. the distribution . The evaporation theory (Bl 522) based on the statistical nuclear model. does not yield a Maxwell distribution of the neutron energy en in this system but rather (with some simplifications).222) with two parameters b and c (Wa 521./A. Figure 8 . E r 57 . 2 2 .very similar.221) with a parameter a (B1 4 3 .b s i n h a n (8. the mean energy 2 Z.
e .223. this slight increase could not be confirmed experimentally (KO581).223) in which Q is the socalled temperature of the fission fragments after the emission of neutron (B1 522). Le 571). one The resulting dis tribution of Tn with fixed Q (Fe 421. F e 511) does not parallel the measured spectrum (Te 591). So f a r . i. 0. .78 MeV+ 2G This equation (Te 591) is based upon numerous measurements of energy magnitudes and on the spectrum of Eq. the Tndistribution is even more similar to a Maxwell d i s t r i bution.22) should come from a distribution of Q. is related to the distribution of the fissionfragment excitations UL and UH(as was the case in Te 591). which. in an isotropic neutron emission.046/= (Te 591). dTn/dU. The results of such calculations differ only slightly from the Maxwell Tn distribution (which has been confirmed experimentally)(Te 591).22) were (8. Statistical theory yields only a very slight increase in  T.43  . Therefore. with increasing excitation U. . This result does not change if the assumption of isotropic neutron emission is neglected. numerical cal culations of the Tn distribution based on the evaporation theory (Table 8.(8. in turn. of a fixed compound nucleus fi (Ba 572.224)  Tn = 0. The mean nuclear temperatures determined from a (Table 8. 8.
Angular relationships between the directions of flight of the fission fragments and the neutrons. a s is shown in Fig. UH is postulated. 8. In one method.08 is selected as the energy of an emitted neutron).23.8. In the other (simpler) method. The calculated probabilities a r e in good agreement with the measured ones. Angular rtionships 8. the distribution of v which results from the distribu tion of UL + U H is a good reproduction of the measured results (Te 571). 5.23. the total excitation U L + U H of the fis sion fragments and their distribution over Eqs. using the evaporation theory. proportionality factor (except for Cf252. with a width which is proportional to the average value of Bn + Tn (binding energy and kinetic If 1.5). the probable emission being sought (Co 561.44  . a gaussian distribution of UL t. Table 8. that is. in which case it is 1.23 shows the measured results of the probable emission of exactly v neutrons per fission. Semiempirical computations of this probable emission were c a r r i e d out by two different methods. In the . the distribution of UL + UH yields the distribution of v . 8. Le 562).24.13 and 4 is computed from the measured distribution of the kinetic energy T1 + Th ( 9 5. Probable emission of exactly v neutrons per fission.241.21).
measur e d angular distributions for the emitted neutrons with respect to the direction of flight of the light fission fragments can indicate (although not always conclusively) whether or not the neutrons in the centerofmass system of the fission fragment a r e emitted isotropically and whether the two fission fragments usually emit the same or different numbers of neutrons. For confirmation. calculated and measured angular distributions agree. Ra 58l). isotropic neutron emission and the energy spectrum of Eq. and Pu 239 (Fr 521) and for the spontaneous fission of Cf 252 (Fn 592). In the computations . Ra 581.experiment a1 system . Te 59 .l ) . if it is assumed that the light fission fragment emits approximately 1.223 (without a fixed nuclear temperature) were assumed in the fissionfragment centerof mass system.2 (Te 591. the measured angular distribution is compared with a computed one (Fr 521. U235 (Fr 521. The angular distribution was obtained a s a function of the quotient of the numbers of neutrons from light and heavy fission fragments. 2 (Ra 58l). 8.1). 1. In Fr 521. The angular distribution was measured f o r the thermal fission of U233 (Fr 5 2 . using the .3 times as many neutrons a s the heavy one.45  . Other authors obtain 1 .1 to 1.
i. Angular relationships between prompt neutrons. there is no experimental proof either f o r or against isotropic emission (Te 591).of mass system) is nonrandom. In Be 481.. One must therefore conclude that the neutron emission in the direction of flight of the fission fragment (in the fission. or 1 . However. In Ra 581. 8. 2 5 (Sn 592) for this factor.l ) . the distribution is nearly constant  46  . A few somewhat deviating values of this factor a r e found in other experiments ( 41 8 2 13). the measured angular distributions a r e contradictory.measured results of Fr 5 2 .242. the neutron emission is not isotropic. calculated and measured angular distributions for small angles do not agree at any value of the abovementioned factor. A possible explanation for this nonrandom direction is that the neutrons a r e emitted immediately after the separation of the contracted deformed fission fragments (Hi 531. Experiments were made with the fission of U235 (Be 481)and natural uranium (Sk 561) by slow neutrons. St 591). e.f ragment center. Measurements of the angular distribution between two neutrons generated i n the same act of fission should be capable of supplying information about whether pairs of neutrons s t e m from the same nuclear fragment or from different ones.
to be sure. and from the second distribution (using the results from 41 8. The directions of flight of the fission fragments were determined by means of a simplified angular distribution. isotropic evaporation from the fission fragments in the fissionfragment center ofmass system was assumed.5).241). It may be concluded from the first distribution that twice a s many neutron pairs a r e emitted by fission fragments stemming from different acts of fission than by those generated in the same act (Be 48l). Angular relationships between the directions of flight of the bombarding particles and of the neutrons. the measured values a r e somewhat uncertain for small angles (Sk 561). can stem from fission fragments generated in the same and in different acts of fission with equal probability (Sk 561). 8. according to Br 551 ( 91 6.47  . that neutron pairs. the dis tribution is symmetrical.from 0 to 90 deg and then increases by a factor of two up to 180 deg.  . The angular distribution between the directions of flight of the bombarding particles and the prompt neutrons w a s calculated for the fission of U238 by neutrons with energies between 1 and 1 0 MeV (Ba 572).243. with a minimum at 90 deg. In Sk 561. for the prompt neutrons. A nonrandom direction of the neutron velocities in the direction of the bombarding neutrons resulted in experimental system.
with increasing T1 E decreases linearly + Th. 2 5 MeV 5 Ty I 8 MeV. Additional measurements of the spectrum for Cf252 a r e available for limited Ty ranges (Mi 581. Sm 562). 8. 1 .48  .32.x kinetic energy TI + Th of the fission products and of the fission ratio Ah/A1 (Mi 581). Ny shows a minimum at Ah/A1 CT As  1 . Energy spectrum. This relationship is attributed to the shell effect: at Ah/A1 = 1 . Prompt GammaRadiation 8. 1 . . Bo 582). 8 6 . 8 6 is indicated. a function of Ah/A1. the light fission fragment has little more than 50 neutrons. a further minimum at Ah/A1 CT 1 . Figure 8 . 2 1 4 ) . Table 8 .31.8.3. Ma 581) and the spontaneous fission of C f 2 5 2 ( 0 . For was investigated a s a function of the total Cf252. but the dependence is much weaker than the corresponding one for T ( 9 8 . the heavy fission fragment has slightly more than 50 protons and 82 neutrons. 3 shows the measured values for the mean number E Y Y of the gamma rays emitted per fission. 3 MeV I Ty 5 8 MeV. Average number of prompt gamma rays emitted per f is sion. at Ah/Al = 1 . 3 2 shows the measured spectra of prompt gammaradiation for the thermal fission of U235 ( 0 .
7.23). w e r e interpreted a s Xray Kradiation and maxima at 2. The maxima in the spectrum at 1 6 and 31 kev a r e too broad t o be considered lines. The opinion has been expressed (Pr 584) that the lines could also be created in different fission fragments through the superposition of ytransitions of nearly equal energy. 1 and 3. Vo 571).7 MeV.1) by the geometric arrangement of the detection apparatus.1) and. and 14. eight distinct lines were found (in the thermal fission of U235) (Sk 571.025 ev. At neutron energies of 0. the spectra vary only within *15% (Pr 584). 2. The prompt gamma spectrum emitted during the fission of U235 was measured as a function of the bombardment energy.In the 100kev 5 T Y 5 800kev range.  49  .8 MeV. s e e 9. at 18 and 32 kev. For the radiation with T 5 250 kev. s e e Q 8. Radiation maxima at 16 and 3 1 kev (Sk 59. 6 kev (Le 582 t) a s Lradiation. They appeared to be created from fission fragments of the light group (16 kev) and the heavy group (31 kev) through the superposition of Kradiation (Sk 591. Corresponding maxima exist in the thermal fission of U233 and Pu239 (Sk 591). according t o another source (Le 582 t). these Y lines were shown to originate in the fission fragments (Sk 571.
The calculations a r e based on the assump tion that the gammaradiation is emitted by the fission fragments only when the emission of neutrons is no longer possible in t e r m s of energy. as a function of the fission ratio Ah/A1. Measured angular distributions for the emitted gamma r a y s with respect to the direction of flight of the fission .22).1).31) shows minima (Mi 581). fission fragments and the gamma rays. the other assumptions a r e the same as those for the calculation of the spectrum of prompt neutrons (Le 562.33. actually. Le 571. s e e ? 8. Ty appears to have maxima where N Y ( 9 8. Table 8. I The large discrep ancy between calculated and measured values of I T indi: Y  cates that. the gammaradiation is not emitted only after the end of the neutron emission (Te 591).50  .The dependence of the mean energy ray upon the total kinetic energy T1 Y of a gamma + Th of the fission products is slight. This could be due to the very strong electromagnetic fields which appear during the acceleration of the fission fragments immediately after their separation (Te 59 . 8.3 lists measured and calculated values for the total energy T T y liberated in the form of gammaradiation during a fission.
fragments in the laboratory system can give an indication of whether or not the gamma r a y s in the fissionfragment centerofmass system a r e emitted isotropically. with very weak nonrandom direction in and against the direction of flight of the fission fragments (Le 582 +). Meas urements of thermally split U235 and Pu239 showed that the gamma rays a r e emitted anisotropically by the fission fragments. .51  . A brief note (Hu 562) indicates that (in the case of U 235) more photons a r e emitted in the direction of the light fission fragment than in the' direction of the heavy one.
The last two numbers of the year in which the work (in several cases. the first one listed) has appeared.REFERENCES Introductory Remarks The abbreviations for the references a r e composed of the first two letters of the last name of the senior author. which a r e not always i n general use.t r Atomna ya Ene r giya Russian publication translated by the Atomic Energy Commission (USA) AECD AECU ANL BNL CF CP HW LA LADC NYO ORNL OR0 TID UCRL AERE BR AERELib/Trans Research report of the Atomic Energy Commission (USA) Research report of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (Harwell. a r e employed. Atomenergie  52  . the following abbreviations. and a s e r i a l number. AE AEC . In the references themselves. Great Britain) Russian publication translated by the Atomic Energy Research Est ablishm ent Conference of the USSR Academy of Sciences on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy Berlin: AkademieVerlag.
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FARLEY: J.R.L.L. Fr 551 11. jr. HI< ss 11.A.H. FLVFIAETY. CARR. A. GI 552 L. Gi 561 Fa 56.L. PRESENT: 118. G . CROCCH u.:R. S. 3. DOSTROVSKY.i. P. H.L.L. BIVISS:1'11 DO 581 I. SJAE 5. J. L. 18W. 3iAcsmsoX u. YK Go 561 100. Fa 471 G . a PR A. u.R. li. G. 11AHTIS. 1333. H. 1. HUGHES: Gh 521 Energy 1 1.C.S.S. SJAE. 11. V. WIEGASD: Gh 551 3'7.R.H. Sucl. 163!). G. Gr 565 F 531 W. Soc. CELNOKOV: A. GOODu.T. D. L. SEABORC: u. 434. F 582 1 Cr 381 E.M.AHISO\VITZ: 11. u. V. SEABORC: 98. 628.51 R. E.5. L. WARDS: NPUES I V 9. GOECKERMANN PERLMAN: 78.L. u. GI 511 Fa 582 H.N. DEUTSCII: W 97. J.FLE~OV. Fe 421 S.31 (1935). 974.C. 662. 1'. FRITZE. H. Eg 561 €..55  .H. USSR. 1 u. G. I'R Fr 471 P.S. HUIZENGA: Inorg. Surl.R. L. 164. 1518.E. G. PR J.STEVESS. 93. CCXISCHAUE: J. Du 532 S.N.H.A.H. u.DBEHCI. G.DAROWKICH S. Chem. S.D. Fr 581 Indian J.G.G. Iyucl. DIAJ. SEUZIL: R. PR A. J. EDu. Inorg. DO~TROVSKY. Fo 532 D e 3. : W.DIAMOSD.F.R. H. EVANS: PC'AE 15. FIELDS.A. R.D. J. 1.E.AST\VOOD: '. PR R. liner. 1 Fo 551 ~e 581 G.P. 1110. 1. F 383 1 464 (P/7). u. SUC~.I I ~ E L S T A F F D. A. G1 512 UH333 A. MCMULLEN H.N. SEABORG: S. FOWLER. A.H. FEATHER: E. PR 51. Cr 362 W.64 (195s). G. 1i. G. Lond. GHIORSO. CORYELL R. : E.M. L. FRIEDLAND: 75. A. FULMER B. l'wgrcss Sucl.TERE~EV: Dokl. FRENKEL: J.~ 11. Chem. TEXPLETOS: 94. W. 11. Ge 541 CRP6424 (AEC'L329).T. 759. JESSES E. 43.G. HABVEY G. AECD3551. L)IFFIELD. STEINBERQ: Inorg.J. Gi 562 Fa 581 A.G. Cu 371 J. u.IV. FO q581 Di 561 B.I.A. FRPE. S K O B ~ M u.R. JETP S.S. TARUu. J. GOLDSTEIN \. M. S. J. MOORE u. 2ETF 16. 2 415.G. 370. EROZOLIMSKI: Suppl.W. K. J. 533. FOWLERL. WARDS: SNES Iv 9. THIRM. J. 323.K. u. R. 3. Roy.E.2 A. HESS: PR 84. I. Fo 531 De 461 P. PROKOYFIEV.R. E. J. 425. 5. FRAESKEL 1'. I1 1.MASSI~G.H. ~ICTTA: IC. Bl ul soc.M. Nucl.C.B.C. 71. SEABORG: 103.\r~: Inorg. BOWMAS: PR 101.P.D. 249. S. u W.L. STANLEY: u.Y. C'heni. FLEROV: 2ETF Pi. CHOPPIN. S.C. GOWARD.H. GINDLER. Y.M. b a d . GOLDAXSKIJ. SCHXITT: PR 104. 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SEABORG: Handbuch der Physik. IVASOYA: ZETF 31.O.E. PK.. u. Ha 571 I.G. 13 (19.L.I.286. 173. 99 Ha 583 W. PR u. Hvtirr~s. NSES I V 9. Physics 5. THOMPSON A.S. Ke 341 K. HICKS. Bd. PR \V.A.JESSES u. HILL u. KALJAHIN.397 (1937).K. KJELBERO A.196. Ha 591 I. Ha 511 G.E.B.21NN. PR \V. 1087. 5. u.1. COWPER.I. He 562 K. . BAILEY J. 466. J. KATCOFF. KATCOFF: Ka 583 4.31. Lond. H. IYAXOXA PJANOV: u. HEISESBERG. 1. HALPERX C. A 69. 291 (1936). 318. 1458.C. GRCXMITTu. Energy 9. J. R. FAIRHALL:109. FARLEY: Soc. Ke 561 T. J. He 581 A.C. Can.K. 11. 585.In js. jr.K. SJ. AERES. A k d .T. Hi 571 D. 1049. A.L.S. KAYANACJH.W. n K I J U.E. J. ZETF 31. G E. S.C. Hu 542 J. GRL‘WXITT u.R. TITOY: :iE 4. IV 581 S . R. 344 (P/663). EASTWOOD H. R. W. HENRY N.K. SJAE 3.98 (1958).E. 11. Proc. Iv 582 J a 491 Ja 361 J e 581 J o 531 J o 331 JO 532 J o 361 J O 568 Jo Ju Ju Ju Ju 591 491 501 54. HILL: PR 87. S d Phgs. 3. Hu 511 H. HUTCHIN: 100.INGLIB: h. Ark. 31. HICKS.W. R. I1 4. KAL4kIKOYA.\i. Hn 532 E. TIJ!SICK. 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DrofosD 11. KRASAVIS. Pliys. ~ ~ A G K L . 1). ' M 581 P C . YCELHIHSEY \V. V. S. FIELDS. 17.501 . 216 (1'1199) (1938).57  . FRIEDLASDER:110. PI'AE 2. 11. 181. 8. . L. LOVE: PUAE 15.5 (1938). TURREVICH: 110. GLENDESIN E. NIICHVL ti. METROPOLIS. P.G. J..53 u.FARAGGI.V. LEACHMAXC. KOVALEV: ZETF 34. and Math. Atomenergie (C'hemie). 104 (1956).I..1 1 1 . S I K O L W E V La 311 H. Le 301 K. S. 38 (1938). KO 561 V. 1092. KALABSIKOVA: 333. G. 546. 1323. OSBORSE: PK 103. 8. MARQCEZ:Suoro Cim. KI~IhSSKIJ.C. SKI : Kernenergie 1. KOVALET l. FRIEDLANDER u. METRPOLIS. KOROTKOVA. L. phys. S. JA. ORSL2718. STCDIER.KO 301 H. P OS: Xe 522 2.D. KRLOER S .J. Erirrgy 6. 306. U. MEADOWS: 110.R. DSJAROV: Dokl. ' I& 352 0. JhTP 8. u. A. Soviet Physics (Doklady) 3. I). 31ARQCEZ: Proc.D. 612 (1959). MILLEE11. (Chemical Science).I. 470. PR S e 491 A. BIXISS. LAVRCCHISA. 1 t E Y I S A U E. 8.31. PH V . KRAsA\~IKA:AE 2. Sessija Akatl. LITTLER: Proc.M. zkWREJEV. LEONARD HW59126.S. JETP 9. ~ E R E SR 85. Y. 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B.).B. PR Li 361 Jf.S.S. MCELHISSETu.I. 38. (C'hcmie). 244. XOVMOV: ZETF 32.62.L. Akad. 236 (1957). (9) 12. STLDIER.B. PEELLE.R.A. C.W. J. 532. BARKES. Soviet Physics (Doklady) 1. Math. La 331 L.E. C'. (Chrniie). M~COBMICK B. Suppl.R. A 63.. 3. MILTON: CRP6+2. G. 31. It. PRASER: PUAE 16. 253 (193'7). O R ~ E J.P.s. K A L A ~ K O VAE: 5. FRIESESHAHN: HW56919. S. 444. SEABORG: 9i. JETl' 8. RABOY. JETP 6.\IECIlEDOV. La 371 A. MILLER.588 (1938).. Soviet Physics (Doklady) 1 361 (1959). J. XERYIK G. KO 381 KO 382 KOTALE\. l(MW (1958). Le 386 R.R.4: I'UAE IS.A. 176..V. 1201. Soc. . ZETF 28. it.E. STEINBERG: 108. PRESTOS: J. KWRIGIS K. Ma 491 I. A. J. 1069. MECHEDOV: AE. SJ. KOROTKOVA. L. Sucl. CUVILO: Dokl. PR S e 581 M. C. U. 1511.P. A Le 583 V. KRASAYISA u. JfCJlAXVS. SJAE.S. JIa 341 L. H. KCMAR 11. ZACEPIXA Y.V. . S. 9.LEACHMAS: PUAE 15. LE. . S.31. LEBEDEY V. 378. Le 56. K. C. 292. PR Me 381 J. A.R. 811. 924. J. E. A 65. PR Ne 551 W. L. GASTEIGER: P R i i . 342. OSBORSE: 91.S. 203. 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Le 384 V. LEBEDES V.592).X. S. Me 551 Suppl. STEVESS. GREEIBCEVA: AE 3. J. 1. MILTOS 11.S. a T.PETRA~W: SP7060. MEW.13. 875. jr. E.I. LEACHMAS: Le 582 R. 106. S. Energy 6. X 11. MOSKALEVA. 18. 4 io. SOC.K. KOLESSIKOV s.J. 27 (1955). J. XEWTOX: 75. STORM. MARSHALL: PR i s . XECH. PETRLAK: ZETP 36.A. €"ETRI.D. l'hys. 1 0 581 T. Suoro Cim.B.K. 119. 633. ' MAIESSCHEIS. KAZER : P R 105. KUZSECOVA. PSP.W.F.S.B.N. J. Energy 8.F. P. C u. SJAE 5. PR Mi 321 J. Acad. 4.V. ZETF 36. LARKIN: JETP 1. Me 382 N. P JIa 571 L. LISDSEE u.. >IC 511 J.1 R. LEONARD E. u. L. S. Acad. Akad. 106. 8. 31. s. La 391 4. 118 (1937).\E B.. I.251 (1937). LAZAREVA. u. NASUHOGLC~ 8.55). A. Y.H. Phys. . 11. V. Aead. Lond. 649. Mi 571 E. R. 93. L. jr. . FRIEDMAS. 0. 1 Xa 571 R. 231 (1938/59). cuvn. . JETP : 1. u.52 Kit 3. J. MECHEDOY. Sci. Jli 381 J. 217 (195!8). TZARAU.R. 11. B. Kernciiergie 1. KO 571 V. BIVISS.J. 1376.F. Sauk SSSR.). Can. V. PR 111. f . 204. LESSLER:UCRL8439. LOIKISu.B. V. 31 (1959).R. ~ 1 ~AE 1 7 7 . STORM. 31CRIS 11. LATRCCHISA. .I. KO 562 V.S.M.E. Le 581 R. 823 ( 1958). Akad.R.E.P. ('OVA it. 433 (PP%XJl). A.F. H~IZESGA: 103. Sucl.W. 418 (P/1188).D. STAYISSKIJ: u. JETP 7. STEVENS. SJAE 3. . C'EREBKOVu. 771 (19. 315. 1%. u. MARQUEZ: M a 342 L. SOC. LINDNER R. KrRc?rToVa: Srssija &id.P. JULIEN. 739. u. S S O N . V.P. TCRKEVICH.B. M e 361 J. 241. 1. STASISSKIJ: 11.\E u.4. 100 (1957). 3'70 (1939). 331 (1!1*. Can. Xi 361 J. Lond.2 A.P. Mi 58.E.4J. 329. ~ Y O V ZETF 18.1'. USSR (Chemical Science). V.N. Le 321 R. SJAE 2. S. Paris 248.H.S. ZOBEL u.4XlSII: 1'1i 88. LO~KIS. Acad.G. Le 562 R. jr. GLSEJXOV: ZETF QQ. S . HIRSCH. S. 133 (1938). 283 (1938). 331 (P/665). ) u. B. J256. Sauk SSSH.547.Lolid. BORISOVA. DIAMOSD.
BOLLIXGER G. PROTOPOPOV. OSTROCMOV: 4 )!j .S 79: Atonienergie (Chrtnit. 13%.\RD:J . Ro 581 L. DABBSu. VSSH. SKIJAR~:VSKIJ. 11s (P&18). ti.K. J.1’. it . Pe 552 J. 256 (1958). . Itiorp.2 SU sc SC Se Se * 2 % SC Se . 215. 1114. PROTOPOPOV i t .W. !IS: S.J. l!W. : 581 E. . 954. PATE.W. Siicl.D. 199 586). S .C. O. R o s ~ su. S K Y R Y11. 3.5 (1936).H. 674 (1959).31.. 1 . SELICKIJ S. s o 881 211.. S.X. 716. FIELLIS J. 1. Client.791 (1956). S ~ I T I1.J. 185 (Pw8t. SWARJIAS: 10i. FIELIJ*11.i. SJ1E 6. SILVER:O H S L .E. PAVLOCKAJA 1058. A . STAUB: PR 89.P. 3.S. PROTOPOPO\.13&2. i o .A. ~’ERFILOV.S. Re 532 G. 10. Sh 581 F.REIC‘H11. C. 11. FRIEDMAS: 11. Kernenergie 2. Can. H.PERFILOV: Suppl. Kemenrrgie 1.V.L)ESI5ESKC#: ZI. 599: . 1288.W. T i .84 (195S). T01~~1: ~ . Sm 561 1. 36. OSTROLMOV u.k R. 1Ir(:A 11.Y. JETP 5.REED: PI3 98. ((’heinie).\BOR<i: P H 8r. CH.OV 11.T.11. A.01ov 11. 332 (1959). ROBERTS. XECU3141. Pa 583 B.1.R Y . Pe 382 s. (It. 326. ZETF 38. S. 5. $E. Re 551 Z.I. V. L .S.TIIOXPSOS: I’hys. PSF.B.BIOORE:PR 111. 592 (1!)5!)).H.PORILE U. 8. JIED\EDEv: ZETF $6. DRLIS:ZKTF 36. LAVRUCHINA: Xr. 1036 (1938). s. PROTOPOPO\~11. 26. PI. 175.T.11. 1..:‘rF 85. SiE(:i& U. Chem. Po 573 S. A. PS 582 F. SIIAXKL~SIJ: a. Pa 531 A. G. FRIEDMAS: 1’R 101. 36. WEIGASD:I’K 94..t. PROTOPOPOX.N. REGIER. H. 5 .I. G.. V. u. u. EJSMOST: zI. 1589. Re 591 R. KRI~JIK. Akad.T.A r d .66 (l!Lji).I. 734 (1958). 1V. Sk 581 l). 603 (195i). K. 1 Po 391 S. E. S i w n : Pe 553 S. X. Keriienerpie 2.J.\. 15i. Sh 501 R. ~ R > I . Energy 9. 1333. SCGARJIAS: PR io. 173. 1I. SICODEMUS U.).F. P. O.XOBLES R. SJAE I. Ky 561 S [ . 471 K. Iicr~ti~nrrgic 1. ti6 .L. Kernenergic. PAYLOCKAJAA. D.PROTOPOPOV. 1. HI(:I~ES: 1OQ.>s): . 108. 8ETF 33. 1260.B.31. Sorivt I’liysics ( I h klady) I I l i (1!)5i). SIIITII. LEACHXAX: u. S. 2:i: . SKL74RLVSKIJ. . 2511.A. Phys. 1.~ ~ I Y I .E 4. 113. G. G . [’. 1077 (1!)58). THODE R. R. 33.JAl*: 5. J. JET1’ 3. V. i 1 . S. 8ETF 35. S. 440 (P/s51).HAxA RAO: Pr113 la. CORYELL: 11.\.A. G. S ~ I O R EV.?~. J.X. E~ 31.. 115. 75. 650 (1959).J. 1327. STtl’. 3.) E : Sk 591 V. Akacl. 1katl. ?20 (1!)57). G. PH 322 c. OSTROLXW: Dokl. c:. I. S J . 0.H. Sa ri1 DE SIUWRE it. Pr 471 H. PERFILOY. ?i. BVRCXS K. Os Si1 V . 1410.. PUAE 15. CATTI.31. S S 5iI I<. 661 (1959). STE1).V. Ri 341 H. 51.1).J.T. 10% (1!159).H. S. S~(XSIITT K.IVDERS C. 1 5 i fl!)5!#).10. 1691 (1958). 1017 (19. Eilrrgy 11. AECtr2289. ROBERTS:PH 1B. %E 963 (1938). JETP 9. PROTOPOPOV 11.\.5.W. FOSTER L. \. RICHTERu. AE 1. L ~ L R I S : l l ) k l . RICHTER CH. OBCCHOV: PR og 811 1V. (Chemical Srieitce). Ri 561 S. w.1’. SHARP. Sauk SSSR. H u ~ s o s : 78. JEV: . E.S I K J ~ J : \ K T F 331. SEPPI: HW34591. PR IOH.C. . SJAE 1.T. X. .JI. I<. D.H.JE:TL’ 5. 411. S. . D. 1350. 5. POLIKASOVV .. I’ORILE: 11. TROMP:P Z u. PUAE 15. S. ’ PI’ 592 A. J. PR 105. Sucl.. \. 31. 1E Pe 581 S. Ro 582 L. Pr 591 AS. %. SMITH.!. Pr 593 A. SHCRET: CCRL793. S 13.I. 1 2 i i . 6x1: JETP S.5 (1958). SUCI.11.I [<. I’APPA~: u. Pe 554 s. 67.B. Dokl. J. S. JETI’ 7.. 813. V. 744. SEABORO: 85.L O ~ K I S .1.W.S. Sei. Can. BLIZOV:AT< 3.B.78). 173 (1958). 1422. 581 L. y. 8ETF 31. Sauk SSSR.I’ILCIIER. 653. ROELAND.iE. Pr 585 AN.Sam\ JEV: AI3 4.W. J.:’rF 34.1. 4S!) (1933). Po 3 i .A. 10x1 cl!.JAE 5. ROBERTS. c X m u. JAKOVLWA: 3.E.LIPS. PORILE S. i I’R SI11 102. 1. (Pp633).K. SOYA u. BARAXOV 11. Ob 581 . OGLEu. Pa 581 B. I . Pit PO 371 S. 1V.H.I. PISEOAS R. 1. EJsmsr: .1042. SELICXIJ S. 3. 19 (P/881). A . 362 1. J. SAILOR: 11. 8. KES\V. C. PARKER: ORNL2430. LATRUCHINA: 8ETF 84. Pr 581 AS.I<.:. A. THOJIAS: L.U. Pr 586 4.7 .. r c . PETRTSKI. 551 . 31 SSSK.~. 11. 103. Sauk SSSR.KI. Sucl.I. 1. PROTOPOPOT 11. 149 (1957). P. 6!W.l!U: Pr 382 1. v. JETP 9. 8.T.H.E. Sin 372 .L. SMITH. EJSMOST: 8ETF 36.MCELHIXNEY: 81. OS 661 V.L. 11. Sucl. PR 9. I. I. 164 (ISGY). 929. 1707. P 321 G. SE. U. R a ~ o r : Sesaija A h d .S. Snctk s. 563 V . Sk 551 s. 2 3 (1058). i s : P R 95. S.ISOVA: ZETF 29. . 1on2. OS 531 V. Energy 6 .J. RITSEX~: UCRL3266. 225 (1959).G. Energy 9. I’V1E 15. R .E:. PAPPAS: PUAE 7.JETP 9.13. CORYELL: XEC‘U2087. C‘IIESSR. S K I K < \ A ~ : : PCAIE2.S i 531 D.PERITLO\. FILOV: JETP 6. Sk 561 K.% ~ ? ~ oZETF 34).\I*: I. Ri 521 H.\. Re 581 C. A!)3. 63..D.S.V. 1’.A. 920. PARKER: ORNL2302. FIELDS 1.725 (1959).L.PIIII. PRESEST: 72. T 1% Pi 361 V. PR Ju. V.JETP 3. REISEKS.\St . H ~ R V E11. H.P. Pe 571 S. S i I L O R : Pc.T. PATE: Pe 531 S.i:): (‘onf.r).W. Srn 371 A. 413. OSTROCMOV S. JETP 8. Pe 373 S . X . PR 106. Ha 581 R. 1’. PA PI'^>: . TOJILISWY: Can J. 11.“. G. 11. 438 l l!)59). 433 (l!hi6). 1’ERFII.2 xrr. 9. S. PROTOPOPOV u. .(. AEliELib/Trans6!)2. l < o D i n L.ISOV 11. E.‘L.\E 4. ii!). Pr 583 1. 591) (195!1).RAMANNA P. ( os 552 V.S. Pa 561 A. 1’ 11. Sucl. 1 L .J. I)LFFIELD: U. 1. C:. Phys. I . Chem. E 6. % . 344. B.1.. S.5. QIHJAJEY: %ETF 36. lvasorr. T I I O U I * : I’K 1o1.58  . 11. H ~ R M S G Suovo Citn.J. I<. v: (1976 X). ii. 40.883 (1938). 11. o i ~ r s U. SERHHL:R 71. Po 561 C.11. FRIEI)\I. Krnienergie 2. DABBSu..ettcw 1.PERFILOT: JETP 4. 1 113.PERFILOV 11.M. F o > f E \ K o 11. 333. J. 130. SOLUVJr. Sa 56. P A S O \ : ZETF Pi. 103. (19..JE:TP 1. Pa 36d F. Pr 384 AS.E’. Suppl. Sh 591 K . 361 ti.R.D.M. J E T P 9.D. l < w .E. TAFFE: 149 (P/lYi). VENEDIKTOYA. AECU2806.\.D. JETP 7. PR Ro 571 L. Ro 501 L . B. SOLOVJETA: a. S. J.r. 4% 341 E:. PORTER 11.I.E.. I’ERFILOV. OSTROUXOV R.Z. X. FIELD: I.
390.\V. u.. YIGSEROS: P K 51. JIISCESKO. w : (‘AIL d. H. YLADIMIRSKIJ. L. ALIYARIS. 1. Suppi.H.+: 2884 (P/688).E U. 120. ‘rEHKEI. LOCKAJA. Va 571 R. WAEL: AECD4201. SU 561 X.A YARFOLOMEJEV. Bcad. S. TASILE\. V . E. 1. ti5l.R. 140. u. WISHOLD. STEIXBERC L. i’. 3. FIELDS. H. IXCHRAY u. 346.A.P. 111 (1956). 1318. 208 (1958).P. u. BRISC‘KLEY: . u. 867. 129. Berlin: Springer. S.B. \E. I. Anier.P. J. J. 730. Land. S w k *hSK.). SOKLOMSKIJ. 184 (1957). (7) 41.SUGARMANA..s. 795 (1939). Th 571 T. (‘onf.S. h u o v u. A. 65 (1956). Her. SEABORG: 11.W A Y : CP”&g’i.WIGSER: PR . 6. WAPSTRA: Physics 31.V%l % 856. r I. TOXPKISS:PR J. STEINBERG.D. P.A.A. TC‘HL3858. F. 5<W.: I’H IOS. WATT:PR 87.\RT(JUT\V.2W2. J. I E l ) l ~ \K . K.V. STOKES. JETI’ 6. ( . B. SEJIETESKO: AE 4. STRUTINSKIJ: 2. E H O V : FL 2ETF 34. Ts 481 TSIES SASTSIASG: phys. SJIITH.1. Lonil. 38. : 1’K 11:1. ?I!) (l!+.L. 1139. J.311 Wa 551 \Va 332 IVa 381 IVa 582 IYa 38.L TEWES H. ROBERT*: PR 114.. SJOBLOM: . 1 PR 111. s\r 311 J. Mag. JETP 3. VISOGRADOV. SIDAS A. ])RE\ I \ > K ( T . BOSDARESKO. S. 1. 257 (1938). 188. TITTERTOS T. S\V. .WAPSTRA: Handbuch der Physik.431. B.R. STAVINSKIJ: (1959). 203.T.C. FIELDS. M. FIELDS 8.BRACIXA J r . SJAE. lv. 179 H.\V. S.I. WHEELER: TID7547. VSSK.J. HICKS. 233 (1938). THOJIAS. 94. PR W. H~IZEXGA: 96.+Tt:( KI: 1’K IW.E. S N I i T t X ’ K I : Pl< 101.S. 1103. 606. WAKERLINC: UCRL132. A.’M. GLESDEXIS.h t ) V : BETF 3. Sm 582 . 1315 AE (1957). Sauk SSSR. PR Ti 511 E: \V.H.K.J. l&. HABER:PR 92.J. G r s ~ ~ B. PR jr.V. THOMAS. TU 531 . ZETP 86. TVRSER: 1 TTRKEV1C. 286: JKl’1’ %F 2. 345. VASDESBOSCH. S n .‘I’AJIOK: !’I< 7.B. . J. PL1E 1 171 11’222) (195s). Wa 441 Wa 481 wa 482 FVa 491 \%‘a $21 Wa .E. BARASOVA.11. St 541 E. 322. ~ V. PT. 1P. 494.E. S n 352 W . Sature. HARVEY G. J. Ti 513 E. SJAE 3. 113. Sessija Akad. G. I. STEINu.A. 1. Energy 9. Ta 301 S. . Ti 501 1 IV. 3 (P/614). SERVIK D. SJAE 4. Mod.m). 653. YTIJDIER 11. . !I%. J. 437 St 591 V. 388. St 491 CH.\knd. Progress Sucl. L.A. ti. .i9). 1. VASDESBOSCH 11. (Chemical Science).M’AY u. 429. 5!)3: 1F:Ctr2308. Vo 581 E. GLASS G. WHEELER: PV. 476. FRIEDMAS. P h p . \VHITEHO~*SEU.V. U .5. Inorg. VOITOVECHIJ. Vi 551 .R. Ho ZAILIVEI. 103.A. 15. 1 TVRKEVICH. ~ <. E.690). M’IELCOZ: PR 101. 6. 263.1). 120. V . S I D A S : P R M. 629.a. KATCOFF: Chem.C. P.D. 31.\ (AECL329). PR 76. 3f. TITTERTOS: PR 88. A. 385. 8 A D K E V I e 1 u. A. P.GALBRAITH: Sature. I. Y 87.52. TU 511 . 412. S t 543 E. JEVA.B. Sucl. TITTERTOS: W3.T. PK : ZETY 35. SUGARMAN: 79.: St 583 W. NETHAWAY: 111. u. I1 4. u. B. J. WBTEEOISE: J.59  . > A > ~ o v ZK’I’F 33.C O S U. LEVIS u. St 582 P. St 571 W.. 169. u. 133 (P/593). 168.A. K. 263: JETP 6. l’LIE 13. SSES I\’ 9. 239 (1958). Q. TU 401 L. S.. 730. Sucl.\. Soc.1338. N. $ + > I O \ : 1)okl. G.H. Atomenerfrie (Chemie).1. SJAE 2.~ K ! ~ l .JIARCESKO: ZETF 32. CHASTEL u. To~r~rssos: o. Radium 9. 1.. STRUTISSKIJ: ZETF 30.P. Energy 7. 1 571 Y. A WHEELER: Physiea 22.P.4E 2.3 Ke 331 \Vh W1 \Vh 521 Wh 322 iVh 561 Wh 562 IVh Si1 Wh 591 1 . PR 11. STEISBERC L. SE+BORO: 111. YASDESBOSCH u. J. Chem.E 7.B. 81 (19.I.R. GO\\AKD: U. TIIO>I+*:~ ~ ‘ l < l ~ . R. Sa 352 V. 521 571 391 4i1 . C. KWAI. TS 471 L. Akad. SMITH.E. A. J A J ~ K S I’H 8s. A. Roi. 581.C. sa 572 \. 2. s\Vl. Jlag. AH. TITTERTOS F. 1076. W. 638 St 563 ( 1936/57). . R. P. 53%. (Cheinie).J. ’ Sa 551 V. Sa 571 V. S. J. K. 807. PAYT. H. + l l . J. 12. I. 142. 1. . WAYu. 4. 886.P. Sucl.W. ’I‘wwt: 11. H~IzEsc. 1037.. T ~ K + S T IJS .Y. s w 551 1V.. A. T.S. 693: AECtr2386. Ti1 581 S. Y.K. : J. J. R.57). Y. GEKLIT. Kerneiiergie 1.BOXER: PCAE St 581 R. K. Phil. DEMOS I.. S.P.\V. Ya 582 R. GLESDENIS: V . CAMPOS K.\E 15. H. 1633.508 .H. Kernenergie 1. A. Sal. .G. 110 (1958). PR St 542 M. ~V’KITEHOVSE 11. 1 SMITH.tJ.11. STASLETu.IV.1’. S \ V I ~ T E C KI: 1’11 ItH).L. STEIXER J.83 (1!157). Energy 7.621 (1957). S.. A. J. ~ ~ J A > O . 1. Bd. 169 (1938). J.1. S. BARASOV. R.DISXUKE: ORXL280. GLESDESIS:PR 9&. Sni 591 A. . G.E. (7) 41. 12H. Sci. 3W2. Ti 512 E.T. Ya 584 I. A. JAKOVLEV: u. Te Te Tr TI1 316.. S. H w x r c h A 23.(.E. H. T E K K E L I . SUCARXAN. i :~ ~ Suppi. : Sa 581 V. 11. 7%). AE St 572 V. J. .ILBRAITH: Phil.F. ti. . STEVENSON. 8 . S. J. T 29. 108. Su 371 T. Phys. WAETSTOSE PR 111. t u. J . FRIEDJIAS 11. SJOBLOX: Sm 583 G. a 1 1V. ~ ’ A S O V . FIELDS. SMIRENKIS. S. 89. B. 8. H.K.97. M. A. Sw 362 \V. VASDESBOSCH. Loiliru: . P S t 562 E.IE:TI’ 7. V.T. LAYRUCK~FA. SU 531 N.K. K. R ~ ~ A s c ‘ E v . E. \’a 583 R. 673. H. 316. TITTERTOS: <‘KP642. SULIAVAS: 11.J. Bull. 1351. 11. Sauk SSSR.E. 295 (P’1. SJOBLOY: Phys.L.P. a. Vo 551 V. PETRZAK JETP 8.l ~ I l l 4\.. 4.‘ STEIN: PR 108. WETEERILL: 92. PROCHOROVA CH. l(W3 (19. Ya 551 4. D.P. ~ILII’POV.58). HAYDEN: 96. R.Sm 581 .. P. K . R. Sucl.R. SMITH.: W.A. PR s u 501 N. V . W. 527. Sm 592 A. SJOBLOM U. 97. TROIASELK V E K : 1’11 Io*. 937. W.T. I’SF. J. 444. S 561 H. P. ~ t . HALPERS: H 11. WAHL:PR 96. SEABORO: 11Q 507. e J . WHETSTOXE PR 110. (P/659).M. PVAE 1 392 (P. TO 561 R. 220 (I%%). E. JETP 8. SORTHRUP u. Th 581 T. 0 . S. S N Y i T E t ’ K I : I H 101. 153 (1939). \V. VAXDESBOSCH: I’K T a 581 R. Phys. KUTUKOSA: Dokl. Ti 491 E. W A ~ L :PR m. JETP 9. J. WAHL: J.. 1’. J T S G E R M A S : PR 101. jr.VOGT:PR 112. 1.
S .419.G.L.1 E.R. B. H. 1.27.R. WIWHOLD I. 1296. D. FRIEDLaSDER U. Wi 541 D. J. AE. HCIZEXGA: 114. G. Phi. E. HALPEBX: 108.1 J. 850. Japan 5. 11. HCDIS: PH lO:l. S. . Suppl. SJAE.2 L. W.Wi 531 D. CORYELL: PR 96. 5. PR Po es rg Y a 501 T. BAKER. s . ~ ~ I L E Tu. HARKXESS J. Wi 3 .W. WILES 11. CCMMISG.H. A. WOLKEu.60  .31. Phys. GUTMART: 107.X. a ~ a ~ s r x : Suppl. 2 1 (1957). Phys. PR ll0 561 R. S Wi 59. 143. RILES.R. 1. Za 571 J v .J. "EODE: J.L.R. CHaSE: PR 108. Z . SXITH. 690. u. 163.J. J. 394..W.A. A.21 (1958).TAMAGWHI: r s Theor. WISG. CARETTO. B. D. CH. wo 571 R. 990. PR wi 3 . WOLFGASG. HOWLEY11. J. Can. RAJLLER.
) Measurement of Fission process Measurement of Vb. 14) Wh 501 (th) Wa 541 (th. 14) KO 591 (Slow) u238 $38 spontan. puZ4' spontan.5. 14) P O e12 591 (75) ~238n u238 + JU 491 (45.660) De 581 (350) De 581 (280) u238 + 7r+ IV 581 (280) IV 582 (280) Be 551 (slow) Pe 551 (slow) Pe 554 (slow) De 581 (slow) $38 + 7r +y KO 584 Br 501 (th) Wa 541 (14) KO 584 (th) St 571 (th) KO 561 (17.l) Ju 491 (90) Fr 511 (2.7) KO 591 (12. 90) Wa 541 (2. 90) KO 561 (17.380) +P P e 551 (460.860) IV 571 (140 . Th for fissionproduct pairs Sm 582 Sm 561 Hi 571 BO 582 ~m~~~ spontan. 660) s a 552 (660) Da 591 (660) Sizo9 n+ Pe 551 (slow) PO591 (75) AuIg7 + CI2 P e 551 (460. ~ 9 5 spontan. 660) ga 552 (660) Pe 551 (slow) De 581 (180 6 6 0 ) ga 581 (300 6 6 0 )  .Table 5. 2 Mi 581 St 583 em244 spontan. (Numbers in parentheses: E/MeV.5) Wh 501 Fo 471 (slow.7) +n Th232 + y ThZz9 + n RaZz6+ n Sizo9 n + Sm 581 (th) NO 581 (4 21) Ju 491 (90)  &09 +P P e 551 (460. 14) Be 551 (150 .61  .5. 660) ga 552 ( 6 6 0 ) IV 562 (140 . V for fissionh product pairs Measurement of T for single fission products Measurement of the range distribution T1.2 Measurement of the energy distribution and range of fission products. in photofission: Ee/MeV. ~m242 spontan. ~ 2 3+n 9 $38 + MO 581 B r 502 (th) MO 581 (th) St 571 (th) Se 541 Se 541 (th) W a 541 (th. $35 +n u~~~+ n ThZ3' B r 501 (th) Fr 541 (th) St 571 (th) Fo 471 (c:1) J u 491 (45. ~u241+ n Sm 582 Sm 582 Sm 571 Sm 571 (th) Sh 501 Ha 511 ~u24Q spontan.
r I n m I n . 0 a m m 1 I I n * m Y 0 1 N z N 00 I n m I n s V 0 N N N d m I N N n I N N N N rl N I Y N N N m I n m s s s n m I n m s I n s n I n 00 w w w w 2 8 N t N . I  r I n d I m e.62  .
36 f 0. 103 9 105 1 . 0. 1.009 KJ 591 Ke 561 Fe 512 104 1 .01 * I.2 t Ka 531 Br 531 Ka 531 HO 512 Pa 561t St 491 Wa 581 Wa 561 Wa 581 Wa 581 Wa 581 < 0. 105 5 . 103 St 562t Gr 571 FO 532 Pa 561+ St 562+  < 7. 0. 104 3 *  G r 571 Re 552 St 562+ Wa 581t Wa 58lt Tcg8 Rh102 108 c 1.02 Ke 561 Ke 561 St 562+ * 3. < 9 .63  .12 0.86 0.53 0. 4 .5 0. 0 2 1.18 f 0.96 0.0.5 I.15 0.17 SW 511 Wa 581+ Wa 561+ Pa 561 Pa 56l+ TeI3' * (9.6 (2.11 f 0. 8 (2.59 0.001 0.07 0.8 * < I. 105 St 562t <6. 104 0.8 f 0. 0) .Table 7.3 St 562+ Ece 561 Wa Wa Wa Wa 581 581 581 561 .1.21 103 6.049 0. Specific independent and specific cumulative yields of fission products for spontaneous and thermal fission Fission product Specific independent Specific cumulative References Yield (78136 Rbe6 J126 ~130 cs136 0. .4 (2. 1 . 103 . Yield St 541 St 562+ Ke 561 Ke 561 St 562+ St 562+ 104 o * 0. 4 . 103 103 0.59 0.02 < 6.2) < 0.14 0.1) (3.05 0.02 0. 13 0.8 f 0.007 0. lo3 Pa 56l+ (I. 1 i 0. 104 1. 1 .051 f 0.21 Xe133 ~e135 Ke 561 Ke 561 Wa 551 Wa 551 Wa 551 Wa 551 Wa 581+ Pa 561+ St 5 6 .7.6 Gr 571 .01 < 0.6.1) .0. 104 < 103 (2. 105  104 < 0.211. 103 103 Ke 561 Ke 561 Gr 571 < 8 .8) + . 107 0.82 0.2) .31 Rbe6 Y90 Y91 Nb96 1.035 0.04.3) 0.015 3.02 0. 104 * 0. 104 6.11 f 0 .027 0.
64  .I * I (0 a5 c .0 % 7 v) .
C r 562. Bo 582 Di Hi Hi Di Hi Hi i 561. BO 583+ BO 583+ C r 562.14 3.20 R e f e r ences I Fm254 Cf254 Cf252 Cf246 Bk249 ~m244 ~m242 Pu2 42 Pu240 Pu238 Pu236 u238 Ch 561 BO 583+ C r 562.06 2.13 f 0.05 f 0. H 561 561 561 561.72 2.28 2.92 3. C r 562.03 f 0.04 f 0.84 2.82 2. C r 562. Hi 561.16 f 0.23 2. (Optimum values for spontaneous fission from Bo 58 3+.03 f 0.Table 8 .17 2. C r 562.20 f 0.59 2.47 2.09 f 0.51 2.14 f 0. Bo 583+ 561 561 T h e r m a l fission I References Target nucleus U I Am241 Pu241 Pu239 u235 u233 Th229 3.11 f 0.05 3.19 f 0.90 2. 2 11.12 f 0.65  .13 f 0. Hi 561. Mean number of neutrons emitted p e r fission for spontaneous and thermal fission.30 f 0. C r 562.10 f 0.04 f 0.03 I Le 583 HU 582+ HU 582+ HU 582+ HU 582+ Le 584 I . ) Nucleus V 4.90 3.19 f 0. Li 521 Di 561.28 2.05 f 0.
8 4.0 L References Le 592 Pr 586 4. Table 2 and 3 for details. (See Le 581+.212.75 f 0.4 f 0.2 14. 4 4.70 f 0.66  . Mean numbers of neutrons emitted per fission for fission by neutrons.10 BO 583 .Table 8./MeV 14. ) Target nucleus Pu239 u233 Th2 32 E.45 2.
05 .05 pu239 + 0.10) Le 562(0.7) 1 .05 . 7) 2.05 . ( N u m b e r s in p a r e n t h e s e s : En/MeV.59 . Otherwise.0.71 ~ ~ 2 spontan.05 0.2 f 0. 5 2 Hj 561 S m 572 BO 582 pu241 + n n S m 582 Ne 522 G r 562 E r 571+ KO 571 BO 583(4) KO 581 (0.Table 8. 9 3 5 f 0.96 f 0.0. M e a s u r e m e n t s and computations of t h e e n e r g y s p e c t r a of p r o m p t neutrons.025 eV.05 0. En N 0.61 B1 431 Hi 522 Ne 521 BO 521/+ Wa 521 Ni 531 C r 561 Le 561+ E r 571+ BO 583(4) KO 581 (0.0.3) KO 582 KO 583 Te 591 u233 + n He 551 G r 562 He 562 E r 571+ KO 571 KO 581 (0.00 f 0.7) Sm 582 Sm 591 1.58 Ba 572 ( 0 .67  . ) Numerical computation of t h e s p e c t r u m a c c o r d i n g to t h e evaporation theory Le 571 KO 582 Te 591 Fission process Spectrum mea sur e m e n t T n / MeV (optimum value f r o m Te 591) 2.1 QlMeV (optimum value f r o m Ta 591) 0.22.
m * c0 0 * rl a m 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 m 0 0 . 0 o cN . . m.68  . . 0 0 0 0 m 0 0 m 0 w 0 m N 0 v 0 d m d d m 0 d w d * m r d w m d d d E a 44 .2 a.+ l d 0 0 0 .rl 0 0 0 d l4 d d d 0 I d o m w k a. . o. * 0 0 9 m c *  m 0 0 . .I l4 N m m l . a. . m l 4 m m 0 0 0 0 W m 0 3 w m N N rl 0 * ? I W r 0 c u m . . 0 0 N O m l m * W W m 0 . .4 0 d 4 5 m + I 0 0 0 . o. o. . 0 * m rl . 0 0 W N d N O 0 d  . N 0 m c r o v * . m m 0 0 m  0 m m 0 . o. N m 0 0 0 0 m w m o m m rl d W 2 % k co cu 0 m N m r 0 0 . . m. o. 0 0 l l w m m d 0 0 0 o .rl k3 m a . a. o. . . l 0 r l r r l m w m c l d d r l o m cN . o. . o. . . . 0 0 0 1 W o d c 0 + 7 2 + I CD I ? rl m m o m 0 w m m N C O m P 0 Fc a. . .w w m m rlrl I I rlrl I I w w rl I mIn c o rl I m CD Nrlrl I l l rl rl I n mcDw Inlnm w m I w I I n w m rl I w m rl I w m rl I * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 d O 0 0 o N 0 0 d d d crl 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 r l 0 0 w 0 0 c . . l r l l   w m d 4 c o d m m r l d d c 0 d 0 m 0 0 0 0 m 0 r r 0 0 0 .
m cd cd m s s s m cd % a a. 0 0 k a 4 f i m m iz . c) a a.m a. a. 0 +I E 0 0 d d m s E" d d cd 3 1 5 W d d b ? aQ 0 d m m +I * d d o d tI t . A k m % k Fs P a. 3 a. m p: E" E" cd m 3 s a a . k a a.69  . G k 0 + i a.t  0 d 0 d I I cv d m d 3 d d w m m 1= 5 . k 3 E" E" d d cd E" E" 00. k 2 m cd 2 a.
2 . Contour d i a g r a m f o r the t h e r m a l o r spontaneous fission of the compound nucleus P u 2 4 2 ( S m 571) 240 MeV 20 2 200 ~ Q t 180 a W w z 160 FROM EQUATION 5. 2 2 .14.6 I.1 . 5.4 I . Distribution of the total kinetic energy of the fission products f o r v a r i o u s a r e a s of the fission r a t i o i n the t h e r m a l o r spontaneous fission of the compound nucleus ~ ~ 2 4 2 (Sm 571) Fig.ZH BY POSTULATE OF EQUAL DECAYCHAIN LENGTH ( 8 7 3 ) AND MASS VALUES PER 40 36 32 28 1. 5. 5. 2 1 . Distribution of the kinetic energy of individual fission products i n the fission of U235 by neutrons of v a r i o u s ene r gie s  70  .8 Fig.0 1 2 1. WITH MOST PROBABLE ZL.I80 MeV I2c I 3 2 3 * t 6C C 3 Fig. 3.
T 0 T 1  __ T 0.2  71  . Mean energy magnitudes (averaged like T I + Th) as functions of the fission ratio f o r the spontaneous function of Cf 252 (St 583) 0. Most probable total kinetic energy of the fission product as a function of the fission ratio f o r the fission of B i and T a by 450MeV protons 1. 5.2 .Fig.4 0.531. 5.4 R "235 0 Fig.532.2' 0.8 0.
6.3 t 2 0. T e 591) 2.21.5 0.8 5 6 0.2 0.4 gc SIP t 1.5 2. 2.o 34 35 36 37 38 39 Cpz) Fig. Anisotropy of the fissionfragment emis sion and effective c r o s s section for the fission of Th232 by neutrons as a function of their energy (He 561) .0 1.o 0. 6.b 2.I 0 7 6 M W 1 0 1. Anisotropies in the photofission of various nuclei a s a function of the maximum energy of the continuous radiation ( W i 56 . computed from a number of data (Table 5.72  Fig.6.5 1.1) 5P .5 0 0 I 2 3 4 5" Fig.0 0. Mean total kinetic energy of all fissionfragment p a i r s a s a function of Z2/A1/Z3.4. 5.2 I .2 2.
52. Anisotropy of the fissionfragment emission in fission by very fast protons a s a function of their energy (Ha 591) .53.I Io' Ah/Ai  Fig. 6 .73  . 6. Anisotropy of the fissionfragment emission for the fission of various target nuclei by deuterons and @particlesa s a function of parameter Z2/A of the compound nucleus (Co 582) n w >I  I t IO+ z W n n W n 2 W 5 s! W LL a v) IO^ IO' lo' e> POSTULATE b FROM II 2 z<I> Fig.
6. Anisotropy in fission by 2 2 MeV protons a s a function of the fission ratio ( C o 551)  74  .I Io' n I t >i  z W W W n z a n z Lc W 0 0 a v) 10~ 2<Z> <Z>FROM POSTULATE b  Fig. 54.
61 135 140 140 150 155 ' 60 I /A I / I 31 32 59 33 YI I 58 1 57 ' / / I / 34 35 t N ' 56 36 / 55 54 hi 37 $. Charge distribution for fixed m a s s number i n the t h e r m a l fission of V235 according t o postulate b  75  .411. 38 53 39 52 40 51 41 50 42 3 95 90 85 80 ' Fig. 7.
7.0C n t W I w 5 ! n W b e 0 5 0 W 0 OIC 'L a m Fig. 7. according to Wa 581  76  .I. The most probable charge < Z >for i s o b a r s of a m a s s number A as a function of A. Charge distribution f o r fixed m a s s number i n t h e r m a l fission according to postulate b 0.412.413.o 1 I 0 I 2 3 4 5 z'z+ T Fig.
2 X X x Y6 / . /72 .for several target nuclei u . . o / / O P P ' p . and the spontaneously splitting nucleus Pu240 a s a function of the bombarding..o  \ x 0 0 0 I . c '"'.5 2.212. \ I' 0 )Axx\ \ c.77  .9. 8.5 A Fig.neutr on energy (Le 581+) . .
2132. 2131.78  .10 2 140 10 6 180 200 220 MeV 240 G+G + Fig. 8. Relative probability of neutron emission from light and heavy fission fragments and from both types of fission fragments a s a function of the fission ratio for the thermal fission of U233 (Fr 541) Fig. Number of neutrons emitted from one fission fragment a s a function of the m a s s number of this fission fragment in the spontaneous fission of Cf252 (Wh 591) . 8.
U235+n 5611 Cf SPONTANEOUS (SM562) (Ma 252 1.PROBABILITY OF EMISSION 0 0 OF EXACTLY v NEUTRONS   0 9 razz 0 P 0 0 N P m W io N Fig.000 Fig.00 TY   79  .214.22.0 000 .01c 0. 8.100 i? 0. 8. T a s a function of the total kinetic energy of the fission products in the spontaneous fission of ~ 9 5 2 1. Measured energy spectrum and computed energy spectra of prompt neutrons i n the s ontaneous fission of Cf25 (Te 591) 0.
32. Energy spectrum of the prompt gammaradiation in the thermal fission of U235 and the spontaneous fission of Cf252  80  . Measured and computed probability f o r the emission of exactly v neutrons a s a function of v for the spontaneous fission of several nuclei (Le 562) GtTh Fig.Ma" I / 1.8 Fig. 8. 8.23.
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