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BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME OF THE
SAGE ENDOWMENT FUND
THE GIFT OF
HENRY W. SAGE
1691
ENGINEERING LIBRARY
The
original of this
book
is in
the Cornell University Library.
There are no known copyright
restrictions in
text.
the United States on the use of the
http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924090411723
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
BY THE SAME AUTHOR
MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS.
Text hook
of
A
Intermediate
Standard.
With 200 Diagrams and Examples. Crown 8vo.
numerous
THE THEORY OF STRUCTURES.
With 320 Diagrams Examples. Svo.
and
numerous
ELEMENTARY APPLIED
CHANICS.
M.Sc,
ME
By Arthur Morley, M.I.Mech.E., and William
Inchlby, B.Sc, M.I.Mech.E. With 285 Diagrams, numerous Examples and
Answers.
Crown
8vo.
LONGMANS, GREEN, AND
LONDON,
CO.
NEW
YORK, BOMBAY, CALCUTTA,
AND MADRAS
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
BY
ARTHUR MORLEY,
D.Sc, M.I.Mech.E.
FORMERLY PROFESSOR OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, NOTTINGHAM
WITH
267
DIAGRAMS AND NUMEROUS EXAMPLES
NEW
IMPRESSION
LONGMANS, GREEN AND
39,
CO.
PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON
30th
FOURTH AVENUE AND
STREET,
NEW YORK
BOMBAY, CALCUTTA, AND MADRAS
1920
\All rights rts*rvsd\
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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE
Numerous minor
additions, alterations
and corrections have been
First Edition
:
made, and new references have been given, since the was issued. The following new articles have been added
Second Edition (1910) Arts. 68a and 74a. Third Edition (19^3) Art. 93a. Fourth Edition (1916) Arts. 98a, 107a, 122a, 122b, 124a, 124b, and 185a, and the Appendix.
— —
—
Fifth Edition (1919), corrected. Reprinted, 1920.
PREFACE
This book has been
written
mainly for Engineering students, and
covers the necessary ground for University and similar examinations in Strength of Materials ; but it is hoped that it will also prove useful
to
many
practical engineers, to
whom
a knowledge of the subject
is
necessary.
followed, but several special features
In some sections of the work wellestablished lines have been may be mentioned. In Chap. II.
the different theories of elastic strength are explained, and subsequently throughout the book the different formulae to which they lead in cases of compound stress are pointed out. Considerable use has been made of the
method of finding beam
deflections
i.e.
from the moment of the area of the
/
bendingmoment diagram,
tion
from the summation
T^rdx;
my
atten
was called to the very simple application of this method to the on builtin and continuous beams developed in Chap. VII., by my friend Prof. J. H. Smith, D.Sc. Other subjects treated, which have hitherto received but scant attention in textbooks,
solution of problems
include the strength of rotating discs and cylinders, the bending of
curved bars with applications to hooks, rings, and
of unstayed
flat plates,
links, the strength
and instability arising from Most of the important research certain speeds of running machinery. work bearing on Strength of Materials has been noticed, and numerous Most easily accessible references to original papers have been given. of the results involving even simple mathematical demonstrations have been worked out in detail ; experience shows that careful readers lose
and the
stresses
much
time through being unable to bridge easily the gaps frequently
left in such work.
Many
fully
workedout numerical examples have
been given, and the reader is advised to read all of these, and to work out for himself the examples given at the ends of the chapters, as being
a great help to obtaining a sound and useful knowledge of the subject. Many readers will have the opportunity of seeing and using practical
and others. Goodman. M." and to the treatises on testing by Profs. I must acknowledge my great indebtedness to Prof. Karl Pearson's most valuable work of reference. Robinson. particularly Prof. D. M. B. It is too much to hope that this edition will be quite free from errors. or any other suggestion. Prof.Sc. Messrs. September. and A. University College. I also express my thanks to the various makers of machines or instruments. Smith. Unwin.Sc. or checking examples.Sc. will be cordially appreciated. Tomlinson. T. graphs. and this portion of the work has been treated some ample references to works on and original papers being furnished. ARTHUR MORLEY. "The History of the Theory of Elasticity. H. B.. H. W. 1908. A. I take this opportunity of thanking numerous friends who have what briefly in the last three chapters. or proofs. J. J. testing assisted me by suggestions.Sc. B. Gardner. Prof. and G. PREFACE. W. who have supplied me with blocks or photoand whose names appear in connection with the illustrations.E. and any intimation of these. . reading of MS. Inchley.vi testing appliances. Johnson. Martens. Nottingham.
. Straining actions Shearing force and bending moments Diagrams ContraFunicular polygon Rejation between bending moment and shearflexure 901 14 ing force Theory of bending Simple and other bending — — — — — — . and others of failure under fluctuating stress — CHAPTER III. in tensile strain — Resilience— Live loads — Resistance to stress — Experiments of Reynolds and Smith.CONTENTS ELASTIC stress CHAPTER STRESS AND stresses I. CHAPTER V STRESSES IN BEAMS. Moments of inertia of sections— Graphical methods— Momental ellipseConcrete steel sections Beams of uniform strength Distribution of shear Pitch of girded rivets Principal stresses Bending beyond elastic stress 115156 limit—Modulus of rupture— Unsymmetrical bending — — — — — . ... RESILIENCE AND FLUCTUATING STRESS. PAGES limits — Elastic constants— Resolution Stress — Strain — Elastic — Principal planes and — Principal Ellipse of of stress . MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS.. shock CHAPTER THEORY OF BENDING. and yield point Ductile strains Ultimate and elastic strength Factor of safety Measures of ductility Actual and nominal stress Effect of shape of test pieces Detailed properties of important metals Raising the elastic limit by strain Hysteresis Hardening and annealing— Influence of rate of loading Compression Fractures Effects of temperature Stress 2962 due to temperature changes — — — — — — — — — — — — — Work done Fatigue Wohler's experiments Stanton and Bairstow. strains 128 CHAPTER Elastic limit II. STRAIN. —Explanations —Limiting range of —Factors of safety 6389 IV.
—Various sections— Stresses in hooks— Stresses in rings Deformation of rings — Simple chain links — Flat spiral springs — Arched with three and with two hinges — Fixed ribs— Temperature stresses Hanging wires and chains . and strain in pure torsion Relation to twisting effort Hollow shafts Noncircular shafts Combined bending and torsion Effect of end thrust Torsion beyond elastic limit Torsional resilience— Helical spring close — — — — — — coiled and open coiled 291—312 CHAPTER PIPES. AND DISCS. SECONDARY EFFECTS OF BENDING. cylindrical shell Oval sections Seams Thin spherical shell Thick Dimensions for tubes and cylinders Collapse of tubes Thick cylinders spherical shell Compound cylinders Press fits on solid shafts Wire wound tubes^Rotating ring or wheel rim 'Rotating disc Rotating cylinder Rotating disc of varying thickness 3'3 _ — — — — — — — — — — — — — 37S CHAPTER Theory of bending ribs XII. DEFLECTION OF SEAMS.— — — VUl CONTENTS. with applications Other graphical methods Beams of varying — — — — PACES — crosssection— Carriage springs l57" Iof> BUILTIN Simple cases CHAPTER VII. . theory Use of Eiiler's formulas Rankine's and other formulae Comparison with experiments Eccentric loads on long columns Struts and tierods with lateral loads Columns of varying direct stress columns. Thin XI. BENDING OF CURVED BARS. Combined bending and Eccentric loads—The Spolygon— Pillars. and deflection Various Propped beams Deflection and slope from bendingmoment diacases grams. and struts —Euler's — — — — — — — section 246290 CHAPTER Stress X. Uniform curvature Relations between curvature. 376421 . slope. AND CONTINUOUS BEAMS. Effect of fixed ends Symmetrical loading Any loading Varying section Theorem of three moments Simple and general cases Wilson's method Advantages and disadvantages of continuous beams 197229 — — — — — — — CHAPTER Resilience of VIII. beams Deflections from resilience Carriage springs Impacts producing flexure Transverse curvature Shearing resilience and deflections due to shearing 230245 — — — — — CHAPTER IX. CYLINDERS. DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES. CHAPTER — VI. TWISTING.
square. . Arnold's. and Sankey's machines Hardness tests and testing machines Impact tests and Single bend tests machines Optical determination of stress distribution 499 5 I 5 — — — — CHAPTER Cement tests. XVII. SPECIAL MATERIALS. TESTING Typical testing machines Tension tests Form of test pieces Methods of gripping Shearing tests Calibration of testing machine Torsion testing machine Extensometers Autographic recorders Beam deflections Tor — — — — — torsion of wires Determination of elastic constants (summary) sional strains — Tension and — —Bending — — — — of light beams 471498 CHAPTER XVI. MACHINES. 422444 — — — — — PAGES CHAPTER XIV.CONTENTS. loading— Strength of wire Prolonged a Appendix —Tension machines and apparatus strength and tests in Timber. FLAT PLATES. and bending tests 516529 ropes 53 I_ 53& — perforated plate Mathematical Tables 539543 54555° Answers to Examples Index 551555 . APPARATUS AND METHODS. —Free —Forced — Dangerous speeds — Longitudinal —Transverse Loaded and unloaded rods— Whirling speeds — —Vibrations of — of end vibrations tion Critical frequency vibrations vibrations vibrations Stress and deflecof shafts rotating shaft Effect thrust and twist Torsional vibrations 445470 CHAPTER XV. VIBRATIONS AND CRITICAL Elastic vibrations SPEEDS. stone. . — —Tension. SPECIAL TESTS. Free and fixed plates Distributed and Stress and strain in circular plate central loads Uniform load and central support Approximate methods for noncircular plates Oval. and rectangular plates . IX CHAPTER XIII. compression. Repeated and reversed stresses Smith's. and brick shearing. Concrete.
.
the stress intensity at a point in the surface must be looked upon as the limit of the ratio of units of force to units of area when each is deStress. an exact science which is unable to furnish solutions for the majority of the practical problems which present themselves to the engineer in the design of machines and structures. The intensity of the stress at a surface. The constituent forces. and interaction takes place across this surface. or two parts of the same body. Simple Stresses. ELASTIC STRESS AND STRAIN. reaction which take place between two bodies. various considerations other than strength and stiffness. and that in all cases the limits within which the theories may represent the facts should be clearly appreciated. and durability.STRENGTH OF MATERIALS CHAPTER I. wherever possible. The semiempirical nature of the subject makes it desirable that its formulae should. the demonstrations are less rigorous than those which form the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. for example. transmitting forces constitute a stress. 3. the stability and deformation of various elements of machines and structures subjected to straining actions. —The equal and opposite action and structures. —There are two specially simple states of stress B . if the distribution is not uniform. lubrication. 1. Except in very simple cases. In proportioning the parts of machines and structures. The subject generally called Strength of Materials includes the study of the distribution of internal forces. is estimated by the force transmitted per unit of area in the case of uniform distribution this is also called the unit stress . creased indefinitely. If we imagine a body which transmits a force to be divided into two parts by an ideal surface. such. play an important part. the results obtained in the subject of Strength of Materials form an important part of the basis of the scientific design of machines and 2. are distributed over the separating surface either uniformly or in some other manner. and therefore the stress itself. generally referred to with less exactness as merely the stress. but rationally used. the material there is said to be stressed or in a state of stress. It is founded partly on the result of experiment and partly on conclusions drawn therefrom by the application of the principles of mechanics and mathematics. be tested by experiment. as cost.
there is a shear stress at the section XY of a pin or rivet (Fig. exerts a push on the portion B far end of B. dividing the bar into two A compressive stress. transverse section of area a square parts and B. exerts a pull on section is under a tensile stress. If the area of section XY is a square inches. at a (2) Fig. section X perpendicular to the axis of the bar. and is therefore equal and opposite the portion to it.. the material is under A. the material Tensile stress Fig. and we consider any imaginary plane on the tiebar is inches. say. The portion B. which may into (i) a body. say. The average force per X inches. 3) when the two plates which it holds together sustain a pull P in the plane of the section XY. of say P lbs. As an example. If a bar (Fig. exist within parts. 2 [CH. The portion equal and opposite to that on the square inch of section is P=~ and this value/ is the mean intensity of compressive stress at the section X.— — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. The average force exerted per square inch of section is X A >« and this value P / is the mean intensity of tensile stress at this section. and the pull is P . i. If the pull subject to tensile stress is that of a tiebar sustaining a pull. Compressive stress between two parts of a body exists when each pushes the other from it. of area a square at the dividing the bar into two parts A and B (Fig. I. More complex stresses may be split component between two parts of a body exists when eacti The simplest example of material draws the other towards itself. 2. which just balances P. i). Shear stress exists between two parts of a body in contact when the two parts exert equal and opposite forces on each other laterally in a direction tangential to their surface of contact. 2) sustains an axial thrust of P tons at each end.
stress causes an elongation perpendicular to its own (3) Distortional or stress. Elastic Limits. (2) Compressive strain is the contraction which is often due to compressive stress. — Strain is the alteration of shape or dimensions resulting from stress. and the average force per square inch is This value q is the mean intensity of shear stress at the section XY. such a residual strain is called a permanent set. The determination of an elastic limit will evidently depend upon the detection of the smallest possible permanent set. and is measured by the ratio of the contraction to If a length / contracts to / — hi. shear strain is the angular displacement proIf a piece of material be subjected to a pure shear stress in a certain plane. and often results from a pull which causes a condition of tensile stress to be set up. 10). It is in the direction of the tensile stress. tons. if a length / units is increased to / 8/.ART. part of the resulting strain remains after the removal of the stress . which the resulting strain completely disappears after the removal of If a stress beyond an elastic the stress are called the elastic limits. Thus. strain is 8/ / and compressive direction. is the numerical measure of the resulting shear strain (see Art. the strain is + U I The strain is obviously equal numerically to the stretch per unit of length. Tensile stress causes a contraction perpendicular to its own direction. 4. (1) Tensile strain is the stretch. Strain. and is measured by the fractional elongation. the change in inclination (estimated in radians) between the plane and a line originally perpendicular to it. The limits of stress for a given material within 5. the compressive the original length. Fig. 3. 5] ELASTIC STRESS AND STRAIN. and gives a lower stress when instruments of great precision are employed than with cruder duced by shear — . the total shear at the section XY is P P tons. limit is applied.
Modulus of Elasticity. and the tangential components are shear stresses. there being for each kind of stress a different kind of modulus. not exactly true for all materials. AB (Fig. given surface in a material is neither normal nor tangential to that surface. normal to the surface and tangential to it. in other words. The law refers to all kinds This law is . When the stress across any 7. 4). Components of Oblique Stresses. or force. of stress. perpendicular to the line of pull. methods. and will vary with the kind of stress and strain contemplated.— STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. a parallel bar of crosssection a square inches be subjected to a pull A of P tons. being measured in units of force per unit of area. normal to a surface. if the material continued to follow the same law outside the elastic limits as within them. many some small deviations from it will be noticed later. we may conveniently resolve it into rectangular components. or. such as pounds or tons per square inch. [CH. In some materials the time allowed for strain to develop or to disappear will affect the result obtained. but is approximately so for 6. Elastic strain is that produced by stress within the limits of elasticity but the same term is often applied to the portion of strain which disappears with the removal of stress even when the elastic limits have been exceeded. and has no dimensions of length. I. Assuming the truth of Hooke's Law — we may or write intensity of stress stress intensity oc strain = strain X constant constant in this equation is called the modulus or coefficient of elasticity. We might define the modulus of elasticity as the intensity of stress which would cause unit strain. . time. the intensity of tensile stress / is P  . The — If simple example will illustrate the method of resolution of stress. the constant is a quantity of the same kind as a stress intensity. Since the strain is measured as a mere number. The normal stresses are tensile or compressive according to their directions. is Hookis Law states that within the elastic limits the strain produced proportional to the stress producing it. in the direction of the length of the bar. or as the intensity of stress per unit of strain. .
the section of which is 1 square inch normal to the axis. the component is P„ = P is cos e and the area of the surface CD a sec henCe ?» = ^^d = a COSe=: t cos0 and resolving along CD. to a surface. 5 Let /„ and p. which makes an angle with the surface AB. the tangential component of the whole force is P. Resolving the whole force P normal to CD. = P sin . inclined 45° to AB (and therefore also to the axis of pull) are subjected to maximum shear stress. or  * sin 20 Evidently /. „ cos = p sin cos 0. so that all curved or plane. In testing materials in tension or compression.ART. CD. and what is the resultant intensity of stress ? Considering a portion of the bar. be the component stress intensities. normal and tangential respectively. 7] ELASTIC STRESS AND STRAIN. it often happens that fracture takes place by shearing at surfaces inclined at angles other than 90° to the surfaces. reaches a maximum value \p when — 45°. the pull is 5 tons. axis of pull. The material of a tiebar has a uniform tensile stress of 5 tons per square inch. rt =„ P sin co „ a = P sin ~ . The area on which this load is spread on a plane inclined 40 to the perpendicular crosssection is — (1 X sec 40 ) square inch and the amount of force resolved (5 parallel to this oblique surface is " X sin 40°) tons stress is hence the intensity of shearing 5 sin 4o°Hsec 40 = 5 sin 40 cos 40 = 5 X 0*6428 X = 2*462 tons per square inch is 07660 The force normal to this oblique surface 5 cos 40''' hence the intensity of normal S cos stress is 40 rsec 4°' = = 5 cos 40 5 x 0*766 X 0*766 2*933 tons P er square inch 2 = . What is the intensity of shear stress on a plane the normal of which is inclined 40 to the axis of the bar? What is the intensity of normal stress on this plane. Example.
and its intensity is 8. and DA. Simple Shear. CD. we cannot have equilibrium with merely equal and opposite tangential forces on the parallel pair of faces these forces constitute a couple. q' X That is. and AD 1 . this will remain true whatever normal stresses may act. v 2 acting on the face BD.?'. the sides of the square face being each s and the length of the block perpendicular to the figure being /. of material (Fig. the intensities of shearing stresses across two planes at right angles are equal . 6). BC. 5 f. take a small block (Fig. the forces on AB. If we consider a small rectangular block.— — — A . <7' D' 6. Fig. I. . To find the stress existing in other special directions.sec 40 = s cos 40 = 383 tons per square inch Complementary Shear Stresses. s . ABCD. or. Considering the equilibrium of the piece BCD. q X BC $ = BC —4 . The resultant stress is [CH. 5) under shear stress of intensity q. ABCD DA AB. and its intensity be perpendicular to the figure be q and the thickness of the block are /. 5. and we must have a force — ABCD ABCD 2 . /.q./. 7).l. If there is a tangential stress exerting force along and CB (Fig. is called simple shear. respectively. whether q and q' are component or resultant stresses on the perpendicular planes.— shear stress in a given direction cannot exist without a balancing shear stress of equal intensity in a direction at right angles to it. and alone exert a turning AB and CD : DV Fig. resolve the forces q perpendicularly to the diagonal BD. BC. moment. State of Simple Shear.q. in the direction of the axis of the bar. q . The state of stress shown in Fig./. or 2 t qsl iiu . STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 6. Statical considerations of equilibrium show that in this case no additional system of forces can balance the couple and produce the equilibrium unless they result in a couple contrary to the previous one hence there must be tangential components along AD and CB./V AB and equating the moments of the two couples produced AB hence . CD. where there are only the shear stresses of equal intensity q. in other words. /. such as to balance the moments of the forces on AB and CD whether there are in addition normal forces or not. I 7 cos 45 o .
This direct modulus of elasticity is equal to the tensile (or compressive) stress per unit of linear strain (Art. it is always denoted by the letter E.000 10 X 12 = 00627 m  Example 2. = 679 tons per square „ Strain L = 670 ' — Elongation 6 = —— X 13. Young's Modulus. 9. intensity of tensile stress = tensile strain X E stress intensity . due to a pull of 12 tons. —A long copper rod one inch diameter which is it fits loosely in a steel tube \ inch thick. The area of BD is BD x / = Jl. and the intensities of these direct stresses are each equal to the intensities of the pure shear stress.s. is the Modulus of Elasticity for pure tension with no other stress acting . 12 .000 13. Three Important Elastic Constants. 9] ELASTIC STRESS AND STRAIN. also called the Stretch or Direct Modulus. The value of square inch.l hence pa = is q and /„ evidently compressive.ART. to is rigidly attached at its ends. Example and 1 E for steel or wrought iron is about 13. 6) corresponding to three simple states of stress are important. X V2.s.l Therefore if p„ is the intensity of normal stress on the face *>„ BD. or hence p =e X E _ p tensile E =—= e tensile strain ——  and is expressed in the same units (tons per square inch here) as the stress /. Similarly the intensity of tensile stress on a plane is evidently equal numerically to q AC Further by resolving along or the intensity of the tangential stress on such planes is evidently zero. Hence a state of simple shear produces pure tensile and compressive stresses across planes inclined 45 to those of pure shear. . If a tensile stress/ tons per square inch cause a tensile strain BD AC — e (Art. 1*5 X 07854 = 1767 square in.q.000 tons per '5 Find the elongation in a steel tiebar 10 feet long i. v 2 . 6). inches diameter. 4). Three moduli of elasticity (Art. it has in most materials practically the same value for compression .l. in. The Find compound bar so formed then pulled with & force of 10 tons. — Area of section Stress intensity = = 1*5 X ./= jr.
Strains in Simple Shear. = [CH.) r v ^ ' =4. If the shearing strain (Art. A 13. AB"C"D.— s STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. (Fig. The .000 _ P% 6000 The section is The hence area of copper section 04417 square inch. as in Art 8. say. 9. as in Fig.T p^xN . such as is indicated. It is denoted by the letter N. Let/i be the stress intensity in the steel and/2 that in the copper. or Shearing Modulus. fixed. total load is 07854 square inch. The strain being the same in each. For expressing the strain it is slightly more convenient to consider the side AD. will suffer a strain N —A ABCD Fig. Modulus of Rigidity. and the steel 10 tons 10 and = 04417/! + 07854/2 = J> (04417 X ^ + 07854) 10 & = 17424 = 5 '74 tons per square pi = 1 2 43 tons per square in. 10.= 4> a shear stress r — shear strain value of for steel is about f of the value of E. also sometimes by C or G. = shear strain X N : N The . Modulus of Transverse Elasticity. square face. and the new shape accordingly. . (tons per square m. then shear stress or . 8. I steel. is the modulus expressing the relation between the intensity of shear stress and the amount of shear strain. 4) is <£ (radians) due to a shear stress of intensity g tons per square inch. the stress intensity in each metal (E 13. of a piece of material under simple shear stress.000 tons per square inch for and 6000 for copper). 8). by taking the new shape AB'C'D'. Fig. 2 in.
the strain along the direction dimensions in this direction are shortened. is %<j>. BB" 9 practically strains being extremely small quantities. in other words. and the linear EC"_ CC"x~7I CC" u AC ~ CDT7T ~ *' CD = ** . The shear strain (Art. 8. resulting : t? K = volumetric strain = .ART. for example. 11. a equal to jj^as above. 3« Sa 2 first order of small quantities. IlJ ELASTIC STRESS AND STRAIN. That the strain along stress pn there is AC is not simply ^. the linear strain a The to the volumetric change is (a ± ± 8a) 3 — a3 or . as in Art. . p change r^ — —— in : original volume volume : for if The volumetric strain is three times the accompanying linear strain. 9) BB" CC" or gjj. such as the slight reduction in bulk a body suffers. 4) <£ radians is (Fig. These are the strains corresponding to the direct stresses of intensities equal t o q produced Note that across diagonal planes. the straight line coincides with an arc struck with centre A. because in addition to the tensile a compressive stress of equal intensity at right angles is to it. is elongation of the diagonal 1 AC is equal to EC". the linear strain is onethird of the volumetric strain. the strain in this direction is numerically half the amount of the shear strain. is where 8a is very small. and a line CE drawn perpendicular to AC" is substantially the same as an arc centred at A. AB The strain is and „ . when immersed in a liquid under pressure this modulus is generally denoted by the letter K. If the intensities of the equal normal stresses are each /. 30*80 The 80 3 ' strain then is ~tf~ which is = a . by the shear stresses. we consider a cube of side a strained so that each side becomes a ± Sa &a. but Similarly. q N BD is. 0r *• . three times the linear strain a or. Bulk Modulus that corresponding to the volumetric strain from three mutually perpendicular and equal direct stresses.
The strain of the diagonal of a square block of material in simple shear of intensity q — or/ was P (Art. and m may be simply deduced. its I. K. acting alone. where p the intensity of the equal and opposite direct stresses across diagonal planes. the ratio — being about \ for many metals. which was formerly suggested as being for all materials \. Ratio. 10) found to be \^. is This ratio. Some relations 13. the total strain of the diagonal p • in ^ Hi in the direction of is . Thus a tiebar under tensile stress extends longitudinally laterally. The value of m is usually from 3 to 4. if acting alone. The resulting direct stress / (Art. amounting to the firstmentioned diagonal. N. and contracts Within the elastic limits the ratio lateral strain longitudinal strain generally denoted by — . is a constant for a given material.IO 12. 8) in the direction of a diagonal would. known as Poisson's Ratio. cause a similar kind of strain to the above one. [CH. between the above quantities E. Hence. cause a strain P g in the direction of that diagonal. —Direct stress produces a strain in own direction to its and an opposite kind of strain in every direction perpendicular own. 8 is may be replaced by \£z. which by Art. Poisson's STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 1 and the opposite kind of perpendicular to the direct stress in the direction of the diagonal first would. Relations between the Elastic Constants.
this gives 1 in _ 3K . eliminating «.ART. of. II Again each edge lengthened by the action of the two pairs of forces perpendicular to that edge and the amount of such strain is 2 x m E each The edge is total linear strain of then 2 l(r. unit side cut from the interior of a piece of material having a uniform tension of intensity / in a direction parallel to AD. which is also by definition I where K K is the bulk modulus Therefore or K Hence from (1) E V m) (2) E = 3K(x£) and (2) E. E= Alternative method. (Fig. say.3 k(. 11). equal and opposite (balanced) normal forces . by another method. slightly artificial 9KN N + 3K also obtain these results (4) —We may . 13] ELASTIC STRESS is AND STRAIN. .2N ~ 6K + 2N "' also. Imagine a cube ABC . Now imagine the forces p on the faces H ABFE and DHGC each split up into three equal parts .) EV ml and the volumetric fore strain is there y Fig. 10.n(x+I). and further.£) Eliminating E.acting on each lateral face of ths cube : these forces being neutralised will produce no effect. The .
all of these together corresponding exactly to the forces shown in Fig. Corresponding to (a) all edges suffer tensile strain (b) (c) and to the AD. BF.. (b). 12. CG. 10) and the transverse edges AE. 13 ifl). 8 and 10. state of the forces is represented in Fig. 1 / iK Corresponding to have a tensile strain (b). and (c). (a) represents such a state of stress as that mentioned in Art. as simultaneously shown Fig. direction represent pure shears on planes inclined 45 as in Arts. and strain DH are shortened by a . regard the cube in Fig.12 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 11. We may under the three sets of forces [CH. all edges parallel to the original tensile stress . n. I. 12. 3 ^N(Art.
then. due to the . ELASTIC STRESS AND STRAIN. o Finally.  f N. A 4. all longitudinal edges are lengthened.ART. taking a linear strain \ P—  N. strain EF. m  t = transverse strain . 1 state (c). DC. and HG. : . * and the transverse compressive strain is 6N 9K „ Hence. P or J4. get the compressive and \ .4. 13] Similarly. longitudinal strain —r— r = ^— 6N 1 9K 1 = P + 9K . the longitudinal strain throughout is an elongation its amount is J. and the remaining transverse edges AB.
Compound Stresses. However complex the state of stress at a point within a body. be the given stress intensities normal there is no stress. at the point. there is a plane perpendicular to which or in other words.14 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. one of the principal stresses is zero or negligibly small . Two Perpendicular Normal Stresses. and the components normal to such planes. there always exist three mutually perpendicular principal planes. and the normal stresses across them are called the Principal Stresses at that point the directions of the principal stresses are called the axes of stress. and stresses at that point may be resolved wholly into the three corresponding normal stresses : further the stress intensity across one of these principal planes is. Planes through a point within a material such Principal Planes. and another of the principal stresses is less than the stress in any other — sums according to the — : direction. [CH. We — . planar statics. When a body is under the action of 14. In many practical cases there is practically no stress. and/. we may find the state of stress across other planes by adding algebraically the various tangential components. that the resultant stress across them is wholly a normal stress are called Principal Planes. in these cases resolution and compounding of stresses becomes a twodimensional problem as in conow proceed to investigate a few simple cases. it is required to find the stress across any oblique interface perpendicular to that plane across which Let/. greater than in any other direction. If there be known normal 15. and combining the rules of statics. I. several forces which cause wholly normal or wholly tangential stresses across different planes in known'directions. stresses across two mutually perpendicular planes and no stress across the plane perpendicular to both of them.
/ EF = V P. resolving forces in Then considering the equilibrium of the the direction ON. 2 2 5 • • (3) . cos + py EG .* = V(AFG) a + (AEG)3 = EF V A2 cos2 + A sin2 2 a / = V A cos2 6 + p? sin = V A + A . or the normal is ON of which inclined to OX. two forces Px and P„ are equal to the rectangular components of the force/ X EF. and shown alike. the shear stress intensity and is a maximum. ( 6 J to OY and in the plane of the figure./. if p is the intensity of the resultant stress. sin by EF pn =px cos e+p sm 3 e (1) Resolving in direction /. perpendicular to which the stress is nil. . .ART. ( 2) If = 45 . cos 9 dividing by EF Pt = (Px A) sin cos = ?x ~t» sm 2 .' + P. The stresses/. AX dividing EF = Px cos + P„ cos (~ . The wholly normal force EG is P„=/„X EG wedge EGF. tively Let p„ and pt be the normal and tangential stress intensities respecon the face EF reckoned positive in the directions ON and OF. !S ll . are here altered. . OF X EF = Px sin . 1 which are perpendicular to the axis OX. EG . 15] to all planes ELASTIC STRESS AND STRAIN. fl) = px FG . but for unlike stresses the problem is not seriously force A The whole normal on the face FG P* =px x FG on is the area being FG X unity.P„ cos = px FG sin . . Across this same plane the direct (tensile) stress intensity is 2 A = A cos since the 2 45° + A sin 45° ~ = Ps~' Combining (1) and (2).
(e) «' where <£ is the angle which the resultant stress makes with the normal is to the plane EF. /„) sin cos 6 X =o +A tan 20 = A = . differentiating and dividing out (A. cos 2 +py sin /„ cos 20 + (A. A. = ±* cos a = p J x z p sin tan 6 . Let <£ be the maximum inclination to the normal. and gives the inclination of the normal to the axis of the direct pe .  . and <f>) ••••(«) a maximum. and since the component area of the plane an angle a with EF OX p and OY are OX such that tan o px cos and pv ' sin 0.tt a^—Z = cot <A v sin sin" . a tan p f =A A or (A —A) r A cos 2 +p„ cos . Then * When <£ is _ = p _ (px p t v) cos sin A Acos2 e+Asin2 a maximum. tan <£ is ^(tan ~d¥~ =0 common factors.cot <£ = tan (j + $\ 2 0) cos 20 sin 20 = o sin 20 20 = ^ + <j> *=H Substituting this value of . evidently on unit makes A. (A s n hence or A _  i . . Find the plane — across which the resultant stress most inclined to the normal. • w it (a) And p makes an such that angle /? with the plane EF.sin i+sin* <f> ^ + ^ + sb ^ (l A) cos^ ™ + =iniri A +A Equation (b) W equation stress (<r) gives the maximum inclination to the normal. <?>  ^ (i _ /. Therefore.16 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. Example. forces in directions [CH. . I. « we get— in equation (a) tan . . across which acts.
for the coordinate we supposed two principal and the third to be zero. and/. Describe. Ellipss of Stress.. but using Fig. i. where px 45° are equal. is evidently an along is ellipse. 1 61 ELASTIC STRESS AND STRAIN.ART. and ARB. Draw in P. Draw their radii being proportional to px and pv respectively. In this case using the same notation last article —In the in Art. for different oblique interfaces. p pendicular to Figs. normal to the interface EF (Art. 15. 16). In the special case of unlike stresses. and like stresses. say compressive. CQD QN OX OQ Q OY QN ON OQ cos 6 OX or px cos 6 . we have the slight modifications and — A A = A cos Pt a 6 — pv sin sin 3 6 (tensile) =(A + A) is still cos = i(A + A) 45 . If the two given stresses/.e. i. two circles. 15. 8. no stress per14 and 15.e. with O as centre (Fig. and its value is p UA y G /N XB F Fig. the values for and = A are numerically A= A±A =A=/ A=o These correspond exactly with the case of pure shear 16. are unlike. stresses x and p„ given. sin 2 These results might be obtained The maximum shear when 6 = just as before. The locus of P for various values of 9. Then OP represents the resultant to meet pendicular to stress/ both in magnitude of intensity and in direction. the direction and magnitude of the resultant stress on any plane can easily be found graphically by the following means. 15) to meet the larger circle in perpendicular to and RP perand the smaller in R. 17 px tensile Unlike Stresses.
14). I. is [CII. is positive. The axes of the ellipse are the axes of stress (Art. the coordinate along OY. — Ellipse of stress. In the second case where. OF / >Q . Y y py is negative and/. 16. OR sin 6 or py sin 6 •Fig. and PN. tan „ Also that is =/>l* = ^ px cos 6 tan i>x obvious from the figure.— i8 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.. say.
This is the angle which the resultant stress makes with the 6ton stress. and 3 tons per square inch. principal stresses and planes in a few simple. and therefore the cotangent of 13 56'. in such cases. is A = 125. on two mutually perpendicular planes. Principal Stresses. such that = 1 tan _ . A piece of material is subjected to tensile stresses of 6 tons per square inch. the We proceed to find greatest stress to which the material is subjected. with no stress on planes perpendicular to the other two. and makes an angle a with the direction of the 6ton tan a stress. the normal of which makes an angle of 30 with the 6ton stress. 19 In the particular case where pz and /„ are equal in magnitude. we have found in Art. as one of these is. 2 30 = 6x1 + 3X5 = = = 6 sin 30 3 +3 sin 8 30 4% +1= is 5? tons per square inch the intensity of tangential stress cos 30 — 4 3 sin 30° cos 30 * 2 X 1 *3 — 2 3*^3 = 1*299 tons P er square inch The resultant stress then has an intensity. — the stresses on various planes may be found by the methods of the two previous articles provided we first find the principal planes and principal It is also often important in itself. 8 that the two shear stresses of equal intensity. at right angles to each other. to find the principal stresses. Find fully the stresses on a plane. 17] ELASTIC STRESS AND STRAIN. 14). an angle 30  16° 4' = 13 56' To check this. Example. stresses (see Art.4 i tons per sq. in. the cotangent of the angle the resultant stress makes with the normal. with the normal to the plane across which it acts. give principal . 288 which is the tangent of 1 6° 4'. or the tangent of that it makes with the plane. = 4035 A 1299 which is tangent of 7 6° 4'. It makes. As a very simple example. 121). the a circle (e. see Art. and these are not all wholly normal stresses. 17. f= V 2 (ai)* + (i^) = 1^447+^ = 3°° 3 Sln 6 cos 30 =^= 30 ° S. When bodies are subjected to known stresses in certain directions. The intensity of normal stress on such a plane is ellipse is — A = 6 cos And /.ART.g. twodimensional cases where the stress perpendicular to the figure is nil. as previously stated.
on planes inclined . let there he. stresses. hence (/ = A BC + q AC = p! AB cos 8 + q AB — /. 18. 18 and 19).to the two perpendicular planes to which the pure shear stresses are 4 tangential. which represents a rectangular block of the material unit thickness perpendicular to the plane of the figure. across all planes parallel to which As a second example. on mutually perpendicular planes. Let 6 be the inclination of one principal plane to the face BC. normal . required to know the direction of the principal planes and the intensity of the (normal) principal stresses normal stresses as practically the same in the case of compressive stresses. [CH. tensions the work is Fig. or as rectangular there  f f f t   f YYttttYt Pi Fig. stresses.— 20 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. normal and tangential (Art. The stresses pu p„ and q may be looked upon as independent known stresses arising from several different kinds of external straining actions. Consider the equilibrium of a wedge. on the faces perpendicular It is to the figure. / AB X . ABC (Figs. is no stress . as in Fig. into which oblique have been resolved. 7). cut off by such a plane. . 18. Then an interface. 18 repre Resolving forces parallel to AC . or if one stress be compressive and the other tensile. is a principal plane. sents the given : upon them. we may imagine the block so small that the variation of stress intensity over any plane section is negligible. and the stress / upon it is wholly normal to AB. AB. stresses of intensity equal to that of the shear stresses. sin l (1) . components. one of intensity p 1 and the other of intensity p2 in addition to the two equal shear stresses of intensity q.) cos 6 = q sin pp = qtzn6 cos 6 . .
the smaller value. 15) will if q* is AB. the results from substituting this value in (3) and (4) are simple. and the maximum intensity of shear stress is (Art. /a is zero. Fig. sa Y fl> will be that on such a plane as (Figs.e From which two . the inclinations to BC of two principal planes which are mutually perpendicular. which — . /=£(A+A)± VK/i+A^+^A A) £( A + A) ± ^i(A . Principal Planes and Stresses when complementary shear stresses are accompanied by a normal stress on the plane of one shear stress. and greater than/. 1 8] ELASTIC STRESS AND STRAIN. . of unit thickness perpendicular to the figure. =/„ AC + q BC = A AB sin + qAB cos sin = qcos0 (p — PA = qcotO sin 6 . if/. and will be of the stress intensities same sign as /. The planes on which there are maxishear stresses are inclined 45 ° to the principal planes found. 21 shows the forces on a rectangular block. and mum ~^ = ^TA+/ The sign. 21 Resolving parallel to BC / AB x . are obvious. Further. ./a . Fig. This special case is of sufficient importance to be worth setting out briefly by itself in the next article instead of deducing from the more general case. 18 and 19). say. and/3 . . a a) + ?a AA= J&pixr + t modifications necessary in (3) and (4).A) + *• 2 (5) These two values of/ are the values of the (normal) on the two principal planes. or/2 is of negative If.ART. unless the stresses are uniform. (/A) iPh)=f (4) or. 20. Let be the inclination of a principal plane AB to the plane BC. 18. GHCF. The larger value (where the upper sign is taken) will be the stress intensity on such a plane as AB (Figs. 2) ( 2) Subtracting equation (i) from equation (2) zq AA = 7(cot0tan0)=^ tan 20=^ A ~i (3) values of differing by a right angle may be found. 18 and 20) perpendicular to ED /.. be of opposite sign to/. and of indefinitely small dimensions parallel to the figure. multiplying (1) by (2) i.
Fig.) = ? tan* x . AB cos (») tan Substituting for tan 4 P in (1) (/ "A) = / 2 / = iA ± ^?A + 2 ? (3) may be found by substituting these values of p and the values of The two values differ by a right angle. being at right angles. the principal planes in (2). . 22) shows a principal plane of greatest stress corresponding to / = iA + ^iA + f and ED (Fig. face FC has only the shear stress of intensity q acting tangential Consider the equilibrium of the wedge parallel to ABC . I. The planes of greatest shear stress . BC = q . 23) cipal plane is 2 — shows the other prinon which the normal stress * P' = 1A  ^UF+? 9 Fig. AB . (P Resolving = A BC + q AC = p AB cos + q AB ~ A) cos ^ = 4 sm (//. and let p be the intensity of the wholly normal stress on AB. sin • • (1) parallel to BC sin p . = == q . of opposite sign to pi. 2i. / AB X . has normal stress of intensity p x and a shear stress of intensity q acting on it. resolving the forces AC (Figs. [CH. 23.— —— — 22 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. AB (Fig. The to it. 21 and 22) cos .
for points in the locus. Example. In other words.25 = 47— 0*964 — =4 * 140 ^ 20 =76° 27' = The principal 38° 135' planes and stresses are then one plane inclined given plane. : and direction. 23 are (Art. 15) those inclined 45° to the principal planes. is always tangential. 8). At a point in material under stress the intensity of the resultant stress on a certain plane is 4 tons per square inch (tensile) The stress on a plane at inclined 30 to the normal of <hat plane. (1) On the first plane the tangential stress is q =4 sin 30 = 2 tons per square inch is Hence on the second plane the tangential stress square inch (Art. and a second at right angles to the other 38 13*5' to the first . say. since the normal and tangential stresses on parallel planes usually vary differently from point to point in any fixed direction. 18 to 23) a locus to which the axis of principal stress.ART. 105). and the intensity of shear stress upon them is tzJL^j&T+j If <4) stress from a point in a material under compound we trace out a plane across which there is no stress. right angles to this has a jnormal tensile component of intensity 2~ tons intensity — per square inch. And the resultant stress is 2 tons per p= (2) V2"S a + 2 2 = £^41 = 3*2 tons per square inch first The intensity of stress normal to the plane is 4 cos 30 = 3*464 tons per square inch Hence the principal stresses are (Art. by Art 17 (3). a curve of principal stress is obtained the curve cuts another series of planes of principal stress for points in itself at right angles (see Fig. (2) the principal planes and stresses. and having a tensile stress 5*042 tons per square inch across it. from any point to a neighbouring one the principal stresses generally vary in (in. Find fully (1) the resultant stress on the second plane. as in Figs. 1 8] ELASTIC STRESS AND STRAIN. 17 (5)) /= ^^±^(3462 25)' + 2' = 2982 + Vo'23 + 4 = 2*982 + 2*06 = 5*042 tons per square If inch tension and 0*922 tons per square inch tension be the angle made by a principal plane with the firstmentioned plane. a tan 20 2 2 ——? —_ = 3464X. Such a line of stress is usually cursed.
and having a tensile stress 0922 tons per square inch across it.24 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. [CH. 24. . I. or inclined 51° 465' to the first given plane. The planes are shown in Fig.
p . . (Art. > In the direction of p2 the strain . Using the symbols of the last article. ' 1. the strains will be found in by changing the sign of each of the above equations. what is the value of the modulus ? — . strained in the (3) (Art. Ellipsoid of Strain. The action of other independent principal stresses would alter the strain produced. e% _A = __ A + and in direction of p3 the strain „ A A +A i.ART. a point where the principal stresses are p u pit and ps the strains in directions other than these may be represented in the following manner. including the direction of the stress pv If we have which at a point in isotropic material three principal stresses it and p3. and so the constant denned by the relation modulus = — ex would not be the ordinary stretch modulus.M and all lines parallel topa are strained by an amount <? 3 will now have become an ellipsoid. and 19) j further. 9) 21. Taking all the stresses of the same sign the total strain produced in the direction of the stress pi will then be of intensities strains pu fa. compressive that stress in this case. each will independently produce the same would cause if acting alone. Example i. Imagine a sphere centred at the point. stresses. its 25 in all directions perpendicular to direction. that every line parallel to the direction of x receives the strain ex every line parallel to p2 is strained by an amount The sphere e. If a bar be stretched in such a manner that all lateral strain is prevented. manner indicated by the equations (1). * If any one of the above stresses is of opposite kind. . at 20. and then each of three mutually perpendicular diameters in the directions of the three principal — . but a modification of it. 21] ELASTIC STRESS AND STRAIN. Modified Elastic Constants.E »/E W .e. (2). Varying circumstances would give different values of the modulus. and every radius vector drawn from the centre terminated by the surface of the ellipsoid will represent the length of the corresponding radius in the sphere. by the relation —Young's modulus was defined E =£ where ex is the strain produced by a tensile stress of intensity plt no other stress acting with it.
. I. become l ~ E A A + Pa «E (2) . the equations of Art. .— STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. . (3) • • Evidently and from w (2) r — ~ E wE . Under the given conditions. 19 26 [CII.
and stresses. 18 feet long and i\ inch diameter. 2. at this point. if the stress of 3 tons per square inch is com 11. and perpendicular to a plane through the Find what intensity of axis the tensile stress is 5 tons per square inch. 2. Find the greatest intensities of direct stress and of shear stress. both tensile. What is the modulus of elasticity of bulk for this material. 10. The shear stress across a plane oblique to the axis is I ton per square inch. What is the intensity of this resultant stress ? 8. What is the maximum intensity of shear stress in the material ? 9. and perpendicular to the plane which has no stress. At a point in strained material the principal stresses are o. How much will it shorten under a load of 60 tons ? Take E as 8000 tons per square inch. to the axis of the 4ton stress.] ELASTIC STRESS AND I. The tensile (principal) stresses at a point within a boilerplate across the three principal planes are o. resultant stress in intensity and direction on a plane inclined 6o° to the axis of the 5ton stress. 2J Examples 1. lengthens ^j inch under a pull of 7 tons. I. and how many times greater is the longitudinal strain caused by a pull than the accompanying lateral strain ? 6. If a material is so strained that at a certain point the intensities of normal stress across two planes at right angles are 5 tons and 3 tons per square inch. rod of steel is subjected to a tension of 3 tons per square inch of crosssection.000 lbs. Solve question 9 pressive. find the maximum direct stress and the plane to which it is normal. In a shaft there is at a certain point a shear stress of 3 tons per square inch in the plane of a crosssection. and the transverse modulus is 11.EX. the intensity of shear stress is 1*5 ton per square inch. STRAIN.000. per square inch. What is the inclination of the normal of this plane to the axis ? What is the intensity of the normal stress across the plane. 13. of a plane on which the resultant stress is inclined 15 to the normal. and 4 tons per square inch. Find the intensity of tensile stress in the bar. A hollow cylindrical castiron column is 10 inches external and 8 inches internal diameter and 10 feet long. What is the intensity of normal stress across this plane ? Also what is the intensity of resultant stress across it ? Take the plane most inclined to the axis. . With the same data as question 6. A round tiebar of mild steel. In a boilerplate the tensile stress in the direction of the axis of the shell is 2\ tons per square inch. the value of the stretch modulus. and a tensile stress of 2 tons per square inch normal to this plane. per square inch. 5. 12. 4. and the intensity and direction of the resultant stress. At a point in a crosssection of a girder there is a tensile stress of 4 tons per square inch normal to the crosssection .000 lbs. and inclined 30 to the plane having a 4ton A principal stress. and the greatest intensity of shear stress on any oblique section. find the inclination of the normal. and if the shear stress across these planes is 4 tons per square inch. 5 tons per Find the square inch tensile. Find the component normal and tangential stress intensities. across a plane perpendicular to the first principal plane. 7. and 3 tons per square inch compressive. and what is the intensity of the resultant stress across it ? Of the two possible solutions. The stretch modulus of elasticity for a specimen of steel is found to be 28. 3. On a plane oblique to the axis of the bar in question 1. take the plane with normal least inclined to the axis of the rod.500. there is also a shear Find the principal planes stress of 2 tons per square inch on that section.
. is added. Find the ratio between Young's modulus for compression and modified modulus when lateral expansion in one direction is entirely prevented. A [CH. cylindrical piece of metal undergoes compression in the direction 14. per square inch. E for. Poisson's ratio being \. " the ratio of the axial strain to that in a cylinder quite Find in terms of " tensile stress acting alone if A m free to expand in diameter. reduces the lateral expansion by half the amount it would otherwise be. If Take Poisson's ratio as _ m under simple tension. 16. and each is J square inch in section. Three long parallel wires. equal in length and in the same vertical plane. 17. steel 30 x io6 lbs. 28 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. and the two outer ones are brass. I. . per square inch. (Poisson's ratio = . After the wires have been so adjusted as to each carry £ of the load a further load of 7000 lbs. and the fraction of the whole load carried by the steel wire. within the elastic limit a bar of steel stretches *£$$$ of its length find the proportional change in volume. Find the stress in each wire. and for brass 12 X io" lbs. jointly support a load of 3000 lbs. The middle wire is steel. extending almost the whole length.) the 15. would produce the same maximum tensile strain Poisson's ratio is \. of its axis. wellfitted metal casing.
increase at first proportionally to the elastic limit is reached. In a plastic state. as for example when a wire is made by drawing out metal through a hole. Brittleness is lack of ductility. and continues to grow at an increasing rate is augmented. the stamping of cobs. notably soft irons and steels. the strains increasing at an accelerating rate with greater stresses as indicated by Strains produced at loads the portion of the curve between C and D. The stress at which this sudden stretch occurs is called the " yield point " of the material. If a ductile metal be 23. This property of " flowing " is utilized in the " squirting " of Plasticity. Fig. it is said to be malleable . Tensile Strain of Ductile Metals. —A material when may be strain disappears it is lead pipe. malleability is a very similar property to ductility. 25 is a "stressstrain" curve for a round steel bar 10 inches long and 1 inch diameter. During ductile extension. the ductile extensions take place. much in the same way as a liquid. the line being slightly curved. to increase as the load When OA AB . When a material can be beaten or rolled into plates. a material generally shows a certain degree of elasticity. —A Within certain limits (Art. both longitudinal and the stress. strains. After the yieldmarks the "yield point." point stress is reached. forging. At a stress a little greater than the elastic limit some metals. the drawing of wire. above the yield point do not develop in the same way as those below The greater part of the strain occurs very quickly. subjected to a gradually increasing tension. Elasticity. The point B elasticity occurs about A. the tensile strain begins more quickly. the elastic limit. Dwtility is that property of a material which allows of its being drawn out by tension to a smaller section. said to be perfectly plastic when no relieved from stress. it is found that the resulting — lateral.CHAPTER II. the elongation becoming many times greater than previously with little or no increase of stress. of which the ordinates represent the stress The limit of intensities and the abscissae the corresponding strains. etc. being straight. material is said to be perfectly elastic if the whole of the strain produced by a stress disappears when the stress is removed. show a marked breakdown. together with a considerable amount of plasticity. 22. 5) many materials exhibit practically perfect elasticity. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. a solid shows the phenomenon of " flow " under unequal stresses in different directions.
If the load be divided by the original area of crosssection. 462471. The reduction in area of section is generally fairly uniform along the bar. On account of the part which takes time to develop. The phenomenon of the slow growth of a strain under a steady tensile stress has been called "creeping" by Prof. pp. After the maximum load is reached. A. 25. 25. 88. at the breaking load than at the maximum load sustained at the point D on Fig. Cook and Robertson. a sudden local stretching takes place. yielding (up to a strain much greater than that The at the elastic limit) will continue with a very considerable reducapplied. strain produced by a given load Fig. . Nevertheless the breaking load divided by the reduced area of section shows that the "actual stress intensity " is greater than at any previous load. the tensile strain increasing greatly for very slight increase of should be noted that in this diagram both stress intensity and reckoned on the original dimensions of the material. At D. the total amount of TcnsiZe. extending over a short length of the bar and forming a " waist. During the ductile elongation. of that necessary to start the yielding. but this is followed without any further loading by a small additional extension which increases with time but at a diminishing rate. stress necessary to initiate yielding is probably considerably greater than that necessary to continue it. 1913. vol.. and when a ductile metal is able to relieve itself of stress.3° STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. the volume of the material remains practically unchanged. 1 using a slender bar of mild steel in parallel with two stout bars. each curve refers to round specimens 1 inch load. [CH." The local reduction in area is such that the load necessary to break the bar at the waist is considerably less than the maximum load on the bar before the local extension takes place. in such a ductile material as soft steel. or in other words. Ewing. the result is the " nominal intensity of stress." which is less." Proc. Roy. the area of crosssection decreases in practically the same proportion that the length increases. just before the greatest load is reached. Soc. and the shape of the stressstrain curve will be slightly modified by the rate of loading. tion in the stress Messrs. II. materials in tension. 31 shows the stressstrain curves for samples of other Fig. found a reduction of 23 per cent. StraiTi. It strain are 1 "The Transition from Elastic to the Plastic State in Mild Steel. the material is almost perfectly plastic.
This supposition is supported by the fact that ductile materials of very uniform character show the yield point more strikingly than inferior specimens of the same material. with the strain scale 250 times as great as that for the more plastic strains. and yet practically all the strain disappears after the removal of the stress . then. strains less than o'ooooi). instruments of great precision (see Art. the strain in the material is too great to be taken up by the skin of oxide.ART. The suggestion has been made that failure of perfect elasticity just below the yield point is due to small portions of the material reaching the breakingdown point before the general mass of the material. This spreading of the condition of breakdown may be watched in unmachined iron and steel . The proportionality of the strain to the stress in Fig. When the necessary stress is applied. but begins locally at one or more points (probably due to a slight concentration of stress). hence the elastic limit cannot be found from an inspection of the " stressstrain " diagram. as defined in Art. it is generally a little above the true elastic limit. equally and oppositely inclined . limit of proportionality of stress to strain. 24] MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. 174) will reveal slight permanent extensions resulting from very low stresses. stress at yield point —the commercial first elastic limit. 5. 3 diameter. however. iron i and steel. Hooke's Law (Art. 24. or in other words. say.e. if we ooooo of the length of a testbar OA — A Commercial Elastic Limit. (i. two systems of parallel curves. stresses up to a considerable proportion of the maximum cause purely elastic and proportional elongations. For such metals as wrought iron and steel. and particularly in material which has never before been subjected to such tensile stress. the proportionality holds good up to the elastic limit that is. In many metals. the end of the straight line at indicates the elastic limit. notably wrought all when stress is in soft and neglect permanent extensions less than. the stress at which this marked breakdown occurs is often called the elastic limit . which cracks and flies off in minute pieces as the yielding spreads. 5) is substantially true. 5) in tension is the greatest stress after which no permanent elongation remains removed. and the third is somewhat higher. In highly finished drawn steel the oxide chips off so as to form interesting markings on the surface of the bar . — There (1) (2) (3) are. three noticeable limits of stress. the yielding certainly does not take place simultaneously throughout the mass. at very low stresses the strains increase faster than the stresses. and 8 inches long. In commercial tests of metals exhibiting a yield point. In wrought iron and steel the two are practically the same. 25 is indicated by being a straight line. This is not equally true for all metals. and particularly ductile metals.—The elastic limit (Art. In nearly all metals. Elastic Limit and Yield Point. The The The elastic limit. The elastic portions of the curves are drawn separately. and spreads through the remaining material without further increase of the load. in the case of rolled aluminium slowly and continuously loaded.
divided by the original area of section at the place of fracture. W. J. The inclined curves are called Lfiders' lines. 26). when pulled in the direction of the arrows. slipping along the planes of cleavage of the crystals continues. The general subject now known as Metallography is outside the 1 scope of this book. Thus a surface. would develop the shape shown in Fig. The maximum load necessary to rupture a specimen in simple tension or shear. Soc. — 1 brief and interesting account of the " Crystallization of Iron and Steel " for (Longmans. —The study of the struc ture of metals as revealed by the microscope has received much attention in recent years. A . phenomenon may be noticed on a polished metallic surface when the metal is strained beyond the elastic limit. ACB (Fig. from the fact that Liiders first called attention to them. (From Mellows " a. Crystallization of Iron Fig. and is called the ultimate strength of the material under that particular kind of stress. Microscopic observation shows metals to consist of an aggregation separated by films or membranes of material of Evidently the mechanical properties will be composition. A similar [CH. to the axis of the bar. not generally at the boundaries. The ultimate strength in tension is also called the Tenacity. The greatest calculated stress to which a part of a machine or structure is ever and d.32 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. are formed. that beyond the yield point lines appeared on some of the crystals. but the effect of strain on the structure must be mentioned. and strain or fracture may take place along the film due to brittleness or want of continuity. During according to their view. It is usually reckoned in pounds or tons per square inch. 27. and increased in number as the strain increased. but through the crystal grains themselves.) engineering students has been written by Dr. and has led to various interesting discoveries. These lines. 2 Phil. and Steel. Microscopic Observations. 25.'*') being the junction of two contiguous grains. influenced by such films. 26. gives the nominal maximum stress necessary for fracture. or by actual fracture of the crystalline grains along their planes of cleavage or greatest weakness. by microscopically examining a specimen of metal under gradually increasing strain. II. b. Ultimate and Elastic Strength and Factor of Safety. c. C plastic strain. and finally the slips develop into cracks and fracture takes place. 27 by slips along the cleavage planes at of crystalline grains different Fig. which they called slip bands or slip lines. They appear to indicate elastic failure by shearing. they attributed to steps formed on the surface. 1899. Trans. the crystalline structure being preserved during all stages of strain. due to slips along the cleavage planes of the crystal. Roy. Metallography. Ewing and Rosenhain 2 found. Mellor.
the constants being different in different materials. 15. J." Proc. simple or compound." by a committee of the British Assoc. If it is desired to keep working stresses by a certain margin or a factor within the limits of elasticity. (1) For a certain value of the maximum principal stress. diminution of section by corrosion. and other contingencies. no reliable estimate of which can in some instances be made. (2) For a certain value of the maximum principal strain. but this is not sufficient. 305. when allowing a given working stress. xxiii. 33 is called the working stress. amongst other properties. of London. and (4). 14) or for a given value of the greatest principal strain. greater than the working stress in the ratio of a reasonable factor of safety. by combining that is some function of the For a principal stresses beyond their mere difference shear stress a factor in initiating plastic yielding . of course. There are three theories as to when elastic failure takes place. It is frequently made to cover an allowance for straining actions. (3) For a certain value of the maximum shearing stress. full list of references to 1913 and a report by p. A. which is influenced by the lateral strains produced by the other principal stresses (see Art. below the — is correct. vol. If the second theory  = are the greatest and least principal stresses and a and b are constants may be the law of yielding for all materials. Physical Soc. Thus a might be near zero in a brittle material and approximate to unity in ductile materials. this being proportional to the greatest difference between principal stresses (see (2).ART. Scoble on the position to that date. Scoble has suggested that the condition / ap' b Art. for example. an ultimate strength for the material. intermediate materials following some intermediate law. such as shocks. and the ratio of ultimate strength to working stress is called the Factor of Safety. Accounts of some very interesting experiments bearing on this question have been published by J. the elastic strength of a piece of material in which the maximum principal stress is tensile. that the angle of the lines varies with different relative values of the two principal stresses. it becomes important to know for other than simple direct stresses whether the breaking down occurs for a given value of the greatest principal stress (Art. 1913. A. specify or assume. Section G. whether constant. for the 1 maximum W. where/ and/* internal pressure in a tube with axial tension or compression. see "Report on Combined Stress. viz. and designers. 191 1. Report. variable or alternating. Guest and others j 1 these experiments (in regard to steadily applied stresses) tend to confirm the third theory for ductile materials. B. will be lessened by lateral compression and increased by lateral tension. Elastic Strength. and the first one for brittle materials. 24) also appeared to lend some support to the third theory. Art. 8 "The Liiders' Lines on Mild Steel. 19). Liiders' lines (Art. 25] subjected It is. This suggests but Mason s has shown. E . The factor of safety varies very greatly according to the nature of the stresses. usual to ensure that the working stress shall be elastic limit of the material . 18). MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS.
Local ductile yielding in a complex structure will relieve a high local stress. 4. 18. 26. ( 2) The third theory gives a maximum shear stress (see Art. is The question as to the deciding factors of ultimate strength is mentioned in Art. 15.— 34 is — [cH. including the presence or absence of other principal stresses. and varying with circumstances. thereby preventing a member accidentally stressed beyond its elastic limit from reaching a much higher stress such as might be produced in a less plastic material. Importance of Ductility. by modification of composition or treatment be made high. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. But the elastic limit can.— In a machine or structure it is usual to provide such a section as shall prevent the stresses within the material from reaching the elastic limit. It must be justified by the choice of a factor of safety reckoned on the ultimate and not on the elastic strength. + fV?A + f 3 where If — is Poisson's ratio (Art. to estimate the strength A common English and American practice from the greatest principal stress. and generally such treatment will reduce the ductility and cause greater brittleness or liability to fracture from vibration or shock Ductile materials. 127. 46 to 54) so common in machinery. but always in a plane inclined at 45 to p and/'. Almost the experimental evidence available on this point relates to static applications of the load. due to imperfect workmanship or other causes. 18 (4)) of (3) l in the later ^£ = VW+f frequently chapters (see Arts. the reason for fixing an upper limit is the possibility that greater The differing results from the three theories are pointed out . The first theory gives a maximum \pi principal stress (1) p= The second + VTW+T) theory gives a maximum principal strain (see Art. and 149153). m= equivalent simple stress E. pXt with shear stress. as not in a variable direction. 126. 12). 113. q. are not brittle. The different conclusions from the three theories may be well illustrated by the common case of one direct stress. shown all in Art. 19) or. on the same plane as in Art. 122. and does not relate to conditions of alternating or reversed stresses (see Arts.?. on the other hand. in manufacture. 37. and a lower elastic limit is usually found with greater ductility. It is the practice of some engineers to specify that the steel used in a structure shall have an ultimate tensile strength between certain limits . Thus in many applications the property of ductility is of equal importance to that of strength. II. E* = Ia(i ~)+ V(W+?)( 1 + ~) = f/.
27. 27] MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. and the percentage extension will accordingly be less. were as follow: tensile strength power to damage by — — Inch Extension (inches) 1 0'20 2 021 3 CT22 s 6 052 030 7 052 8 9 027 10 028 023 Fracture occurs near the division. inches. and subsequently an increased local elongation about the section of fracture (see Fig. on oneeighth of the whole length. if on a round bar 1 inch diameter the it From the above figures is Fig. marked out on a bar 1 inch diameter before straining. say.ART. Probably the percentage elongation is the better one . 2 4 405 6 8 33"6 10 Elongation per cent.e. 6 inches from one end of the marked Reckoning the percentage extension on the 2 inches nearest to the fracture. and extension of length is mainly on. on a quarter of the whole length. Thus. 28. or 52 per cent. which include a large proportion of the local extension. always including the fracture as centrally as possible. since the 2inch length undergoing much local strain is a greater . Percentage Elongation. This does not give truly comparative results for bars of different sectional areas. The local contraction on the thicker bar will consequently add more to the total percentage elongation on the 8 local contraction of section 2 inches. 52 357 310 as If any length / increases to a length /'. In such a case the extensions on each of ro inches. i. may be accompanied by a resist 35 decrease in ductility or in shock. It was noticed in Art. —Elongation of tension test piece. i. then the elongation expressed a percentage of the original length is r —I x j— 100 elongation it is evident that in stating a percentage necessary to state the length on which it has been measured. in a bar of \ inch in diameter the local effect will be mainly on about 1 inch. The usual criteria of the ductility of a metal are the percentages of elongation and contraction of sectional area in a test piece fractured by tension. Length (in inches) . the elongations are length. On any greater length the local extension will not affect so large a part of the length. 23 that in fracturing a piece of mild steel by tension there was produced previous to the maximum load a fairly uniform elongation. 28).e. smaller elongation is sometimes accompanied by greater contraction of area. the elongation is ro4 inch. For example. Extensions are often measured on a length of 8 inches.
It is. vol. is— This corresponds with a length of 8 inches (or centimetres) for a bar of halfasquareinch (or centimetre) area. That is : — — = = a e = + b I and percentage elongation. civ. Within considerable limits the variation in percentage extension. Professor Unwin 1 has pointed out that another possible method of comparing the ductilities of two bars of unequal areas of crosssection is to make the length over which elongation is measured proportional to the diameter (or the square root of the area in the case of other than round bars) . STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. C. as the contraction at fracture influences the ultimate extension for some distance from the fracture. e is made up of a If if total extension and / general extension proportional to /. 170. but of different 1 See also Publication No. may be very clearly stated algebraically thus gauge length. Further. and test pieces in which the ratio 72 is constant have not been commercially ? J square root of area of section adopted on account of increased expense involved in preparing specimens. where the relation between the gauge length /. and expressing the difference 'as a general extension on a length 2 inches shorter than the whole gauge length. Trans.  = ioo( j + b\ a quantity which (for a given sectional area) decreases and approaches rood as /is increased. having sides of different proportions. and a local extension a nearly independent of /. p. the metal "flowing" in towards the waist. II.— — $6 — — [CH.E. say b X I. Edinburgh. does not seriously affect the percentage elongation. and would form a suitable criterion of ductility were it not too troublesome to measure it just before any waist is formed. xlviii. This plan is in use in Germany. Professor Unwin finds that with fixed length and fixed area of section the shape of the crosssection in rectangles. 100 . If the percentage extensions of two pieces of the same material. Proc. Standards Committee (Crosby Lockwood) and paper by Gordon and Gulliver. a quantity which in and decreases with increase of /. and the area of crosssection a. proportion of the whole. in other words. Roy. over which extension is measured. Soc. vol. to use pieces which. are geometrically similar. Part I.. 18 of Eng. sometimes calculated by subtracting the local extension on z inches at fracture from the whole extension. however. creases with increase of a and b are constant's for a given quality of material. due to various dimensions. A . the local extension a is practically proportional to the square root of the area of crosssection A. The Eritish practice is to use a gauge length of 8 or 10 inches irrespective of the area of section. It cannot be measured satisfactorily after fracture. say a = iVA = (c>JJi 100^ \ \ hence percentage elongation b J. Inst. The general extension which occurs before the maximum load is reached is practically independent of the area of section of the bar.
are known. considered it desirable to depart from the standard length of 8 inches for measurement of elongation for strips of plate .= ~ . This statement will only hold good provided that the volume of the gauged length of material remains constant. For if / and /' are and A' the initial and final areas of the initial and final lengths. For the second piece 30^2 /rv/o 035 I f b 100 1 . or the extensions of two considerably different lengths on the same piece. since the volume is practically constant — A /. Having determined c and b. on account of the increased cost which would be involved in machining test pieces. what would be the probable elongation for this material on 8 inches length in a piece 0*5 square inch sectional area? Using the equation percentage elongation = iool — . The Engineering Standards Committee have nor. (2) From (1) and (2) = 0184 ^=0732 For a length of 8 inches. and during extension uniform contraction of area goes on throughout the length.. section throughout its length. which is always very nearly true. Percentage Contraction of Section. the constants e and b in the above formula can be found. the percentage contraction of area reckoned on the original area is the same as the percentage elongation reckoned on the final length at the time of measurement. as in perfectly plastic material. on 4 inches length. 37 dimensions in length or crosssection.ART. This gives a method of effecting an approximate comparison of ductilities as measured by ultimate elongation This point different proportions. the elongation would therefore be roughly ^073£^_5 + . but of other dimensions.A = / A' /.\ \ b\ For the first piece 395 = r^lli 3! + b \ IOO = b . If a test piece is ofluniform 28. it is easy to predict roughly from this rational formula the elongation of another piece of the same material. or both. thus limiting the area without making it absolutely fixed for the fixed gauge length. or j. and another piece of the same plate 0*935 square inch area shows an extension of 30*2 per cent. a maximum allowable limit of width has been fixed for every thickness of plate. in tests made on pieces of widely may be best illustrated by an example. . Given that a piece of steel boiler plate i'332 square inches area of crosssection shows an extension of 39'5 per cent. they can. but on account of the greater elongation produced on this fixed length by using large crosssectional areas. . of course.(. j84) = 249 per cent. be much better determined as an average of a number of results than from two only. on 6 inches. as shown by density tests. and area of section 05 square inch..A'.) . 28] MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. and crosssection respectively.. Owing to the want of uniformity in ordinary materials.
38 and STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. II. [CH. .
Tensile test pieces are usually parallel for a length somewhat greater than that over which elongations are to be measured. The effect of the proximity of enlarged sections is to reduce the local drawing out. state the effect of reducing the length of the parallel reduced section itself. where it is shown that measurement over a It remains to shorter length gives a greater percentage elongation. xlix. . Effect of Shape of Test Pieces on Ultimate Strength. and yield point may also be due to the fact that fracture and yielding taking place in ductile materials partly or wholly by shearing (see Arts. 39 Other points on the curve might be found conditions no longer hold. 25 and 37). Roy. p. piece particularly at the later stages of the extension. Fig. to represent this to scale. in Fig. Sac. less contraction of area. with smaller conAlso the elongation of the same length / will be traction of area. of measuring the extension over different lengths of the parallel reduced section. The increase in ultimate strength smaller in piece B than in piece A. has been dealt with in Art. 30. The influence upon the percentage elongation. yw A (F'g. 30] MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. higher ultimate strength reckoned on the original area of section. dividing the breaking load by the section at fracture. is resisted l by larger sectional areas in bars B and C than in the parallel bar may be found by and setting oft. vol. The last point w /O LlhChMH Extension. etc. and a higher yieldpoint stress. 243. by special measurements of section during a test. These effects are due to the " flow " of the partially plastic metal from the neighbouring large sections tending to relieve the high local stress at the waist formed Thus. the ends being left of larger section for the purpose of gripping to apply the tension. this effect in ductile materials is of an opposite kind to that of merely measuring on a short portion of an extended parallel piece. along planes oblique to the axis of the test piece. giving less elongation for a given gauge length. 27.ART. 29. 30.3°) On account of these effects the Engineering Standards Committee has specified a minimum distance of nine times the diameter as the 1 See Pioc. B will show a higher ultimate strength than piece A.
Lines. all of these refer to round pieces of metal 1 inch diameter. 1910. 23. — 1 Proc. giving a strength of the mateExtreme cases rial. Edin. Tenacity and Other Properties of Various Metals. and the squarecornered collar of circular sections. of high intensity of stress will tend to make a more uniform distribution of the stress. The of abrupt change j lower section will the value of the ulti mate breaking load most in a brittle non . Fig. 1 The 31. [CH. it breaks with very little elongation made by Mr. II. and so minimise the weakening effect of the An attempt to investigate experimentally the distriabrupt change. vol. length of the parallel portion of the times the diameter being measured on not less than eight extension parallel section IZupt Changes of Section. March II. bution of stress by analogy to the stream line flow of a liquid has been Gulliver.ll the length of the change the stress in any be so reduced as to amount to an abrupt unevenly distributed over but the most plastic materials will become change. See." in Engineering. Cast iron is a brittle material.e. while in very plastic material the local flow of the material caused in the region IA Fig.extensible or M ! metal. Roy. Stressstrain curves for two varieties of steel and a very good quality of wrought iron are shown in Fig. 30. 31 . such as cast iron or hard steel.. I. low value of the ultimate lower average stress for the section. the are this of nicked specimens of v rectangular section. 30). lias been plotted on a scale 250 times larger than that for the later stages of strain. the test piece for bars and rods. and extensions are measured on a length of The straight line representing the elastic stage of extension 8 inches. xxx. the Vgrooved specimen (C.40 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. See also " Stress Lines and Stream . being concentrated near the section about the place of sharp The result of this is to cause failure under a the reentrant angle. behaviour of a typical ductile metal has been described fully in Art. 38. p.
the ultimate strength or tenacity being just over 10 tons per square inch.30 . Little if any part of the curve for cast iron is straight..ART. It is to be noticed that the value of the direct or stretch modulus of elasticity (E). The stressstrain curve for a sample of good cast iron is shown on the large scale of Fig. 41 or lateral contraction. and the strain being then just above 5^. 31. the increase of extension per ton increase of stress being greater at higher stresses. which is 40 k^35 . 31] MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. and at a rather low stress.
inch in tension and 8 tons per sq. Wrought iron is a typical ductile metal. It comes from the puddling furnace in a spongy or pasty of carbon. overcoming of initial stress existing cooled from the liquid state . initial stress in cooling. of pure iron. etc. 32 shows the loadless than in a piece not previously strained. in STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. so that the modulus obtained from. say. inch in compression. but in no case is the load extension a straight line. If the 5 modulus of elasticity is calculated from these reduced extensions it will obviously direct be higher than if reckoned from the full extensions. and only about onetenth per cent. Wrought Iron. the first 2 tons range ot load is not the same as from *3 the first 5 tons. II. the working strength allowable in cast iron does not usually exceed about 1 ton per sq. state (not liquid).42 tension. and. and if a specimen is loaded gradually for a second time the permanent set resulting is much Fig. with the permanent sets resulting from the first loading. in compression it is often about 50 tons per square inch. extension curves for a piece of cast iron \ inch diameter and 10 inches If the long. ultimate strength of cast iron in tension is usually from 7 to 10 tons per square The inch. a considerable degree of tension will remove this state of stress. and subsequent hammering and rolling do not expel — . contains over 99 per cent. and the properties are much modified by the rate of cooling. Owing to the liability to porosity. the former would show greater ultimate strength. Thus a rally cast bar would gene give a different result tested in the rough with the skin on from that obtained from a similar bar with the outer material machined off. occurring sets permanent during each loading are subthe tracted from the extensions. may be due metal since in part to the it [CH. Great differences are found in test pieces from different parts of a casting. the resulting socalled elastic extensions are practically the same in each case..
These steels contain less than \ per cent. 33. Smith.. 31 . the Bessemer. etc. 256 and 257. tt~. the quantity varying according to the purpose for which the steel is required. unlike wrought iron they can be cast. and when required for bars.. but it is not so reliable for welding. more The mild steels have for many purposes replaced wrought iron. 24). 43 of slag. pp. the mechanical and thermal treatment which the metal receives will. of carbon. Now. structural steel about 0*25 per cent. and more ductile .ART. The mechanical properties differ considerably in different qualities. even in small quan_ FlG 33Effect of carbon on 5^1. of carbon. having a lower tensile strength. . is The found to consist of crystalline grains (see Art. lower qualities have a lower ultimate strength and smaller elongation (see table at end of chapter). Both the tenacity and ductility are greater with the fibres than across them. but the metal itself. the ingot being obtained from the liquid state no fibre is produced in the subsequent rolling or forging. Goodman's figures. The composition of wrought iron varies in different qualities. ductile materials. and apart from chemical composition. but have a high tensile strength. for 1910. Steel. when examined under the microscope. Other constituents. and when a weld is necessary good wrought iron is used. H. It is desirable to keep phosphorus below 5 per cent. ii. J.097 carbon present. structure appears from a fractured specimen to be fibrous or laminated: this results from the rolling and working up of. which may be traced in layers in the finished product. and rivet steel about o i per cent. the crude product. more uniform. those of a high quality are represented in Fig. interest as that of the softer varieties. being stronger. The influence of carbon on the me are produced by classed as mild steels. and the metal is more homogeneous than wrought iron.. Such material contained over 5 per cent. Thus steel rails may have from o"3 to 0*4 per cent. and are chanical properties of steel is very ' : marked. Phosphorus makes the metal brittle when it is cold. and is illustrated in Fig. 31] all traces MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. Siemens. of carbon chemically combined with The tenacity and ductility of these steels is not of so much the iron. much. also greatly modify the properties of steel. and sulphur below o"o5 per cent.  1 Diagrams illustrating this point more fully are given in a paper by Journal Iron and Steel Inst. The high carbon steels are not — ductile. tities. taken from Prof. and other processes. they are first cast in ingots and then rolled . Steel was the term formerly applied to various qualities of iron which hardened by being cooled quickly from a red heat. and often has as little . and sulphur causes brittleness at a red heat. as appears in the '„'*. No..
. The qualities desirable in steel for structural shipbuilding and machine purposes are indicated by the Standard Specifications drawn 3 The up by the British Standards Committee and published for them. 1 Comparatively recently. greatly [CH. chromium. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. II.44 sequel. vanatensile dium. chief requirements with respect to tensile tests and composition (when All the strengths and specified) are shown in the following table. modify the strength and ductility. and other mechanical tests are specified. having very high strengths combined with a considerable degree of ductility. steels containing small quantities of nickel. or manganese have been produced. elongations are to be measured on test pieces of standard dimensions (see complete specifications).
45 strongest alloys. such as delta metal. alloys. being tough and of high tensile strength. contain small quantities of iron these have as high a tenacity as mild steel. 31] MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. mainly copper and tin tin. Bronzes. — Bronzes are. Gunmetal'is an alloy of about 90 per cent.ART. It is largely used for strong castings. copper and 10 per cent. generally speaking. 30 r ' £ I 20 « 1 .
IT. Aluminium. The comparatively low tensile strength of about 5 or 6 tons per square The elastic inch when cast is increased by rolling and wiredrawing. alloy has great strength (40 to 45 tons per square inch).46 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. With increase of aluminium brittleness. to this value. the tenacity rises without per cent. Aluminium is an important metal on account of its Its specific gravity is only from 2 6 (cast) to 2*75 rolled. with a fair degree of ductility. —  30 25 C> 20 4 10 . lightness. The 10 [CH.
the line qr represents the pirtially elastic behaviour of the material up to a new yield point r.ART. The loading was three times interrupted. with extensions measured on a length which was originally 10 inches. on reloading within a few minutes. nearly a ton above the Drevious load at p. 35 r 30 25 <0 20 si' V 10 . and greatly above the previous yield load at m. 47 represents the loadextension diagram for a piece of Bessemer steel bar originally 1 inch diameter. The first removal occurred at p . 32] MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. the load being very quickly removed and then gradually applied again from zero upwards.
Fig. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.48 the 38. II. curve B. These points are illustrated in Figs. curve A. Each piece was loaded up to 27 tons at p. 36. and shows the loadextension curves for two almost identical pieces of steel cut from the same iinch bar. . The second piece was allowed to rest 24 hours before : 35 \ 56' i 25 1 . the first was then immediately reloaded steadily up to the point of fracture. but treated somewhat differently. developing a yield point at q just below 28 tons its subsequent strains are shown by the full line. 36 [CH. new yield point. 37. and then relieved from stress.
of material previously overstrained develops slowly by " creeping " also the strains. In comparing the stretch modulus E by means of the gradient of the three curves. while the curve C. 51). of overstraining. corresponding to Fig.ART. or lack of ductility. Trans. Some of the strain taking place in a piece Hysteresis in Overstrain. for example. Those for the two specimens just mentioned are shown plotted on a larger scale in Fig. Phil. or plotting the stress intensity case. Sac.. and the dependence of resistance to repeated stress upon the frequency of application of the stress (see Art. representing the state of the material after 24 hours' rest. the elastic limit being also probably almost zero. and by Moniey and Tomlinson. it should be remembered that for curves B and C the area of crosssection has been reduced about 5 per cent. 37 in Fig. 33] It will MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. which have been called " hardening. from that for curve A.. . 1 93 A. vol. B.. and C. while extensions are here shown on lengths which were 10 inches at zero load in each Taking account of these facts. such. does not greatly differ in curvature from A. Quite distinct from the various effects 33. Quick Recovery with Heat. Local hardness. Ewing of "shearing back' the curves by deducting from each extension some amount proportional to The method is illustrated by plotting the the load at which it occurs. The effect of such temperatures as the boiling point of water have very remarkable effects on some metals in hastening the recovery of elasticity after overstrain . ductility small strains occurring before the yield point in overstrained interest. 193A. 38. instead of gross load. 49 and be readily understood from the foregoing that the yield point may be greatly modified by the treatment. or part of them. vol. disappear in a similar way some time — removal of the load. The original curve shows practically perfect proportionality between stress and strain almost to the yield point The curve B (immediately after overstrain) does not show nearly such proportionality. the limits of elasticity may partially explain the ultimate failure of metala under repeated applications of stress much below the ultimate static strength. may also be produced in metal which has been subjected to the rough treatment of punching or shearing. 36. . the values of the modulus for curves A and C are practically the same. and the yield point is raised to a 1 evel as high as would be reached after a considerable period of rest. The small differences between different curves of the kinds above The specimens are of A — mentioned may be brought out more clearly by adopting a larger scale of strains in the diagram. 1906." is the hardening of after the A — 1 See papers by Muir. 37 with letters A. This property of temporary strain after similar effect within the removal of load has been called hysteresis. Hardening by Cooling. Mag. Phil. curves of Fig.Trans. with each extension diminished by 0*0009 inch per ton of load at which it occurs. * PAH. often involving great strains. V. as rolling or drawing while cold. Roy. the elasticity is quickly made almost perfect again. and this may be conveniently done in a small 3 space by a device adopted by Prof. which metals undergo during manufacture.
more carbon up to at least i '5 per cent. This is steel by quickly cooling it down from a high temperature. and quicker cooling producing greater hardness. [CIl. 30 25 10 . The generally accomplished by plunging the hot metal in a cold liquid.5° STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. II. degree of hardness attained depends upon the amount of carbon in the steel and upon the rate at which it is cooled.
See paper by Stromeyer in Proc. and steel rendered " hard " by straining or quenching may be brought to a softer and more ductile state. is liable to show 34). slow cooling hardens them." as it is called.) and cooling very slowly . Hardening at " Bine : Heat'' steel Hardening of mild and wrought iron is — TU liable to occur is if the metal bent.ART. 1886. when Metal so treated. is rendered very hard. 450 and the metal shows a blue colour on a freshly filed surface. C. 1 although it may be safely worked when 34.E. hammered.. this process is called annealing. i. Copper. lxvii. brittleness and unrelia bility.. — Iron cold. Annealing. more or less like its original condition. which has been reduced by much straining during manufacture (see Figs. . which cools first. such as drawn wire.. The effect of annealing materials. probably due to relieving initial stresses existing in the elastic limit and material after manufacture. In the process of making fine wire 1 by successive drawings through vol. 34 and 39). brass. Cast iron may be rendered hard by pouring the molten metal into chilled moulds the outer skin.e. All steels except the very mildest varieties are liable to some slight amount of hardening effect on quenching from a bright red heat. between about 600° F. by heating to a red heat (1400 F. or otherwise worked at a " blue heat. while aluminium is annealed by slow cooling. Inst. unless subsequently annealed (see Art. 34] MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. 51 upon this subject by rival schools of metallurgical thought. the tenacity is to reduce and to increase the ductility as measured by the elongation. Annealing rolled rods and drawn wire generally raises the observed values of Young's modulus (E) for the material. and bronzes are similarly annealed by the process of quenching or quick cooling from a high temperature.
wear. /: = reduced length. 28 and 29). dies of various sizes. A = original area of section. Also paper on impact tests in Proc. M. and so increasing the area of crosssection as to require higher loads to effect further compressive strain. 1 See " Treatment of Gun Steel. a notched or serrated loadextension diagram will result. the elongation at fracture of mild steel is much higher than with rates such as are common in testing. expanding laterally at the same time (see Fig. 40. as in the case of lifting chains. more plastic materials. but the relation between stresses and the corresponding strains of exceedingly brief duration is not necessarily the same as that for static loads. An ultimate crushing strength is therefore difficult to specify clearly. vol. develop.52 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. Inst.E. Metals have generally practically the same limit of elasticity and modulus of elasticity (E) in direct compression as in tension. Aj/2 = A/ (see Arts. that the ultimate stress sustained at the yield point is greater than that under far lower rates. the other hand. hard or brittle materials under compression generally fracture by shearing across some plane oblique to the direct compressive stress . It will be seen from Fig. if / = original length of a bar. the values obtained in slow tests may easily be doubled at rates which are possible in ordinary testing machines. . and the tension test being much easier to make than a satisfactory compression test. it is necessary to anneal the material between the various stages in order to restore the ductility. 43 that wrought iron cracks longitudinally after much crushing. Compression. Influence of Rate of Loading. Also with rates of loading so fast as to be of the nature of an impact. 1905. [CH. 187). shorten almost without limit. Annealing steel castings increases the tenacity and ductility and Steel subjected to great strains in raises the elastic limit of the metal. 43). For stresses beyond the elastic limit. Soc. but with pauses during which the metal may harden (Art. Hopkinson. May. on the other hand. Inst. is annealed from time to time to prevent the metal from becoming brittle (see Art 45). Proc." Proc. the rate of loading does not greatly influence the ultimate load borne. Typical compressive stressstrain curves are shown in Fig.. * See " Effects of Momentary Stresses in Metals. Cement shows a similar property (see Art. occupied in testing specimens of most materials to fracture in tension. II. 1910. Then." by B. Within ordinary limits of time 35. Strains take time to the yield point. and Aj = increased area of section. showing smaller average strains than if the specimen were loaded more quickly but continuously. If. 31). the load is applied very slowly and not continuously. Roy. and if the load is applied rather quickly (say in two minutes). on the strains will be less than if the load is applied more slowly.E. C. If the metal reached a state of perfect plasticity the actual stress intensity under — — which the material " flows " would be constant. Ixxxix. assuming no change of volume. 1 Under such quick rates or impulsive loadings it is probable. or the elongation produced. 36. it is quite usual to rely on tension tests as an index of mechanical properties for nearly all metals.. too. 2 Zinc and tin record higher stresses before fracture if the load is applied quickly .
ptotes of the hyperbola are the axis along which strains are measured. since their product is a constant. nearly the materials reach to a condition of perfect plasticity. 36] MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. in which the metals flow continuously without increase of the actual how . would give a The asymrectangular hyperbola. copper and aluminium approach to a hyperbola. 40 shows the manner in which the stressstrain curves for such plastic materials as i. Fig. 40. and a line perpendicular to it corresponding to a position of unit strain.ART. —Compressive stressstrain curves. constant pressure of plastic flow intensity'! I _  load(/ — reduction in /) volume of bar 02 03 04 Compressive Strain Fig.e. when plotted as ordinates against the compressive strains as abscissas. Hence the loads (or the nominal intensity of stress). final intensity of stress 53 Actual load = 7— A i load load x h volume of bar or.
Copper. axis of direct stress is not always that in which the intensity of In tangential or shear stress might be expected to be a maximum. the case of tension of ductile materials. inferences as to the intensity of shear stress on any oblique plane or other surface at fracture cannot be drawn with accuracy. generally takes place partially or wholly by shearing or sliding in directions oblique to that of the direct stress (see Figs. 1 but the density increases again with rest after removal of the stress. consequently. the pressure intensity then reached is called the pressure of fluidity. July 2. Compression Fractures. and of brittle materials under compression. Fig. 7) 1 See " Change of Density of Mild Steel strained by Compression beyond the Yield Point. piece of material under uniform compressive stress of intensity on all surfaces the normal of which is inclined to the axis of direct compression (see Art. 43) the strains up to the point of rupture are small. The inclination of the surface of fracture to the — Tool steel. During plastic flow under compression the density of mild steel decreases. — Tension fractures. 41 and 42). In brittle materials (see Fig. and if the material is homogeneous and isotropic the distribution of stress is probably nearly the same as within the limits of elasticity. [CH. Mild steel. . The form of fracture of different materials in tension and compression is a matter of conThe siderable interest. N. Bessemer steel hardened by overstrain. and. Lea and W. Thomas. Bessemer steel." by F. Cast iron. in Engineering. Mild steel. fracture of ductile materials under tension. to This somewhat abrupt change of section tends an uneven distribution of stress over the section just previous to rupture. Fracture under Direct Stress. — A p has.— 54 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 41. from which various conclusions can be drawn. C. intensity of pressure . II. 1915. it must be remembered that just previous to fracture a local reduction of section takes place. 37. Wrought iron.
the intensity of which decreases as increases. pressed together across the surface with a comstress p„. before fracture. surface — .ART. the two portions of material separated by this surface are. (1) a tangential or shear stress/. Supposing the material to shear over a surface at some angle to the section of wholly direct stress. and the direction of the of shear may be partly determined by the action of the normal stress. on account of the accompanying normal and (2) . 55 =/ sin cos a normal compressive stress p„=p cos a The intensity of shear stress is a maximum for 6 = 45 but the material is not in pure shear. Navier's Theory. 37] MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS.
in short pieces which do not buckle. details of which are given in Art. The lateral tensions. It was shown in Art. iron the usual value of 6 is about 55°. 20 I „ „ ( p cos 6[ sin 6 f \ + cos ^cos^sin^A jd> 2 sin $ cos 6 1 J =q * p= * 2q tan 6 Y 2q * + sin j— cos <f> which gives the relation between the ultimate resistances to compressive and shear stress in terms of the angle of fracture. G. Roy. induced by the ready flow of the bedding material. 56 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. It is not easy to test such a relation experimentally . Assuming the Relation between Compressive and Shearing Stress. is found to vary. 7 that for a parallel bar under uniform tension of intensity p. indeed. but experiments on brittle metals and stones show a fair correspondence between the actual values of the angle of fracture and the For cast angle as calculated above from the ordinary angle of friction. cause fracture to take place at* a touch lower load and along surfaces more inclined to that of maximum crushing stress. the intensity of tangential or shear stress reaches a maximum value \p on surfaces the normals of which Experiment shows are inclined 45° to the direction of the tension. It is not obvious that. if this exceeds its pressure of fluidity (Art. according as the crushed material is bedded at the surfaces. Gulliver in Proc. The angle of fractures under pressure. and 'substituting the value of /* from equation (2) in equation (1) — p sin 6 cos 6 = q +p 8 or cos 2 = X —cot 7. the intensity of shear stress beyond the elastic limit cannot be estimated accurately. which flows under the crushing pressure. xxix. by where II. 1 This is illustrated for crushing tests of Yorkshire grit in Fig. as well as the ultimate resistance to crushing. . ordinary shearing operations by some scissorlike action of sharp square edges can hardly be obtained without the introduction of some other stresses. the coefficient of friction between the particles should necessarily be the same as for two plane separate surfaces of the same material. p. 43). H. by shearing — • See a paper by Mr. or on a soft material such as a lead plate.— — [CH. although a pure shear stress may be produced. nor. 191. and even. Fractures in Tension. 432. along faces parallel to the direction of pressure. above relations to hold good. for the two portions ultimately separated by shearing fracture. sometimes. vol. is tf> is the angle of repose of the grains of the material. 36). 243. or the inclination of the surface along which the tendency to rupture greatest exceeds 45° . and also in terms of the angle of repose. Edin. receiving the external pressure on a hard unyielding substance such as millboard or plaster.. Soc. that there should be any true frictional resistance at all. that the angle at which ductile metals actually fracture. while in the case of applying torsion to a round bar. corresponding to a value for <f> of 20° (see Fig.
inclined 45 to the axis of tension." or free from other straining actions. 57 From this it might under tensile stress. the ratio f. Pure Shear. The difficulty of measuring the ultimate shearing strength has already been mentioned. 29). Roy." Proc. it is necessary to consider various points. Fig. varies from about r'2 for brittle metals to about o6 for The value for mild steel and very ductile metals. (3) In consequence of ductile metals drawing out locally to a waist before fracture. 1906. while the section cod is intermediate between the two values. . cross section. : (2) The intensity of tensile stress at fracture is not the total pull divided by the original area of section (see Art. but so far as experimental results of shear under ordinary conditions go.. which may modify the resistance of the metal to shear stress. is accompanied by a normal component tension \p. part i. ultimate shearing resistance ultimate tensile strength reckoned as usual on the " nominal " stresses. rather than an ideal case of less practical importance. 44. is not uniform. such as the following (1) The shear stress \p. but this conclusion seems difficult to accept in the case Fig. . p. 2>7~\ MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. just mentioned.. vol xlix. (4) The intensity of shear stress over such a surface as cd. and mild 1 steel. 243. of hard materials. 44. and discussion. is not V2 times that of the minimum . although this nominal stress is the quantity usually quoted as the tenacity. The theory has been advanced that all fractures under tensile stress are ultimately fractures by 1 shearing under the tangential component stress. where the shear is " pure. /. 7). wrought iron is about C75. Such values of the shearing resistance apply to shearing stress as it is applied in ordinary constructions. with the plane of minimum crosssection aob. and depends upon the shape of the profile at the waist. copper. is not greatly different from 45 be inferred that the intensity of ultimate shear stress for such a material Before drawing such a conclusion is half the ultimate tensile strength.. Mech. Soe. across surfaces inclined 45° to that of maximum tension (see Art. nor /J 2 times that of the original crosssection in Fig. for example. Very ductile metals. 41). gh is V2 times the minimum section aob. such as aluminium. also "Behaviour of Materials of Construction under Inst. 44.ART. the area ef is <s/ 2 times that of the crosssection in the portion of the bar not suffering local contraction. which do not show any trace of oblique fracture (see Fig. being greatest at the intersection 0. such as cast iron and tool steel. the area of any surface such as a cone or plane. See "The Rupture of Steel by Longitudinal Stress. Eng." Proc.
In a round bar the greatest tendency to shear will be along the symmetrical conical surfaces. to the axis of pull. 1914. metals which give a value of about 13. when it is something of the order of 15 per cent. tensile fractures are usually in the form of a truncated cone." Oct. with faces inclined a little over 45° to the axis of the bar. When the stress and strain are plotted they present a serrated curve instead of a smooth one. or Engineering. and elasticity of the most important metals do not vary to any serious extent within the limits of ordinary atmospheric temperatures but it is. the same steel or iron fractured very quickly shows relatively larger crystals at the surface of fracture. such as lod and cok (Fig. The tenacity. of course. May 19. 1901 . the central part apparently tearing first. The elongation under tension between 200 and 400 F. . in Engineering. This point is illustrated by the four round bars of steel in Fig. 42. and then the softer outside material shearing. . when it is something of the order of 5 per cent.— . or steels hardened by drawing out. does not take place steadily.000 tons per square inch at atmospheric temperature falling to about 12. Experiments show the following effects in statical tests for wrought iron and steel at high temperatures1 : (r) The tenacity (a) at ordinary temperatures falls off with increased temperatures until between 200 and 300 F. ductility.. 44).000 tons per square inch at 500° F. (2) The elastic limit falls continuously with increase of temperature. * paper on " Change of Modulus of Elasticity and other Properties British Assoc. It is a remarkable fact that. Such fractures are shown in Fig. 58 show oblique STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 1906 . (c) It falls continuously with further increase of temperature. For broad flat bars of ductile metal the forms of fracture to be expected if the material is homogeneous are planes or truncated pyramids. well known that the strength of many metals is greatly reduced at " white hot " temperatures. of Metals with Temperature. May 26. but at intervals during the application of the load. [CH. fractures at about 45° or a little more. 41) always show some such shape in homogeneous metal. and then (b) rises again continuously with increase of temperature.. (4) The modulus of direct elasticity (E) decreases steadily with increase of temperature. (3) The elongation (a) falls with increase of temperature above the normal to a minimum value in the neighbourhood of 300 F.. (&) It rises from this temperature to a maximum value at some temperature between 400° and 6oo° F. Low Temperatures. Experiments 2 on a very mild steel at very low temperature show progressive increase of tenacity with decrease of — — 1 See also a. Effect of Temperature on Mechanical Properties. and in rolled Bessemer steel. 1914. while a piece of steel or wrought iron fractured slowly shows a fine dull or even fibrous fracture in which the crystals are very small. less than at 6o° F. 1906 See a paper by Hadfield in Journal of Iron and Steel Inst. and the fractures (see In Fig. harder material the ratio of shear strength to tenacity is usually greater. particularly at the central core. II. or Engineer. 16. 41. Section G. more than at 6o° F. 38.
. Also for various impact tests at different temperatures see in Proc. this corresponds to a stress intensity of 13. Arsenal. see Johnson's " Materials of Construction. Numerous applications of this means of applying a pull are to be found. Civil Engineers. and tyres shrunk on to wheels. and taking the stretch modulus as 13. For more detailed information on the properties of metals at various temperatures.. 59 temperature.000 tons per square inch. and tken its ends firmly held to rigid supports. with summary of previous experiments. of expansion. The different amounts of expansion in different metals in a machine may cause serious stresses to be set up due to temperature changes. and a paper in the same Proceedings. such change of dimensions is resisted and temperature. a proportional strain a(t2 — 4) remains. 1 Thus the cooling necessary to cause a stress of ton per square inch would be owe or about 12 F. The linear expansion under heat is for moderate ranges of temperature The proportional closely proportional to the increase of temperature. 39. 39] MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS.— It is well known that metals.ART. change their dimensions with change of If. by Andrews. extension. Stress duetto Change of Temperature. xciv. while the elongation practically vanishes. the bar on cooling will be in tension. Occasionally use is made of the different expansions of two parts. On return to ordinary temperatures no permanent change from the original properties is observed. and the corresponding tension and pull on the constraints is Eo(/2 — A) per unit area of crosssection of the bar. The following are the approximate linear coefficients of expansion for Fahrenheit degrees at : Wrought Steel iron 00000067 00000062 o'ooooio o ooooo6o  Copper Cast iron For steel the tensile strain per degree Fahrenheit if contraction is prevented will be 00000062. or extension per unit of length per degree of temperature. vol. stress is induced in the material corresponding to the strain Thus if a long bar is lengthened or change of dimension prevented." containing a summary of results at the Berlin Testing Laboratory and the Watertown U. If subsequently the bar is cooled to t° and contraction is wholly prevented. by heat. when free to do so.S. and will exert a pull on the supports. where E is Young's modulus for the material. so as to prevent contraction to its original length. lx. however. the material behaving like a very brittle substance. prevented.. a paper by Webster. a length / of a bar at t° becomes fli+oftO} a temperature t°. vol..000 X ©'0000062 or o o8o6  tons per square inch. such as tiebars holding two parallel walls together. is Thus if a is the coefficient called the coefficient of linear expansion. Inst.
The excess of free expansion for copper over steel per unit of length is 0*0000100 — 0*0000062 = 0*0000038 The copper will not be elongated to the same extent as if free. intensity —A of stress in each metal if heated to coefficients as given above.000X0*000352 =4*57 „ „ „ copper = 7000X0*000408 = 2*86 . and 260° F. 7. — 0*0000062 X 100 — 55f. in the copper. e. and then firmly gripped at its ends. Expansion for copper 7000 tons per square inch.000 (1) e. and that the stretch modulus is 13.000 X 0*00041 5*33 tons per square inch and total pull on a bar inch diameter is 5*33 2.(i + II) = 0*00076 e. {(x) 4 73 . If e. in „ „ Intensity of stress in steel =13. The sum of the two linear proportional strains will be 0*0000038 per degree.^ total thrust in the 2 copper e. and the steel will be pulled so as to be extended more than if it were free. above the temperature of the atmosphere.  = 82 X > 2 _ « = rs X 577 = ^ (2) <?„ = ue Substituting this value in (1) «. II. Find the While at 60° F. and then e.— — —— 60 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. and for 200 degrees will be 0*00076. the ends are rigidly fastened together. X 07854 = 4*r8 tons short bar of copper 1 inch diameter is enclosed Example centrally within a steel tube if inch external diameter and \ inch thick. Example i. ee = = 0*000352 0*000408 tons per sq. e. of its length per degree Fahrenheit. E for steel 13. [CH. If a bar of steel i inch diameter and 10 feet long is heated to 100° F. find the tension in the bar when cooled to the temperature of the atmosphere if during cooling it pulls the end Assume that steel expands 0*0000062 fastenings j^" nearer together.000. = strain = strain „ in the steel.000 tons per square inch. .000.000 2 • = = = 0*00076 13. +e = c The stress intensity in the steel The therefore copper „ „ total pull in the steel 13.120 0*00062 — 0*00021 = 0*00041 Intensity of stress = = r 13.(!) = } 7°°° <V ~ * 4 hence or. The final proportional strain of the bar is or.
( 6 ThefolLwing are average and not extreme values. cast hard drawn „ annealed . copper) Timber 40 See Art. 20 7 to IO to 24 1 plates (with fibre) (across fibre) .. .. 3 to 5 7 to 10 Aluminium bronze (10 per cent.. ... mild structural 21 19 9 to II IS to 18 16 14 21 to 24 „ „ .. 198 Table of Ultimate Compression or Crushing Strength.. . Cast iron Wroughtiron bars . Steel. Shearing strength in tons per square inch. for rails 28 to 32 26 to 29 30 to 40 25 to 35 70 to 90 „ castings and forgings „ Tool wire steel (carbon.. 196 6 25 See Art. Table op Ultimate Strengths..... Tenacity in tons per square inch. . . for rivets . 70 9 20 45 3 8 14 to 17 8 to 10 15 Brass Gunmetal Phosphorbronze Manganesebronze Aluminium.) Material.ART. 35 .... Material. 39] MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. hardened) Copper. . . cast rolled „ 26 24 .
Examples I. II. [CH. II. following figures give the observations from a tensile test of a round piece of mild steel I inch diameter and 10 inches between the gauge points : The Load in tons .— 62 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.
If the force scale is / tons to 1 inch and the extension scale is q inches to 1 inch. work done in stretch Thus. In ductile metals the whole — . — ordinates jF. 2(F Graphical . III RESILIENCE AND FLUCTUATING STRESS. by . 1 square inch of area on the diagram represents p q inchtons. the average load is yield load + f (maximum load — yield load) . the work done is — F X &x inchtons During a total elongation / the work may be conveniently represented by the summation of all such quantities as F Sx.e. elongation takes place in If during an the direction of the applied force and work is done. viz. Work done in Tensile Straining. which is the scale of the work diagram. i. 45 the shaded > area represents the work done. work done up to fracture may be taken as roughly equal to the product of the total extension and the yieldpoint load plus f of the product of the extension and the excess of the maximum load over the yieldpoint load. 45. Scale. indefinitely small extension 8x inch. and therefore the area under the curve.Sx represents the ing. In other words. Extension Fig. the variable stretching force is sensibly constant and equal to F tons. Sx) or [ J F dx . During the application of a gradually increasing tensile load to a bar. Representation.CHAPTER 40. In a loadextension diagram the represent force and the abscissa? represent the elongation produced. in Fig.
or / x s~(Art. elastic strain is stored as strain energy in the strained material and On reappears in the removal of the load. In a piece of metal under uniform intensity of tensile stress /. 46 the work stored when the load reaches an amount PN is represented by the shaded area OPN. I X proportional strain. equivalent to neglecting the strain up to yield and taking the remainder of the stressstrain curve as parabolic. the product of half the load and the extension. below the elastic limit. Hence the resilience £"* f or the resilience is IK i£ X E volume of piece 2 Where the tension is not uniform the per unit volume of the material.ON. 5 • load 42. the load is / A. the amount of work stored as strain energy for loads not exceeding the elastic limit in tensile straining is equal to i . X extension resilience is understood to mean the spring back on the removal of the straining forces. is This approximation point. the other hand. Resilience. expression is of similar form. load x extension In Fig. 46. but technically the term is slightly modified and restricted to the amount of energy restored by the strained body. as above for tensile straining. to power of a strained body Within the elastic limit this is generally. materials which follow Hooke's Law. The work done in producing an 41. — Colloquially. the work done during nonelastic strain is spent in overcoming the co — hesion of the particles of the material and causing them to slide one over another.—— — 64 — [CH. — III. 9) is P where E is the stretch modulus. Proof Resilience. Elastic Strain Energy. Some particular cases will be noticed later.PN. if A is the area of crosssection and / the length. but the factor is less than \ if / is the maximum intensity of stress. which is proportional to Fio. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. or proof stress. and In appears as heat in the material strained. the proof resilience is then — / f 5p X volume . or by i. and the extension is . the elastic portion of the loadextension diagram being a straight line. The greatest strain energy which can be stored in a piece of material without permanent strain is called its proof If is the (uniform) intensity of stress at the elastic limit resilience.
that a tensile load a bar of crosssectional area A. viz. Strain Energy beyond the Elastic Limit. 46 by the area OP'N' for a material obeying Hooke's Law. Hence the strain energy. 37. shows that the ratio of stress to elastic or nearly elastic strain during ductile extension is — not greatly different from that in purely elastic strain . 43. is f ig 4?> obviously very different from the work done in reaching the stress p under a steadily increasing load. Live Tensile Loads within the Elastic Limit. it is nearly equal to the original stretch modulus. Its area is proportional to which is ." is approximately ' i p X volume P"N"Q in and is represented by the area Fig. P"Q being approximately parallel This quantity to P'O and nearly straight. for example. in other words. Art. Hence the maximum instantaneous strain produced is double that which would be produced by the same load applied gradually. which is probably nearly true. 43] RESILIENCE AND FLUCTUATING STRESS. If a tensile load is suddenly applied to a bar and does not cause a stress beyond the limit of elasticity. beyond the elastic limit a small portion of the strain is generally of an elastic character. 32. 5. assumed that the stressstrain curve (or value of Young's modulus) within the elastic limit is independent of the rate of loading. which is represented by the area OP"N" and cannot be called resilience. Fig. The proof resilience is often stated as a property of a material. or what may be called the "resilience beyond the elastic limit. 47. the amplitude on either side of the equilibrium position being equal to the extension which would be produced by the same load gradually applied. As mentioned in Art. and makes oscillations in the tension. The instantaneous strain produced is — W e — E = 2W—_ A . 48.ART. 65 This is represented in Fig. and is then stated per unit volume. is suddenly applied to Suppose. The instantaneous stressstrain diagram is shown in Fig. and the instantaneous intensity of stress produced is W p=Ee=2™ A It is here twice that for a static or gradually applied load W. the bar behaves like any other perfect spring.
40 tons — If an impulsive tensile load. portionality of stress to strain are not exceeded. L. the falling weight. 49. provided the elastic limit is not exceeded. load = 50 + 10 = 60 tons tension. the greatest stress another " live " load reached. p '////////a/ y//////// axially to a light bar and the limits of pro/ ///////y// ////W///. Find the statical load which would produce the same maximum stresses as (a) a tensile dead load of 40 tons and a tensile live load of 10 tons (b) a tensile dead load of 20 tons and a compressive live load of 30 tons. say. load = 20 — 30 — 30 = —40 tons. will be If a . III. A If. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.. hence . and the supports of the bar be — W A supposed infinitely rigid 8/. the strain energy taken up by the bar is equal to the kinetic energy lost by the falling weight if all the connections except the bar are infinitely rigid. and E is the stretch pounds per square inch . which is the work for unit volume of material. such 44. then. if the stop. (a) (b) static static Example. as that of a heavy falling weight. and an instantaneous tensile stress of intensity p. a "dead" tensile load of the same kind is applied. and bar already carries. Impacts producing Tension. strain e. i. Fig. IE** or i(E*) 2 [CH. 8/ (1) modulus of where F is the equivalent statical load on the bar in pounds.. +W change of load A live load causes a stress of opposite kind (say compressive) to that already operating. the instantaneous stress would be on the other hand. A ' °r W„ ^A— + . the W W„ A 2W A change ' in load A A riG# 4 • Equivalent Equivalent compression.e.— — — 66 . (Fig. is applied „. causing a stretch 8/. M elasticity in W(A + 3/) = fcxAx or F . W W — W. 49) falls through a height h inches on to a stop in such a way as to bring a purely axial tensile stress on a bar of length / inches and crosssection square inches. If a heavy weight lbs.
In this connection reference may be made 2 to impact experiments by Prof. Taking account of the loss of energy at impact consequent on the inertia of the bar. /> and / .* 7 v2 h (7) Then equating W and w to the gain in strain energy. . and volume of bar volume approximately when 8/ is very small compared to the fall h. may be found by assuming the stretch to be distributed as load W. the velocity v of the weight and the free end of the bar immediately W after impact for a static throughout the length. since .E. Engineering. (5) as in the previous article. + 8/) = %Ee x A x el W(A +8/) = i g X volume of bar 2EW/4 ^ = 2E x W(A + 8/) i—. W W = 2 . . 6j (2) or. Feb.r / I J at = (W + \w)v. from the principle of the conservation of momentum. showing purely elastic stresses and strains much beyond those usually associated with the limits of elasticity.E. B. 1905.ART." in . 1 The righthand side is obtained by subtracting the initial strain energy ! See also Proct Roy.. 7 = W ^ 8/ 2 . . total kinetic energy after impact =i \~ v)dx = J — (W+±wy = \„. Hopkinson.^+7£/:r ^ vy/ If ^ W = o. .„ W 1 f %w i • • (6 ' V The K. "Some Experiments on Impact. W y2gfi = Wv + — +—. If h = o.. . p = 2— A. 1909. as if the tension were to spread instantaneously Thus vdx if w= weight of bar. 2EW8/ ^T = 2. although this is not certain. vanishes. April 30 and May J. (3) f ' or — (4) 2 / = . 44] RESILIENCE W(h AND FLUCTUATING STRESS. If h is large compared to the extension the term in and • = ^^ It is not unusual to assume that the stretch modulus is the same for impulsive or very quick loadings as in a static test. » 1{.W 1+ ^w+W 2AE(W + as in the previous article 8/. ~= e. From this/ may be calculated if E is known. is v = \Z*gh. Sac.. r this kinetic energy plus the gravitational work done by "+»•!•'+"!/:— . p 2E (W + jfo) " w>/ /A"(W + ize/f" A A/ (W + \wf 'I (lo) i * * ' and above.
x = 0*0455 mcn Xio°= 11. measure of capacity to resist blows without permanent injury (1) is the proof resilience or energy stored up to the elastic limit. provided the time during which the stresses exceeded this limit is of Whether the relation of stress to the order of j^ second or less. If the impact produced by a falling weight of 2 cwt.^L. 32) will increase the capacity to take up elastic strain. 46. either slowly or quickly by a single application of stress. Resistance to Shocks. strain is the same for such quick rates of applying stress as for rates several thousand times slower is unknown. HI. Fig. the elastic strain energy will be proportional to some area such as P"N"Q. or by repeated stresses. This quantity being determined from a static or slowloading test. which is proportional to the area P'N'O. is wholly taken up in stretching a steel bar \\ inches diameter and 10 feet long. after being thus diminished. to that for fracture by a single shock. and consequently resistance to fracture is greater. find the extension and the intensity of stress produced. will evidently — A A — . Example. per square inch.?(f)*x* 120 4 = o.370 lbs. E for steel being 30 x 10 6 lbs. If x = stretch in inches. or the total work done in fracturing the Several points deserve consideration. as in the case of lifting chains. (3) There is no necessary relation between the proof resilience and the work done in fracturing a material. The relation of the total energy expended up to fracture after several shocks. The capacity to absorb shocks by plastic strain. etc. In fracture by repeated equal or unequal blows. Whether this is the same for very quick loading as for slow loading depends on whether the nonelastic strains and stresses are the same in the two cases probably both the extreme stresses and strains are generally greater for very quick rates of loading. and the height of fall before beginning to stretch the bar being 2 inches. 47. may be considerably restored by annealing. will only accurately measure the capacity to resist blows without injury provided the magnitudes of the strains are independent of the rate of application of stress. piece. teke up the energy of a blow is evidently some guide as to its suitability question of interest arises as to for constructions subject to shocks. — 224(2 x* — o ooi#  — o'oo203 + *) = £. energy equation in inchlbs. stress intensity = —X 30 per square inch The capacity of a piece of material to 45. If a single blow of energy proportional to the area OP'P"N". but this will involve the production of higher stresses from a given blow.— 68 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. whether the proof resilience. (2) The total work done in fracturing material is a guide to its capacity when not previously overstrained to resist fracture by a single blow.E. [CH. Fig. the total energy expended will evidently not be the same as in the case of fracture by one blow. produces a stress proportional to P"N". The resulting hardening (Art. is the better criterion.
and estimating the resisting capacity by the energy of the — final blow. Let be the intensity of the proof tensile (or 2uwhes_ compressive) stress for the material. . "V" 4t 3 = h 7? f2 TT • • j ' 2 E 4 3* And the ratio resilience of resilience of A _ B 6 _ ~ s 5 _ — . For example. and a still smaller resilience per unit of volume than piece A.r • • (iff for lower part. and the stretch is less for B in proportion as the stretch is to fracturing a material all The energy up when A /  less. 1 inch diameter. stored the elastic limit. 42) ¥= X The resilience of volume = 4. the distribution of stress is different. and the resilience or work done during straining to fracture is different. and as such is a property of the material. 1 9 I + i X 5 * the stress in the lower part of B being only \f. two such pieces as and B of the same a b material (Fig. But for differentshaped pieces under a given straining action. being partly a function of the geometrical form. crosssection of B is the same as that for A. ' 3J ^ . and will depend on the magnitude of the various shocks and the amount of hardening resulting.ART. 69 not be simple. 2 inches diameter. 50) would show a very different proof resilience. is most conveniently expressed per unit volume of the material. and hence the resilience. or the work done \u of it is under the same intensity of stress..X6 & 4 «" • B is for upper part.e.rt. the stretch of B is evidently less than that of A. the intensity duuti Then. the piece B would have a smaller actual resilience than the piece A. 45] RESILIENCE AND FLUCTUATING STRESS. mum the total proof load carried by either piece will be the FlG 5°same . is evidently .. The ratio stretch of stretch of A B . since the miniof stress at the elastic limit. . which is half the product of the load. Also the energy of a final blow producing fracture after other lesser blows will evidently depend on the magnitude of the previous blows a fact sometimes lost sight of in testing materials to destruction by repeated blows of increasing magnitude. i. The resilience of A is h* (A. § j? P T • 3 .
instead of only a portion of the length. become " fatigued. stresses very much lower than their ultimate statical strength. it will at once be evident what ground there is for reducing the section of the shank of a bolt. From the foregoing comparison in a rather extreme case. 46. and to increase its straining effect there. if the just reaches an elastic stress f. such that (using the previous expressions) "s'E'4 S "E 4" 3 " f f 4= That is. . the piece of the form as elastic strain without permanent set than the piece B. is STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. the resistance to fracture is less than if the same intensity of only one kind of In such cases the material is often said to have stress were repeated. To leave the shank of larger section than that at the minimum in the screwed portion. the material is subjected to repeated stresses of opposite kinds. that is. is capable of absorbing 60 per to say. say. down to that at the bottom of the screw threads. it is doubtful whether the term fatigue of the whole of the metal gives a correct idea of what occurs to the . yields in full measure under the action. which contains a greater volume of the same material. To compare the two forms per unit of volume volume of A volume of B resilience ' 6x1 _ ~ (3 X 1) + (3 X of A per unit volume B per unit volume = 4) i"6 ~~ 9 « or °' 4 ~~ resilience of o 4  put the comparison of the two pieces in another way. subject to shocks or sudden loads. It may be pointed out that the treatment to which metals are subjected in slowly or quickly repeated variations of stress is quite distinct from the blows or impacts mentioned in the previous articles. is to concentrate the effect of impulsive forces on the weakest portion of the bolt. but reversed. as above. A more energy III. that if the stresses are not merely repeated. Vf=°79 less in the intensity of stress induced by a given action is 2 r per cent. JO That cent. by storing as strain energy the above amount of work To piece B 2 E'4' 34 from an impulsive load. Fatigue of Metals. less material." Since the cause of failure under varying stress is still imperfectly understood. It has been found by experience that metals used in construction ultimately fracture under frequently repeated Further. because the whole length. — material. a piece (A) containing 60 per cent. the piece A in receiving the same energy would reach only a lower stress p.— — — [cH.
are sufficient to cause fracture if repeated a great number of times. as determined by ordinary statical tension tests. bending. The ultimate strength of this material. was about 23 tons per square inch. Wohler's Experiments. many important researches upon it have been carried out. TABLE I. from tension to compression. and (2) That reversed stresses (tensile and compressive) much below the static breaking stress. . The experiments included torsional.ART. and subjected to equal and opposite tension and compression produced by bending action on a rotating bar. rather Since 1864. J when Fairbairn published in the Philosophical Transof the Royal Society results of some experiments on this subject. 47] RESILIENCE AND FLUCTUATING STRESS. fluctuating between a maximum and a minimum value. (Stresses in Tons per Square Inch.) Maximum stress (tension). actions : — than upon the maximum stress .e. and Fig. Some mention of the most important will now be made the term "varying" stresses must be understood to mean stresses of the same kind. eg. The second point may be illustrated by the following Table I. The material selected is an axleiron made by the Phoenix Co. and simple direct stresses. i.. 1 Much light is thrown on the behaviour of iron and steel under fluctuating stresses by the lengthy researches of Wohler. The most important deductions from these experiments are (1) That the resistance to fracture under fluctuating stresses depends within certain limits on the range of fluctuation of stress. and the elongation about 20 per cent. upon the algebraic difference between the maximum and minimum stress. whilst the term "reversed" stresses will be reserved for fluctuations from one kind of stress to that of an opposite kind. and others are at present in progress. and even well within the ordinary elastic limit. 51. 47.
corresponding to a maximum tensile or compressive stress of" about 76 tons per square inch. These results. 72 [CH. (Stresses in Tons per Square Inch.) of results of pure tension tests of the above metal : TABLE II." for which the number of repetitions necessary to cause fracture becomes infinite. For an indefinitely great number of repetitions the curve approaches a value of about 152. although rather more regular than some others. repetitions necessary to cause fracture as abscissse.) Maximum stress. tons per square inch range. The range is called the " limiting range of stress. III. The dependence of endurance under fluctuating stress upon the range of stress may be illustrated by the following table (II. a value probably 2 3 Jfianfier 6f Repetitions Fig. si. .— STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 456 {in MiaCcms) well below the ordinary elastic limit of the material. The harder high carbon steels show a higher limiting range of stress than the softer or milder steels. may be regarded as typical in character of those for wrought irons and steels of various strengths.
Thus the limiting maximum stress for the three types of fluctuating load are somewhat as follows : Kind of repeated load. 73 Here the limiting maximum stress for repeated stresses is about 15*28 tons per square inch with application and complete removal of the load. . and about 21 tons per square inch when only about half the load is removed.ART. 471 RESILIENCE AND FLUCTUATING STRESS.
. [CH. TABLE III. III.74 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.
" Journal of the Iron and Steel Inst. fluctuating stress between an upper and lower limit which could be imposed without a yield of the material occurring.. He has applied an extensometer to his specimens. maximum ranges of elastic limits 2 3 Reversals 4567 (i. By finding the stress at yield point for ranges of stress (associated with various amounts of mean stress) he has traced out "yield ranges. as measured by capacity to resist one million complete fluctuations. 1 75 has subjected specimens to rapid produced by superposing a rapid reversal of stress upon constant tensile "mean" or "steady" stress. and found fluctuations of stress In a later research Smith and yield points in the stressstrain relations just as in the case of application of statical stress.ART. 48] RESILIENCE AND FLUCTUATING STRESS. If an identity of these " yield ranges " with the ranges of stress for permanent endurance of fluctuations of stress were firmly established. a quick method would 1 " Some Experiments on Fatigue for 19 10. 52.e.n> Tumdreds of thousands FrG." i. of Metals. 2 . These yield ranges for varying amounts of mean stress appeared to correspond with the " Wohler range " of stress for endurance. thus applying any desired range of fluctuation in conjunction with any desired maximum tension. For diagrams illustrating this agreement. No. the original paper should be consulted.
Inst. 82. Bairstow also included the relation of the limiting range of stress to elastic limits as modified by repeated reversals of stress referred to in Art. for one million reversals were on the whole distinctly higher proportions of the tenacities than in Wohler's experiments. the reversal limits reckoned resistance to reversals of stress. . [CH. 2 For references and a critical summary of such work by Drs. 3 "Heat Treatment and Fatigue of Iron and Steel.E. p. 1 These were made at the National Physical Laboratory upon irons and steels in common use by means of a throwtesting machine acting upon the same principle as that of Reynolds and Smith. 49. and the ratio of tensile to compressive stress varied from i'4 to 072 (f to 7) with two intermediate (reciprocal) proportions. for making a " Wohler "' test. vol. 1906. Also the greater resistance of the harder steels compared to the more ductile ones as found by Wohler at 60 cycles per minute was maintained at 800 per minute. with those of Wohler and Bauschinger made at about 60 cycles per minute rather than with those of Reynolds and Smith at from 1400 to 2400 per minute. No. Stanton and Mr. The research of Dr.76 be available STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. which otherwise involves so time as to be prohibitive for most purposes. Within the considerable limits mentioned above (1*4 to 072) the ratio of tensile stress to compressive stress does not seriously affect the limiting range of stress for wrought iron. C. 1913. 78. Stanton and Bairstow's Experiments. A. The reversals were at the rate of 800 cycles per minute. 50. clxvi. and microscopic investigation of the changes which take place in the material during much — the reversals of stress referred to in Art. Proe. showed diminished resistance in a smaller degree. See also "Elastic Limits of Iron and Steel under Cyclical Variation of Stress. but taking four specimens simultaneously. with intermediate proportions Specimens having less abrupt changes of section for other materials. of the maximum for a rather hard Bessemer steel and to 65 per cent. some of which had rather abrupt changes of section. Roy. such as in screw threads. Other Experiments on Reversal of Stress. 1 for 1905. vol. of the maximum for the mildest steel. A.. p.2 Rogers' Experiments?' These experiments included an investigation of the effect of annealing upon the endurance of steel under — 1 " On the Resistance of Iron and Steel to Reversals of Direct Stress." Journal of Iron and Steel Institute. Committee on Stress. the diminution being greater in the harder than in the more ductile metal . see Report of British Association. 483. Report." by L. apparently the change in speed from 60 to 800 does not seriously lessen the In fact. so far as it was possible to compare the materials used." Proe. III. The inquiry also included the relative limiting resistance to fracture under reversed stresses of material in various forms. 53. B. and probably subsequent reports. Mason and Rogers. the reduction was to 48 per cent. 52. Soc. Bairstow. Section G. etc Perhaps the most surprising result of these experiments was that the values obtained for the limiting ranges of stress agreed. The specimens having a sudden change of section showed diminution in the limiting range of stress.
. necessarily prove that the also greater. * Highspeed Fatigue Tester and the Endurance of Metals under Alternating Stress of High Frequency. — — Brit. 2A.ART. See Engineering or Engineer. Inst. 1172. and a paper read before the Institute of Naval Architects. 1908. A. The intensity of stress produced at the first bending is in his test beyond the elastic limit." Proc. of course. Mcch. It may be that the former in some cases is the better index of quality or suitability of a metal for a specified purpose. Eden's Experiments. JJ reversals . The effect of heating steel which had already sustained a large number of reversals was also investigated . however. Soc. Paper V. Ettg. April. 1904. the number of alternations necessary to produce rupture is comparatively small. 50] RESILIENCE It AND FLUCTUATING STRESS. were unable to detect any diminution with increase of speed from 250 to 1300 revolutions per minute.. was found that annealing generally reduced the number of reversals sustained. Messrs. Also in discussion of Eden's paper. 1911. Report. (See also Art. but it points to recovery of elasticity (which increases with time) being of little effect in determining the number of reversals necessary to cause fracture. vol. range of limiting of stress is higher at the higher speed." Proc. 1 "Endurance of Metals. Cunningham and Rose. no restoration of resisting power was observable in steel fatigued beyond a certain point. determine the limiting range of stress for an infinite number of reversals. Eden. 53." International Assoc. Professor Arnold's test does not. ffopkinson's Experiments' These highspeed tests at 7000 reversals per minute showed a marked speed effect in a direction opposite to that found by Reynolds and Smith. which is perhaps the most important result of the Wohler test.. "A "On Materials.E.) Arnolds Experiments? Professor Arnold has investigated the endurance of specimens of metal by subjecting them to bending to and fro through a standard distance on a fixed length (see Art 182).of stress. 1908. 1904. 86. and at subsequent strains will vary in a complex and incalculable manner as the capacity of the metal to withstand the alternating stress gets used up and as the elastic limit changes. Also Proc. 4 Endurance Tests of Machine Steel. which cause much lower stresses. Inst.. Roy. The strains produced being large.2 experimenting on a rotating beam to find the limiting range of stress to withstand a million reversals. This capacity to withstand the complex stresses corresponding to repetitions of a constant deflection in bending does not correspond to the capacity to withstand repetitions of straining actions. Assoc. 1912. a result noted by other experimenters. parts 3 and 4. Roos* has with a rotatingbar machine also found rather greater endurance with higher speed. Testing 1 p. April. but the time required to produce fracture was This does not. 1912. and consequently the method offers a quick way of investigating the relative capacity of different — metals to withstand such treatment as they are subjected to in Professor Arnold's machine. M. Jan. Not only was the number of reversals necessary to produce fracture greater at 7000 reversals per minute than at 1100.
1915.. C is a constant . may then be determined from the above linear equation by two determinations of corresponding values of ± Sn and N and extrapolation. . Section G..!„.A. 2 B. 51. and of reversals causing fracture under the reversals of stress of magnitude ± S„. Law of Fatigue applied to Crankshaft Failures. of Scotland Iron and Steel Inst.as in Worrier's experiments. and the values for torsion agreed well with those determined by a calorimetric method referred to in Art. of course. A. in which the range of stress is plotted against the number of reversals of stress. Roy." Proc.A. Such attempts do not." in Trans. for the straight line may not continue its straight course outside the limits of experiment for large values of N. +Cl ay N <> where S„ is the nominal equal and opposite reversed stress ... The attempts have taken the form of plotting S and some function of the reciprocal of N. Nov. minimum stress intensity /„. The relation between the limiting values of the maximum stress for different ranges of stress when. The results for a mild steel supplied by the British Association Stress Committee agreed fairly well with that required by Gerber's parabolic relation (Art. N. 51 or 52.. The three quantities.. Inst. 51). The results fitted fairly well an empirical formula — ± Sn = F. Later experiments on alternating torsion experiments gave with empirical formula values of F. with different heat and mechanical treatments. (reckoned negative if compressive). and the range of stress A. such as Fig. satisfactorily solve the difficulty of finding definitely the limiting value. so that the nominal bending stress produced at each waist remained the same after fracture of the bar at other and more highly stressed waists. were made at a frequency of 2000 alternations per minute. III. 1914. are evidently connected by the equation A maI /„ to =/ . N. N. may be shown in this — — various ways graphically or algebraically. 1915. go.— 78 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. equal to about § of those for direct stress produced by bending. S and log. Also W. Stromeyer's Experiments} Experiments were made on a rotating bar with six successive " waists " and an overhanging dead weight. The value of F. or log. with a view to obtaining an approximate straight line relation between the variables to facilitate extrapolation of the value of S for an infinite value o. Report. the ratio of maximum stress to minimum is varied over a very wide field. Also see " The Elasticity and Endurance of Steam Pipes. Soc. 182. [CH. 19 14 and 1 1915 respectively. Limiting Stress with Various Eanges of Fluctuation. This represents one of various attempts which have been made to overcome the difficulty in determining the limiting range of stress (or the limiting maximum stress) by an asymptote from a diagram. maximum stress intensity (say tensile)^.. " Fatigue Limits under Alternating Stress Conditions." and "The vol. is the fatigue limit. . or limiting stress. Haigh's Experiments? These alternating stress tests on mild steel and brasses. F. which is insufficient to cause fracture is the number if repeatedly reversed indefinitely .
.
. •MirvumzMro Stress Tons per sy Fig.10 10 20 irvcfv. 54. S3. — Limiting ranges of stress. Fig.
Stanton and Bairstow's experiments seem to show that for wrought iron. 8 1 55. for some distance on either side dd' the range A is practically constant. and so far as can be 30 Sb a 20 1 •s 10 10 20 . Haigh's experiments in mild steel showed a fair agreement with Gerber's parabola with a value of « of about 097. 51] and RESILIENCE AND FLUCTUATING STRESS.ART. and over this region the variation of the stress is not great.
A between the Naval Brass. 56. but the reversal (2) Haigh found a relation of this kind maximum and limit minimum stresses in the case of Fig. as found by general experience and the experiments quoted in the preceding . = /. Explanations of Failure under Fluctuating Stress. 56. The divergence of the lines of maximum and minimum stress does not greatly alter the range in the immediate neighbourhood of the reversal limit. The relation is algebraically expressed by the equation /max. with an ultimate strength in tension of 287 tons per square inch.— Many attempts have been made to explain or to throw some light upon the failure of metals under repeated fluctuations of stress. and is represented by /mi = /— 0695 A ( (3) 52. and the method at least possesses the merit of simplicity.— — 82 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. was about 12 tons per square inch. ordinates of the shaded area in Fig. [CH. The straight line relation may conveniently be plotted with the mean or steady stress as abscissae. III.
1909. 2nd edition. 32) that the may be raised by the application of stress and strain. especially if might well cause fracture. 1 * . being slightly within the greatest tension which had been applied in the reversals. by comparing the elastic ranges assumed by a material after alternations of stress with the safe limiting stress ranges found by Wohler for the same (or very similar) material. 1 — By the application of reversed stresses in a statical experiment the elastic limit was sometimes lowered. 4 Unwin's ' ' Testing of Materials. is correct.E. pp." p.. and later Smith. 96 and 104. number of stress Stanton" and Bairstow found that after pieces of material had suffered over a million reversals of stress. Trans.) Phil. found that static tests of specimens which had resisted a large number of fluctuations of load showed no diminution. 2nd edition. Later experiments by Bairstow * appeared to show Bauschinger's surmise to be correct. experiments made by Bauschinger. Bauschinger found that after repeated stresses above the primitive elastic limit. but a slight increase. Roy.4 it appeared that raising the tensile elastic limit lowers the compression limit. a remarkable fact that Bauschinger. So:. Bauschinger found the material would stand an unlimited number of such repetitions." pp. 360. 1906. measure explained. it does not necessarily follow that the range between these natural limits is of equal magnitude for repetitions of one kind For some of stress. and that compression was slightly outside the greatest compressive stress which had been applied. the various theories are interesting and instructive. and these modified values for both tension and compression he considered to be the natural elastic limits He suggested that these natural elastic limits were of the material. however. If we regard the natural limits of elasticity as fixed for complete reversals of stress. however small. for permanent strains. the elastic If the repeated stress was less than the limit generally rose somewhat. C. If this theory. coincident with the limits of stress for an indefinite reversals. It is. new elastic limit to which the material was raised. * See " Elastic Limits of Iron and Steel under Cyclical Variations of Stress. Inst. the limiting range of stress was practically equal to the total elastic range taken up by the material as a result This offers considerable confirmation to of the fluctuating stresses." (Read May 13. Proc.ART. 83 of the and whilst there is no complete and satisfactory explanation phenomena observed.. limit of elasticity Natural Elastic Limits. and that the processes which wrought metal undergoes in manufacture produce an elastic limit thus artificially raised. but this cannot be regarded See Unwin's " Testing of Materials. It is well known (see Art. in tenacity. in of reversals the limiting range of stress is coincident with the elastic range. RESILIENCE AND FLUCTUATING STRESS. and experiments on this point are lacking. the elastic limit in tension was considerably below its primitive value. Wohler's and other results showing fracture with stresses much within the primitive elastic limit are in a considerable localised. 52] articles. 210. 353 and 364. that for an indefinite number Bauschinger's suggestion.
ii. Fig. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. Soc. Nov. Roy. may that raising the tensile limit. vol. Soc. Dec. 1912. Jan. An ingenious theory built mainly on this basis has been worked out by Mr. at any given stress. Williams. vol. .ton per square inch when the range of stress was 17 tons per square inch. Soc. Memoirs and Proceedings Manchester Litt. and suggests some explanation of fracture under repeated fluctuations of stress.) than in the static test. 57A may be taken to represent a hysteresis loop after sufficient reversals of stress for the material to assume a cyclical state. 4 See "The Elastic Hysteresis of Steel. some evidence in a static tesi at rate. 13. Brit. loading curve (see Fig. Proc. Hopkinson and G. and estimated that dissipated in a static test. but lower maximum limiting stress for reversal than for mere repetition of load. and so estimated the relation of the energy dissipated in a complete loop in the two cases." by B. is the difference of strain between the unloading and In Prof. 277. Soc. or Engineering. p. By experiments on long wires. or 340 times AB. Elastic hysteresis has subsequently been the subject of considerable research. p. 1899.. They concluded that the energy in the case of quick reversal was somewhat less (say 15 per cent. Proc. Frank Foster. and there any limit. The lag in between cycles of fluctuating stresses may cause a material at comparatively low stresses to accumulate considerable local strains. Assoc. xlviii. A. 528. p. Roy. and Phil. Rowett 6 has since found that the area of the hysteresis curve for annealed mild steel is 5^ strain vol. and the investigations may throw much light upon the question of failures under alternating stresses. lxxvii. and also the lower limiting stresses at higher rates of reversal. Roy. p. Series A. 6 Proc. * ' 1 See a paper by Muir. 1 is [CH. ultimately either raise or lower the compression Elastic Hysteresis at Low Stresses. F. T. 89. E. Ewing's experiments the width of the loop at the middle was of the order of — of the greatest strain. 502. 1912. 57).84 as proved. The width of the loop is greatly exaggerated. 8 It explains the larger limiting range. during unloading there is a lag in the diminution of strain so that a stressstrain diagram encloses a loop the width of which. III.. as found in Smith's experiments. pt. 291. Report. 91. and the vertical width AB for zero strain was found 4 to be 55. 1904. and vol. or that there is a lag of the strain during gradual loading . 21. Ewing has found 2 that for stress much below what is usually regarded as the elastic limit the strain is not strictly proportional to the stress. Hopkinson and Williams measured the energy dissipated in hysteresis during reversal at 120 cycles per second.
appear to vanish and become a line for a smaller range of Such a range they suggest is probably a " Bauschinger range. 48).. Also that at moderately high temperatures. such as 300 C. Fig. the hysteresis increases. But it is quite possible that finer measurement may reveal narrower loops in place of what appears to be an elastic line . With the annealed steel tube the " flow " at high temperature is much less than in the case of a static limits of stress which form " yield ranges " (Art. 52] RESILIENCE AND FLUCTUATING STRESS. the continuous increase of hysteresis from very low stresses to stresses near the yield point. .ART. 1 in examining these loops unannealed material. 57A. Whether or not the socalled " elastic " hysteresis is or is not a separate phenomenon from the hysteresis arising due to movement of 1 " StressStrain Loops for Steel in the Cyclic State. 85 practically the in same at a speed of reversals of 67 cycles per second as experiment. finally stress." Journal Iron and Steel Inst. and that the hysteresis in a harddrawn tube is very much less than in an annealed tube. shown by Rowett's experiments on annealed steel. make such a supposition not improbable. hysteresis loops are formed by stress and strain measurements when plotted. indeed. find they diminish in width with reduction of stress. In cycles between the experimentally." a range of perfect elasticity (between " natural elastic limits ") in the sense that no hysteresis loop is formed in going through a cycle of reversal of stress.e. and is then much greater at very slow speeds of reversal (which allow time for the material to flow) than at high speeds. I for 1915. and i. but Smith and Wedgwood. No.
— The lower limiting range of stress at high rates of fluctuation. appear to be recovery of is more probably of the nature of hardening subsequent whereby the development of cyclic nonelastic strain during the test appears to be definitely set back. exhibiting something of the nature of a recovery with rest. Thus the effects of a uniformly distributed direct — — " Speed Effect and Recovery in SlowSpeed Alternating Stress Tests. the cumulative effect of which may be very important in injuring the metal. such a case may well cause permanent strain. in considering experiDifferent Types of Tests. and Fig. however. a " Resistance of Materials to Impact.'' Proc. the crystals (see Art. It is quite probable that the coincidence of some natural period of vibration of a member of a machine with that of a periodic force impressed upon it may account for fractures which occur The augmented amplitude of vibration in in practice (see Art. ' Roy. 160). does not support the complete explanation by dynamic action such as may take place Such an explanation in a perfectly elastic body (see Arts. III. to remember the different types of apparatus for applying the stress. 29). [CH. Dynamic Effect of a Live Load.. 1916.e. has found a great reduction of nonelastic strain in changing the speed of the cycles from 2 to 200 per minute. and that the stress produced by accumulated impulses is really greater than that supposed.86 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. Mech." Proc. 51. which is not the actual stress at rupture (see Art. It has been suggested that the effect of repeated fluctuations of load in producing rupture is due to the fact that the load is not very gradually applied. 1908. Inst. where /is the real elastic limit as measured by the Wohler of alternating the reversal limiting stress for indefinite endurance stress. 53) under higher ranges of stress must at present be regarded as uncertain. condition of metals. 42). lends some support to such a theory. Critical Periods. 1 by experimenting on hollow mild steel specimens in torsion. quickly at first and then more slowly. mental results. 43 and 44). as in But the Smith's experiments. as determined by static tests of the elastic limit and tenacity after a large number of fluctuations. Soc. Stanton and Bairstow s have experimented upon the limiting resistance of metals to alternating tensile and compressive stress applied by the impact of a falling tup. . 56) has been advanced. but the augmented range of strain decreased. but any such explanation would have to take account of the fact that ductile metals under fluctuating stress often fracture without measurable elongation or alteration of area. but on strain. elasticity. whilst the tenacity is usually reckoned from statical experiments by the arbitrary standard of nominal stress on the original area. Part 4. Mason. This does not. Also there was a great increase on change of speed from 200 to 2 cycles per minute. giving a reversal limit of onethird and a repetition limit of onehalf the tenacity (compare last paragraph of Art. test. Eng. Their results point to the conclusion that the relative resistance of different materials to impact is proportional to f* — hi (see Art. i. It is important.
— Much attention has recently been devoted to the microscopic examination of specimens of steel which have fractured under repeated fluctuation or reversal of stress. It is believed that fracture ultimately takes place by the development of microscopic flaws into cracks by the concentration of stress produced at the edges of the region of the flaw. AND FLUCTUATING STRESS. vol. indicating that when subjected to heat there had been cracks the sides of which had suffered slight oxidation. probably. and is supported by less stressed metal. on the surface of fracture. These cracks quickly spread from crystal to crystal and quickly brought about fracture. just as of reversals of stress they do in plastic yielding. The experimenters attribute the formation of cracks to the destruction of cohesion by the grinding action on the cleavage planes (see Art. the distribution of stress under quick bending reversals is not known with inertia of stress applied impact or a certainty. as well as the results of general experience in the design and use of structures and machines. 1896. 24) often appeared on — its full tenacity. by tearing at the edge of the crack due to a concentration of stress. 50. In fact. slip bands increase in number as well as number broadening. Microscopic Investigation. point to the use of different working stresses according to the nature of the straining 1 See Andrews on " Microscopic Internal Flaws inducing Fracture in Steel. along which slipping to and fro takes place in reversals of stress. 1 Such a theory would explain the circumstance that material quite close to the area of fracture retains Experiments of Ewing and Humphrey? These included a microscopic examination of Swedish iron at intervals during the application of a sufficient number of reversals of stress to cause fracture. The observations showed that slip bands (see Art. 49) and traced the development of microcracks from slips in the crystalline grains of the metal.ART. * Phil. Factors of Safety for Varying Stress. 54] RESILIENCE by the critical period. some crystals after a comparatively small below the original yield With further reversals the stress." Engineering. —The various experi ments on fluctuating stress. Trans. as mentioned above. . 54. 24 on Microscopic Observations). Considerable evidence in support of this view is found in the production of a roughened surface of metal due to burring of the edges at the slip lines. Finally the numerous broadened slip bands developed into cracks across the crystal. on subsequently being fractured by further reversals showed. 87 moving masses may be affected by But a uniformly distributed stress test is much more likely to detect speed and other effects on endurance than a bending test in which only an indefinitely small area reaches the maximum stress. Specimens which had been subjected to heat after a great number of reversals of stress. which gradually spreads until it leads to fracture. July. heat tinting in patches. Roy Sac. Stanton and Bairstow also examined microscopically some of their specimens (Art. Evidence of the existence of cracks in the metal previous to actual fracture was found by Rogers in the research referred to in Art. 200. 53.
errors of workmanship. unvarying load. [CII. of the ultimate statical strength (Table III. Unwin gives the following table of factors of safety for different materials and circumstances : Table of Factors of Safety. be sufficient for mild steel to cover accidental and uncalculated straining actions. deterioration. say 3. The factor of safety as above denned would then be 8 or 9. or about \ or \ of the ultimate statical strength. and such contingencies for a steady. Art. then if the same allowance be made for similar contingencies in mild steel subjected to reversals of an appropriate working stress. 47). the maximum stress would be \ of the reversal limit of stress. 1 If a factor of safety or ratio of ultimate statical actions to be endured. . since the reversal limit is about from 30 to 40 per cent. strength to working stress of..— 88 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. HI.
Find the greatest height from which the load in question 6 may fall before beginning to stretch the bar in order not to produce a greater stress than 14 tons per square inch. If B receives an axial blow sufficient to produce a stress of 15 tons per square inch. 89 load of 560 lbs. is 1 inch and B. 8.liX.] RESILIENCE AND FLUCTUATING STRESS. are each 10 inches long diameter for a length of 2 inches and § inch diameter for the remaining 8 inches. A A . B is I inch diameter for 8 inches and j inch diameter for a length of 2 inches. Two round bars. of a vertical bar 10 feet long and 1 square inch in section. III. How much more energy could absorb in this way than B without exceeding any given stress within the elastic limit ? A A . find the stress produced by the same blow on A. If the stretch modulus (E) is 13. find the stress produced in the bar: 7.000 tons per square inch. falls through \ inch on to a stop at the lower end 6.
the we consider a beam carrying a number of transverse loads.CHAPTER 55. plane of section X. IV. *1 If in Fig. As beams are frequently horizontal. — — W. R2 . Beams and Sending. w. The system which . and the supporting forces or reactions R^ we divide the beam into two parts A and B by an ideal . as whole beam is in equilibrium under the action of the loads W]. is called a beam.. that is. Shearing Force and Bending Moment. it will be convenient to speak always of the beams as being horizontal and the external forces as vertical. W. Straining Actions on Beams. there are some transverse forces acting upon them in addition to longitudinal ones. 58. if and s etc. Before investigating the stresses and strains set up in bending. W4 >l »L_ L l^*I. This and the following four chapters deal only with beams which are straight or nearly straight. struts or ties. and the components perpendicular to the axis cause the straining called flexure or bending.— h —r n — Fig.. w5 ——h. further. A bar of material acted on by external forces (including loads and reactions) oblique to its longitudinal axis. 56. although the same conclusions would hold Members of structures are often beams as well as in other cases. the straining actions resulting from various systems of loading and supporting beams will be considered. 58. W W 2. each part is in equilibrium. THEORY OF BENDING.. and the external forces are weights.
Diagrams of Shearing Force and Bending Moment. and R x from X be tlt /2 . ' Statics. Applying the ordinary conditions of equilibrium 1 from statics. — 2 which 5) also equal to an R (w + w 4 Shearing Force. The balancing moment which B exerts on is called the moment of resistance of the beam at that section. the algebraic total horizontal component of those forces is zero. 9 keeps in equilibrium consists of the forces XV lt W„. 57. (3) If the distances of Xi respectively. the total or resultant + W. (2) Since the algebraic sum of the vertical downward forces . the action of A on B is equal and opposite. and R 1? 3 together with the forces exerted on by B across the section in virtue of the state of stress in the beam. force exerted is on A is Wj upward force +W + 2 vertical by B W. upward R. and is called the bending moment. and the vertical ordinates Some the bending moments or shearing forces.ART 57] THEORY OF BENDING. The moment exerted by B on must balance the above sum. the Wu W W 2. or the author's "Mechanics for Engineers" .*. 3. This total vertical component is the shearing force on the section in — X question.WA . Bending Moment. as the case may be. The above quantity is the algebraic sum of the moments of all the forces on either side of the section considered. + W. We may conveniently consider these latter forces by estimating their total horizontal and vertical components and their moments. The statical conditions of equilibrium show that the moment of resistance and the bending moment are numerically equal. and moment of the external forces on A about the section X is M = R. and is therefore of equal magnitude. also be shown graphically by plotting curves the bases of which represent to scale the length of the beam. /„. R. we conclude except (1) Since there are no horizontal forces acting on the piece those across the section X. their values at any given crosssection can often be calculated arithmetically. Both shearing force and bending moment will generally vary in magnitude from point to point along the length of a loaded beam. A W A X A on A is W. simple typical examples of bending moment and shearingforce curves also equal to . The resultant vertical force exerted by B on A is then equal to the algebraic sum of the vertical forces on either side of the plane of section . or general algebraic expressions may give the bending moment and The variation may shearing force for any section along the beam.W2/ WA W/ + W / — R^. which is is of clock4 6 5 wise sense if the above expressions are positive.. and 2 A — M A — See any textbook on (Longmans).
In each case [CH. 59. IV. with M BENDING MOMENT Fig.92 moment. Other cases of bendingmoment and shearingforce diagrams will be SHEARING BENDING MOMENT Fig. — Cantilever with end load. follow in Figs. appropriate suffixes to denote the position to which the letters refer. 8491). straining actions change with the position of the load : such cases are . F shearing force. 59 to 69. 60. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. inclusive. — Cantilever with several loads. In the case of moving loads the dealt with later (see Arts. and R represents bending reaction or supporting force.
62. 61. In plotting . rurv t. i. When a beam carries several different concentrated or distributed loads the bending moment LOADING Wper inch run SHEARING FORCE WxWX BENDING MOMENT Fig. wl'frij BENDING MOMENT SHEARING FORCE wlfajj BENDING MOMENT Fig. p^^^^j LOADING Wper inch. — Uniformly loaded cantilever. _». 57] THEORY OF BENDING. 93 dealt with in books on the Theory of Structures.ART. I ipjjs .i & wl' SHEARING FORCE J. at any and every crosssection moments produced by is the algebraic sum of the bending the various loads acting separately.
94 the STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 63. the former the value of the being the algebraic sum of the external transverse forces to either side . 59. and Figs. or to plot the two curves on opposite sides of the same baseline. In calculating the shearing force or bending moment at any given point. 6i. and 62 represent free at the other. the shearing force to zero. unknown supporting forces or reactions (Ri and R2). A ~5~ K. 64. the first step is usually to find freely I %% LOADING iSH EARING FORCE v////y/////////7z?zK BENDING MOMENT Fig. and equating the algebraic sum When all the external forces are known. These can conveniently be found by considering the moments of all external forces about either support. 60. 64. Figs. w? rf Gx)  —Freely supported beam with central cantilevers. 65. and carrying various loads as shown. 62. 2 3: ?r ' imy////////A y////////////M SHEARING FORCE BENDING MOMENT 7% 4S Fig. [CU. diagrams it is sometimes convenient to add the ordinates of diagrams for two separate loads and plot the algebraic sum. and bending moment are easily obtained for any section. 6$.e. beams firmly fixed at one end and 66 represent beams resting on supports at each end. i. or obtaining a symbolic expression for either quantity for every point over part or all the length of the beam. The two methods are illustrated in order in Fig. IV. load. and measure resultant values (vertically) directly from the extreme boundaries of the resulting diagram.
57] THEORY OF BENDING. at the rate of The distances of the centre of gravity of the load from the left. Tfc I oyer length. w opposite forces and moments on opposite sides of the baseline.cXb b R =w c 1 . .ART. per inch run over a length c of the beam. 66. . and the latter being the algebraic sum of the moments of the external forces to either side of the section. The question of positive or negative sign of the resulting sums is arbitrary and not very important. but in a diagram it is well to show p"^ wperinck run 1^2^ ^^m^f r Fig. 95 of the section. —Freely supported beam. J SHEARING FORCE >(**) BENDING MOMENT M x YZx^ — Freely supported beam with uniformly distributed load. R = we a . Take The load is uniformly spread the case in Fig. c SHEARING FORCE BENDING MOMENT Fig. Taking moments about the righthand support a +b= /.and light"* 1 iVyvWvvH 1 LOADING Wper inch. so the span of the beam between the supports. . 66 fully as an example. that hand supports of the beam are a and b respectively. R X^=w. 65.
( a .cj or at wc[ —jj or — a wc. is M = Over the loaded than a R^ x . from . x — wc(x 1 — b . and the value x by the vertical ordinate of the shaded diagram. the righthand support the or algebraically to Rj wc.e. M To the right of the load.^j\ = wc b J ( x.\x . IV. the lefthand c . shearing force (F) from the left support to the beginning of is equal to x Over the loaded portion. if x is greater than a and less + c .wc{x — b j a) = wc or. R 1 [CII. — F= w(j .wx+ ( w[^a  J or.e.e. x is less than a estimating moments on the left of the section. «> 7 +a. i.x . = mcj i.e. = = wca — wcx\( r — \ R„(/ — x) (a straight J or line) wca — wc x j • • a = n wc M — • a \ x) . b • x (a straight line) portion. when x is greater than a + .  J which equals zero when x = cz +a For the remainder of the length shearing force is numerically equal to i. . x =a F 1[ c to 2 x =a+ c . \ a) M. at a distance x from the left end.a + ) w The first term is represented by the lefthand dotted straight line. and the second by the distance between the curve and the straight line. to — R 2. = Rj x . left i. c esti mating to the M* = Ri . The bending moment (M) a section distant i.— — 96 The the load STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.e. x . 2 M.1 {x. if * from end to the beginning of the load.j\ X w e\' • \ \x  (a . 2 = R w\x 1 \^a ^j\ = wcj .
: . 97 much more simply found by taking the moments of the sole to the right of any section in the range considered. RfW F Zero SHEARING FORCE T W wl. at . 2lh with a uniformly spread load Fig. z. than the length of the beam.__. 68 shows a beam of length l2 4 + + A p LOADING . Fig. /3 24 and carrying shorter span. 67 represents a beam symmetrically placed over supports of Rj I Url. the bending moment is constant. Between the supports the shearing force is zero and equal end loads. 57] which force is THEORY OF BENDING.ART. 7. SENDING MOMENT k Fig. Wper inch run EARING FORCE BENDING MOMENT Fig. 67. placed on supports /? apart and overhanging them by a length each end The bending moment at the supports is— /. 68.
98 moment is [CH. (Longmans.P* = ™ (i + xT.**) 1 term of which is the bending moment at the supports. the two points are coincident (at mid span) if /2 2/1? and do not exist if 4 is less than a^. x 58. the bending moment will be zero and change sign at two the first second is points within the span./^x + l^ = w o o ~**V(9'g «. The proof of the statement follows easily from the similarity of triangles formed by producing the sides of the link polygon. at two points distant ^/{L?j A 2 } on either side of mid span.(4* . inches to 1 inch where the scale of force is / lbs.— — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. to the corresponding triangles in the vector polygon. to 1 inch. when • M = x o. x. 68 virtual hinge. have just been determined above from the equation o." where bending moments by fully treated. by choosing a pole horizontal line as the point /. where the been drawn on a horizontal base by making the vector in the same fo in the vector polygon horizontal. 65). when the bending moment does not change sigh.*) = x2 .h lb. and. graphical methods are more .e. viz. which divides the loadline abcde in the the corresponding sections.q . and the It is not necessary to draw the pole distance fo measures h inches. 1 and the scale of bending moment is p. provided /a is (see Fig. of distance q inches to 1. Bending moments of opposite sign evidently In a continuous curve tend to produce bending of opposite curvature. The vertical breadths of a funicular or link polygon for a system of vertical forces on a horizontal beam represent to scale the bending moments at = — M = — This is illustrated in Fig 69. Bending Moments from Link or Funicular Polygon. Within the span at a distance x from x / 4 either support the bending M x = W& 1 + x) x R." chap. or a The positions of the points of contraflexure for Fig. and this point of zero bending moment and change of sign is called a point of inflection or contraflexure. or 10 .*(4 . and the bending moment for a uniformly loaded span of length 4 The two terms are of opposite sign. i. link polygon has ratio of the supporting forces. long enough.) Or " Theory of Structures. Points of Contraflexure. IV. of bending moments change of sign involves passing through a zero value of bending moment.A . but the distance h must be estimated 1 For proof see the author's "Mechanics for Engineers.<r. diagram on a horizontal base.wx (i + \) 3 w = I? .
Sx  (i) . 591 horizontally. and SM the bending Let F and F + 8F be the shearing forces. 70. Relation between Bending Moment and Shearing Force. THEORY OF BENDING. but 8x is sufficiently small to take w as constant over that length. polygon. either uniformly or otherwise by dividing the load into a number of sections along the length of the beam. 59. shown projected from the vertical The same method of drawing the bendingmoment diagram to as close approximation as is desired is applicable to loads distributed w. A w B >' c " "E LOADING VECTOR POLYGON W^^Ll AND SHEARING FORCE O LINK AND POLYGON BENDING MOMENT Fig. 99 and the ordinates of bending moment must be measured is The shearingforce diagram loadline of the vector polygon. Equating upward and downward vertical forces on length Ix M M+ — F and + SF d¥ dx = F 8F = w + w&x . vertically. 69. The resulting funicular polygon will be a figure with straight sides.ART. Consider a small length Sx of a beam (Fig. and treating each part as a load concentrated at its centre of gravity. moments at either end of the length Ix as shown in Fig. 70) carrying a continuous distributed load w per unit of length. and the curve of bending moments is the inscribed (not circumscribed) curve touching the sides of the . where w is not necessarily constant.
the value of the bending moment is a (mathematical) maximum or minimum. . For example. the rate of change of shearing force (represented by the slope of the shearingforce curve) is numerically equal to the intensity of loading.e. FSjc. F„ (the total change in shearing force) = J w .— — IOO STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. of all external forces on the piece of length &s. a fact which often forms a convenient method of determining the greatest bending moment to which a beam In Fig. i. 61. constant are illustrated in the shearingforce These relations for diagrams of Figs. the total change of bending moment from x to x I is Fdx. and 68. The relation (2) indicates that the ordinates of the shearingforce diagram are proportional to the slopes or gradients of the bendingmoment curve. there being as much area above the baseline as below it. [CH. Or integrating between two sections * — . 66. 65. f + Sf Fig.*•„ apart F— or.8F)S.w .dx F= F + I w .r . 70. this area is zero between the ends of the beam in Figs.e. and 68. as in Figs. Where the shearing force passes through a zero value and changes sign. 65. about any point in the lefthand section w= OX M + (F 4. 66 the section at which is subjected. IV.lx x — = M f SM 8M = and i. Hence. dx J *» taking appropriate signs for each terra. integrating. Equating moments of opposite kinds. which is proportional to the area of the shearingforce diagram between the ordinates at x and *. 63 to 69 inclusive. to the first order of small quantities dM = dx F (*) the rate of change of bending moment is equal to the shearing force.
Between the points of loading. It is to — easily calculated. 64. . Example i. concentrated load in practice is usually a load distributed (but not necessarily uniformly) over a very short distance. or to the algebraic sum of the Signs. 57. and 69). taking account of sign forces being reckoned posiconsidered. Hence the bending moment is equal to the clockwise moment of the external forces to the right of a section or to the contraclockwise moment of the external forces to the left of the section. Concentrated Loads. and 69) is discontinuous. the above relations hold. The shearingforce diagrams for the two loads have been set off separately on opposite sides of a horizontal line. The loading is indicated at the top of Fig. — 60. the shearing force is equal to the downward internal force exerted to the right of any section. the curve of shearing force (see Figs. Find the position and magnitude of the maximum bending moment. For the i£ ton per foot load. and an additional load of ii ton per foot run for 12 feet from the lefthand end. F has been chosen as positive in (1) when its action is upwards to the left and downwards to the right of the section Hence. and the resultant diagram is shown shaded. . and and its value be noted that * being taken positive to the right downwards. The reactions due to the \ ton per foot are 5 tons at A and B. the centre of gravity of which is 6 feet from A A — (reaction at B) X 20 reaction at B hence reaction at A= 18  54 = 18 X 6 = 5 '4 tons = Ia6 tons) due \ . less) at fixed points In the case of loads concentrated (more or along the span. expression given in Art. tive downwards. Also M has been chosen as positive in (2) when its action is clockwise on the portion of the beam to the left of the section and contraclockwise to the right of the section. A beam 20 feet long rests on supports at each end and carries a load of \ ton per foot run. is At this point the bending moment is a maximum. and the vertical lines shown in the shear diagrams at the loads should really be slightly inclined to the vertical. 59] the shearing force is THEORY OF BENDING. and so also is the gradient of the bendingmoment curve. and the section at which the shearingforce curve crosses the baseline is a section having a maximum bending moment (see Figs. t0 second load .ART. b c/ 101 zero evidently divides the length c in the ratio £ . 7 1 at ACB. c a 2 from the left support. 63. It is evident that a positive bending moment will produce convexity upwards and a negative bending moment convexity downwards. using the F is zero at a distance + . or. or to the algebraic sum of the downward external forces to the left of the section. 63. and draw the diagrams of shearing force and bending moment. . however. 67. w positive upward external forces to the right of the section. 62. 67. there being at any given section only one value of the shearing force.
by vertical measurements between the boundaries. AB. = 8"4 then feet The maximum this ordinate 84 of curve is 126 X 84  84 X \\ X = At 5292 tonsfeet C the ordinate of this curve 5*4 is X 8 = 43*2 tonsfeet and to the right of 2. a distance from A which is given by i2"6r.2 peer >. [CH. For the 5. and carries a distributed load of 1 ton per foot run. 71. at B is reduced to 8 tons. and therefore reaches zero at a distance I7'6 —— or 8 8 feet from the lefthand support  The bending moment 176 at 8 '8 feet is x 88 — 88 X 2 x —= 8*8 77*44 tonsfeet The bendingmoment diagrams loading k . and falls off at the rate of 2 tons per foot run. 16 feet line. and bending moments. for the two loads have been drawn on opposite sides of the same baseline in Fig. shearing forces. The distance from the left support is perhaps most at D. IV. easily 1 found from the fact that the shearing force at the left support is 6 tons. what difference will it make ? Let Ro be the upward reaction at support C . giving a combined diagram for the two. hinged at A. If the load Find the reactions. as  shown The bending moment is a maximum where the shear force is zero. 5 is at the is middle of and X 10ix iox 5 = tonsfeet 25 For the i ton per footload alone the maximum occurs where the shearing force due to that load would be zero.i'S . 24 at C.7 — — — ——— 102 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. C it varies directly as the distance feet long. on a support from A.ton per foot load alone the maximum bending moment the span. is from B—the curve being a straight Example and rests —A horizontal beam. and an additional load of 32 tons at: B.
x 72) 103 Taking moments about 16 If the .ART. A (Fig. The bending moment at C is A tne total (32 X 8) + (8 X 4) = 288 tonsfeet This falls to zero at A and B. in the mathematical sense. in either range. giving a value 10 at A. 59 ] THEORY OF BENDING. Treating the problem with only 8 tons load at B i6R Total = (24 X 8) + (12 x R = 30 tons load = 24 + 8 = 32 tons R. From C to change at a uniform rate is 16 tons. 24 A = RA— + 32 — 66 = — 10 tons The shearingforce diagram is shown in Fig. where the shearing force is 32 tons. = 2 tons upward 24) = 192 + 288 = 480 . The bending moment 4 feel from B isx 4) ( 4 x 2 ) = ^5 t0nsfeet ^ + Midway between A and C (ro it is X is 8) + (8 X 4) = 112 tonsfeet The full diagram shown in Fig. Rc = (32 R = RA = or 10 tons 24) 66 tons at + (24 x 12) = 1056 upward reaction downward. where it Fig. it increases uniformly by 8 to C. From B. is reduced by 66 tons to 26 of opposite sign. and does not reach a maximum value. 72. 72. 72.
and bending moment are shown in is 8 tons. Fig. force at [CH. changing sign and passing through zero between C and A. IV. and increases by a further 1 6 at C.104 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. where it decreases by 30 tons to 14 of opposite sign. From C to A it changes by 16 to 2 tons at A.738 tons to The diagrams of shearing The shearing force B / ton per foot SHEARING .
i. Most of the same simple relations may generally be used as close approximations in cases of flexure which are not " simple. 6ll of 15 ton THEORY OF BENDING.and righthand ends respectively. the justification of the " simple theory of bending " must be the agreement of its conclusions with direct bending experiments. the dimensions. and with those of more complex but more exact theory of elastic bending. For this point the shearing force is The bending moment F= 20 <+£)800 feet  3^+ 40X — x = io 96 The bending moment at = = o 10 feet n  5 inches is a distance x feet a from the support 20* and when x —*X — 60 X x 2 — Xix "KOC^ 3* 40 = 10*96 feet M= 219 — 33 = 126 tonsfeet The shearingforce and bendingmoment curves may be plotted from the two above expressions for F and M. so that the righthand reaction due to this load will be f of 30 tons.ART. per foot run. Simple Bending." but which are of far more common occurrence. The load per foot at a distance 1 x feet from the left support is + jgX tons per foot since it increases The ton per foot per foot average over the length x feet is 5(1 ^ + 1 + io x x ) or x + £o x tons P er fo ot and the total load on feet is *(* + &*) a maximum when the shearing force is zero. 60. the strains involved from the shearing force being negligible. or is 1 05 30 tons in all j its centre of gravity will be f of the span from the left end. i.— The relations existing between the straining action. The total reactions are therefore 20 tons and 30 tons at the left. flexure by pure couples applied to a beam without shearing force. Theory of Elastic Bending. elasticity. at the section where the load carried to the left of it is equal to the lefthand reaction of 20 tons. the stresses.e. strains. A straight bar of homogeneous material subjected only to equal and opposite couples at its ends has a uniform — . and the lefthand one will be 10 tons. and curvature of a beam are under certain simple assumptions very easily established for the case of simple bending. In such cases. or 20 tons.e. 61.
It will be assumed that transverse plane sections of the beam remain plane and normal to longitudinal fibres after bending. The beam will be supposed to be of the same crosssection throughout its length. and if there is no shearing force. which seems reasonable since the straining action is the same on every section. [CH. the crosssection being symmetrical about an axis YY. 74. 67 for the beam between its two points of support. and is called the neutral of intersection ZZ with a transverse section is called the Tieuiral axis of that section. no longitudinal strain. The line EF represents the layer of material which is neither stretched nor shortened during bending. the layer of material at AC being extended to A'C. and symmetrical about a central longitudinal plane. After bending. is bending moment throughout its length. they will not be parallel. V6 Fig. This surface. said to suffer simple bending. In Fig.io6 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. and that at BD being pressed to B'D'. Such a straining action is illustrated in Fig. The assumption is called Bernoulli's. — Simple bending. 74. IV. central longitudinal sections before and after bending and a transverse section are shown. as shown at A'B' and CD'. in and parallel to which bending takes place. Consider any two transverse sections AB and CD very close together. surface suffers Its line EF .
and therefore the portion. 74 and 75). Since the stresses on opposite sides of the neutral surface are of opposite sign or kind. E is the same in compression as in The intensity of direct longitudinal stress p at every point in the crosssection is then proportional to its distance from the neutral axis .ART. CD' produced OE' 107 Suppose the section A'B' and to intersect. its value at unit distance (i. Let y be the height (E'G') of any layer (H'G') of material originally parallel to the neutral surface FE. of the neutral surface E'F' about is R. 75. say. provided that the layers of material behave under longitudinal stress as if free and are not hindered by the surrounding material. supposed 62. The intensity of compressive stress will be the same at an equal distance y on the opposite side of the neutral surface.—The beam has been subjected to pure couples only.HG _  E'F' (R+y)6R6 R6 y HG E'F R The longitudinal tensilestress intensity p at a height y from the neutral surface. being in equilibrium . which has not the same intensity of stress. 62] THEORY OF BENDING. and it reaches its greatest value at the boundary furthest from the neutral surface. in a line perpendicular to the figure that the radius of curvature H'G' : (R +y)6 _ R+y R E'F and the strain at the layer R6 is H'G' H'G' H'G' . provided the limit of elasticity has not been exceeded. to the left under one of the section AB (Figs. Then (radians). they may be represented as at aeb. is therefore p = E. The variation in intensity of longitudinal stress is as shown in exerted Fig. where the arrowheads denote the direction of the force by the portion R on the portion L at the section AB. at y= 1) is E jT.e= E I R (1) where E is Young's modulus.e. at an angle and O and represented by 0. provided tension. Position of the Neutral Axis.
in E all parts of the crosssection involves the assumption that the value of an assumption justified E is the same in compression by experiment within the limits of Assumptions made in the Theory of Simple Bending. as if separate from other layers (2) law.e. is free to expand or contract (3) That every layer of material longitudinally and laterally under stress. •%{p . 76. 8a) = o or 1(J z . we can find the Fig. 61 E ^%(y. = o or s(. the algebraic sum of the horizontal internal forces must. . these forces must exert a couple balancing the external one in the plane of bending. 76.8y) represents the total moment of the area of section about the neutral axis. . i. and obeys Hooke's and the limits of elasticity are not exceeded.— io8 — — [CH.y . as in Fig.8a) . be zero. let 8a or z . of the value ^'y for/. like the external ones. It may be well assumptions made in the above theory of " simple bending." under the conditions stated after (1) That plane transverse sections remain plane and normal to recall the — bending. 8y be an elementary strip of its area parallel to the neutral axis ZZ. externally applied couple and the forces acting across AB. the internal forces exerted across AB are wholly horizontal (or longitudinal). The crosssection of the beam in Fig. isotropic. zBy) =o . 8y) =o and since by (1). . 74 position of the neutral axis.z. the total horizontal force being zero the section. Art. That the material is homogeneous. The (vertical) shearing force being nil. and since they form a couple the total tensile forces must balance the compressive ones. IV. but this is not necessary to the argument Taking any other crosssections symmetrical about the plane of bending YY. is symmetrical about a horizontal axis. z being the (variable) width of Then. The use as in tension. Putting this statement in symbols. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. elasticity. (2) the quantity 2(j> 8a) or %{y . and this can only be zero if the axis passes through the centre of gravity or centroid of the section.
y. moment of inertia of the area of the section by I. which is called the moment of resistance (see Art. 21) . Value of the Moment of Resistance. .8a) and putting = %{p .la and the moment of this stress is or p.y . is 8a. but some modified elastic consant (see Art. .ly p. and the intensity of stress produced. p — Having found the in tensity of longitudinal stress (p = ^ 'y) at any distance y from the neutral axis. (3) The sum 2(ja8«). it remains to express the value of the couple. or z 8y. at a distance y from the neutral axis.z.Sy is moment throughout the section or M. 63. would not be Young's modulus.y.e. multiplied by the squares of their distances from the axis.z . but the relation would otherwise remain unaltered.ART. 109 Otherwise.&») or \%{zfly) .ly) p = E y (Art. the elementary area of crosssection. 6668. in terms of the dimensions of the crosssection. (4) That the modulus of direct elasticity has the same value in compression as for tensile strains. when the elements of area are diminished indefinitely. represents the limiting value of the sum of the products of elements of area. 6i. and is usually called the Moment of Inertia of the area of The values of the moments of inertia for the section about the axis.la and the total or p. the intensity of stress upon it is * E is The total stress on the elementary area p . as in the previous article. If we denote the various sections are dealt with in Arts. 63] THEORY OF BENDING. 76. and . k • 61) M = a(/. . E in the relation (1).y. or %(zy*8y). Using Fig. and knowing that these longitudinal internal forces form a couple equal to the bending moment at every section. M = 2(p. 56). Art. so that S(/8a) the formula (3) becomes = S(*^) = I „ M= Et r or ME = r r ^ .
[CH. and yc will be equal.^(6) is ° r> M =/«•=/« The variation of intensity of stress for an unsymmetrical section shown in Fig. M=E i C y.— HO and since by (i). 61. occur at the layers of material most remote from the neutral axis. the distances y. 75 and 76. Thus.. y. R /«=M^ / = M. we have y I R E ^. 75 at ddb' For sections which are symmetrical about the neutral axis. so that the quantity — I U=f* 1 is called the modulus of section. the modulus of section would have the two values — y which t and — y c may be denoted by Z.y M or we have the intensity of longitudinal stress at a distance y from the neutral axis. The extreme values of /. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.y ^ 5. put this relation in the form If we p = j. These relations are important and should be remembered. and is usually denoted by the letter Z. in Figs. IV. and^ being the extreme intensities of tensile and compressive stress t respectively f / = / = /c = y or. being each half the depth of the If we denote the half depth by ylt and the equal intensities section. if the extreme layers on the tension and compression sides are denoted by yt and yc respectively. and Z„ so that the ( relation (6) becomes (8) M=/Z = / ZC . In the less usual case of unsymmetrical sections. of extreme or skin stress by/. = = / (the E stress intensity at unit distance from the neutral axis). in terms of the bending moment and dimensions (I) of crosssection. — ——— — . so that M = /Z or / = £ M (7) the moment of resistance (M) being proportional to the greatest intensity of stress reached and to the modulus of section. or in terms of the radius of curvature and an elastic constant for the material. tensile and compressive. Art.
71. For most practical cases the theory of "Simple Bending" (Arts. 61 and Fig. and the deflection due to shearing in Art. which produces a (vertical) shear stress across transverse sections of the beam (see Figs. and Pearson's " History of Theory of Elasticity. 14 and 73) at that point. pp. at points in the crosssection there will be tangential as well as normal longitudinal stresses. we have (1) The total vertical components of stresses across a vertical section are together equal to the algebraic sum of the external forces to either side of the section. to the shearing force F. and in such cases the intensity of shear stress can be calculated sufficiently nearly by the method of Art. has investigated the flexure of a beam assuming freedom of every layer or fibre to contract or expand laterally. it often happens that where the shearing force is considerable the bending moment is small. Venant. under longitudinal tension or compression. but such instances are not usual. and generally bending action is accompanied by shearing force. In such cases the forces across any section at which the shearing force is not zero have not only to balance a couple. Further. 1 St. and there is then no reason to assume that plane sections remain plane. but without the assumption that plane sections remain plane after bending. verse section of a horizontal beam carrying vertical loads. 59. 96.— The case of simple bending. etc. the maximum longitudinal stress occurs at the section of maximum bending moment . and Figs. Art. His conclusion is that Bernoulli's assumption and equations of the type (5). i. and. 5369. therefore. the reader is referred to Todhunter. 74. 59 to 66. i. from the three usual conditions of equilibrium. applicable is constant. and 63) is quite sufficient. pt. 61. the longitudinal stress at any point in the crosssection is evidently not the principal stress (Arts. Summary of the Simple Theory of Bending." vol. 71. It may be noticed that in many cases of continuous loading the greatest bending moment occurs as a mathematical maximum at the sections for which the shearing force is zero (Art. when the shearing force For the more exact elastic theory of St. 62. Ordinary Bending. — ' See footnote to Art. and the strain is not of the simple character assumed in Art. At any trans65.e. When the shearing stresses are not zero. but also the shearing force at the section. In this book the usual engineer's practice of using the simple beam theory will be followed. 65] THEORY OF BENDING.). The approximate distribution of this tangential stress is dealt with in Art. Venant. only hold exactly when the bending moment from point to point follows a straight line law. and calculate their stresses and strains with a considerable degree of approximation. and gives results which enable the engineer to design beams and structures. in numerous cases where the section of the beam is uniform throughout its length. and for which the conditions correspond with those for simple flexure. refers only to bending where shearing force is absent. dealt with in the previous articles. 63. . ii. 63 to 69). the usefulness of the simple theory in such a case is evident. Ill 64. a few modifications in the strains and stresses in certain cases will be mentioned. 71. 1. to other cases. a celebrated French elastician.e.ART.
and stresses in pounds or tons per square inch. to the bending moment M. be bent without the skin stress exceeding 5 tons per square inch? (E = 13. Hence R= in Example induced drum 2. Example i.500 x xo —= its . The The [CH. it should be remembered that the units must be consistent. 12 inches deep. The . which x is 6 inches. algebraic total horizontal force is zero.200 inches.inches or toninches. and the vertical distance from the neutral axis to the outer boundary of the section respectively. IV.) Since — A ? ^ R R "R • X ^ y being the half depth. 2 5 feet diameter? (E 13. or moment of resistance. moment and being 2654 inch of inertia of a symmetrical section depth 24 inches.— 112 (2) — • 5 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. longi any point in a crosssection is proportional to the same distance. moments of longitudinal stress — R /_ M }~T E /. «'. total moment of resistance of the horizontal forces across the section is equal to the algebraic sum of the moments of the external forces to either side of the section. the bending moment. If elastic limit is not exceeded. = R = y y where/! andyl are the intensity of skin stress. y is 5 x R =^ ^  inch. or p Summing the <* y and E p= p y .500 tons per square inch. find the stress inch thick. by bending it round a a strip of spring steel. 22 5 tons per square inch Example 3. find the longest span . —The untis. longitudinal strain is proportional to (3) the distance from the neutral axis.)  — — the ! = 16. as crosssections are usually stated in inches.«. radius being 1 inches /1 = = 13. If plane sections remain plane.500 tons per square inch. To what radius of curvature may a steel beam of symmetrical section. In applying these relations to numerical examples. in it is well to take lb. hence. or 1350 feet = ^ AThe greatest value of . tudinal stress intensity at e being equal to y i .
4. 2. beam rests on supports 16 feet apart. IV. per foot run. 3 feet from the free end. tons per foot run. Find the bending moment at the support. and 6 tons at distances and 8 feet respectively from the free end. and at C 20 feet 6. the section which has a maximum bending moment and the amount of that = 2 Obtain numerical values when / = 18 feet and bending moment. 65) M = /. and carries a load of 200 lbs. Find the bending moment force at the fixed end and at the middle section of the beam. and a further load of 12 tons uniformly spread over 8 feet to the right from a point 6 feet from the left support ? What is the amount of the maximum bending moment. is ia inches JLvLv/ / 9 1ev S"»4 = /= 80 x 7'5 X 2654 — = 132. and carries. How far from the ends must the supports be placed if the greatest supports. . which increases 5. a load of 2 tons (total) uniformly distributed over its whole length and concentrated loads of i£ ton and § ton. and draw the diagrams of shearing force and bending moment. horizontal beam 30 feet long is supported at from A. Hj over which. Find the point of contraflexure in the previous example if there is an to C. — and^i the half depth . the load per inch run being — 1*2 . A w w A AB A A A A A I . cantilever 10 feet long weighs 25 lbs. including its own 3. uniformly from zero at the lefthand support to a maximum tons per foot Find the distance from the lefthand support of at the righthand support.700 364 inches. or o'i ton. Find the bending moment at the supports and at midspan. the maximum bending moment which a occurs at midspan is And since M = i x oi x / (see Fig. Where does the maximum bending moment occur in a beam of o.] THEORY OF BENDING. and what is the bending moment at midspan ? beam of span I feet carries a distributed load. 5. Draw the diagrams of bending moment and find the point of contraflexure. A cantilever 12 feet long carries loads of 3. or 30 feet 4 inches Examples 1. when simply supported.CX. and carries a load of 7 tons at B and one of 10 tons midway between and C. and carries a load of 1 ton per foot run throughout its length. 7. beam of length / carries an evenly distributed load and rests on two 9. If /= span in inches. girder 40 feet long is supported at 8 feet from each end. Where are the points of contraflexure ? Sketch the curve of bending moments. Find the bending moment 4 feet from the lefthand support. additional distributed load of J ton per foot run from 8. weight. and shearing A A 24 feet span carrying a load of 10 tons uniformly spread over its whole length. IV. 2. a beam could carry a uniformly distributed load of i'a ton per foot run. and the position and magnitude of the maximum bending moment. 4. 7. 5 feet and 9 feet respectively from the left support. without the stress exceeding 7*5 tons per square inch.
? STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. stress ? of symmetrical section 10 inches deep be bent without producing a skin stress greater than 6 tons per square inch. Find the greatest intensity of direct stress arising from a bending moment of 90 tonsinches on a symmetrical section 8 inches deep. and the allowable intensity of stress 75 tons per square inch ? What load at the centre might be carried with the same maximum 15. 7 tons midway between the supports. 11. Calculate the moment of resistance of a beam section 10 inches deep. the moment of inertia of which is 145 inch units when the skin stress reaches 75 tons per square inch. It carries a load of 5 tons at the lefthand end. as small as apart. If the beam in the previous example carries of 1 ton per foot run between the supports. A to which the beam is subjected is to be Where are the points of contraflexure ? beam 18 feet long rests on two supports 10 feet [CH. the moment of inertia being 75 inch units. 14. and find the points of contraflexure. IV. 12. Find the bending moment at the middle section of the beam and at midspan.114 bending moment possible 10. the depth of section being 12 inches. and 3 tons at the righthand end. if E = 13. over hanging the lefthand one by 5 feet. find the an additional load bending moment at midspan and the positions of the points of contraflexure. the moment of inertia being 375 inch units. 13. if the moment of inertia of the section is 211 inch units ? To what radius may a beam .500 tons per square inch? What would be the moment of resistance. What total distributed load may be carried by a simply supported beam over a span of 20 feet.
and I G is the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the centroid. and the moment of inertia (I) or second moment of the area of crosssection. viz. The moment of inertia of any plane area about any axis in its plane exceeds that about a parallel line through its centre of gravity (or centroid) by an amount equal to the product of the area and the square of the distance of the centroid from the axis. moment of inertia about an axis in its plane. the neutral axis of the section. relation was found between the bending moment.8A)' A moment — A two axes I = Ia +/A 2 (1) or. Theorem (1). if I is the moment of inertia of an area axis in the plane of the figure. calculation of the quantity I for various simple geometrical The about various axes will now be briefly considered. and / is the distance between the that value of at which.CHAPTER 66. V. the radius of gyration (k) of the area about that axis is defined by the relation figures The &>A= or k is I were concentrated. Two simple theorems are very useful in calculating moments of inertia of plane figures made up of a combination of a number of parts of simple figures such as rectangles and circles.SA) can often be easily carried out by If A be the area of any plane figure and I its ordinary integration. about any Otherwise. the y of inertia would be the same as that of the actual figure. summation denoted by X(y 2 .8A) where values of y are the distances of elements of area SA from the axis about which the quantity I is to be estimated. the quantity I being defined by produced the relation I=5(y. Moment at of Inertia of a Section Area. if the area = 2(/. the stress produced. dividing each term by A Jf^kf +P . 63 a the straining action and the dimensions of the beam. (2) . —The intensity of stress any point in the crosssection of a beam depends upon In Art. the depth of the beam. STRESSES IN BEAMS.
L%. Theorem (2). Similarly about YY (1) About DC. The moment of the two areas shown in Fig. as follows. radius of gyration about any axis distant / from is the the centroid and kQ that about a parallel axis through the centroid. parallel to In either case — XX XX Ixx = ^(BD 3 ba*) Triangular Area.— Il6 where k —— — —— [CH. and OY respectively. since r" = x1 f y\ where r. 77. —The moment of XX XX inertia of the rectangle Fig. by taking strip elements of area b. The sum of the moments of inertia of any plane figure about two perpendicular axes in its plane is equal to the moment of inertia of the figure about an axis perpendicular to its plane passing Or. of the figur for 2(r» 8A) . = 2(/ .dy parallel to may be found . by theorem Ido above \bd> = Ixx + bd. and OY intersecting in O. OX. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. Rectangular Area. V.101. Hollow Rectangular Area and Symmetrical I Section. if I z I x and I y through the intersection of the other two axes. and * are the distances of any element of area 8A from OZ. OX. using the notation given in the figure. 78 are of inertia about the axes equal. OX and OY being in the plane when y — . . ( j = W(£ + i) = = \"bfdy = JW* d which might also be obtained by integrating thus Ido y being measured from DC. about the axis A «a T y~> B . for the difference of distribution of the areas in a direction does not alter the moment of inertia about that line.(y SA) + 2(/SA) = / a . are the moments of inertia about three mutually perpendicular axes OZ. y. 8A) + 2(**8A) or 2{(* 2 + /)8A} ABCD.A + o + I G 2 is measured from an axis through the centroid. the base b — — For any of the triangles shown in Fig. The proof of the theorem may be briefly stated as follows : I = 2{(/ + j>)2SA} = 2{(/ a + 2ly +f)8A) = / 2(8A) + 2lS. 79 about .
.
Moment of Section inertia Modulus of section (Z).— u8 and — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. The reactions at the ends are each f ton. [CH. and the bending moment at the centre is — 5X8x12 = The modulus and if 72 tonsinches of section (Z) is given by s = 72 Z = 96(inches) = \d \bd* = &*» = 96 d = ^1152 = io'5 inches nearly b = 5 '25 inches X Z b . and the modulus of section (Art. W^ Kb^ d 4 V"? hB» X2 m . I« = Irt = (R4  > A ) or ^(D 4 d') Modulus of Section (Z). When the foregoing plane figures are the crosssections of beams. If the maximum stress is not to exceed f ton per square inch and the depth is to be twice the breadth. A timber beam of rectangular section is to be simply supported at the ends and carry a load of ij ton at the middle of a 16feet span. 63) is equal to this moment of inertia divided by the half depth — (!) The various values are shown in the annexed table.' a (BD !  W) b°rl 64 32 g^ 4 *') 32 m Example i. V. Ixx. the moment of inertia about the neutral axis is usually one of those given above. determine suitable dimensions.
82. The most economical section for a constant straining action will evidently be one in which practically the whole of the material reaches the maximum in I I a I I For example." . Common Steel Sections. tional to the distance from the neutral axis. although they often represent the crosssection of parts of machines and structures subjected to bending action. This suggests the I section. 67] STRESSES IN BEAMS. the moment of inertia 2(y8A). neglecting the thin vertical web. point of a crosssection is proporFig. to resist economically a bending moment. situated at nearly the full half depth. 82) or built up > by riveting In such a section most of the area is together component parts. the internal diameter being f of the external. approximates to ) Such plate girders are dealt with in the author's "Theory of Structures.ART. which is the commonest form of steel beams whether rolled in a single piece (see Fig. 119 Example 2. The resistance to bending being proportional to the modulus of section. Compare the weights of two beams of the same material and of equal strength. for there is a considerable body of material situated about the neutral surface which carries a very small portion of the stress. one being of circular section and solid and the other being of hollow circular section. do not form the — sections for the resistance of flexure with the greatest economy of material. Such geometrical figures as rectangles and circles. much of the area of crosssection should be placed at a maximum distance from the neutral axis. if is the diameter of the hollow beam and d that of the — D solid one 32 D A — v 176 — 1 '35 The weights solid are— d' 3 hollow ~D  (f D) 1 ^ X \d) ™ X (II3S) 2 ~ J " 11 67. which produces a longitudinal direct stress the intensity of which at any tensity of stress. so that.
Sections. we mav T — .w I I I I I d I R u i h T . or the radius of gyration approximates to . the rounding is neglected and the section regarded as consisting of rectangles. These sections will usually have rounded corners. etc. the moment of inertia may be calculated by division. 82 may generally be calculated by dividing it into triangles.d approximately where mean thickness of the flange. of a rolled I section such Fig. A graphical method suitable for any kind of section is given in the next article. and spandrils as shown in is Fig. Z. for they exaggerate by taking the flange area wholly at . the neutral axis XX and underestimate as that in rectangles. 83. and if they are known exactly.t. If. etc. 83. however.120 STRENGTH OF MA TERIALS. could scarcely be adhered The moments of inertia of to in manufacture with similar exactness. as in Fig. and applying theorem (1) of Art. and the modulus of section. d = b. which is the moment of inertia divided by d . for all the dimenthough specified with great precision. by neglecting the vertical The moment of inertia. and leads sions. V.1 Fig. the sections recommended by the Engineering Standards Committee have been worked out by the exact method and tabulated. as in Fig. circular sections. 83. [CH. 84. 84.. are often very close to the true values. but such a process very laborious b. approximates to— (area of two flanges) d X or Z= t is the zbty.from web. generally measured in a These approximations rolled section at \ the breadth from either end. 66. to a result of perhaps needless exactness. Fig.
1 hen find the moment of PRSQ and VWUT— I T<i about PQ taking = lB. 8A).T) + (b. a planimeter being used to measure the areas. such points as and to by lines meeting Through the points so derived.T + ^6. and B lt etc. (i). or 50. preferably the point and distant d from it . Repeat the process on this figure. as h will not generally be so simple a number as the main dimensions. Join project lines perpendicular to SS.d)\= (B.d' + 6. Draw any line SS parallel to in XX. draw in the modified in A. .iT) inertia I PQ + {b. Q = PQBA the line XX. To determine the moment and moment of and then apply theorem — moment) of sections which are not made up of simple geometrical figures. some approximate form of estimation must generally be employed. Graphieal Determination of Moments.T. meeting it in in P. about any axis XX. and M.&)T» + I£(T + d)* (i). tous le =IB(. that in Fig.l(B 3 *)«*» . 68] proceed as follows. Art. 94. 1 2 centroid from the edge Find the distance h of the centre of gravity 01 PQ by the methods of moments. and the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the centroid. thus A{(B. 85). AB across the figure parallel to XX.(BT + bd)l? Another alternative would be to find I xx directly by subdivision into rectangles and application of theorem (i) Art. To find the moment and moment of inertia of any plane figure (Fig. probably the following inertia (or second the simplest.. and a graphical method offers a convenient solution. and Moments of Inertia of Areas. etc. 66 to find I xx Precisely similar principles may be applied to find the moment of inertia of any section divisible into rectangles and not symmetrical about the neutral axis. 66. choose any pole Draw a number of lines. proor first derived area P I QiB 1 A 1 jecting PiQa at NjMi and obtaining P2 2 and a second modified figure Then or derived area P2 2 B 2 A 2 moment of area about (First derived area PjQiBjA ) x d is APQB XX O PQ N M N O . etc. 68. e. and Q_i. this will generally involve multiplications of rather less simple figures than in the above methods. PQ AB Q . such as and nearest to the figure APQB.g.ART. STRESSES IN BEAMS. Yet another plan would be to find the moment of inertia about VW./+T) . Of the various graphical methods. From the extremities P and Q. 66.d)(T + \d) the rectangles 6 from which h can be found.d(T + ^/f 3 or taking the rectangles I PQ VWNM and twice RTMP = i(B . Having found I P(J) apply theorem Ixx whence = Ip« . Art. Centroids.
z u and z 2 respectively. Zj dy. a strip is reduced to P 1 the l in be denoted by . which Then given by therefore proportional to the moment of the equal to A.M XX z. and z2 dy. V. d.dy .8\) _A 2(3A) = A' 1 . and their width at any distance y from M. or $g. Then elementary strips PaQi.— 122 and or — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. = ^%(y . PQ ratio y to d. Ab —Let the areas PQBA. = Jyz. or 8 A. . And <P about a parallel axis through the centre of gravity Ig=Ix Proof.z. I xx 2 2 2 2 — [CI1.dy SA) Taking the sums A„ or 3(8 A.z. or— 8A =^. In the first derived figure. (area P^BA) PQBA) 1 1 1 2 (area 1 .8A 1 Q or z x dy =y . P Q B A and A2 and P 2 Q2B 2 A 2 be represented respectively. Sa) = ~^(y fady .dy) or in integral form. PQj p iQi> and .d 2 by A. The area area A] or A about the XX.). SAu and SA 2 of area are respectively equal to z dy. = area P Q B A X second moment of area PQBA about XX. centroid of the area is at a distance y from is is S^A^ A XX _SQ '.
) A 01 2. A from XX is ^ • "» by theorem IQ 66 2 = A.zx . or 2i(j. each line. 8A) fzstty = A Jy . M R Fig. 85. M.ART.SA^^SA or y y* And taking the sums or S(8A 2). perpendicular from the points such as P or A on viz. across the area PQBA.a(^)V = ^A  ^) modified construction is shown in Fig. 86. ^ . = l %(y d . 86.dy moment is The area A 2 is therefore proportional to the second moment of the area about Ixx XX. which 2 . equal to Aj of inertia or x d2 . a different one is used for slightly R. second derived figure the strip 123 is P^ further reduced P2 Qjj in the y ratio „ and SA^.z. . or —A d And since the distance of the centre of gravity of (1) of Art. 8A.A/ = Aa^ .) = j2 S(/. 8 A. such as PQ or AB. instead A of using a constant pole as at O in Fig. .dy = jjy2 . XX by the foot of the this means the . where. 68] Again to in the STRESSES IN BEAMS.
S vaiue °f Ig by tne distance to the extreme JiS§§§lffillli&8t\ f tension or compression layers according to which modulus of section is required (see (8). Figs. This construction is rather easier to use in and 2 B 2 A respectively. are methods shown in Figs. A. Fig. many cases. lefthand side of the perimeter of the original and derived areas are the same. and in other cases by dividing the .124 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 93 gives the alternative construction of . 88. 63). V. and with the same care should give rather better results PQ Fig. 87 and 88 represent rail sections. 87. Art. Fig. PQjBiA. 85. than the previous one for areas which are not symmetrical about an axis perpendicular to XX. 92 the moment of about the usual neutral axis is found directly for half the section with' ut the use of theorem (1). Figs. in the case of sections symmetrical about the neutral axis. In this Fig. the areas A. 91 and 92 represent symmetrical I beam sections. 87 and 88. u and A^ being shown by PQBA. be found by dividing the value of I G by the halfdepth.gives the modulus d of section Z for the beam. the moment of inertia being found as in in Illustrations of these graphical FlG 8 9 85. 66. 87 to 93 inclusive. Figs. Art. 86 applied to the same rails as those Figs. 89 and 90 represent the modified construction of Fig. the centroid and moment of inertia being found as in Fig. inertia case twice the inner area multiplied by . [CH. The modulus of section Z may. but in Fig.
92 first derived area A a is evidently such that if the whole were subjected to uniform stress of the intensity which exists at the outer and 93 the Fig. 90. Fig. the ratio that at (j to  \ in which the intensity of stress upon it is less than is the outer skin. 92. 93. The first derived area of a beam section sometimes called a modulus figure. skin of the beam. the total stress on the half section would be the same as is actually brought into play in the half section during bending this is evident since every strip of original area has been reduced in : Fig. "5 86 applied to the same section as that in Fig. 92. 68] Fig. . 91. In Figs. Fig.ART. STRESSES IN BEAMS.
together with the (equal) total thrust at the centroid of the modulus figure (which is the centre of pressure) on the compression side.being the half depth. it is useful to remember modulus tion that the expression — \yzdy represents the area of the figure between the lines corresponding to the limits of integra and parallel to the neutral axis. In comparing algebraic and graphical methods. V. The principal axes and of a plane area may be defined as the rectangular axes in its plane.8A) S(*« . or Momental Ellipse. Principal Axes of a Section.— 126 — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. y) of any point P. The longitudinal forces across a transverse section are statically equivalent to the total of the tensile forces acting at the centroid of the modulus figure on the tension side. . The " centres " of the parallel longitudinal stresses on either side of the neutral axis will evidently be at the centre of area or centroid (or centre of gravity) of the modulus figure. Ellipse of Inertia. called the product of inertia (or product moment). SA). SA) = = I. sin 2 K k* cos 2 a k. and through the centroid such that the sum %{xy . = cos a5(* SA) 2(a/ 2 SA) cos aS(aySA) . sin 2 a = a* cos 2 a + k^ si /e„" cos > since 2(xySA) = . sin a PM=y=y cos a — x sin a 2 sin 2 f hence I„. jd or . x and y being the rectangular coordinates of an element SA of the area with reference to and OY. = 2 sin 3 a2(/8A) + a or kj* yIx = I„ COS2 a + I. 93*. 93A for the coordinates (x'. 68a.a(8A) = £/2(8A) Then the mo ment of inertia of the area about any perpendicular axes OX' and OY' in its plane when OX' is inclined at an angle a to OX side maybe found by writing from the right hand of Fig. (1) Also similarly . = I. = V. OM=a/=* cos a+_y Fig. 2 sin' •} W . is zero. cos2 a + ( I. — OX OY OX Let a(/. [CH. I.
For result < A v ^'^+Vr + + I„... and others might be found similarly.. kx and kv the values of k about the two principal axes.. . The radius vector in the direction OX'. it is called an inertia curve for the given section. 66. equal to OB). Fig. Let I„ be the moment of inertia about OW. If OA = OA'. or by inspection of the ellipse. for example. OD k *»' k ~ OD a curve be drawn such that every radius vector measured from O is k. Then applying (2) I„ = l x cos 2 (o + 45°) + I.+ (3) (I f IJsin*a IJ (1) Hence by (I. Its value is O OD OC .. 93A..  I. 93A be set off to represent k and OB = OB' to y represent kx and an ellipse ABA'B' be drawn with OA and OB as semiprincipal axes. .. . If the section has an axis of symmetry that is evidently one principal axis. which follows directly from Theorem (2) Art. sin 2a) . a case in point is an angle section with equal sides. and the moment of inertia about a third axis OW. Also since the product is constant in an ellipse (viz. and the principal or maximum and minimum moments of inertia may be found from the moments of inertia about two perpendicular axes OX' and OY'. (3 ) a property of the ellipse is OC2 = OA2 which is cos 2 a + OB 2 sin 2 a the relation given by (1).. ) .. If a plane figure (such as a circular or square section) has more than two axes of symmetry.. the perpendicular distance y from the centre O to the tangent parallel to OY' when OX' and OY' are inclined as shown at an angle a to OX and OY respectively. would be given by equation (2).ART. and through the centroid of the section. (1) 1 27 Adding I* and (2) I.. the radius of gyration about any axis such as OY' is inversely proportional to the radius vector in that direction. for from the symmetry the sum %(xy 8A) must The other principal axis is then at right angles to the first. (7^ . 68a] STRESSES IN BEAMS. + . inclined 45 to each of the other two. say.. Fig. that k has maximum and minimum values. and therefore to find the principal axes. I. then k is represented by OC. be zero. It is often important to find the minimum value of k (and I) of a given section. these three moments of inertia may be found by the methods described in the preceding articles. .e. It is evident by differentiating (1) with respect to a.+ I. 2 . proportional to I about that radius vector. i. such as OY' by the length of the perpendicular from on the tangent parallel to OY'. its momental ellipse becomes a circle. and its moment of inertia about every axis in its plane and through the centroid If a section has not an axis of symmetry the principal axes is the same. = + I..  sin 2a = al„  (I.) . OA . This momental ellipse then shows the radius of gyration about any axis. sin (a + 45°) = iI^i + £I y (i + sin 2a) . (4) (5) (6) 2l„ = I. and subtracting (2) from (I„ — l x) cos 2a = I. If proportional to the square of ..
Dividing (6) by (7)  tan 2a (l x. as in Art.) (9) sec 2a } (10) which gives the principal moments of inertia in terms of the known moments of inertia. in a flanged or irregular I section. three Cast iron is generally five or six times as (1) Cast Iron Beams. 94 may be estimated by into rectangles (see Art. This could be done by making the section of such a form that the distance of its centroid from the extreme compression layers is five times that from the extreme tension layers. shown division in Fig. 63). This. would involve a large tension — ^TH I a much smaller compression so great a difference as that indicated above involves serious initial stresses due to the quicker cooling of the small compression flange compared to that of the larger tension flange. Statics of Reinforced Concrete . 68. which would involve relatively slow cooling. the metal being by various means held fast in the concrete. Also from (3) and (7) I. and it would appear reasonable to so proportion the section that the greatest intensity of compressive stress would be about five times that of the tensile stress. the tension flange being made wide in order to avoid great thickness. so that the distribution of stress beyond the elastic limit will not be greatly different from that within it. and experience shows that "distances I of the compression and tension edges to the centroid in the ratio of about 2 or 3 to 1 (see Fig. and flange : flange. December 25. 94. + !„. 1908. but little or no tension. = 2l„ [CH. a to be measured from OX' in the direction opposite to OW. The usual assumption is that the metal carries — 1 For graphical method see "The Graphic Sections. 69. Some Special Sections.) (8) which determines the directions of the principal axes. I„ =h =\ { **' \ l* + !*' + + I*  (I*< (I*  l y ) sec 2a } I." in Engineering. 67). or graphically.— 128 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. strong in compression as in tension. Cast iron has no considerable plastic yield. but a symmetrical section would in bending get approximately equal extreme intensities of tension and compression so long as the material does not greatly deviate from proportionality between stress and strain (see Art. They can be used to withstand bending by reinforcement with metal to take the tension involved. Cement and concrete are well (2) Reinforced Concrete Sections} adapted to stand high compressive stress. Cast Iron and Concrete Steel. Hence a castiron beam of symmetrical section would fail by tension due to bending. 94) give the most economical results. The moment of inertia of such a section as that J_ Fig.
69] STRESSES IN BEAMS. and since the strains are to be assumed proportional to the distance from the neutral axis (Arts. and the concrete the whole of the compression. the intensity of tensile stress in the metal reinforcement. Suppose a ferroconcrete beam has the sectional dimensions shown in Fig.ART. Let E„ be the direct modulus of elasticity of the concrete in compression. as in Arts. 61 and 65) The A and (d — . More elaborate and less simple em. the proportionality between stress and strain will not hold accurately with usual working loads. but the following methods of calculation are the most tested 1 widely recognised. 61 and 65. Let h be the depth of the neutral axis from the compression edge of the section. 95. the neutral axis will not generally pass through the centroid of the area of crosssection because of the unequal values of the direct modulus of elasticity (E) of the two materials (see Art. and^' the proportional strain in the metal. 95 j assume that. that of the steel in tension. and /. and further. the strain due to bending is proportional to the distance from the neutral axis and to the direct modulus of elasticity of the material. I29 the whole of the tension. The following simple theory of flexure of ferroconcrete beams must be looked upon as approximate only. since the tension in the is neglected . It may be found approximately by equating the total compressive force or thrust in the cement to the total pull in the metal. and E. In the case of a compound beam of this kind. it is usual to take the area of metal as concentrated at the depth of its centre and subject to a uniform intensity of stress equal to that at its centre. distances from the neutral axis at which these strains occur are h) respectively.B pirical rules have been devised and concrete 1 by experiment. f Fig. c the (maximum) intensity of compressive stress at that edge. As the crosssection of metal usually occupies a very little of the depth. Then ==r is the proportional strain in the concrete at the compression is edge (see Art. 62). 61). in a heterogeneous substance like concrete. this being practically uniform.
we should proceed as follows to state the total thrust in terms of the maximum intensity/.z. neglecting X (compression area) in the concrete. h — y =/„ X (area of compression modulus figure) In the rectangular section of Fig. B The any f And t X (area of section of reinforcement) =f .a t /»_ and therefore from (1) 2a /. then y Total thrusti h p h' y f f. say. a.— — — 13O The (mean — — — [CH. the is the moment of resistance two together &X*. or " monolithic " (see Ex. say. 3 below.z. The thrust in the vertical leg of the (or T . The breadth is then constant over two ranges. at the extreme edge at the (unknown) distance h from the neutral axis. and W" *V all of which are supposed to be known. 68). V. but in case of the compression part of the section having any other shape. Frequently the compression area of ferroconcrete is Tshaped. is =— . B constant. varying in a known manner with.a t forming the couple which since the total thrust equals the total pull. Let 2 be the width of section parallel to the neutral axis at a height y from it. this being the simplest possible case.dy is which can be found when the width z This might also be written Total thrust expressed in terms of. total thrust is intensity of compressive stress) total tensile stress. and let p be the intensity of stress at any height y from the neutral axis . the distance (h — y) from the compression edge. into which the above integrations can conveniently be divided. Ferroconcrete beam sections are generally rectangular. d. 2 (see end of Art. the lower part of which is reinforced for tension.dy=j_\y. h . 95.B 2« K > M h E„ A.B~ dwhich gives a quadratic equation in A'E. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.~*. f" = \p. consisting partly of a concrete slab or flooring = = and partly of the upper part of the rectangular supporting beam. and note following it).B=f . the floor and beam being in one piece. h in terms of the quantities B.
io 4 X » 5/i h (18^)12 hence $?P and solving this.zd? where I is or / the the neutral axis. 18  h = h_ 12(18  //) total pull in the steel to the thrust in the concrete ^ Therefore . . of the neutral axis and the moment of resistance exerted by the section Example i. Using the symbols of Fig. using the second derived area as in Art. or. 4 /i. —A the greatest intensity of compressive stress is 100 lbs. moment of inertia of the comprersion area about The graphical equivalent of this would be /„ x (area of compression modulus figure) from the neutral axis) x (distance of its centroid the centroid of the modulus figure being with the centre of pressure or thrust. and the total tension in the metal equal to this. /. 68— resisting moment of the thrust =/ Q x h X second is derived area of compression section The resisting total and the moment moment of the total tension of resistance is evidently^ X a X {d — h). is 131 to that in the upper part of the beam) crosspiece or slab. + 1 21^ — 2 6ir h =o =8  S inches The = 18 — distance from the neutral axis to the centre of the steel rods 85 The total thrust is 9*5 inches. 95 and those above when inch. /„ .f. often negligible compared The resisting moment of the total thrust would be Jf. = —X 100 10 X 85 is = 4250 lbs. 69] STRESSES IN BEAMS. per square What is then the intensity of tensile stress in the steel ? Take the value of E for steel 12 times that for concrete. ' ft d = 20 — 2 = 18 inches _ maximum compressive e strain ~~ k 18 E„ E tensile strain in metal _h f and equating the /« =E t h ' E.ART. total thrust (or pull) X distance of centre of thrust from reinforcement reinforced concrete beam 20 inches deep and 10 inches wide has four bars of steel 1 inch diameter placed with Find the position their axes 2 inches from the lower face of the beam. /.
the centres of the steel bars being placed ij inch from the lower side of the floor. and the area of 850 — — = 0*07083 12. the allowable stress in the concrete being 600 lbs. estimate for concrete.inches . ' —= 100 12 x ^ = 1342 ° 8*5 which checks the above approximate result. The total tension in the steel section required is therefore  must also be 850 lbs. = distance — — // The ratio of stress intensities is ^ i maximum intensity : intensity of tensile stress  hence t of pressure 8 5 h = 12. A reinforced concrete floor is to carry a uniformly spread load.. inches apart r The total moment of resistance is 85o{(2 x 2*83) + (8*5 2*83)} = 6422 lb. they 0*7854 "^ 0*0708 =n*i  .——— I3 2 —— — — — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. . and in the steel 12. V.000 lbs. moment of resistance is therefore § of (4250X95 + § of 85) = = 64. [CH. Example 2.inches it The intensity of .. distance of the centre of pressure from the neutral axis and that of the tension is 9'5 inches. Determine what reinforcement is necessary and what load per square foot may be carried. the extreme stresses in the materials. — 1 h h X 10 Taking a strip of floor 1 inch wide thrust of concrete = —X ' 2*83 xi = 8so lbs.460 lb. is The The 8"5 inches.000 ° square inch n 1 If round bars per inch width of floor. might be spaced at a distance inch diameter are used. Let h Then = 8*5 — of the neutral axis from the compression edge. tensile stress in the steel of area square inches is ft = 4250 1350 lbs. the distance from the centres of the steel rods is 10 15 h inches. the span being 12 feet and the floor 10 inches thick. per square inch. assuming bending in one direction — only. per square inch or thus.000 = — z— 600 — = 2/1 h = 283 inches  8't. and the modulus of direct elasticity for steel being 10 times that If the load per square foot of floor is 300 lbs. per square inch.
000 x fff 10.. per square inch is Example 3. ratio of the stress intensities is then . and the vertical leg 14 inches deep by „ ^ 20 ~ 8 inches wide. which is also the load per square inch of the floor. = intensity of stress in the steel h = distance of the ment consists neutral axis from the comedge pression The (see Fig. and the total amount of resistance exerted by a section of the beam when the compressive stress in the concrete reaches 500 lbs. per square inch 12. 144 = 357 lbs. 96). the load per square foot. the crosspiece or compression flange being 20 inches wide and 4 inches deep. and is which If the load maximum intensity of pressure intensity of tensile stress = = = = 600 X fff 505 lbs. —A reinforced beam The reinforce of T section. were only 300 lbs. per square foot. and the distance between the centre of pressure and the centres of the rods. Making the usual assumptions. equating the moment of resistance to the bending moment \w X 144 X 144 = 6422 8 X 6422 M4W = .090 lbs. + of two round bars of steel \\ inch diameter placed with their axes 2 inches from the lower face. direct elasticity in steel 12 times that for concrete in compression. If w = load per inch run. 133 which is the product of the total thrust (or tension).ART. Let /. calculate the intensity of stress in the steel. 69] STRESSES IN BEAMS.. per square Take the modulus of inch. the stresses would be proportionally reduced.
by neglecting the small thrust in the vertical leg of the section above the neutral axis. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.inches and the total moment is 139. 2 = 6S = inches and 6000. and the second The total tension is that in the vertical leg above the neutral axis. = h {h ~ 2) + ~r(* ~ 4) .000 lb. 96) . V.000 = 423. to the total thrust .inches is of resistance for the tension 8 55° XvX9'4 = of resistance f 284.000 lb. — .. per square inch. is The moment of resistance for the compression + The moment g. and substituting gir for/ from (1) and equating 40.inches The values found for total thrust and the moment of resistance would not be greatly altered by the omission of the second term in the respective integrals.— = 8550 X 6 66 „ TT2 lbs. total thrust = ^ I loydy + ^ f Sydy 40. 4 4 8 7. 16 — A 6oo ° .000.000 —j— (A  2) + 2000 j(A  4) the first term representing the thrust in the crosspiece. V —a— from which A /.. — (2'6)* = 139. The moment of resistance might be estimated graphically by drawing the modulus figure for the compression area with a pole on the neutral axis (see Fig. the moment would be 500 x The total tension X (area second moment would be 6*6 first derived figure) 500 X (area of compression modulus figure) x 9*4 .000 284. the moment of resistance for compression would then be 500 or X (area of compression modulus figure) centroid from the axis) X (distance of its if a second derived figure be drawn.— —— — — — 134 The — — — [CH.000 lb. i. 2000.e.
70] STRESSES IN BEAMS. This. 66). it must be sufficient to carry the maximum bending to which the beam is subjected anywhere. thus W W . and with a moderately high intensity of stress in the reinforcement the neutral axis would fall within the crosspiece instead of below it. with practical limitations. for b = J*' M made (/and d being constant) If the breadth is constant the square of the depth should be . intensity of stress in the crossbeam or vertical leg of the 70. Evidently less material might be used by proportioning the section everywhere to the straining action which it has to bear. T35 Note. i. for rectangular beams of constant depth the condition of uniform strength would be that the width should vary in the same way as the height of the bendingmoment diagram. 59).ART. by making the beam of constant depth d and triangular in plan. if the crosssection does not vary throughout the length of the beam. The crosspiece is then often very wide in proportion to the remainder of the section. the modulus Z must be proportional to the bending moment. and will therefore be larger than necessary elsewhere. in which the bending moment at a distance * from the free end is x. it. —A T T — T and many cantilevers. e. Taking rectangular beams in which Z = \bd* (Art. This undesirable result can be avoided by employing more reinforcement at a consequently lower section. In other words.. indication of the type of variation of section for uniformity Considering only direct stresses resulting of strength will be given. since /is to be constant. in order to reach the same maximum stress intensity at every crosssection of a beam under a variable bending moment M. the floor forming the crosspiece of the T. „ = or Z j or A brief / „ M =/Z =M /= M must be fulfilled. very common example of a section occurs in ferroconcrete floors with monolithic crossbeams. from bending. Beams of Uniform Strength. and might start cracks. advantage in adopting an exactly proportioned variable crosssection.e. The bending moment generally varies from point to point along a beam in some way dependent on the manner of loading . the condition . If the beam is a cantilever with an end load (see Fig. where Z is the variable modulus of section of the beam.g. although variable sections are common. which is not reinforced for tension in that direction. uniform strength for direct stresses may be attained by varying the breadth b proportionally to x. ship masts. This would involve tension in the lower side of the floor slab. carriage springs. either b or d (or both) may be varied so that bd2 is proportional to M.* \bd*=y Wx l or b 6W = jrp x • In general. is attempted in compound girder In other cases there is seldom any practical sections of various types.
Beams.e. m+Sm B ( r> m .— 136 — [CH. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.g moment.— In beam in Art. where proportional 2 proportional to the bending moment. Distribution of equilibrium of a portion of a horizontal 56 t was found convenient to resolve the forces across a vertical plane of section into The variation in intensity of the horizontal and vertical components. the depth should be everyto the square ruot of the bendii. M (/and b being constant) solid circular sections in which the diameter varies Z and the diameter = 32 M / Shear Stress in d? = 32M bending varies as the cube root of the moment considering the 71. V. or d= For ttt. i.
— .z. . which beam of varying crosssection. HA. . z .dy at The thrusts on any element in the BK being in excess of those at AE by the difference above quantities. and hence becomes q t = ofy. 1 37 I is the moment of inertia of the crosssection. if q represents the mean intensity of shear stress at a height y (neglecting any change in q in the length 8*). the symbol z outside the sign of IZJ y and the symbol y.dy . It may be noted that the quantity I y . HG A to E (Fig.dy 1 I I J y hence where q = SM J [ ^ T^j/. 59 (2))= total shearing force on the cross y Actually the intensity of shear stress at a height section of the beam. the total excess thrust on the area BK over that at _.dy L > y where jf! is the extreme value of y. hence.z. Since the net horizontal force on the portion is zero. viz. I yztiy.dy. i. dy But at BK. On any element of crosssection. 97).z. z.z. which is the lower limit of integration. *• *y *• 1 f* 1 F y> . varies somewhat. . or Mv p— . or . (i) 1 F = 3— (Art.SM)v v. . and z represents the variable breadth of section between and AB.) be found 5 2 .bx — = 8M f"y.y . dy is 1 V the 1 moment If the of the area is KBK' about the neutral axis GG'.z.e. the excess thrust at BK must be balanced by the horizontal shearing force on the surface E K. In the expression integration. on the element at the same height. while in the product y z within the sign of integration each letter refers to a variable over the range yx to y. AE 1 will be f'SM J j. and EK ABKE EK s q. z . the shearing stress on is q. refer to a particular pair of values corresponding to the height above for which q is stated.* = f^J/. Consider the equilibrium of a portion between the two sections.ART. instead of the relation Sp = y we =Sx (1) get from/ = —^"* «I» the relation f = ( I y\ Myj. 71] where STRESSES IN BEAMS.z. z. the longitudinal thrust at is ABKE AE p z. — I y.8x. which may easily if I is a simple function of x and J . of area zdy. laterally being greatest at the inside.dy.y.dy or x  SM/* J y T y. the thrust is— (M v +.
I being The mean is — — R = = 9 = irR 4 4F X 2R3 X 2R cos or 6 I 3 sin 6 cos 2 6d0 = 4F (icos^X ttR 2 cos 6 = ^2 cos<0 ^(i£ ) 2 (5) . 99. and that it is zero at either edge (j = yx or y = — y^). and when y o d as a baseline. or the area of so much of a modulus figure (see or yx so that Art. the curve is a parabola. F»" .<?. equal to the area multiplied by the distance of its centre of gravity or centroid from GG'. and z Writings = 2R cos 6. 98. V. greater than the mean. Rectangular Section (Fig. If the various values of q are shown by ordinates on as in Fig. the greatest intensity thus 50 per cent.— i3» is . at the neutral surface). and dy ttR 4 R cos Odd. 98). sin 0. 68) as lies above KK'. (3) which give graphical methods of calculating the intensity of shear stress any part of the crosssection. Circular Section.bd. Fig. Width b. depth d. multiplied by the height HA ^= orr fyKK Fx Vi * (area ^BK') X (distance X (area of its centroid from GG') (2) q==—^w at °f modulus figure between B and KK') . 98. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 1 2 FA „V 6F(/VA a „> 1~ *m£Oft[ Fig. — — [CH. the areas on opposite sides of the neutral axis should be reckoned of opposite signs. = intensity of shear stress is F 4. since z is constant and equal to b — — F % . If the graphical method with modulus figures be used. as in Fig. 99. It is obvious from the above expressions (1) or (3) that q is a maximum when the lower range of integration is zero (*'. At any height y from the neutral axis.
 s_ R= 2F 2ttR( which is twice the mean on the whole section. 99. These results are only approximate . 100). In the case of a thin tube thickness of metal /. the stress is considerably greater at the inside. The other ordinates vary as shown in Fig. the width of section not being uniform. 71] At the STRESSES IN BEAMS.2/ X TrRtX «. the maximum value of q at the neutral axis would be. Rectangular I Section with Sharp Corners (Fig.ART. 139 = o. taking I yzdy as the half area multiplied J y by the distance of its centroid from the neutral axis— 9 = 2F R 2 .—In the flange at a height y from the neutral axis. and when y the flange = . or y = o. and decreases outwards over the strip zdy} The mean height of this diagram (Fig. the curve being parabolic. 99) does not represent the mean intensity of shear stress. and q = f ^= which is times the mean intensity of shear stress on the section.at =F j d the inner edge of Wd 8 2 9 .27rR/. neutral axis.
ioi. both parts being parabolic. Builtup Girder Section. Fig. Approximation. figure Every ordinate is proportional to the area of modulus divided by the corresponding breadth of the crosssection. as in Fig. 102 shows that the intensity in the web does not change greatly. The line shows the sity — MM . in Fig. F = fiX the (moment of stress section area above level y about neutral axis) maximum when y = o is (taking . method of the modulus figure given above. — stress at different parts of the section of a builtup girder. 100. shear stress intensity anywhere might conveniently be thus. Fig. [CH. in the web at level y — J e. is divided by the area of the section of the web. above it. The intensity of shear stress according to the above approximation is shown by the dotted line WW. ioo show the variation in intensity at different heights.g. The stress intensities have been calculated.— 140 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.. X02 shows the intensity of shear 101. V. 102. as there are three different widths of section. for the I section. but the integration requires splitting into three parts. The curves in Fig. this simple approximation to the mean shear stress in the web for such a section is a good one. This may best be treated graphically by the Rolled I Section. The mean stated from (2) above . moments of parts) F (. The usual approximation in calculating the intenof shear stress in the web is to assume that the web carries the whole vertical shearing force with uniform distribution. An example is shown — maximum intensity > of shear stress  Fig. which represents the quotient when the whole shearing force on the section./D d\/T) d\ d d) which agrees with the previous result. Judging by Fig.
At any height y from the neutral axis of the section the mean intensity of shearing stress in the web section is = 4 x647 X 4 ol T *\yy + X = 1647 X o6 X t = 387 . the whole shearing force divided by the whole area of section . i.e. A beam of I section 20 inches' deep and 7§ inches wide has flanges 1 inch thick and web o 6 inch thick. of the whole. given = 1647 inch units. Example. Find what proportion of the total shearing force is —  W w Fig. . 102. this is evidently no guide to the intensity of shear stress in the web. and carries a shearing force of 40 tons. carried I by the web and the maximum intensity of stress in it. 141 mean intensity of shearing stress.001213/ The stress ^ X ^+ ^M ™ °' 6 < 81 on a is strip of web of depth dy q situated at a height y from the neutral axis X o"6 dy is and the whole shearing force carried by the web section o6 I qdy = = o'6 / (387 — 001213/)^ 000404 12(3483 — X 729) = 3826 tons or 95 6 per cent. 71] STRESSES IN BEAMS.ART. which everywhere greatly exceeds it.
. is 9 where t = F t.o . rivets R horizontally and vertically. 370 tons per square inch which is intermediate between the mean value of q in the web. The have then to transmit the longitudinal shear between the web and Let p be the pitch of the rivets and let be the safe the flanges. or 3 54 tons per square inch  and the maximum intensity 387 tons per square inch.p t.— —— — 142 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. working resistance of one rivet to fracture. Testing the usual approximation of taking all the shearing stress as spread uniformly over the web section = 40 . o) is evidently 3*87 tons per The maximum value of q (when y square inch. on the qpt . Pitch of Rivets in Girder. section. and h = depth of web. = . hence = thickness. the connection between the two parts is made by — angle irons riveted to the web and to the flanges (see Fig. In compound I sections the flanges 72.h force F = gross shearing In a distance p horizontally the total horizontal shearing force to be resisted is q . V. 3826 —. — . . 103). [CH. viz. Neglecting any variation in intensity of the shear stress in the web and adopting the approximation mentioned in the previous article. and . . the intensity of shear stress. and web being plates.
the average shear stress in the rivets to be 4 tons per square inch. • . . towards the middle of the span of a girder carrying a distributed load. . — may be — used. for example. this will require the same pitch p as before on either side of the web. the rivets are in double shear. The total resistance of a iinch rivet in the web. is 2 x 07854 X 4 = 6 28 tons Using the formula above p = . . and the total shearing force on the section being 150 tons. Find a suitable pitch for iinch rivets to attach the web to the flanges. may be made 143 p shows that in a girder of constant greater where the variable shearing force F is smaller. and resistance to crushing is / is the safe intensity of shear d. for each rivet only offers one circular area of resistance to shear. 2 inches) V too small for iinch rivets in a single row.. b is generally taken as about twice /. This is 628 x 50 — = 2*09 inches (say . and the pitch = f p = D J. is The the diameter of the rivet. t. If.*KT.f b where f b safe intensity of crushing or bearing stress on the projected area of the rivet . for the rivets attaching the angles to the web. The working resistance should be taken as the lower of the above values . this will be the resistance to crushing only when the web is very thin. where F is the value of the shearing force at is the smaller of the vertical section at which the joint occurs. Often a pitch suitable for the section of a maximum shearing force is used throughout for convenience instead of a variable pitch. and the two rivet resistances given above. For vertical joints in the web. however. being in double R shear. but double rows. the angle plates being 6 inch x 6 inch x \ inch. For attaching the angles to the flanges twice as many rivets will be necessary if the shearing resistance is the criterion. The working resistance of a single rivet expression above for the pitch The depth h the pitch R may be found by its resistance to fracture by shearing or by its resist ance to crushing across a diameter. 72] STRESSES IN BEAMS. Example. two pieces being connected by double cover plates. and is 50 inches high. since two circular sections in each rivet resist shearing 4 J ' where d stress. resistance to crushing is the criterion throughout. The web of a girder is finch steel plate. there being then twice as many rivets as are used for attaching the angles to the web. In the former case. a pitch zp might be used to attach the angles to the flange.
will give the [CH.144 4 inches. V. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. in each of which the distance between rivets is same resistance. arranged as shown in Fig. . 104.
principal stresses are of opposite sign. 71 f where = i bd~ *bd the load per inch run on the span /. 65 and Art. and the intensities at a given height vary along the length of the beam. For such a large ratio of depth to span as \. The distribution of horizontal direct component stress over a given section is as shown in Fig.e. and the larger one has the same sign as the direct horizontal stress. For the purpose of illustration. 105 . the simple theory of bending could not be expected to give very exact results. Curves of Principal Stress. Fig. The intensity of stress along each curve is greatest when it is parallel to the length of the beam and diminishes along the curve to zera. the intensity of vertical shearing stress has been made excessive for a rectangular section by taking a span. /. is. 145 component horizontal direct and vertical shear stresses and the intensities of the two opposite principal stresses on one section. 63 (7) w is The maximum /— 8 z«" . vertical sections. and are shown in Fig. as shown in the bendingmoment diagram. 65 and Art. for rectangular beams the curves would be much flatter. 65. only four times The maximum intensity of vertical (and the depth of the beam. — : For larger and more usual ratios of length to depth. by Fig. 18. it is compressive above the The diagram does not represent neutral axis and tensile below it. the vertical shearing stress being smaller in proportion about midspan. which cut one another at right angles both cross the centre line at 45° (see Arts. which occurs at the top and bottom of the middle section. horizontal) shear stress. i. They are such that the tangent and normal at any point give the direction of the two There are two systems of curves principal stresses at that point.ART. but with larger spans the shearing stresses would evidently become more The magnitudes shown in insignificant for a rectangular section. by Fig. 75. 8 and J5). is. Fig. as in the shearingforce diagram in Fig. 105. The distribution of tangential or shear stress across vertical sections is as in Fig. 98. and the on certain values of its intensity for a given height vary along the length of the beam. intensity of horizontal direct stress. 65. which occurs at the middle of the end section. 105 must be looked upon as giving an idea of the variation in intensity rather than an exact measure of it. the direction of the principal stresses at every point in this section. spa — 4 ^ maximum hence q •_ maximum/  d_ 7 ~* x The magnitudes of the principal stresses for all points in the one crosssection / from the righthand support have been calculated from The two the formula (3) in Art. where it cuts a face of the beam at right angles. 73] intensities of the STRESSES IN BEAMS. . Lines of principal stress are shown in on a longitudinal section of the beam. Fig.
in other words. J "^' at + °' 6 ja J dy ' = 3 87 tons per ' S(l uare inch as in example end of Art. which occurs at the neutral plane. it should be remembered that the shear stresses involve tensile and compressive principal stresses. it contributes little to the modulus of section. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. and web o 6 inch thick. Find the principal stresses (a) at the outside edges. At any point in the beam the intensity of shear stress is a maximum on two planes at right angles. (6) at the middle of the crosssection. It is exposed at a particular section to a shearing force of 40 tons. inclined at 45 to the principal planes. In I sections. which is. that in the web near the flange the intensity of longitudinal direct stress is not far below the maximum on the section at the outer layers. in the notation of Art. the other principal stress being zero. 105. viz. The principal stress in such a position may consequently be of higher intensity than either of the maximum component stresses (see example below). which is always the case in the webs of I sections. 67) that the web area is of little importance in resisting the longitudinal direct stresses due to bending. 102) it was shown that the flanges carry little of the shear stress.— — 146 — [CH. This being a pure shear." Example. 71 (Fig. (c) i* inch from the —  outer edges. At the middle of the crosssection the intensity of vertical and (J>) horizontal shear stress is ' f""' 1647 X o6 ( 7 5 /. 20 inches deep and 7§ inches wide. 18 — — >W(tf+' For full consideration of the design of plate girder webs. while the intensity of vertical shear stress is not much lower than the maximum. It should be noticed. and a bending moment of 800 toninches. 71. whether rolled in one piece or built up of plates and angles. has flanges 1 inch thick. in the case shown in Fig. and in Art. the reader should consult a treatise on " Structures. 25 on the strength of material acted on by principal stresses of opposite kinds. where. half the algebraic difference of the principal stress intensities. it has been shown (Art. A beam of I section. The moment of inertia about the neutral axis is ^(75 X (a) 20 3  69 x 18 3 ) • = 7 1647 (inches)* • At the outside edges /= — ) = 4 86  tons per square inch pure tension or compression. or. however. See also remarks in Art. V. Only low shearstress intensities are allowed in crosssections of the webs of Isection girders . Principal Stresses i?i I Sections. Maximum Shearing Stress. 18 (4). the equal principal stresses of tension and . and of the amount shown in Art. which may place the thin web in somewhat the condition of a long strut. half the arithmetic sum of the magnitudes of the principal stress intensities taken with like sign.
(rsfa 4 { (7'5 X *9) + o6(8i 1647 X 2 x o6 2*99 tons per square inch stresses are. inclined at an angle 1 and the major tan" j^z or 27 40' (see Art. . 18 (2)) to the corresponding direct stress along the flange. and are of intensity 387 tons per square inch. (c) Intensity of direct stress perpendicular to the section is— p\ = — 800 X 85 rzrr — = 4*3 tons P . /ntepsihes of Stress P Fig. 106. or 62° 20' to the crosssection. are shown in Fig. 106. carrying a considerable bending moment and shearing force. 18 / principal stress = 7 ± \/{(f J + — is A= 2 ' o6 S ± 3C 3 which are 5*695 and 1*565 tons per square inch. 147 compression are each inclined 45° to the section. 73] STRESSES IN BEAMS. calculated as above.ART.  7225)} Hence. This illustrates the fact that just within the flange of an I section. The intensities of principal stress in the web. the principal by Art. the intensity of the principal stress (5*695) may exceed that at the extreme outside layers of the section. er square inch The intensity of vertical shear stress on the section is ' =" I = q = 4 + o6 fjdy) 647 X o(. which shows that the material bears principal stresses the greater of which is nowhere greatly less than the maximum. — Magnitudes of component and principal stress intensities in Isection beam.
the limitations of the simple theory of bending should be borne in mind these results can only be looked upon as approximations giving a useful idea of the nature of the stresses. the neutral surface will move from halfdepth in such a way that the areas and ORS remain equal. will have a greater intensity of stress. yielding less than the tension edge. Modulus of Rupture. and the distribution of stress For moderate degrees of bending will not be as shown in Fig. the neutral surface will no longer pass through the centroid of the area of crosssection. In accepting such conclusions as to principal stresses. : [CH. which. If bending is continued after the extreme fibres of a beam reach the limit of elasticity. i. the intensity of longitudinal stress will no longer be proportional to the longitudinal strains. Bending beyond the Elastic Limit. say. and form a couple. or simultaneously. and the longitudinal stress intensities will vary practically as in stressstrain from the neutral axis to the extreme layers.e. The true elastic limit for cast iron is very low in tension or compression. beyond the elastic limit. the neutral surface will continue to pass through the centroid of the area of crosssection. diagrams for direct stress. 75. Different types of distribution will occur according as the elastic limit is reached first in tension or compression. In this case the strains will be proportional to the distances from the neutral axis (Art.— 74. If the beam is of constant breadth. the assumption that plane sections remain plane is often nearly true. but at. but the intensity of stress OPQ . of rectangular crosssection. but will be nearer the compression edge. the distribution of tension and compression being symmetrical. 8 tons per square inch the strain in tension is much greater.148 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. The distribution of stress on a symmetrical section will therefore be somewhat as in Fig. 61). 107 . and deviates much more from proportionality to stress than in compression. If the material of a beam has the same stressstrain diagram in tension and in compression. for the total tension and total thrust are of equal magnitude. V.
viz. 149 will not in either case be proportional to the distance from the neutral surface (see Fig. 63. 13. the material nearer the neutral surface will carry a higher intensity of stress than if Fig. the stress were proportional to the distance from the neutral surface.Mf assumed has ceased to hold good. Morrow. the quantity M* where Or M Tf Z the bending moment at rupture. J. for two reasons. 1 Modulus of Rupture. Proc. It is evidently not a true intensity of stress. because the tensile strain at comparatively low stress at one edge allows a distribution of stress similar to that sketched in Fig. the bending test with a central load being easily arranged..ART. Roy. p. 107. 73. M and C * /. thereby using the high compressive strength of cast iron And secondly. and in cast iron the modulus is much higher than the ultimate tenacity in a tensile test. because the inner layers of material to advantage. Firstly. 74] STRESSES IN BEAMS. . and The term is practically is called the transverse modulus of rupture. under the distribution of stress previous to rupture carry a higher intensity of stress than is contemplated by the formula is M 4 or — or Ifdd 2 (for a rectangular beam) 1 Some experiments on the distribution of strain on cross sections of beams will be found in a paper by Dr. confined to the tests of a rectangular section. Soc. the intensities of stress at the outer layers at rupture are not those given by the formula (6) in Art. is very often used as a guide to the quality of cast iron. —When = Mf a bar of metal is tested by bending until rupture takes place. since the condition of elasticity there Nevertheless. vol. the intensities being intermediate between a proportional and a uniform distribution. 108) after the elastic limit is exceeded. 108.
be resolved into and RP about the principal axes to OX'. say. 61) it was assumed that the about the axis through its centroid and in the plane of bending. The planes of bending and that of the exflanges. in which the direct stress is borne almost entirely and with comparatively uniform distribution in them. these components will be If the couple M. both before and after the elastic limit is passed (see Fig. bending stress and the strain everywhere on the section can then be found by taking the algebraic sum of the effects produced by the component bending moments about the two principal axes. + xM sin a J putting/ = o in I. 68a). This of resistance.— — '5° for the — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. the unit stress at any point Q the coordinates of which referred to the principal axes OX and OY are x. near outside " and the Practically. apply in any considerable degree to a thin second reason would not by the I section. 63 yM where I. y yM. If this condition is not fulfilled. • • (2) (1)(3) y which to is = x= tan u. io8a. components represented by OR and OY. io8a. • xM sin i. For a point the coordinate? x. thereby increasing the resistance. OX M cos a and The intensity of — M sin a respectively. let OY'. y will be from (5). — ternal if bending couple will be parallel the axis of cross section in the plane of the external moment is a principal axis (Art. . represented by OP. Unsymmetrical Bending. P= cos a j For points on the neutral axis. V. 108). Art. moment [CH. a of inertia of the W beam and section about of which are OX — I y aie the principal moments and OY respectively. OX at a straight line through the centroid of the section inclined an angle P. be the plane of the external bending moment (shown by its trace on the section which is in the plane of the figure) inclined at an angle a to the principal axis OY. 98 and 98a. cos a I. Thus. or let the bending be in a plane perpendicular couple M Fig. Fig. the term " modulus of rupture edges. beam had a cross section symmetrical (Art. 1 In considering simple bending 74a. rupture are confined to cast iron and timber and to transverse test to the rectangular section. so that 1 ON See also Arts.. however.
68a. . . from the momental ellipse or from (2) Art. ~l x cos 2 B + I„ sin 2 B v . which gives from (1 1) above— may be found y"Mcos(Ba) p .y l7~ = M . . M cos (B . y=x tan 151 . 74a] STRESSES IN BEAMS. which is easily accomplished by joining O to the point of bisection of a chord parallel to OY'. . which graphically. .ART. To find the maximum stress in a given section resulting from a given bending moment in any given plane we first calculate the directhat (Art. . 63. can be found value of y" on the tensile or compressive side value of / might also be stated inertia of the section about the from the general formula (5) Art. B . (7) . B a . io8a) for QM = y" = y cos B — x sin andfrom(s)hence . hence about OX' is Another form of the result.a) In t~^ ' (11) the moment of inertia about the neutral axes ON. 68a. neutral axis from (5) and draw it on the given section and find by inspection the point in the section furthest from the neutral axis and apply equation (1). as described in Art. which may be written (6) tan is B ** Ti tan a between the slopes of conjugate axes of the momental ellipse which are the radii of gyration k„ about OY in the direction OX and kx about OX in the direction OY. for the comneutral axis resulting from the bending moment ponent bending moment about cos (JS — a). the principal semiaxes of tion of the principal axes and values of the principal moments of Then calculate the direction of the inertia as described in Art. > y^ . io8a) may be found by drawing the diameter conjugate to OY._. if the momental ellipse is drawn the direction of the neutral axis ON (Fig. . writing B for a. . Consequently. The intensity of stress might also be stated in terms of y". . the distance from the neutral axis (Fig. (4) (5) and It tan B = f tan = may be noted that the relation (5). 68a.y" sn7/? VX 2 cos 2 + Iy 2 sin 2 ~B ' (l °^ The maximum by writing the of the neutral axis. 68a). value maximum f lt tensile or compressive of /. .*j cos a sin a =^ v cos B (^f* ^p)r/« and then sin a " ^ B (8) +* ™ fi • • (9) and substituting this in (1) for sin a from (8) _M. directly in terms of the The moment of — ON M M ON P= where IN is y"  .
In other sections it may be more convenient to draw the neutral axis to determine for which point in the section the unit stress is a maximum. [CH.'5* SIRENGTH OF MATERIALS. Tan XOX' = tan a = 0344. The particulars from the standard tables are given in Fig. area = 3424 square inches. and formula (2) may be applied directly. The position of the neutral axis may be found by (5) tan/3 = i3'9o3 1963 is X 0344 off is = 2437 = ta « 6 7 7° The neutral axis it ON set inspection is evident that P on the left of Fig. Thus in rectangular sections a corner will always be a point of maximum stress. io8b. hence tx = 2015 inches. ky = 0757 inches. principal moments of inertia and position of the centroid of the section are given. hence a = 19 I x = 13908 4 (inches) 4 . if the stress is limited to 6 tons per square inch and the area. and as follows. carrying a load on the short edge with the long edge vertically downwards. Example i. V. Calculate the allowable bending moment on a British Standard unequal angle 6" X 35" X %". I. io8b. a. and by the furthest point in the section from . 1963 (inches) . = Fig. The — . io8b. a formula easily reduced to the form (10) by the relation (5) between ji and choice of one or other method of dealing with a case of unsymmetrical bending will depend partly on the type of section.
io8b. draw NO'N' the neutral axis through O' and V. ellipse parallel to ON. as in Fig. OX is 384" 0*83" = hence from cos iq° (1) putting/ c = — y. say.370 = 0396M and M= 1515 toninches. and its distance from OY = 6 tons per square inch 6 V84M = . on the tension side of the neutral axis ON. from (5)— ends or A = . 74a] STRESSES IM BEAMS. O'B = 0757" ( on anv scale). Draw any chord RS parallel to OY'./. as shown to the left of the figure. and the toes. (i"04) ! X 3424 = 4 370 (inches) Then measuring 6 the angle 222 NOX' x as 487° and applying (11) = x M cos 487° 4. and bisect it in V. Then the moment of inertia of the section about ON is M — . 4 4 principal moments of inertia are 9768 (inches) and 2514 (inches) . the negative sign merely indicating hence the kind of bending moment. has one side of the angle horizontal and carries on it a vertical load of £ ton midway between the supports.^—= 13908 5— o8*M sin io° 1963 — = . coordinates of the centre of the curve referred to axes parallel to distant point in tension . Graphical Solution. 4i" Example 2. M(o26i + ^ v 01375) 507  * = — 15*05 toninches. In this case from the symmetry a 45 If /J is the angle which the neutral axis makes with the principal axis passing through the intersection of the edges.ART. Set out this neutral axis ON on the section. 108B such that tan XOX' = 0344 or angle XOX = 19 = 2015". Find the greatest tensile and compressive stresses in the material. Set out the momental ellipse on the right of O'A = kx Fig. tan 8 p = 2ll = 3885 2514 756° Hence from tables is /? = The neutral axis inclined to the loaded edge at an angle 306° 756° . the former being about an axis through the intersection of the outer edges. and measure its perpendicular distance from NO'N' which is 104". and look out the distance from it of the most remote Through C draw the tangent to the point P which measures 222". A British Standard equal angle section measures X 4^" X " and is rounded to a radius of 0275 mcn at lis outer — Its area of section is 3236 square inches.•».45° = The most The to scale or calculated may be measured from a drawing occurs on the curved toe.. I53 ON is .x. P being. its distance from 4. which are 5 feet 4 inches apart. The compressive stress at the point Q can readily be found from (1). and simply supported at its ends. it . Its distance of its centroid from either outside edge is 1244 inch. confirming approximately the previous result. beam of this section.
Compare the moments of resistance for a given maximum intensity of bending stress of beam of square section placed (a) with two sides vertical. A 2. per foot run without the intensity of bending stress exceeding 1000 lbs. V. 154 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. and web £ inch thick. axis through the centroid or centre of gravity of the section and parallel to the crosspiece. A beam of I section 12 inches deep has flanges 6 inches wide and Compare its flexural strength with that 1 inch thick. the maximum compressive stress is sin 7 5 6°). 9. What should be the width of a joist 9 inches deep if it has to carry a uniformly spread load of 250 lbs. wooden beam of rectangular section 12 inches deep and 8 inches wide has a span of 14 feet. E = 800 tons per square inch. Find the bending moment which may be resisted by a castiron pipe 6 inches external and 4^ inches internal diameter when the greatest intensity of stress due to bending is 1500 lbs. similarly. per square inch? The joists are 3. = 9*768 cos 2 75 '6° + 2514 sin2 756 =296 (inches) ellipse.  170 — X 8 X sin 756° 2 2'90 —— = 3 '9 7 . tensile stress = 226 x x cos 306° . about an 7. How far 12 inches deep by 4^ inches wide. Find in inch units the moment of inertia of a T section. The height over all is 4 inches. . of a beam of rectangular section of the same weight. and carries a load of 3 tons at the middle of the span. Over what length of span may a rectangular beam 9 inches deep and 4 inches wide support a load of 250 lbs. A floor has to carry a load of 3 cwt. . per square inch. the angle edges are known. per square inch? 4. and have a span of 14 feet. per square foot. inch Also from the neutral axis to the intersection of the outer edges where the compressive stress is greatest measures i 7o" (viz. A rolled thick. the bending being in each case parallel to a vertical plane. 1. per square inch ? 6.. the thickness of each piece being £ inch.z =526 tons per sq. apart may the centre lines be placed if the bending stress is not to exceed 1000 lbs.' — — — — [CH. with a stress not exceeding 1200 lbs. 226". Either method gives About the neutral axis y= I s. and hence the distance from the neutral axis is easily calculated about an oblique neutral axis . 8. per foot run over a span of 12 feet. 1/244 x V'2 x Hence. steel joist 10 inches deep has flanges 6 inches wide by f inch Find approximately the stress produced in it by a load of 15 tons uniformly spread over a span of 14 feet.. (6) with a diagonal vertical. Find the greatest stress in the material and the radius of curvature at mid span. . Maximum . the depth being twice the breadth. the distance to the curved toe exceeds the distance to the centre by the radius o"27s". tons P er S<1 lncn  Examples V. 5. 4 which may be checked by drawing the momental midway between the supports is moment The bending M £ X \ X 64 = 8 8 toninches Hence from (n) . and the width of crosspiece 5 inches.
V.] STRESSES IN BEAMS. and the web 10 inches by l£ inch. 17. Find (1) the distance of the centroid from the tension edge . what load per foot run would this beam A support over a 16feet span if the compressive stress in the beam reaches lbs. support a uniformly distributed load of 1000 lbs. reinforced concrete beam 10 inches wide and 22 inches deep has four ijinch bars of round steel placed 2 inches from the lower edge. What is then the maximum intensity of compressive stress ? In Examples Nos. The reinforcement consists of two 2inch round bars placed with their centres 3 inches from the lower face of the beam. reinforcement 2.EX. Find the intensity of tension in the steel and moment of resistance of the section when the extreme compressive stress in the concrete reaches 600 lbs. The compression flange of a castiron girder is 4 inches wide and i^ inch deep . per square inch ? What would be the intensity of tensile stress in the reinforcement ? 12. with a Jinch steel plate 9 inches deep placed symmetrically between and firmly attached to them. 11 to 16 inclusive the tension in the concrete is to be neglected.) 600 A A . If simply supported at the ends. the remainder being 10 inches wide by. 11. 155 10. A reinforced concrete floor is 9 inches thick. per square inch. A (reinforced) flitched timber beam consists of two timber joists each 4 inches wide and 12 inches deep. and is to be reinforced by bars placed with their centres 12 inches below the under side of the floor. per square inch ? ferroconcrete floor is 8 inches thick. What area of crosssection of steel will bring the neutral axis of the section in the plane of the under side of the floor ? What would then be the intensity of tension in the steel when the maximum compression reaches 600 lbs. of which the crosspiece is 30 inches wide by 6 inches deep. per foot run over a span of What area of section of steel reinforcement is necessary. Part of a concrete floor forms with a supporting beam a T section.000 lbs. 14. and what is the greatest intensity of stress in the steel ? (E for steel may be taken 20 times that for the timber. and carries a load of 200 lbs. per square inch ? 16. being placed with their centres 2 inches above the lower face of the beam. the bars 1 5 feet. the tension flange 12 inches wide by 2 inches deep. (3) the load per foot run which may be carried over a 10foot span by a beam simply supported at its ends without the skin tension exceeding 1 ton per square inch. when that in the steel is 15. What sectional area of steel per square foot over a span of 12 feet.inches from the lower surface is necessary per foot width of floor if the pressure in the concrete is to be limited to 600 lbs. per square inch. 18 inches deep. and the vertical leg is 8 inches wide. What is the total moment of resistance of a section when the bending stress in the timber reaches 1200 lbs. per square inch. and the modulus of direct elasticity of steel in tension taken as The concrete is to be taken as 15 times that of concrete in compression. if the intensity of pressure in the concrete is not to exceed 600 lbs. (2) the moment of inertia about the neutral axis . What area of section of steel reinforcement is necessary per foot width if the stress in the concrete is to reach 600 lbs. and the reinforcement is placed 2 inches from the lower face. A reinforced concrete beam of T section has the crosspiece 24 inches wide and 5 inches deep. perfectly elastic within the working stresses. and what load per square foot could be borne with these stresses over a span of 10 feet? concrete beam is 18 inches deep and 9 inches wide. per square inch ? What would then be the working stress in the steel ? 15. and has to 13. per square inch.
The principal moments of inertia will be found to be 15*209 (inches) 4 and 2713 (inches) 4 and the distances of the centroid from the short and long outer edges are 1*912" and 0*923" respectively. is attached to the flanges by angles 4 x 4 x § inch. find the principal stresses in the web 7 inches from the outer edge of the tension flange. . The principal axis about which the moment of inertia is a maximum is inclined to the short edge at an angle the tangent of which is 0*439. over all parts of the section and plot a curve showing its variation. the stress being limited to 6 tons per square inch. the web.156 in STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 18. 20 is also subjected to a bending moment of 5000 toninches. Find the greatest intensity of vertical sheer stress on an I section 10 inches deep and 8 inches wide. 22. and the section carries a vertical shearing Find approximately the intensity of vertical shear stress force of 100 tons. (Neglect the rivet holes and rounded corners of the angle plate. Find the ratio of maximum to mean intensity of vertical shear stress a crosssection of a beam of hollow circular section. The section of a plate girder has flanges 16 inches wide by 2 inches thick . [CH. flanges 097 inch thick. If the above section in No. which is 30 inches deep and £ inch thick. V. Find the moment of resistance to bending in a longitudinal plane perpendicular to the short edge which may be exerted by a beam of angle section 6" x 4" X f" if the toes of the angle are rounded to a radius of 03" and the root to a radius of 0*425".) 21. and web 06 inch What thick. 19. the outside diameter being twice the internal diameter. is the ratio of the maximum to the mean intensity of vertical shear stress ? 20. when the total vertical shear stress on the section is 30 tons.
due to loading. and FlG  l09 AB (Fig. This symbol is not to be confused with the variable y already used for the distances of points in a crosssection from the neutral axis of that section. . from their original positions. originally straight. Deflection : Bending — Uniform M E M : 1 R where OT R =M EI the modulus of direct I is the moment of inertia of the area of crosssection about the neutral axis. 61. 61 moment and 63) to a circular arc of radius R.CHAPTER 75. will be used for deflections for different points along the neutral plane. The symbol y. i. — It is usually be is stiff as well as strong. can easily be found from the geometry of Fig. and are very small compared to the length of the We beam.e. Stiffness VI. in Simple Curvature. If a beam is E elasticity. which produces curvature related to the intensity of stress in the manner shown in Art. such that 76. that it necessary that a beam should should not. DEFLECTION OF BEAMS. When a beam of constant section is subjected throughout its length to a uniform bending it bends (see Arts. the deflection PP' or y. usually vertical. deflect much from its original position. The greatest part of the deflection generally due to bending. now proceed to find the deflection of various parts of beams under a variety oi different loadings and supported in various ways. 109) of length /. a variable. bends to a circular arc AP'B. It will be assumed that aU deflections take place within the elastic limit. and Strength. 109. at the middle. although it is estimated in the same direction.
[CII. . VI.158 For STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.
The curvature If sufficient The approximation may be I stated in another way. . — dx =„ F and 3 d¥ j dx =w= is d?M. . Hence the slope— .d Ay d*y or d=m w . this relation. and = K reduces to tj . 159 . for ^5. . d*y _ *" dx1 '{+(©? and if ^ ax is very small.dxdx .. general expressions for F.0I dx ] <&**} EI** ' ' * * ' W (4) the integration being between suitable limits. jidx or I I p.. . j relations with those in Art. two. . di d*y di d 5=7 = ^=7 (dy\ =t7 R ds dx dx\dxj dx1 . (6) If is constant or a known integrable function of x. 'and y at any point of the beam may be found by one.ART. 35 dx where the shearing force and F span at a distance x from the origin. any point x along the beam. three. M. is w the load per unit length of we have <=> '#™S)"S when E and I are constant. And the deflection y =\jdx= between proper limits. • (1) x ' and for M EI will also = 1 R = cPy ^ ^ . established for uniform curvature R hold for every elementary length ds in cases is where the curvature ^ variable. 77] hence the curvature DEFLECTION OF BEAMS. Combining the above dM.. higher powers than the first may be neglected. and w= w m di „. viz. i. . 59. or four integrations respectively of the equation d*y L dx* a constant of integration being 1 added at each integration..
If the moments are estimated in the opposite senses to those stated > < i 1 — r2 dx must f I vv 2 Fig. .x) (dy. w c> v \ of course.— l6o — y . applies for the contraclockwise moments to the left of a section. The same. In Art. d* . the values of the constants may be determined. in (2). must be written on . positive or negative) positive curvature. dx78. Then at P. be used in equation (2). i. is written for i. this W// x\ where A is a constant.e. dy or 4. M in equation (2) (whether + ^3. 59 the sign of the bending moment was so chosen that a clockwise moment of the external forces to the right was positive. W// \ < see Fl s. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. — For y positive cPy vertically downwards slopes next article. 57. if the clockwise moment of the external forces to the right of a section . [CH.e. the other side of the equation. as in Art. 1 1 1). If the general expression for the bending moment at any point can be written as an integrable function of x. and take C as origin. Uniform Beam simply supported at its Ends with Simple Loads. the beam will be convex upward at that section. distant x horizontally along the half span CB from the origin value to moment — W C— iPy dx* =M dy 1 wi=mj\2. Hence. i.e. VI.. to positive values of j~. r K and integrating . and convexity upwards corresponds to increase of r with increase of . (a) Let there be a central load (Fig. violation of the rule of signs will lead to an error in the signs of / A and y resulting from integrations of It may be noted that a positive clockwise of external forces to the right of a section gives a positive d?y r„.6 3> T . general expressions for * and y may be found by integrating twice the equation tPy _ M in the * Examples of both the above methods are given Signs.will be positive downwards in the direction of x positive (generally to the right) x. . conditions of the fixing or supporting of the beam are given. The two following examples are worked out in considerable detail to illustrate the method of finding the constants of integration.
dy or f ax 1 * _ = 2EIV2 W // =r\ x 3t?\ 2/ ) (1) v ' Integrating again the constant of integration. and the at the centre. since d?y ^ the added constant being Putting both sides must reduce to o for d*y /.ART. being + 5^?. (*) Let there be a uni. . = o for x = and y =.rccr oa half span are evidently of same magnitude at the same distances from C. TT T ^** i A the origin (Fig. and use the d*y Take \ I g > l ~ml„ \um > c mi\ Fig. . W/2 . = o when x = l o = \wP + A/ hence A= \wl .g. EI 48 since ^ = o when * = I • The equations (1) and (2) give the slope and deflection anye. . 112. anc d and . l6l when x = o. 'B at the end. The four conditions in this case are EW3 = M = o for x = o dx* d*y  3x \=otoxx = l o.j^ ~ ~5FlV48/ = ~f6l! W/ = Tsgj 3 W //» F\ (3) (4) The slopes and deflections on the other j. where on the half span. and with this choice of origin (C) A disappears. B. y EI Integrating. at gri r Mn L w ^^^^nMnr Per Inch. ^Ix1 = wx A EItj = fax* + Ax + o zero. 112). The four integrations require four known conditions to evaluate the four added constants. o for * =/ (5) S =W "*" Integrating again. y£ ' equation EIj4 = w. 78] Since therefore i = o A=o DEFLECTION OF BEAMS.1 :n A.«*p formly spread load w per unit length. or x = . substituting these values. o = o 4.
(8).. since hwb? + Bx + °) Putting therefore y = o for x = o. (7). '. which might also be obtained from (6).r^l^ + feo**) ) wx ^= ^EI ^~ 2/^ +/8 2 3i^. at the ends thus. i. 1 = o. (9) or.5 + £) = sib ji • • • • (") whole load wl = W W/> yo = 384 "jij (12) The the signs here all agree with Arts.e. = tPy \wx* .To dy or . . 1 . when x =t I andthen or. VI. EI Integrating this i ~... and illustrate the convention given at end of 59 and 77.—— l62 (a result . *'. if the = ^gj (& . .A= 1T = 2 EI ^ y is B wP < . STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. i.. which might also be found from / since by symmetry * =o for and y = gjGf? «'# . M. ( . —— — [CH. Kg. * is a maximum when (8) =o or M= o. ..\wlx (7) = % = ^l (>xs 4 >W + ty . and y respectively for any point distant 7 * along the beam from the end A.#. — and (9) give F. writing x = o in . since the shearing force is zero for x = ) Then substituting for A .=1 ^ll *) ^ + & ^ wse(/ (6).^wl' + B/ B = fyvP (8). (8) Integrating again y = gj(i4K'* the constant being zero.0> a maximum when ~r . = o for x = / y o = A«? .
78] DEFLECTION OF BEAMS.£4EI I+ el* which evidently reduces to the previous result for perfectly rigid supports for which e is infinite. minus the upward P e wl . If this beam were propped by a central support to the same level as the ends. in other words. Sinking of Prop. the central deflection becomes zero. and E 13. originally same level. moment due Propped Beam. while the end supports each carry of the load.of the deflection due to the downward load. Let P be the upward reaction of the prop . then from (4) — and (1 1) P/ 3 ^_wjI* "" 38 * 48EI El (*3) and P = § wl. apart the — For points between two just supports a distance / cPv work would be as before. Example i. 1 63 Overhanging Ends. or. the upward deflection caused by the reaction of the prop (and proportional to it) is equal to the downward deflection caused by the load at the middle of the span. the modification in the above would be simple.of the above amount. and approaches \wl for very elastic supports.000 tons per — . but were elastic and such that the pressure required to depress each unit distance and of each end support wl — P . If the elasticities of the end supports and central prop are different. A beam of 10 feet span is supported at each end and carries a distributed load which varies uniformly from nothing at one support to 4 tons per foot run at the other. the central prop carries f of the whole load.P_ *e „ wl* FP 48EI 384 EI Ki + ^)= wi^£i+7e) .e. i. ti x Elastic Prop. If the prop is not level with the end supports. Then equating ' the difference of levels to the downward deflection deflection due to P due to the load. 8 T fp . The moment of 4 inertia of the crosssection being 375 (inches) . at the — If the central prop and end supports were is e. the reaction of 11 the prop will be . but — ^ removes . the compression of the prop is . except that EI A at each to the overhanging support would be equal to the bending end instead of zero.ART.
and suspended from a rigid support by three wires.000X375 —7—r. 4 inches deep. 360X13._ 3 6oFlVi2o 36 360 J At the light end x dy j dx = = = o 7 X 120 4 z 360 X 1 r. = and 10 substituting this value. find the slopes at each end and the magnitude and position of the maximum deflection. solving 3eo x 2. t% 1J = —r 300 x tons d*y dx' ~ _ T 360EI x ' dx" d iy 360EIV2 ^ 1 /x % J \ r„ dxd?y = o for x = /: hence A= — 7 and o ^2_ 36oEI\6 dy l_(^_€f?\ 6/ 1 _ /x* / Px* 12 dx 360EIV24 1 E 3 \ / Xs Px „ \ y = o for x = /. y= 0*52/= 624 inches 0^0925 inch Example feet long. VI square inch.. Take the origin at the light end . radians=o*i3i ° . The conditions of the ends are as before.— 164 — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. — [CH. then at a distance x inches along tbe span the load per inch run is —X x 120 . „ At the heavy end x At the point of a:' 120 inches. dy — = o i5o°  maximum Pa? 12 deflection j = o . therefore 24 hence. each of — . hence B= dy ! l _ JL = li 120 1 l 36 _ dx and • 360EI f \ x* 360 Px? 12 24 ?6o 36' / J. is A wooden plank 1 2 inches wide.
113) at the fixed Take the origin at the free end. or as a mathematical maximum between the end and the middle of the beam. X 120 X 120 X 120 q hence. per square inch W concentrated 79.inche3 being less than that at x= 2532 inches. . Uniform Cantilever simply loaded. and one midway between them. the direct modulus of elasticity (E) for the wires being 20 times that for the wood. 79] DEFLECTION OF BEAMS. and E„ that for the wood = ^E. X 64 X 8 X 180 _ = ^X12x64 = el' E. 165 which is \ of a square inch in section and 15 feet long. a uniform load of 400 lbs. per foot run is placed on the plank. and the greatest intensity of bending stress in the plank. be the modulus for the wires. by (14) the total tension in the middle wire is „ P 0*625 = 4°°° X + 0064 x 0064) . At * inches from one end dx which = 8 4 4 i r* 2532 inches.inches At the middle of the span M = (844 X this 60)  (2000 x 30) = 9360 is— lb. one being at each end.370  10. x + (3 = 400 ° X °"S7 8 = 2 3 12 lbs  In each end wire.— (a) (Fig. A load O end Then for x = dy o. total pull = 4000 — 2312 = .685 lb. The greatest intensity of bending stress ** = I IO 68 5  * 2 = 64 334 lbs.. 4 64 (inches) The load on the central wire may be found from (14) above 24EJ _ 24E. find the tension in the central and end wires. j = o. X loo the strain being ^ For the wooden beam supported 1 at the centre. The force per inch stretch of the wires (e) = o E'—. Neglecting the weight of the wood. Let E.685 = 10..ART. where the diagram is discontinuous.. is zero for x Substituting this for = x— M= 21. All the wires being just drawn up tight. The greatest bending moment may occur at the middle support. and y = o. 844 lbs.
114. At any point x the bending moment EI. 113. From O to C Elg=W(/ *) 1 El£ = W(«* AtC and i*2) +o (dy\ Wo El.g = W</*) El . 1 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. VI. viz.— 66 — — [CH. 114) at the fixed end. all conditions as above. W 2 (6) /A '\2/ 8 Iei" A = wv 3 isET (as in (4) Art< 78) ' concentrated load distant ^ from the fixed end. Fig.j/ = W^/* 2 i*8 ) t o i ^ ^ %!b%^ At the end I Fig.«<and y* 5c«= 2EI EI u e> (I)  sEI (2) Note of the beam that the upward deflection of the support relative to the centre in Fig.j^^Wd/^l^) W£ (as before) or c = 2 . ' 5H 8 (3) y° _ WA ~ 3EI • • • • (4) . A (£). Origin at O (Fig. 11 1 might be found from the formula (2).
(c) Uniformly distributed load w per unit length. 79] At any point the deflection at DEFLECTION OF BEAMS. 78. ^j In particular >'A = ill + <'  V 2EI (5) The same formula would be applicable to any number of loads. y*. The equation of upward and downward deflections as used in the previous article may be used to find the load taken by a prop at the free end or elsewhere. Origin (Fig. and X (slope from C to B) =b . that a prop at the free end level with — . Selecting the former 2/x + x2) Elg = *?(/* &» + 2 EI . From (2) and (7) it is evident.w/ a °r 8 EI (6) W = wl.\W + 2 (dy\ T** ) + o = I— ^ where or UA — 2 = wP . B beyond C the slope remains B exceeds that at C by b the 167 same as at C. 77. 115. for the deflection of the support relative to the centre of the beam is t'(0" 3EI Hi)" 8EI wP s84 EI Propped Cantilever. at the fixed end. by equating upward and downward deflections.ART. A start may be made from relation (2) or (6) of Art. .y For x fas') + 4 w = 7 &W . 115) Fig. £[\i a r W— WP s ei or 8 EI (7) The upward result (12). might be deduced from the above. Art. 2 Ei( I  I n= + w\™L "> 6 EI .
requiring a force e per unit of depression and being before loading at the same level as the fixed end. and P the pressure on the prop. 61. equating the depression of the prop to the difference of deflections due to the load and the prop — — P e . and is propped at the free end to the level of the fixed end. . If the load only extended a distance / x deflection at the free end would be. 59 and Fig. wl* FP 3EI ~ » EI whence P = wl '+'%) For other types of loading or positions of prop. If the prop is below the level of the fixed end. at both ends. Let be the load. making \wl. the method employed in (5) above  . If the fixed end is rigid and the support at the free end is elastic.. and 33 o at the free end. the load on it would be proportionally increased.. and taking the difference The of the ordinates as representing the resulting bending moments. d*y . Elastic Prop. = 8Er + ^~ ^"Er /i () If the load fixed end. extended from the free end to a distance /. for the above simple case of distributed load. but Other raised throughout by an amount %wl relative to the baseline. etc. If it is above that level. (d) Partial distributed load. curve of shearing force is a straight line similar to that of Fig. contraflexure. the deflection of the free (8) from (7). similar principles would hold good. Find what proportion of the load is carried on the prop. slope W= = ^ = = Sinking Prop. The bendingmoment diagram may be drawn by superposing diagrams the fixed end. 61. VI. 68 when loaded. from the end would be found by subtracting Example i. noting the points of maximum deflection. the load carried by it would be proportionately reduced. cantilever carries a concentrated load at  of its length from the fixed end. would carry f of the whole distributed load. types of loading of propped cantilevers may be dealt with on similar The reader should work out this simple case fully as an principles. Then— —A W W 3 EI ~ a EI 5 P = W^jj + p _ si w "*" * laa ) = 2EI ijgW . [CH. the conditions being v = o by integration of the equation EI^ d tpy o at the fixed end.— 1 — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. by the from the fixed end. exercise. w. such as Fig.
\P  A/. and \l. running from a point 3 feet from the fixed end to a point 2 feet from the free end. or by direct integration.i/ a s A/ = . cantilever 10 feet long carries a uniformly spread load over 5 feet of its length. Find what proportion of the load is carried by the prop. and P Let pressure on the prop. let the origin be at the fixed end. which is propped to the same level as the fixed end. This might be solved by th« methods of the two previous exercises.. A( \ + i) •= /(& . 1 69 Example 2.TV. ~l* EI + °7 / *— EI~> Therefore wl* \o'±oq6 wl* o io24 o'oo8i o'oiSol . Example 3.(y. find the load carried by the prop.v* *° klx + °) Since A= — y= hence for x= I. Substituting these values. the latter method.i^ + A*!/*A/) ^ = £(*** . B = / .T^  {) = . 79] DEFLECTION OF BEAMS. fixed end. Note that this is less than —A is w lx x\ ^^ = w r = w vi) EI g = K.557 + A .(*i^ + A ^ „. —A w= = I— gf.To»'a—If" . u%(itV) .<Py ( ) <Py t~ = for *= /. and— E1 <& 2 =a. The Deflection of the free end if unpropped would be total load is vol. load per foot run. 8 = El{—8~ + 6 6)= °' o64I ET P/ = °"°^4 I wl* « FI ~yT P = o*i923K// or 0*385 of the total load 8 — # gravity of the load half the load. cantilever of uniform crosssection carries a load per foot run at the fixed end which varies uniformly from a maximum If the free end is propped to the level of the to zero at the free end. although the centre of nearer to the propped end. Using first finding the deflection if unpropped.ART.
w 7fe~ PP?' . 1 a+ Fig. . The total vertical deflection at the free end is 36 c . hence the proportion carried at the free end If both ends were free it would be \. The bending moment throughout the long arm is sensibly the same as that at the bend. 116. *.000 tons per square inch. and the shearing force «''(i  i  !) = tW the reaction at the free end. arm. Find the horizontal and vertical deflection of the free end E 13.— — 170 — [CH. The inclination of the upper end of the long arm to the vertical is evidently twice the amount 5*50.. 116). the lower end remaining vertical. . the other and longer arm is firmly fixed vertically in the ground.2 43 + . \ x 36 9 toninches. It therefore bends to a circular arc. and end x = /. bar of steel 2 inches square is bent at right angles Example 4.— = 374 inches . which is the average inclination. . Simply supported Beam with Noncentral load concentrated at a distance a from one support Load. line joining the two ends of the long arm would therefore make with the vertical an angle which is —A A = = A all < Art  7<5 W= 81 9 X 120 2 9 2EI X 120 X 12 X 13. . 0224 = 2467 inches . viz. The total load is \wl. \I STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.000 X 16 81 2600 radians and the horizontal deflection of the whole of the short arm will be — 2600 X ^ —= 120 1 243 65 . 3 feet from one end . at the free is which gives the shearing force anywhere. the short (3foot) arm being horizontal and 10 feet above weight of \ ton is hung from the end of the horizontal the ground. L* Xy& + «i ^ X 36 X 36 X I3 x % 36 * X l6 12 = . is 5 of the whole.— Let W be a and b A (Fig. 80. The downward slope of the short cantilever arm is therefore T ^ at the bend.
taking B as origin and measuring x as positive towards C. the span being a at +b= I. . 80] DEFLECTION OF BEAMS. .W a Taking Suppose that a is greater than A as origin. g8* 6 gfccN _ a2 + 2a£ 6  a: 8 " . 3/~EI(a + */ "' and when x = a under load * = 3EI(^ (8) . ' W* + V) T atC ^or *„ = « EI(fl + by. A= . + 2EI(«+0) w and dy jrfje = — Wb =T77 EI(« —+ x* • 2 a* r— Ts 0) — . B. . .. . where a: = a— yc = Wb EI( a a + ^) J + "° a* . (x* a*x\ . .. . from A to C dx* Ela EI(« +y *' .. . RB = —+ b f.ART. . . 1 71 from the other support. \ " 2 W dy__ dx and or. „. making ic of opposite sign Wa b* ^Elf^rT)'?"'" .. '* . (4) Similarly. .+ A <••' . .. (2) v ' Wb and at C. The reaction A is evidently a RA £7«W —+ b and b. (S) Subtracting (5) from (4) — ^sf Substituting this value of * c in (3) •^ w Wfcc W£ /a* ~EI(a+*)U at C. h »o . .
the deflection corresponding to (7) will y = _D El(^+7)" E _ Wax" i + 2ab. may be found by adding the deflections due to the several loads as calculated by (7) or (10) above. x is always less than a if b is less dy . deflection occurs [«!. from B. If there are several concentrated loads on one span the deflection at any selected point.— 172 J STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. VI. be Within the smaller segment b the deflection at any point distant say x (less than b).is not zero within the smaller segment b. the origins being chosen for each load so that the selected point is between the origin and the which — load. in (2). U1 or <fc' * * Wa = El(« ~ — + (x* ^)V b* ab\ . of the Substituting the above value of x (7)— • J m "' ' _ W£(a° + 2ab)l ~9V3E1(«+J) 1 Wijr* °r . the position (x) of maximum deflection only varies from \l to r=l. . always within 8 per cent. not hold. is never zero when x' is less than b. or. A than corresponding expression for the other part of the span would that this value of x where the deflection y is a maximum. Several Loads. so that V3 the point of length of the in maximum beam from deflection is the middle./ ' ' * (9) (a + b — x).IP)% 9V3K. . using (7) for points in major segments. Substituting for The maximum / where^ = aV\ o. dx =0 x = \a(a + 26) x = —r= V3 \/a + zab or —r= V3 • vP — b* which gives the value of Note a. and (10) for points in minor ones.x* 6 • * • < 10 ) and corresponding dy to (2a) .I. or differentiating !%)>_ (7)— _ W£ EI(a /x* _<?__ 6 dx dy + (2a) 1 b)\2 and when. Also note that as b varies from \l to zero. or 0577/. for x is then greater than b 7. whether directly under a load or not.
load of 3 tons 5 feet from the lefthand support. from A. Example. the upward deflection is. by (8) above '' R X c 81 X 121 ~ = „ i6y35Rg . simpler method is given in Art. from the fact noted above. for the 3ton load. 4 — . The pair between which the maximum deflection lies can usually be determined by inspection. If the beam were not propped. W= l6 7. and one of 7 tons 4 feet from the righthand end. and is propped 9 feet from the lefthand end to the same level as the The beam carries a supports. taking «=5.A.e T3^ A . that value of x gives the position of the maximum deflection. if it Adding these.. the distance slope between any two loads might be written down in terms of from A. taking a = X 16. in (10) above y°= and 3 X 5 X 11 f 225 + (10 X 6 15) 349:^5 20EI 1 J EI for the 7ton load.RT. that every individual load causes its maximum deflection within a short The + distance of the midspan. beam of 20feet span is freely supported at the ends. 117. 3EI X 20 EI . the deflection at C (Fig. // c_ F C C D Fig. would be. by using the sum of such terms as (2a) and (n). b — x) instead of #\ writing {a If this sum vanishes for any value of x lying between the two chosen loads. 81. * = 9 1 9. the downward not propped deflection of the beam would were 98555 EI If R is the reaction of the prop at C. 9 feet —A A 3 Tons.W = 3and 121 1 x = 1 11. in (7)— yc = ~ ToEl\ 7 X 4( 729  (256 6 X X 4 X = 6 3fr3 J EI be.£=i5. 8o] DEFLECTION OF BEAMS. If not. b 9) = (2 4. 173 x. 7 Tons. 117). the maximum lies between another pair of loads. thus forming two spans of 9 and 1 1 feet. Find the reactions at the prop and at the end supports.
in which the slopes anc on a beam of constant crosssection. Art. 77 —The 2/2 •*/**£/" if E and I are constant. free = (3X5) +(7X^6) (603X9) = RA = 10 . =  I Mdx (which is proportional to OECD) . 1 18. producing convexity downwards (see Art. (2) Thus the change of slope between two points on a beam is proportional to the area of the bendingmoment diagram between them.. 16335 = 6o 3 1 tons a A and B follow by taking moments about the 3 fi36 tQns . from O. viz. generally positive.3635 = 0334 ton Rb 81. 118. quantity J Mdx ABCD is * 2 . to Q. the change of in clination «'.— 174 Equating — — — [CH. and from a point of zero slope to any other point the area under the bendingmoment curve is proportional to the actual slope at the second point. where the slope equal to the inclination. represents the area of the bending P and Q.6031 . but the choice is of little importance in the present chapter. i. may be represented by The Fig. which produces convexity upwards. change of slope between any two points on a beam may be found from the relation shown in (3). is attached to bending. reactions at 9*§I. change of If the lower limit x^ moment diagram between be zero. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. and Slope from Bendingmoment Diagrams. where the beam is the actual slope is horizontal. Changes of sign in the bendingmoment diagram must be taken into account if the curve passes through zero. this to the above deflection at C R = The ends. and the opposite sign to a bending moment. One algebraic sign. VI. Between two points P and are Q (Fig. 77). Deflection Slopes. . deflections greatly exaggerated). which is the angle between the two tangents at P and Q.
— also represents %jrr radians slope I in (inches)* units. . i square inch of bendingmoment diagram area represents q s lb .ix denotes the vertical projection If the of the tangent at x.)""" = / u—x\ I ~dx = ~ iil Ji<l j Mxdx "1 (if EI is constant) (3) J "i J I (x&i .J. and . and y is zero at the origin. 175 Scales.. using the method of by parts for the lefthand side 8 (xfV ax N or.. (5) and Jr r EI I Mxdx gives the change in level of the beam between the J '1 two points. ^ oix.i represents the moment about the moment diagram between xs and its If A is this area and x I is the P" 2 distance of centre of gravity or centroid from the origin. 8 1] DEFLECTION OF BEAMS. 77) dxi ~ Mx EI Integrating integration between x = x2 and * = Xi.(xA . is (4) If the limits of integration between which the deflection required are such that x~ dy is (from either of the factors * dy or j.X2  y] * becomes (y*yi) . and i inch vertically represents s lb. dy The product x. lower limit is zero.inches. Mxdx may be represented by A . —From the equation ^=EI X d?y ((2). #. ^ vanishes at both limits.. If in the bendingmoment diagram i inch horizontally represents q inches.y*) = j[[ zero Mxdx Jx .ART.being zero) at each limit.(inches)'. the horizontal projection of which is x.ys) . Art. the expression (xj. if E is in pounds per square inch and Deflection.. the quantity . The quantity J Mxdx origin of the area of the bendingx. This quantity only represents the change in level when x.
in this the vertical deflection of the beam from its tangent. and might be applied to the case of any of isolated loads. end is ~ 2EI 6EI number The (5). VI. 79. hence dy (*Tx. over a horizontal length x. Art. being measured in square inches and x in inches. (Ps the deflection on a scale =^\ inches to 1 inch. Hence. deflection of a cantilever carrying a uniformly distributed load might similarly be found from the diagram of bending moment (Fig. Scales. if the load at a distance x =I— 5/1. the product * represents A A . case. /and x = So that the deflection is JAY/* §/. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. difference area). and 1 inch (vertically) represents s lb. x and ~y X (moment of bendingmoment diagram x. Art. — \i in the bendingmoment diagram 1 inch (horizontally) represents q inches. or between x. Applications : (a) Cantilever If the origin be taken at the free — with Load W at the = o Free End (see Fig. represents the difference between the vertical projection of the tangent and the deflection at *. is Similarly. 61 from which agrees with . x /r EI = /j W/3 ^j A= ^W/^. in other words. end before or after deflection f for x = o x~r dy ax and at the fixed end x = / and dy 3 = o.inches.Zx — ^%] Mxdx (4a) where I Mxdx may be either positive or negative. W/. 79. 59). which agrees with (2). 61) if the distance of the centroid of the parabolic spandril of Fig. the deflection at a distance x from the origin is equal to the at x. and the deflection of the $ EI ^ 3 h) free from the fixed end.yl gives the difference of level of the two ends y — y„ which is equal to— A_Jc EI where A = £.— 176 i — —— — [CH.
The bendingmoment diagram for the irregular loading is ABFED. The parts DCE opposite sign.ART. A (Fig. If the cantilever is propped at the end. measuring A and finding x by any of the various graphical methods. the derived area corresponding to the pole B would represent the area under a curve M . for sign. the latter problem being worked graphically. Xj —yj between . 119). •IT Loaded Cantilever. 68. Art. number A — the quantity ( zero. consisting in drawing the bendingmoment diagram to scale. x with origin at B. or finding the product Ax by a derived area.as before. the ordinates being of opposite The moments of these two areas about B are together zero. For any irregular loading of a same method can be applied after the bendingmoment diagram ABFEDA has been drawn (Fig. and EFB are ot E giving the point of inflection. N . and the product .P/_X/xf/ a general formula applicable to regular or irregular loads. x as the sum of the products of the areas of the several triangles and the distances of their centroids from the free end. The resultant bendingmoment diagram is shown shaded in Fig. Propped Cantilever. The method is in such a case a purely graphical one. concentrated whole area the A may be looked upon as the sum of the areas of i of triangles. let P be the upward reaction of the prop at B (Fig. Taking the origin at moment of that area may be found wl* L m\\ Mxdx = m\\ x*dx = which agrees with (b) Irregularly (7). 79. 119. every term being hence— = i. as in Art. The deflection of the cantilever the free — end is given by ^=. 61) 177 the free end is known. the scales being suitably chosen. and that for the prop is the triangle ABC. Irregular Load. 8 1] DEFLECTION OF BEAMS.* limits o and /is zero. If the irregular loading consists of a number of loads. 119). Otherwise the by integration.
be A„ which is negative downwards.—— — 178 The verticals STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. (8) zero at the section where maximum deflection occurs. and / refers to the distance of the prop A A ABFED A from A. . x distance of its centroid from A. and the slope at * is i. If the area of the bendingmoment diagram from x to the right of A. taking account of the signs of the areas. 77. (8a) . .. with convexity 4 which is = >a + if" jtj J M</« or ik + A gj .* eT7/ W . since (*g _ ^=^_ y. and B the above If the cantilever is propped somewhere between and the length x refer to the formula holds good. (e) Beam supported at two Points on the same Level. deflection of any point [CH. provided the area between and the prop. __ — A(/g) / • • • • • V/J With the convention of signs given in of opposite sign to i„.. be found by lies between and A. and the deflection a maximum at some point to the right of E where taking the moment about through X X between A and B may X of so much of this diagram as the area to the right of E is equal to DCE. A x being negative. hence ik is positive and iB is negative. and the ratio of one to the other is inversely proportional to the ratio of the distances of the supports from the centroid of that area just the same kind of relation. —Taking the origin at one end A (Figs. and similarly from the moment about A B EI . ). Again. or area about the origin A.. it may be noted. Since the areas reckoned from A represent the slopes. that the reactions at the supports have to the and is Art. the slope is zero. . 116 and 120) x { %y) = lJ a * = ti\\ Uxdx= i§r where is the area of the bendingmoment diagram. A — total load. and x is the represents the moment of the . is negative for a beam carrying downward loads which produce convexity downwards . hence A A 'b = A. .. * being portion of the diagram measured from the prop. = JL ^Mxdx = xin ^]lAxdx . Thus (in magnitude) the slopes at the supports are proportional to the area of the bendingmoment diagram between them.. distant A — to a point X. VI.
about A) =r . hanging beam the above relations hold. provided that the signs of the For irregular areas and moments of areas. be taken into account. may be determined as for a cantilever. (1 1) remembering that A. 67. they give algebraic expressions.M** .g. such as in Figs. yz = (x x slope at A) (10) which gives the deflection anywhere along the beam. moment of the area of the bendingmoment diagram about B into — two parts Wao(a ~ 6EI(« + ad) + *) . 68. are written down symbolically in terms of dimensions of the bendingmoment diagram. finding the centres of gravity of the areas. 116 and (7) above. is a negative quantity. which are applicable to any kind of loading. the deflection and slope anywhere for a beam carrying a single concentrated load may be found in this way as an alternative to the methods in Art. and the moments of areas (A x) may be found by a " derived area. 72.gj/. case of convexity upwards the signs of these second terms would be The reader should illustrate the geometrical meaning of the changed. provided the deflection due to the slope at the support be For points between the supports of an overadded (algebraically). the slope at X will be negative if X Note that the second term is beyond the point of maximum deflection. 8 1] and substituting DEFLECTION OF BEAMS. various terms on sketches of beams under various conditions. and represents the vertical displacement of the beam at X from the tangent at A. etc. * . and the second term in (n) represents the In the vertical displacement of the beam at A from the tangent at X. + gj J M<fe o . Probably the form (10) is more convenient than (n).. about XJ^r ." as in Art. the second term being negative. 80. As indicated by (8).ART. v . *tA = a»A + gy — or the deflection at i gj (moment of A. about A) (9) X is + (moment of A. And from (8a) we may write yx = (x X slope at X) — (moment of A. such as have already been obtained in other ways for various cases of loading. in (10) is negative. Overhanging Ends. ix being a constant. The deflection at any point on an overhanging end. loading these processes may be carried out graphically. or 73. without — . dividing the Noncentral Load. When the above expressions for slopes and deflections. 68. for it 1 79 from iA (8) J. e. From Fig.
.. + 2ab 6 — ar 2 \ / • ' (l4 ' which agrees with *° Several Loads. A I a k v\ . . W< at P„ Pa P8 and .— l8o and from — — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 120). the areas being negative for 1 downward loads. The quantity A(l — x). W W 2. which might be drawn for the several weights separately. 120). into five parts.A  i gj^. 80. Let the bending moments at P„ P2 P8 etc. may be found by the sum of the moments of the triangular areas of the bendingmoment diagrams. VI. within the range >'** x x _ Wbx EI(a+t)'z 3 El(a + 2'3~EI(« (7). and let it be divided by verticals through Pj. . or calculated as in Art. (Fig. and at from A. drawn as in Art. eta. P8 and P4 . and / — x is its distance from B. . P2 A„ A^ and AB as shown. . A A2 2..j) (l3 > / Wbx x\ W£ ~El(a which agrees with /a8 + 2gfl 6 x*\ + b)\ x* ~z/ 2 (2a). or the moment of the area A about B. . . M M„ . distant ax as a. = . the bendingmoment diagram may be. Art. For 4 = Wbx = ifa + 2ab) A to C (a2 b)\ ^)V Also from (10). Then K{lx) EI where x is the distance of the centroid of the area A from the_ origin A.. 58. Art. respectively. (Fig. 80. t 2/ (h) As = M„ + M S/ " («3«a) and so on. bendingmoment diagram be A. (8) within the [CH. 3. range A to C . Fig. and P. 56. . so that Aj —= aMi all A A. be Mi. = M + M (a.^(areaPAX) 1 = • .3 ei(« + b) WW And when x • = • a — • ' (15) — If there are several vertical loads Wj.e. . 120. i. the quantity ik is the sum of four such terms as (12) above. Let the total area of the a.
EI and so on. etc.) ' . viz. is greater than — If the zero slope is at a X. r easily from which quadratic equation x may be found. The magnitude of the maximum deflection is then found from (n) above. or by calculation (see Art. say. . The deflecmay be found from equation (10). 57). the second term in each case being negative. A. are then ~ ' A + EI . Example .*a + . zero slope occurs between. . A + t Ag + A. 1 — — from the bendingmoment diagram as follows Let the bendingmoment diagram be drawn by the funicular polygon : (see Art. or total area from point A to successive loads. Pa P8 . say. +a + A.Art. — =rr(moment the area over tion elsewhere about point A of the bendingmoment diagram over AX) conveniently be written dbwn after dividing by diagonals from Pa . opposite sign — (Aj + Aa i ) is less « \ than *—j i — A(/ — x) . — M and the slope being — "* I x or point A to the point X of zero slope is equal to A * —— t A +A 1 a +(M + _a __ )(**. h ~ tk + Ai + Aa El . AEDB AB. . ' Beams carrying uniformly distributed loads over "Other Cases. being the diagram for the two loads on the unsupported span Then from (7)— «' A = — =r: (moment of area AEDB about B) r AB DF for Divide the (negative) area AEDB into four triangles by joining . * from A. With numerical data this method will appear much shorter than in the above symbolic form. l8l The '' slopes at Pj.i.purely graphical methods for the same problem are given in the next article. part of the span might conveniently be dealt with by these methods. P a and P 3 the slopes at P 2 and P8 are of . 117. The example at the end of . the summatioto of ''moments of the bendingmoment diagram area being split up into separate parts with proper limits of integration at sudden changes or discontinuities in the rate of loading.ART. The segment in which the slope passes through zero is easily found If the from the slope. '» . distant a). the bending moment zero. Other.. the area from there is M + — a (M. 58). — (Ai / « Aj. 80 may be solved an expression which may AX into triangles. It is shown in Fig.)= A. 8 1] DEFLECTION OF BEAMS.
deflection.») _yc = 1397 4""5 gj = 985 "5 / EI (downward) . units Using ton and ' A ~ EI (10).^(4* ^)]dx 2 0r or ' __2_f?^_!< x 2 x/ V^6/ x y~ (0/l 8 2EIV 2 24 El « is /') '*' which negative if 2 is less than l^ 6 end is Downward deflection at the free . and the position of maximum Example 68.. From the deflection of the free ends of the beam and (7) above. by (15) 16335 *= Equating _ Rc X 81 x 121 = 3EIX20 downward Rc / EI fa"""*) . 117. etc. 16335 = 603 tons * (603 3) = (7 X 4) + (i5 X— R B = 10 — 0334 — 603 = X 11) = o 334 ton 6636 tons The above methods might now be applied to the resultant bendingmoment diagram. VI. to determine the deflection anywhere between the A and (6) C. ± • 1 l • [ffo . convenience in calculating the above moment. or between C and B. feet 1 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 2.— 82 / —— — — [CH. —Find = in Fig. shown shaded in Fig. dividing And from EHCF by a diagonal FH 4 * = ^*'M(^t)+(^F.  For an upward load Rc at C.v this to the deflection at C Rc =• P Ra 9 5 5 . slopes downward towards the right— * A = i.
>—«(' i)* '". per square inch and I in (inches) 4 . 2 of Art. The five equations of Art. M. ^(10. 59 (see Fig.ART. the deflection = or. 77) be plotted successively on the length of the beam as a baseline.e. F. 82] DEFLECTION OF BEAMS.. inches. *. A R towards B i *°i6ElJ § \  — f7io* + . by (6). A being 10 tons. the difference between any two ordinates of any curve will be proportional to the area included between the two corresponding ordinates of the preceding curve. using (11) for the 1 — (downward deflection due to first term. downwards Example —Find the /2 is less than V4'8/i. " ^'^r . and y (see Arf. 77 immediately suggest a possible graphical method of finding deflections.) Taking an origin midway between A and C and x l8 * positive towards C M= 10(8 + x) + K 8 + xf = 7 + x2 + II2 tonsfeet and using (\a) over the range from upward at the origin is the origin to C. deflection at the centre consists of 1 83 Upward (upward deflection due to end loads) load between supports) which. — i (If E and I are in inch units. 72).\cdx _ (^x> + V a/*** 8/o i6EIV I in (feet) 4 — 2I ' 845 '3 16EI E being in tons per square foot. i. from If the five the curve showing the distribution of load on the beam. C deflection at B and midway between and in Ex. etc. is EI \ which is 0+ if 2 •t'J 384 EI i6EI (/l **'»> positive 3. 82. slopes. — . quantities w. Taking the origin at A. and . each curve will represent the integral of the one preceding it. deflection at B= 1728 x 1. Other Graphical First Method.922 7168) = ^ feet 1728 X ^r inches if E is in tons Methods.
the others can be deducea by measuring by graphical integration.1 84 if STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. q inches to 1 inch. FrG. 121.e.and bendingmoment diagrams respectively. fMto SLOPE. VI.A\ /1 t~s^^ + ei \™ dx i=ff. 121. . 121. (*) . and the * and y curves corresponding to (d) and (e). = . M . Scales for Fig. 121. per inch run 1 inch. p lbs. first be given. the F and curves corresponding to (b) and (c). Hence. 121. and G' being the centroids of the loading. Five such curves for a beam At the ends simply supported at each end are shown in Fig. The reader should study the exact G analogies between the various curves. • 1 !M x =f^Ftf « (?) BENDING MOMENT. and are shown in Fig.m DEFLECTION. areas.—Linear scale along the span. 121. R. but the methods of finding their values have already been explained. SHEARING FORCE. LOAD. the calculation of these is indicated below. must start from zero at the fixed end. load. the shearing forces and slopes are not zero. Fig. In the case of a cantilever. Therefore 1 square inch area represents p . [CH. the i. E in pounds per square inch. Fig. . I in (inches) 4 (a) Ordinates.qVo. In carrying into practice this graphical method the various scales are of primary importance. must start from zero at the free end (unless there is a concentrated end load).
Hence. set off proportional to the areas of bendingmoment diagram. to inch. de. 1 inch Areas 1 square inch represent ft . The second funicular polygon.? radians. gives approximately the curve of deflection . whether derived from a distributed load or from concentrated loads. and the distances ab. second. cd. i. DE. must be divided into parts (see Fig. If the bendingmoment diagram be treated as a diagram of loading. n square inches from (a) n. ri (c) = 1 inch . inches. square inches = 1 inch = '" **"**» kl If instead of 1 p lbs. the funicular polygon derived from it will give the polygon.. mnpq 1 lb. having their centroids on the lines AB. with sides parallel to lines radiating from O'. 82] (b) DEFLECTION OF BEAMS. be.ART. and take each part of the load as acting separately at the centroid of these parts. the deflection scale would be is fH ft ttltlf}(I pr inches to 1 inch.q lbs. (d) Ordinates. and which approximates to the curve of deflection with any desired degree of nearness.square inches from (b) 1 inch = = m = = inches. To show the form of the beam when deflected the deflection curve must be drawn on a base parallel to the beam. etc. BC. CD. etc. 58) to divide the loading diagram into parts (preferably vertical strips). 1 85 (<•) Ordinates. horizontal. 12 r show that the same kind of relation exists between bending moment (M) and deflection (y) as between the load per unit of span (w) and the bending moment.e.(inches) 2 square inches from • (d) Ordinates. by the funicular polygon (see Art. the true curve is that inscribed within this polygon. the sides of which the curve of deflection touches internally. —This The probably the best method for irregular equations ^= EI M and ~dl? = w or the diagrams in Fig. per inch run to 1 inch the force scale is/ lbs. Ordinates. and each part of the area treated as a force at its centre of gravity or centroid.q3 lb. This can be done by drawing the second vector polygon again with a pole A .p. Second Method. inches. 58). With a distributed load it was necessary (Art.p. inches. Areas 1 square inch represent mnpq* Ib. Similarly the bendingmoment diagram. the curve showing y on the span as a baseline can be derived from the bendingmoment diagram in the same way that the bendingmoment diagram is derived from the diagram of loading. types of loading. pole O' is chosen. Areas (e) 1 square inch represent m' L rimnpq* —pj from . for the tangents to the deflection curve at any two crosssections must intersect vertically below the centroid of that part of the bendingmoment diagram lying between those two sections. = . viz. 122).
K scale. q.e.(inches) 3 to 1 inch.q" . or by setting off the ordinates of the second funicular polygon from a horizontal baseline. the deflection curve represents EI y on a — . the scale of the bendingmoment diagram ordinates is p. the vertical vectors in the vector polygon. Scales. i86 on the [CH. in a overhanging or in a builtin beam (see Chap. 58. inches to I in inch E being in pounds per square inch.inches to i inch.p . the horizontal polar distance of the first vector polygon being h inches. those of opposite.q* .ti EI . One square inch area of the bendingmoment diagram represents p. . When different parts of a beam have opposite curvature. when the curvature changes sign.(inches) 2 . and (inches) 4 . and therefore represents y 1 on a m. e.h lb. i. kind (or sign) must be represented by upward vectors. the proper sign must be attached to First Vector Polycon Fig.— STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. This method is applicable to other cases than that of the simply supported beam here illustrated. VIL). lb. to i inch.p .g. VI. and the vector scale used for it is square inches of bendingmoment diagram to 1 inch. . m scale m. If the linear horizontal scale is q inches to i inch and the force scale is/ lbs.h. and if the (horizontal) polar distance of the second vector polygon is H inches. and drawing another funicular polygon corresponding to it. If bendingmoment diagram areas of one kind are represented by downward vectors. as in Art. q 2 h lb. provided the bendingmoment diagram has been determined. same level as /..h. 122.
so far investigated have been those for beams of constant section. If the forces are in tons. When the quantity I varies suddenly at some section of the beam.is used instead of M throughout. 77 — i = /jf7^# has become ^. per inch run inch be used on a diagram of continuous loading. but 1 E is M dx fU = EJI< .jMdx ' If. ordinary integration if the integrals are split up into ranges with suitable . of finding the slopes and deflections employed in and 82 may therefore be applied to beams of variable provided that the quantity I M j.* may of course of its centroid from the origin. so that the relation (3) of Art. neglecting the effects may be employed of a discontinuity in the crosssection. as shown in tnpcfhh' Fig. 81 Where and M are both may be written ( xdy \ x \ d. this becomes and the equation (1). the final scale would be — — i=rj . becomes J and the equation (3). 79. The slopes and deflections 83. expressed as simple algebraic functions of x (distance along the beam). 68). analytical methods can usually be employed (see Ex. section. but when either or both vary in an irregular manner. and the other modifications in the above are obvious. Art. dx The methods Arts. 83] If instead of to 1 DEFLECTION OF BEAMS. *i becomes r / dy \ = x* 1 P 2 M. I is not constant. the graphical methods should be used.y) where = E Ax A or I I M dx = area — em — ai&a j xi under the curve uiiu&i iiic luiv^ 7 M and x j is the distance J The moment A. 81. 78. 1 87 a force / lbs. 81. however. but is a simply expressed quantity over two or more ranges. Art. E should be expressed in tons. constant. inches to 1 inch. Beams of Variable CrossSection. Thus equation (3) of Art. to 1 inch a scale of / lbs. 122. be found conveniently by a derived area (see Art.ART. 81. 1 below).
as in Fig. with B as pole.' 68. and P = ap bases (/) A x and A' x' may be most conveniently found by the derived area method of Art. origin (Fig. it is only necessary to set off the ordinate pi in the bendingmoment diagram for the assumed reaction /. uniformly with the length from the fixed end to the free end. the being the same for each diagram. VI limits Ex. P j dx ^x and P= Jo" J 0" [ J ^dx± Jo For a graphical solution. . becomes first derived area of A= a(first derived area of A') • The scales are not important. The solution of problems on propped beams of all kinds by equating the upward deflection at the prop caused by the reaction of the prop to the downward deflection of an unpropped beam caused by the load. divide each ordinate (p x) by I.{21x) . let its A be the area enclosed by the curve Y' and x the the distance of centroid from B. and j~' its let P straight line) for the = op. Then diameter at a distance x from —A A W . Assume any load p on . equation giving the load carried by a prop at the end of acantilever. prop. 119. ~&— bending moment in terms of the distance from the free end M is the jxdx = jxdx. (see LCH. where the diameter is half that at the fixed end. A rts . which is taken as is—. i = aA'S' . giving this curve* a curve Let A' be the area enclosed by' and 'xf' the distance of form becomes — centroid from B. a being a mere ratio. 113). the free end due to a weight Let be the diameter at the fixed end at O. Draw the bendingmoment diagram (a end load/ . the being calculated for the varying section as above. is still valid. 2 below). Find the slope and deflection of hung there. may be stated as follows.— 1 8:8 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. on the same scale as the bendingmoment diagram more general application of these methods to other for the loading. cases will be found in cantilever of circular section tapers in diameter Example i. the above equation in graphical A The moments graphically .88 and 91.=. Then . If with any loading. D O 45) . the deflections For example. = a A' x' _ = Ax r AV . x a . the equation A .
*) + (2/ J 1 x) 3 f dX _ 16W/V _ j ffthe constantterm s y / (2/a:) __j 8+2 (2/. 66) .. l.ART. {S(7+^+(7H^(7+¥)t = tET„ ( asbefore > Example 2. i6W/4 f'[ ei. W If I T^o = = moment » of inertia of the thick » .D 04 4 (see Art.•!(/ + *) " (/ + xf + (/+ *) r* 4 /« 2/_ _i 1 a 16W/ 1 EI. lx j6WI* *y ™ Pm an. . about the neutral axis.x) (see Fig. hence at a from O and M = W(/ .(/ + *) 4 ~ ei. 1 _i_\ 12/V being such that «' = o for *= o. 81.xf . ' T . or Then ~ e t dx = 117 f <irn?* Tx .. and of half that diameter from the middle to the free end. it might be obtained by a single integration by modifying (3).  J J f or in partial fractions . Then. 59). _ i6W/* f' J • ' EI. I. 83] At distance DEFLECTION OF BEAMS. thin . 16W/V EI. Art.: end „ (fixed) (free). . 113— •>' A  _i6WY_£ _ 2 . Estimate the deflection at the free end due to a weight there. 1 l— 4 z «(2l_yA Xf^ • — X) L\ 24/^ 2{2l I2/ S * =/ =f ^j If the deflection only were required. taking the origin at the free end A. for * =/ A ~ 3 ' EI. Also y and for _ }*(*.—A cantilever of circular section is of constant diameter from the fixed end to the middle. Fig. . J EI„ V oi (2/ / _ _j . 1 89 O x = 7.
splitting the integration into two ranges.J w«» ik'ffl* <.W/ 2 andat* = I From C to A (free *= end) — 5W/3 isIT. end O from O to and at x =/ 2 . Z (the modulus of section) = I 7 2 for a rectangular hence dx' ~ EI ~E d * (I) . where beam of depth d . w^ + 1 f 16 [* iT. »=^(& £*=) + at *= 2 * = § gj. VI.(above) hence A= *£ gj at a: / = 2 y = Jtf* = jjfatf . —The con =f = constant. 79.(above) ^ and at = ^.J.**«) . * _3_ 0.)"] = »! Deflection of Rectangular Beams of Uniform j (Art. 113). and taking the origin at A. taking the origin at the fixed (the middle point) [CH. 113).±*/ * + B} W/8 hence B = f/ 3 ^ = Agj. the free end (Fig. Then Wx. C in Art. over which I is I and £gl s M= — 1 P Mx jeJ TA =ir. (Fig.{8(^*»)^/^ + o !/ } 3 x =I yK = W/* 55 gj To find the deflection only the method of Art. 70) is dition of uniform bending strength = M Strength. 81 might be used.8EI .— I90 As — A STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.
W/« Mo/» y. 113). the maximum values (at the free end) of the and deflection are . evidently the curvature t4 and the beam bends to a circular arc. 83] DEFLECTION OF BEAMS.ART. a cantilever with end load M = W(/— *) = M slope /_ x —7— W . where is M and I reach their greatest values. Then for the the integral depending on what function deflection^ =/idx. with origin O. d the variable depth. If the breadth — is constant and the depth varies hence where Z„ M . can be deduced from origin at midspan by taking the and writing  for / where M„ and refer to the middle section. for the cantilever of length / and any loadconstant. S = Z=% and Z =_M D M„ /M. For example. taking the origin at the wall. and loaded symon either side of the middle of the span.. l Ef T JP 3fr j (7) . (4 ' * ~ . <2 > refer to. ing. and . the fixed end. and the deflections might be found by the method of Art. (Fig. ^ = M" or 5 = m" and Z = \bd* Z. Varying Depth. and the maximum deflection ed The this I or in. '* = !% = 2 2 W/a °r or 2M„/ "EX a « or 4// . (3) case of a metrically beam simply supported at its ends. 76. and is of x. I9 1 tpy Varying Breadth. in M <5> a suitable constant of integration being added in particular cases.—E 5 . ED or < 6> .. Or by direct integration. = ££D 3 M M 11 dV M a the b being the constant breadth. the maximum slope (at the free end) is 2/7 Ed where M„ and I or MJ EI. say. is — If d is constant. Hence (1) becomes value of d corresponding to Z and D maximum and tfEnV M _ a/^M .
the ft modulus of section of the whole spring at the centre will if be 7^.. 112).• < ./" yc 24EI 6EI. VI. : . of constant breadth (b) and variable depth. If there are the modulus of section of each being \b<P (see Art 66). . in). fP or w 3ED (Fig.— 192 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. is taken at The load the middle. since the strips are separate. and the two ends are supported. and not \b(ndf. carriagespring is usually a beam Deflection of a CarriageSpring. — Carriage spring. and the proof stress in each . WP m WP U1 or M/ et 2^7 or ED (8) M. V 's "' l » *. built up of a number of overlapping plates each of thickness d (see Fig. or ED For the simply supported beam with central load /and W — W (Fig. •»   < < < k > s > > > ^""T "> > i creasing outwards from the centre to the ends. or M/ EI (it 4 2ED \M„/ 8 or /a \H//* ±(iY2\2 ED VE left The verification of the above values by integration are as exer cises for the reader. that is. 122a.• . so change of curvature in each strip is the same. Every strip of plate has initially the same W Fig. (Fig.2EI„ / writing . is usually that which straightens all the plates together. the number de —A <. and the proof load that the « strips. curvature I t>)> . 122a). and the n. M =— (/deflection xf. (9) and with a uniformly distributed load wl M in ?G*). <~  .M„ = «A / 2 4*?' = 32 ' wP EI.for Wl< or 1 <r Mo/8 EI.' . [CH.". With a uniformly distributed load wl iK is infinite.". for W in (6) and (7) 'b = «A = = . the tangent line is vertical. 115).
how many plates will be required if the stress is to be limited to 12 tons per square inch ? What will be the deflection of the spring at the centre ? By how much will any one plate overlap the one below if at each end. due to friction between the plates. 76. the modulus of section must be everywhere proportional to the bending moment. the bending 1 93 / moment being ±W/ (see 63)—. Example 3.„ L L . • \jbtP. /lW/5?«.W If this intensity of stress is to (lo) be reached by every plate at every section of the spring. ^ The central deflection due to a central load may be found from that for the longest plate. and will exert the same moment ot every section. will be .^E^ 3 I2 w/s ' ' * ' (") Actually the deflection will be less than this with an increasing load and more with a decreasing load. then. the change of curvature ~. The overlapping transverse may be tapered in breadth. corresponding to a bending Evidently. If the plates are 3 inches wide and \ inch thick. as in Fig. is iH!=i^ H 8 8 EI 4« ' E ' 5 ^ .ART. at moment n — 4 3 . A steel carriagespring is to be 30 inches long. 9 —— X ro 27.000 X 64 _ —— — X 3 t~ 54 65 — ° °1 inch ° Considering half the spring. 122a. and to carry a central load of 5 ton. by Art.— — 1 \ L . DEFLECTION OF BEAMS. tons per square inch. The modulus of section at any section is proportional to the number of plates there. the overlaps 15 T will be 10 = i  5 inch . Every plate will then reach the same skin ends stress intensity / at resistance. which. so that this number must increase from the ends to the centre proportionally to the distance (see Fig.000 13. from the end to the centre it must be proportional to the distance from the end. and to what radius should each piece be curved ? If n plates are used — 12 X n x I X 3 X (£)' n = = \ X % X 30 10 plates The central deflection. !XjX 3 8 . viz. neglecting friction. which is /f —( 2 or M W/ EW gjor . every section. to give the same continuous rate of change of moment of resistance between abrupt changes in the number of plates.*. «'. 83] strip is Fig. should be the same for each plate. 122a). j^).
At what distance below the level of the end supports must a rigid central prop be placed if it is to carry half the total load ? If the prop so placed is elastic and requires a pressure e to depress it unit distance. the bending moment under the load and at the fixed end. find what proportion of the load would be carried by an end support consisting of a vertical steel tierod 10 feet long and A a square inch in section. and the length 30 inches.000 tons per square inch. 14 inches deep. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. Find the load on the prop and the deflection of the free end. (E = 13. cantilever carries a uniformly spread load W. railway axle is 4 inches diameter and the wheels are 4 feet 8£ inches the centres of the axle boxes are each 6 inches outside of the wheel Find the upward centres. which varies uniformly from 1 ton per foot at one support to 4 tons per foot Find the position and magnitude of the maximum deflection at the other. cantilever carries a load at the free end and is supported in the 5.) beam of I section. the moment of inertia of crosssection being 20 (inches) 4 .) beam is simply supported at its ends and carries a uniformly dis3. is simply supported at the ends of 2. 2 a neglecting PP' or (o83) — 083 X 2R = 15 X 15 hence R= 135*5 inches or thus for the longest strip R~EI 1 " X * X 2X 3° X 13. and the position and amount of the maximum deflection. what load may be hung midway between the supports without producing a deflection of more than £ inch. If the moment of inertia of the area of crosssection is 440 (inches) 4 . if each is to straighten at may be found from that of the longest strip from Fig. Find the load carried by this support. 4 if the moment of inertia of the area of crosssection is 2654 (inches) and E is 13. middle to the level of the fixed end. level of the fixed end at a point £ of its length from the fixed end. A A A . and each axle box carries a load of 5 tons. and is propped to the 7. and what is the intensity of bending stress produced? What total uniformly distributed load would produce the same deflection. VI. 109. a 20feet span. [CH.000x3 X(i) 3 i35'5 Examples 1. the end supports remaining rigid ? beam rests on supports 20 feet apart and carries a distributed load 4. if the free end is just at the level of the fixed end Before the load is placed on the beam. cantilever carries a load at half its length from the fixed end. and what would then be the maximum intensity of bending stress ? (E =13. A W A W A A A . If this cantilever is of steel. what load would it carry. What proportion of the whole load is carried on the prop ? 8. load of 6 tons 5 feet from one support. cantilever carries a distributed load which varies uniformly from ia per unit length at the fixed end to zero at the free end. Find the deflection at the free end. girder of I section rests on two supports 16 feet apart and carries a 9.— 194 The proof load. If the moment of inertia of the area A apart .000 tons per square inch.000 tons per square inch. radius of curvature of each strip. 6. deflection of the centre of the axle. VI. tributed load W. The free end is supported to the level of the fixed end.
and what proportion does this intensity of stress bear to that in a beam propped at the free end exactly to the level of the fixed end ? 14. If a uniform load of 1 ton per foot run is placed on the beam. F. per square inch. find the load on the prop. and no other loads. How far from deflection occurs ? 17. 1 J. C and D. (E = 30. If the beam in the previous problem carries an additional load of 8 tons 8 feet from the first one.000 tons per square inch. If the beam in the previous problem carries loads of 5. Find the deflection of the top of the post due to a horizontal pull of 125 lbs. VI. being of constant breadth 18. support by three vertical rods each 10 feet long.000 tons per square inch. By how much will it be lessened if the prop sinks o'l inch ? girder of 16 feet span carries loads of 7 and 6 tons 4 and 6 feet 11. 4 195 of crosssection is 375 (inches) . Find placed the deflection of the free end of the cantilever due to a load there. and DB = Find the deflections at A. F. F 7 feet. carries a uniform load of 1 ton per foot run and rests 16.000 tons per is the section at which maximum upward square inch. and B respectively. AB. on two supports. the length being 4 inches external and 3$ inches internal diameter. find the pull in each rod. At what fraction of its length from the free end should a uniformly loaded cantilever be propped to the level of the fixed end in order that the intensity of bending stress shall be as small as possible. CD = 10 feet. find the deflections at A. 4 feet from the top. steel beam 20 feet long is suspended horizontally from a rigid 12. and varies uniformly along the beam to \\ a at each end.) 10.EX. The total length of the post is 20 feet. Find the position of the maximum deflection and its amount if the moment of inertia of the crosssection is 345 (inches)* and 13. simply supported at its ends and carries a proportion of the deflection at midspan may be removed by a central prop without causing tension in the compression flange? What proportion of the deflection at J span may be removed by a prop there under a similar restriction ? beam. cantilever carries a uniformly distributed load throughout its length 13. and is propped at the free end. and B. and the position and amount of the maximum deflection. and the moment of inertia of crosssection of the beam is 480 (inches) 4.000. I = 375 (inches) 4.000 lbs.. and depth. Find an expression for the deflection midway between the supports. the moment of inertia of section at the fixed end being I vertical steel post is of hollow circular section. (E = 13. and 4 tons at A. The moment of inertia of its crosssectional area is I„ at midspan. cantilever is rectangular in crosssection. being midway between C and D. so that AC = 3 feet. A A W . and what proportion does this intensity of stress bear to that in a beam propped at the end to the same level ? What proportion of the whole load is carried A £ = A A by the prop ? uniformly distributed load. varying uniformly from d at the wall to \d at the free end. and the section at which maximum deflection occurs. and is propped at the centre to the level of the ends. the lower end being firmly fixed. one at each end and one midway between the other two. What fraction of the load should the prop carry if the intensity of bending stress in the cantilever is to be the least possible. The end rods have a crosssection of 1 square inch and the middle one has a section of 2 square inches. the lower half of 19. E = 13. B. find the deflection under the load and at the middle of the span. and F from the level of the supports.) midway 20. 3. respectively from one end. beam rests on supports at its ends and carries a load between them. and the upper half 3 inches external and l\ inches internal diameter. A castiron girder is What A A A W .] DEFLECTION OF BEAMS.
000. VI. without exceeding a stress of 15 tons per square inch ? What would then be the central deflection. A [CH. If the deflection necessary to straighten the spring is l"5 inches.196 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.000 lbs. and what is the intensity of stress produced in the metal. 4 inches broad. How many plates are required to carry a central load 2 inches broad. what central load will cause this deflection. E being taken as 13. previous problem if the load carriagespring is to be 2 feet long and made of f inch steel plates 22.) carriagespring is built up of 10 plates each \ inch thick and 23.000 tons per square inch? W A . Find the deflection midway between the supports of the beam in the is uniformly spread over the span. per square inch. and what should be the initial radius of curvature if the plates all straighten under this load ? (E = 30. of 1000 lbs. the longest being 4 feet long. 21.
for distributed loads. while it is convex downwards about the middle portion. and y = o for x = o and for x = I. 84. — reduce the everywhere. to maximum intensity of stress and to reduce the deflection When the beam is loaded the bending moment is not zero of contrafiexure. . Simple cases of continuous loading of builtin beams where the rate of loading can be easily expressed algebraically may be solved by integration of the fundamental equation EI^ d*v =w (Art. If the slope is zero at the ends. the end fastening imposing such " fixing moments " as make the beam convex upwards at the ends. of the ends.CHAPTER BUILTIN VII. the conditions will usually be —=o dx for ' x = o and for x = /. the greatest bending moments of opposite sign being equal in magnitude. which always takes place in practice when a steel girder is built into masonry. the bending moment passing through zero and changing sign at two points uniform section is to make it stronger and stiffer. at the ends as in the case of a simply supported beam. as in the case of the " fixed end of a cantilever. 77) Taking one end of the beam as origin. conditions of greatest strength will be realized when the two greatest convexities are each equal to the greatest concavity.e. The two ends are usually at the same level. the greatest bending moments anywhere on the beam. Up to a certain degree. By this term is understood a beam firmly fixed at each end so that the supports completely constrain the inclination of the beam at the ends. AND CONTINUOUS BEAMS. the necessary fixing couples at the ends are. and the slope of the beam is then usually zero at each end if the conThe effect of this kind of fastening on a beam of straint is effectual. the beam may be subject to smaller bending stresses than The in the usual ideal form of a builtin beam with rigidly fixed ends. tends to reduce the greatest bending moment by decreasing the fixing moments and increasing the moment of opposite sign about the middle In a condition between perfect fixture and perfect freedom of the span. Builtin or Encastre Beams. relaxation of this clamping. i.
J^e/^* . 78). and putting y = o for x = and dividing by P— o = >//.>/** . VII. and for x = for x = o.\klx* + o = o for x = o. and putting ^ = o for since _y hence = >/ + iA/+B and B = \wP . 1 Substituting these values in the above equations. 0*289/. viz.±wl\ which reaches zero for x = ? o. suppose that the load is uniformly distributed. on either M = ^wP. the values of the shearing force. for x= 2 o. .— I9 8 — — — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. x=l.\klx EI . +° = / =o o . [CH. F= Elg = w(x\l) 6lx M = EI^ = igoQx* which reaches a zero value for x side of midspan. and x=  = w 1 .HL (0\ ( EI y "WW =jlJ!^1 384 EI or \ of that for a freely supported beam (see (1 2). w For example. or * = i. 2' im.e. +/ s ) Also = l(\ + 0*289). M = . bending moment.IA/ EI j^ = iaur» + A* .x * {l ~ xf is and at the centre.LK//+iAiA A = — \wl and B = j^wP S 2 /. Art. and deflection everywhere are found. integrating the above equation EI since j %= * wa? + * A ** + Bx a.j/ = >«* + \kx* . being per unit length of span. slope. /. where x = the deflection i 24 X.
each being half of \wr. as in the freelysupportedbeam (see Fig. In this case the The equation to the bendingmoment curve would be. 78). 65).%wlx + ^wP the last or constant term alone differing from the equation used above. 78 M = EI^ = \wi? . the necessary slope at the ends found to be ^wj or * °^ wP t^iat * n a ends (see (10). but one end support sinks Taking the origin a distance 8. or = = = integrating once and putting dy j = is o for x= I . for x = o o EI ^ = %Fx* + mx + .^=F* + * where m is the bending moment . which the beam AioV is subjected is only i$wP instead of %wP. at the end which does not sink freely supported at its beam where F is the (constant) shearing force throughout the span. both ends remaining fixed horizontally. d*v EI. so that with the same crosssection the greatest intensity of direct bending stress will be reduced 2. Art. Integrating this twice and putting y o for x o and for * /. 123.because of the symmetry. 84] BUILTIN AND CONTINUOUS BEAMS. varying The bendingmoment diagram is shown in Fig. Art. but the greatest bending moment to v\C. from (7). Other types of loading where w is a simple function of x may be easily solved by this method. suppose that w = o. in the ratio 3 to greatest bending moment and greatest shearing Evidently. it should be moment varies in the same way as if the a change of pur. to attain the force (\ivl) here occur at the same section. 199 noticed that the bending ends were free. greatest flexural strength the bending moment at the centre should be equal to that at the ends. As another example.ART.
If the fixing moments at the two ends are unequal. If these fixing moments are equal they produce a bending moment of the same magnitude throughout the span (see Fig.^ — ends as would produce at the supports the actual fixing moments of the builtin beam. £l/i = \JFl* 12EI8 6EI8 and the bending moment anywhere is 6EI.— — 200 dy STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. i. 124. m = . VII and putting f dx x = I. a builtin beam the effect of the fixing moments applied at the walls or piers when a load is apfa plied. Effect of Fix9d Ends on the BendingMoment Diagram. Effect of fixing couples.S a straight line reaching the value 75— at a: =/ The equal and opposite vertical reactions at the supports are each of magnitude F. d £ = \Y{x*lx) EI.*. = o for fCH.e. would iF B be to make the beam convex B upwards throughout. but overhanging the supports at each end and carrying such Fig. loads on the overhanging — . pose only these "fixing Ar<couples" act on the beam. SupC. the bending moment throughout the span varies from B as a straightline diagram. 67).^ and putting y = iF gf + _ l\ o) = S for x =/ 8 EI. as the reader will find by sketching the diagram of bending moments for a beam overhanging its two supports and carrying end M M A M M . 124) and A at one end B at the other end B.F2 and Yl. being say (Fig. the bending moment due to them at any point of the span may easily be found by looking on the beam as one simply supported. In 85.8 i2 EI. if acting alone. at a constant rate along A to the span.
J'J wdxdx (6.~J wdxdx . 85] loads.r + o. (4) Note that the term . BUILTIN AND CONTINUOUS BEAMS.M A£ + MA . Let F A (Fig. 124) be the shearing force just to the right of A. w jL (2) FA being the value of F for x = I o. A and B being the moments imposed by the constraints at and B respectively. as origin Then.M A r [' ('wdxdx FA = 5j * . or if both are Substituting the value of F A in (3)— (5) EI^ or M = f \'wdxdx + (M. wdxdx j J is the value of the reaction at A if MB = MA zero as in the freely supported beam.7 JJ B — .. and the above quantity M'. 124) actual bending moment at any section of a builtin beam will be the algebraic sum of the bending moment which would be produced by the load on a freely supported beam. = I— (3) M A being the value of EI^ for x = d*y Putting M hence = f ('wdxdx + FA/ + M A M B . we may put the result as follows for any span of a beam not " free " at the ends. 77. .. Let be the load per unit length of span whether constant or variable. Without any supposition of the case of an overhanging beam.M A)? +j j'wdxdx .. . A the bending 201 to fixing At a distance couples will be * from moment due M' = MA + *(M B .*Jf fwdxdx l dar oj J t oJ or rearranging M = M A + (M B . MA x . Then M=l wdxdx+ FA . with The M M A w A d*M in?= dU = For Jwdx+F dx . as in Art.M A ) (see Fig. and— j I wdx —. With free X ends MA = MB = M= I o.ART. and FB the shearing force just to the left of B.
free there is [CH. the is change of slope ^ I Mdx between the two ends of the beam . the would be for a simply reaction at A is less (in magnitude) than ( Fig. If M R — M A is positive. 125. M' A B every section. represented by the ordinates giving the difference between the two curves (see Fig. 86. Art. if the magnitudes of n and M' are where p beam M M currecf^ then plotted on the same side of the same baseline.— 202 —— — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 87 and 89. M' M' = MA + = (M. 125. 77) make /t negative for concavity upwards. (7«) a form which will be used in Arts. the actual bending moment at any section Actual BMat is and The reactions R A = . and M' is the bending moment (Fig. if B at A . 85) will consist of the difference in ordinates of a rectangle (the trapezoid APQB. And since between M =M =M =M M =M limits d J> dx if . Builtin Beam with any Symmetrical —For a sym metrically loaded beam of constant crosssection the fixing couples at the supports are evidently equal. A and and M' will be of opposite sign . Fig. i= JEi' dx ( see (3). 124) at that Usually /t section due to the fixing moments B at the ends.  M A)? B (7) M A ^+M . With this notation (5) may be written EI^ = + M' = + MA + (M B . the resulting ordinates of the bendingmoment diagram (see Art. Loading. ) it supported beam by 7(M B supported — MA ). 67 shows that equal couples at the ends of a span cause a bending moment of the same amount throughout. 85.* . and Fig. and the reaction at B is greater than for a simply beam by the same amount. 125). from (7). being a rectangle when B) and those of the curve of bending moments for the same A span and loading with freely supported ends.MJ ax /*  (8) • is the bending moment at any section for a freely supported similarly loaded. 77) E and I are constant. Or. Hence. Art. VII and if the ends are not which may be written the additional bending moment. The conventional algebraic signs used in the above integrations (see Art.FA RB may be found from equation (4).
126). From N towards midspan the slope decreases. and equation area is Hence the M same area — A. negative. and then reduce all ordinates by the amount of the average ordinate. where / is the length of span and the origin is at one support. 86] BUILTIN AND CONTINVOUS BEAMS. M'dx /xdx (1) — This n M = . or. hence (ix. the change of slope is zero. With downward load. becoming zero at midspan when the net area of the bendingmoment diagram from A is zero. in other words. AA'B'B (Fig. 126. 203 with the notation of the previous article./idx 1 / may also be written A + A' = where o (2) stands for the area of the /t curve. and the areas AA'C and BB'C are together equal C to the area CDC' and of opposite sign.e.pdx 1 1 J the ordinate representing — — A and p being generally . as much area is positive as negative. S both ends are fixed horizontally. raise the baseline MA AB by an amount represented . and the constant value it is (M A) of M' is — . and the bendingmoment diagram /a for the simply supported beam have the for the whole length of span. which in this area of the trapezoid special case is a rectangle. Hence. Now in a builtin beam. The points N and N' vertically under C and are points of contra flexure or zero bending moment. .ART. the downward slope from A to N increases and is at N proportional to the area AA'C. A APQB I (/i + M!)dx represents zero. 126). /:< + I M!)dx = = o I — or. or Fig. i. Fig. and A' stands for the or M' curve (Fig. to find the bendingmoment diagram for a symmetrically loaded beam. first draw the bendingmoment diagram as if the beam were simply supported (ACDC'B. which is by the mean ordinate of the diagram ACDC'B. (area ACDC'B) ^ (l en g th AB). 125). the area of the bendingmoment diagram (1) shows that the total rectangle of height A (or M').
equation (1) becomes (/a + MV*= /' Wdx 2«.f pdx I 1 21. taking account of the sign of the areas. both being downwards towards the centre. [CH. 63. By reducing all ordinates of Fig. the points of contraflexure (or virtual hinges) as a separate beam supported at its ends on the ends of two cantilevers. — W/ — or 4 8 ^Z Hence in Fig. usinp the method of . 127.— 204 — . VII. The beam the bendingmoment diagram is as shown points of contraflexure are evidently \l from each moments at the end. we get exactly the same diagram as shown in Fig. this value of and for minimum intensity of bending stress M' should be equal in magnitude to half the maximum i. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. I — p being usually negative. The slopes and deflections may be obtained from the resulting bendingmoment diagram by the methods of Art. 65) is w for a simply supported The mean bending moment is therefore ^wP. but are fixed at equal magnitudes i and of opposite sign. 82 may be employed. AN and BN'. slopes being reckoned positive downwards to the right. The bendingmoment diagram for the simply supported beam is — W shown in Fig. and the bending ends and centre are W/ o — Taking the origin at the centre or either end.. and that the slope and deflection are zero at the Another possible method is to treat the portion NN' between ends. distributed load per unit span on a area of the parabolic bendingmoment diagram (see Fig. 81. Its mean height is proportional to \ W/ . remembering the opposite signs of the different parts of the bendingmoment diagram area. Example builtin —Uniformly The beam beam. value of p. EI or M' = . Central load on a builtin beam. wt K^r^&zy&t Fig. 123. 65 by the amount x£U>P. Or the methods of Art. Example 2. If the slopes at the ends A and B are not zero. EI 21 .EI [' I =  pdx — 21 . for the builtin 127.
87. and the area A' A — A' is insufficient to deter mine the two A and M*. + W)dx = o) A + A' = oj (7). Builtin Beams with any Loading. signs. 1 As in the previous and with the same notation. taking one the span. (1) or. substituting for M' its value from 85 (2) £{/* + M A + (M. where (•i')! is x obviously zero. 87] Art. 81 (3) BUILTIN AND CONTINUOUS BEAMS. : M Fig. with limits / and o (*£ . and and the equation of areas The MA M . say A. fixing couples M We may.y\= ii/> + W)xdx = EI xd ( Hfrdx +/>to ' ) £*l = Ax+A x ' * and si are the respective distances of the centres of gravity or Further.ART. Art." A'*' = 0=1 fixdx + j M'xdx . 128. end of second Thus. if I and E are constant '(> — f: or.vanishes at and.MJ^dx = loading being not symmetrical.y at one and the central deflection under the load EI IV 8 X 4A2 3 J V * 8 "4A 5 V j " IgiE 92EI article.. as origin d*y /i +M EI ' d£~ and multiplying by * and integrating (by parts). very conveniently proceed by the method used in Art.. B is not necessarily equal to is not a rectangle but a trapezoid (Fig. 128). 205 both limits is and taking account of the limit. . 81 to establish a relation. method of solving this case is given in the authot's " Theory of . since each part of = o. j. hence it vanishes at both limits x = / and (3) Ax + 1 An alternative Structures. how ever. the term centroids of the areas A and A' from the origin.
= (f M A /. using the origin as a pole. taking moments about the point trapezoid into triangles by a diagonal PB (4) A (Fig. in addition to the areas themselves being equal. 128. hence from (1) *ft±*\/«A and. and from MA + M B = M B 2A . without finding x. in other words. §/) = / (MA + 2 M E 2 ) • (40) (5) ) M A + 2M B = p . VII. or the distance of its centroid from one support. I/) + ftM B 2 / (M A + 2 M B = Ax .4? 7r A/3* or 2 7 (^ T 2J. the quantity x may then conveniently be found by a " derived A .3*\ T j. and M then the bending moment elsewhere found from the equation (8) of With irregular loading the process may be carried out graphiArt. taking account of the different signs in calculating slopes from the areas of the bendingmoment diagram or deflections from the moments of such areas. (7) Thus the fixing moments are determined in terms of the area of the bendingmoment diagram (A) and its moment (AS) about one support. (6) A M A = 6 AS . from Fig. the area APQB or A' = — X /.— 206 or — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 82 may be used to find the deflections or slopes at any point of the beam. /. and the difference of ordinates between it and the bendingmoment diagram for the simply supported beam The resultant gives the bending moments for the builtin beam. A 6Ax or from which = T F 2\/ — ^i. or. 128. M B and may be found algebraically or arithmetically from (6) and (7). 81. dividing the A'S or from (3). Or the methods of Art. The trapezoid APQB (Fig. Fig. 128). taking proper account of the difference of sign of the areas and starting both slope and deflection curves from zero at the ends. their centroids are in the same vertical line (see Fig. 85. 77 the area A must be reckoned negative for values of /1 producing concavity upwards. When the bending moment has been . cally . A [CH." as in Art. (6) and (c). 68. . diagram is shown shaded in Fig. \ . Evidently. either of the graphical methods of Art. area. and A' are the moments about either support of the areas equal in magnitude.Ax (4). . When the resultant bendingmoment diagram has been determined. 128) can then be drawn. With the convention as to signs used in Art. 85. 128). . With loading which gives a bending moment the area of which and its moment are easily calculated. A may be employed. or.
—A builtin beam of span / carries a load W at \l from Find the bend ing . and the position and magnitude of the maxi mum deflection. Art. 207 determined. iB M B and MA are 2(24 m b = ~f . because the end slopes are generally zero. The necessary end slopes could more easily be calculated than secured M M in practice. the problem of finding slopes. Then. equation (1) j(M„ — MA which may be positive or beam are built in so that the end slopes are not becomes A+ A' = Elfti  ik ) where * B and ? A are the fixed slopes at the ends B and A. ). deflection under the load. Ax + and the values of A'x" = EI . If the ends of the zero. points of inflection. Example one end. 129. (/B + 2*a)EI / which will be less in magnitude (the area slope A being negative) than (6) and (7) when both ends downwards towards the centre To secure the greatest unless * B and ik are very unequal in magnitude. and are reckoned positive if downward to the right (usually they will have Equation (3) then becomes opposite signs). with origin at the . i. possible flexural strength from a given section it would be necessary to make the two fixing moments B and A equal.ART. 129) Fig. The shearingforce diagram for the builtin beam with an unsymmetrical load changes from point to point just as for the corresponding simply supported beam /since — = w\ but the reactions at the ends are different. point A and the above notation ADC and CDB. as shown in magnitude. would be Wxi/=£W/. /. dividing the bendingmoment diagram into two parts. deflections. for the builtin beam is generally simpler than for the merely supported beam. For the simply supported beam the bending moment at C (Fig.moment diagram. and opposite to half the maximum bending moment for the freely supported beam. 85. by (4). one (R E ) being greater and the other (R A ) being less by the amount negative. etc.~p~ H quantities aA 6AS + / <A )EI ' _6A5_4A ivi A — /a / ~" 2 . 87] BUILTIN AND CONTINUOUS BEAMS..
VII STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. \l.A + ft) = + &W/ and from . = {(* .W/RA . W f* W §&•) .x) + £W/ + AW* = W(~W+ f£*) This vanishes for x = which gives the point of inflection F. with A as origin . 2 l which does not reach zero for any value of Deflections from A to C r x between 5/ and /./ + &W/=&w. Fig. .W/. x = —!. A f. 129./=^W/» M B = W/( . Taking moments about B i. which gives the position of the point of its distance from A is twice that of the is evident from a glance at the bending For x = 5/ at C 64 EP B 5 l8 +* ./) A= i.* = iW* + M' = M + M A + ^(M B .M A = _IW* + £W/+AW* ^ ) This vanishes for 129). A. The the line resultant bendingmoment diagram can now be completed by GH.—— — — — 208 — — [CH. Fig. 129. &W/)(f/ + i \l)) = . Slopes from A to C reckoned positive downwards to the right ^ §/. That point of inflection under E moment diagram.^W/. x \l./ Ra = 563W Rb = MW from which the shearingforce diagram may be drawn. 102 * ' ET Slopes from ' C to = ^+m/ w r* v ( w/ w /+ ^ = ^li + 6ili(4s^+^). For the shorter segment /* ' B = W(/*) + M = W(/ . For the larger segment A to C. which C to gives the point of inflection E (Fig. + (. maximum deflection.&N? (6). This vanishes for x= §/.
S+3200 . 130) the other B. 130.W ^ +^ v Kb _w ^+ lk a 3*) («+^)s The points of inflection are at * = ^T«(« + *> is and * = — i + b) The slope under the load .P) Example 2. ™£ * ]£J * = ^— W/S +384' gj 1 Deflections from C to B • W/3 W P f y=yo + ]£. and A is the origin A and b from (Fig. BUILTIN where x AND CONTINUOUS BEAMS. = ^mai. y JO 209 = \l— +JL. — .dx = +4^6 eT +6iEiy (l8/2 ~ j 45/* + 2 ^) dx 9W ( ~ 128EP 2 *»  5/a» + *Px . J. 14096 2£ • £J and at at x . If a is greater than b. —The more general problem of a load W on a builtin Fig. placed at distances a from one support solved in just the same way.ART. 87] and at C. may be beam._ ' ~ ~ WW(g aEI(« b) 3 + £) . MA = *A (a Wab* + by s Wa>6 .
88./.i/If + ik + M .. is Thus.i/^* . VII..»Jf h 1 ( . zero slope and [CH.  w«y 3 Ei( a + by  . so that the maximum deflection within the middle third of the span. and have M' their centroids in the same vertical line.is not generally a straight line. Builtin Art. with the same notation. ( also. or i/I^V* = ifIt + or. and in Art.i s times that for a freely supported beam. it will be sufficient to point out briefly the modifications in the work of The change consists in Art.f + ^/:^=o change of level is „ ( dy zero. but the curve y. maximum deflection occurs at and when b is = o this becomes (« for the builtin beam always b).—— — — — < — 2io The STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. so that the second and third terms in each equation do . 87 when the quantity I is not a constant. deflection is The maximum 3 (3 a + bfEl b) and the deflection at midspan is Wff( 3 a 48EI Beams of Variable Section. since the total change of slope zero /> . is zero. since the total xjj V — yJ ~ . is + The deflection under the load y which is . — using M instead of M y as a variable throughout. f K + (^ J oT *$ J** = • (2) J o ^» + M ^ + A j oI dx = o / ivr' Thus the areas under the curves j and y are the same. „. 87 the case of builtin beams of constant section. Having considered in 83 how simple beamdeflection problems are affected by a variable section. /^ + M.
span. and finding their areas from o to /. x "I 1 on the span as a base and finding their areas from o to /. The net area of the resultant bending moment will not necessarily be zero. When p and I are known functions of x. This involves It may five operations only. If the loading is symmetrical about the middle of the Special Case. 88] BUILTIN AND CONTINUOUS BEAMS. f'x dx. the righthand side of equation (1) becomes E(«'B A ). 21 I not reduce so simply as in the case of constant values of I. Further. A — — 7J. J A similar pair statement applies to the pair of curves j and ^. reckoned positive downwards to the right.ART. This gives two simple simultaneous equations in which the unknown quantities are MA and ^(M A — M B). 1 x fix x I' V V V T' ana . as the third and fifth curves are the same. M A = Mw and equation (1) becomes . nor will M M its moment about A or B. centroids of the and^r diagrams being X at 2 from each end. the »' «' . x and to the &.and Note that the first terms in (1) and (2) will be negative.l method of 1 y. the integration of the quantities y. if I varies in some arbitrary but specified manner which cannot be expressed as a function of x. the integration of all three terms in (1) and all three terms in (2) may be accomplished graphically by plotting the curves U. When A and B have been found. and B (Fig. « B) the origin being at A. l f'x [ x* take I dx as / dx multiplied by the distance of the be convenient to J ol J 1 centroid of the area under the curve y from the origin A. or if the above integrals are M M too tedious. iA and B being And the righthand side of equation (2) usually of opposite sign. becomes E /. each term of equations (i) and (2) may be integrated separately. and the values of I are also symmetrical about midspan. 128) are fixed at angles iA If the slopes at the ends and iB other than zero. When these have been solved A and B are known. or which makes the above integrals cumbersome. 68.and y may be per formed graphically by plotting the curves = and j on the span as a base. as found by the " derived area " i. or the of the area I x moment Art. If /t varies in some irregular manner. the sum /a + M' being algebraic. the bendingmoment diagram may be plotted as in the case of constant values of I.
as is most convenient. and by dividing each ordinate by I. regarding the ordinates of the trapezoid APQB. 131. split M' into two parts. . 2.— 212 1 — [CH. with A x as origin at a distance — M' = M. i. or M.' j— and X M s j as shown in Fig. . VII. the two fixing couples separately. Fig. 131.'=r+**j = MA + M B T7 . 131. and since the beam is horizontal at midspan the origin being taken at the end or centre. and M„ y and as shown in Fig. / .' be the areas under the two curves y M. and M Y . find the curves rtB and svA.e. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 128. To put the above equations Alternative Form for Graphical Method. it is rather more — convenient to proceed as Treat the effect of follows. (i) and (2) in the form of equations of areas and of moments of areas for graphical solution. and qk. s are any assumed equal or unequal values of the fixing Draw the lines /B couples. as the triangles sum of the vertical ordinates of the two APB APB and PQB. adding their effects. Fig.x —j. which represent so M.' and A. or and AQB. y71. Let A. In other words. and Tr r»**u 1/ Let M A = o Mj and M B = y8M where M.
85. 132. A and x refer to the curve y. equation (4) in terms of moments of areas may very conveniently be reduced to one of areas by taking the first derived areas (Art. as in Art. 132.'*. /1 . and x. the change of slope being f—rz +M' ax o. 5 + oA. taking B as origin and * positive to the right. is Then for either span. and form simple special cases of continu ous beams. x\ 213 ~Y j • respectively. I A and B.AZ + zSA. let AB and BC. Considering first a simple case of a continuous A B c Fig. with the origin A The as pole.for a beam simply supported at Cu. or. If the end slopes are not zero. the righthand sides of the equations those mentioned for (1) and (2). be the distances of Let their respective centroids from the origin A. 89] BUILTIN and AND CONTINUOUS BEAMS. as in Art. the bending moment the algebraic sum of the bending moment for a freely supported beam of the same span and that caused by the fixing moments at the supports.'^o And the change of level being nil (3) '<* or. 78 and at 80). beam 89. equations. and (4). 68) of each of the three areas under the curves. be two consecutive spans of length 4 and 4 of a continuous beam. and a and f$ are mere ratios. the uniformly spread loads on 4 and 4 being w1 and w2 per unit length respectively. then. The scales will be very simple. or A + a. (3) and (4) are the same as Theorem of Three Moments. 85 (8) Elg^ + M' the AT being generally of opposite sign to /*. = zero. + )8A2'x =0 (3) (4) a and /? may that of bending moment being alone important.ART. First apply this to being equal span BC. + M >^ = o 1 A . resting on more than two supports and covering more than one span Beams supported at the ends and propped is called a continuous beam. Continuous Beams. Fig. beam. since I enters similarly into every term of the And from the two simultaneous equations be found. —A some intermediate point have already been noticed (Arts.
(s) and (5) (/1 M A/ + 2M B + 4) + M This is .« B = and adding (4) 1 ^ 2M 4  M 4 . . or from Art. . (6) Clapeyron's Theorem of Three Moments for the simple If there are n supports and n — 1 spans. span BA. being positive downwards .J? _ Mb4 _ (M c . ». — "(4* d) (7) i being reckoned negative when producing concavity (8). were fixed horizontal. such as ABC. 2 o/ 12 24 2 . wl .g. and these are supplied by the end conditions of the beam: e. _ (l) and integrating m dy = _a/ dx 4 where t' 2/ 2 + % + M„. VII.— 214 to — — — [CH. n — 2 equations./2 (ze/ 1 /1 3 + K/ / = 3 2 2 ) o . . (4) Now. ik similar to (5) for the end span would be = o and an equation 2M A + When the bending at the supports M B . + Mfi + (Mo _ 2 2 Mb) ^ *2 . by and 85 EI g UX = _W%x + B^. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. may be written down.^+(M M B)^+EI. if the ends are freely supported./. bending moments at n supports. . If an end. may be found by taking the moments of external forces about the various supports. — x being positive to the 3 we B/ 1 same way with the get similarly (changing the in the 6EI. sign Of iB ) taking B as origin.x + o (3) and when # = 4 JP = OjL .M B)4 24 2 E/ 2 6 c or. where x= o o. 6 + ( M _ Mb)^ + 2/ a EI . the shearing force just to the right of A 1( FA = MB — M . y=^. . or loading considered. j being o for x = — iB EI. . .^ + ^V + ^B . 6EI. 85 (4). a* Integrating again. hence dividing by 4 lB = w. o. say at A. . such Two more will be required to find the as (6)./B = ^2M M 4 4 and dealing left. upwards. n — 2 pairs of consecutive spans. (2 ) B is the value of /• at B. Art. the bending moment at each end is zero.^l = 4 o the reactions internal and moment at each support is known.
B = o. and carries a uniformly spread load./=>/8 Taking moments about M = ^ze// 2 M B =±w£* = M B R A . at the supports./+^ = Taking moments about 2 C ^ — Re. RA = £w/=R t ffie// + RB / . 133). reactions. beam rests on five supports. 89] BUILTIN AND CONTINUOUS BEAMS.. and And from the symmetry evidently D = B —A M M M M . As the shearing force generally changes sign at a support./+2M . Since the ends are free (Fig. 133. Fig. Applying the equation of three moments (6) to the portions ABC and and BCD— o M B . and decreasing the ordinates uniformly by an .2WI2 = ^w/2 R B = f wl = R„ The setting up shearingforce diagram for Fig. Example i. A = o. etc./ .\wl" = o 4M B/+ 8M C/ . *'5 The shearing force immediately to each side of a support being found. 133 may easily be drawn by %wl at A. 2/ + Mo . Find the bending moments.ART. covering four equal spans.2/+M B/>/ = o s + 2M B . the pressure on that support is the algebraic difference of the shearing forces on the two sides. the magnitude of the reaction is generally the sum of the magnitudes of the shearing forces on either side of the support without regard to algebraic sign.wP = o 7M .M. /  \wl* =O hence and 4M B/ 4.
85 as follows (positive for convexity upwards) M M . = 554. For the spans o ABC + 32oM B + BCD hence iooM c = 5 X 1000(216 + 2000) i6M B + sM = 27. and CD respectively. changing a uniform rate over each span. Let the area under be and the distance of its centroid from 2 — A A^ BQC A . of a continuous beam as if each span were bridged by independent beams freely supported at their ends. i26o 3 tonfeet 60 M = c 15070 tonfeet. (Jx  **) + ±wF . CD 40 feet. M : Span AB. 2 tons. 133. 223 + iooRB 20 — = — 12603 RA = 9 tons 60 x 130 — 200 X 1485 tons 50 i.000 For the spans iooM B hence + 28oM c + o = x 5M B + I4M = 1000(2000 # + 192) From which MB = C.faOx = . and by the amount of the reactions at the various supports. If the girder moments and 3 tons per footrun is of the same crosssection throughout. Continuous Beams . i) RA X X — 60 X 30 „ 160 = 1507 C.400 tonfeet.™(W* &. BC. B algebraic sum of /* and M' is given by vertical ordinates across the shaded area in Fig. and BC or /2 (Fig. Let the diagrams of bending momerri APB and be drawn for any two consecutive spans AB or /j. — %wl at B. VII. and The erecting ordinates c D . origin A h = ^( /x *?) + &w/x = —^(W~ ABCD x) Span BC.* ) a Example 60 r —A continuous girder covers three spans. BC at 100 feet. B. An algebraic expression for the bending moment in any span may be written from (8) Art. „ 11 4oRD — 120 x >i = — 1260 BQC x 140 = —1507 R D = 2 2 3 tons + iooRc — 120 X120 — 200X R = 2001 tons RB = 5c 90. Taking moments about B. Let the area APB be A u and the distance of its centroid from the point be xlt so that is the moment of the area about the point A.7 — — — — — [CH. . The bendingmoment diagram (Fig. find the bending the supports B and C. and joining by straight lines. and the pressures on each support. any Loading. 133) may conveniently be drawn by drawing parabolas of maximum ordinate \wP on each span. . AB feet. increasing there by fwl. . origin B /* =2. ana so on. 9 27. 134).700 tonsfeet. ton. 216 amount wl to at STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. The uniformly spread loads are on AB.
77. using the method of Art.'xj a (3) by joining AS and taking moments about A. and xl and x. x being measured positive towards B.ART.' be the areas of and BSTC Fig..) as in Art. 134. 81 equation (3) between limits x = lx and * = o. moment about C being Aj#2 (In accordance with the signs adopted in Art. Let A^ and A. . the areas Ai and a will be negative quantities for downward loading. bending moments A which produce upward convexity being reckoned trapezoids ARSB moments due Draw the positive.' the distances of their and C respectively. 217 C be Xi. 85. centroids from From as origin. the and B being at the same level supports at A A A \dx »'„ ~y ' = ( ) /l?B = FJl/ ^ +M ') xdx = El^ * + Al 1 1 '*>') ( J ) being the slope at B. x being measured positive toward B.. 90] BUILTIN the AND CONTINUOUS BEAMS.V A^ + A. pJ From C as origin. + A. (2) Equating the slope at B from (1) and (2) with sign reversed on account of the reversed direction of x — A^i And as in Art. 87 (4a). to represent M'. the bending to the fixing couples.'*/ A— = (M A + 2M B) and similarly Mxl = ^(M c + 2M B) . C and B being at the same level (xj? yj = /s «'b = gj( A2*2 + A «"*a') .. ARSB and BSTC respectively. and used subsequently.
2 etc. If is an end fixed horizontally. other end. say. the support B falling Sj below A a term corresponding to_y appears in (1) and (2). the righthand side of this equation would be If either j^ instead of 1 end overhangs an extreme support the bending moment zero./ +6El( + ) = 1 3) 11 o (5) Wilson's Method. ./ + 2MB (/ + A v 6A v 4) + M c4 = o . Roy. + 1MB + / + ±M c / = (/. Nov. The end reactions are then found by the usual — method of taking moments of all upward and downward forces about one end. 62./I+2 M B(/ +/ + M c .. wl* —5o . of which equation (6) of the previous article is a particular case easily derived by writing being K = —§ x . . so that becomes A^! and (4) + A^' + /. published by the late Dr. the end A is fixed at a downward slope iK towards B. 1807. Soc. A simple and ingenious method of solving general problems on continuous beams. ^i +^? +M A . 87. becomes [CH. Art. If some or and (3) S2 below C. If either end is fixed horizontally. vol. and AB the first span.— —— — 2l8 hence (3) STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. the areas Aj and A. an equation of moments for the adjacent span follows from the method of Art. equating the algebraic sum to 1 Froc. (4) This is a general form of the Equation of Three Moments. ~ + ^P + ft MA . 1 consists of finding the reactions at the supports by equating the upward deflections caused at every support by all the supporting forces. /. and the other necessary two follow from the manner of support at the ends. George Wilson. 87. to the downward deflections which the load would cause at those various points if the beam were supported at the ends only. 2) 2 1 1 o or. all the supports sink. negative for bending producing concavity upwards. a similar equation holds If. and in the case of free ends. . VII. llt — and *T I = . For a supports this relation (4) provides « 2 equations. at the support is found as for a cantilever. ( 3a ) becomes 6A^ + ^ + M A . is (I 2MA + If MB + 6A — ^2 — xL ) = o (Aj being generally negative) for the both ends are fixed horizontally. an equation beam on n — A similar to (5).. This provides sufficient equations to determine the reactions at all the supports except the end ones. from area moments about B. EI8 _ t " A^ + AA' + /„ EIS.
. D be A. and RD are the reactions at B. ^r " .* "r.. (7). C. B may be found by an equation Ro.. 90] zero. according to the Now let supported at These may be calculated by the methods of Arts. m Let the deflections at A. A> and and those at B. and therefore only one simple equation for solution. or 1 ton or other unit force at B be A. Fig. the upward deflection at B. C. distances D. and (8). c. *« . When the reactions are all known. C. b. and D respectively. due to 1 lb. Let the of B. A = A. 48D respectively. Art. A = A. the bending moment and shearing force anywhere can be obtained by direct calculation from the definitions (Art. Wilson's method may be used for algebraic calculations when the loading is simple. yB y c From RB of . <£R D The exercise at the end of Art. if the supports being at zero level. (8) Note that S d = A.. and a into a + b — x in (7). E and from e A be K « 5 . . *r ta Fig. y B yc ym . manner in which the beam is loaded. Then all and A respectively. there being only one support. RB . all at the same level. 81. 78. 80. the three simple simultaneous equations. and E. D. B. so that the upward and downward deflections may be easily calculated. but it is equally applicable to irregular types of loading where the downward deflections at several points are all determined in one operation graphically. R R moments about A. '> and d. and deflections at B. equating downward and upward at the ends D for the beam supported A and E only = (R B x A) + (Re x A) + (R D x A) . 56). BUILTIN AND CONTINUOUS BEAMS. A. 219 To five points take a definite case. suppose the beam to be supported at A. or 82. 135. B. and D can be determined. (6). 80 is a simple example of this method. and D. at and D due to unit force C be A) A. C. 135. ? C ? d e '' respectively. C.. (6) = (R B X A) + (Re x A) + (Rd x A) .ART. D. Re. which becomes apparent by changing b mio&fX into b. and and due to unit force at C8 D respectively. C. 8o. and RK x e = RA = (moment of whole load about A) whole load — b RB — *R — RB — R c — R D — R B . C. if the beam were the ends. and respectively. (7) yD = (R B X A) + (Re X A) + (Rd X A) .. and E due to the load on the beam if simply supported at A and E be 0.
at its ends. Find the bending moment at the props. they must be calculated as indicated in Arts. and and from the reactions . It carries loads of 5 tons. VII. If both ends. and 24 feet respectively lefthand end. and A being the origin. 80. — yB = JTgji 1 And by (n). A continuous beam 30 feet long is carried on supports — is propped to the same level at points 10 22 feet from the lefthand end. by (9) Art. Find the reactions in Ex. Art 8 + 64) = §! jrj = yD from 1 the symmetry 78— v JO _j_ . for example.2 4 kf El Rci6 _ P_ _9_8 65.2 X >/. [CH. the props ^J Rb*9Xi _ Re X Ell 2 3X4 4 u _ 4 6 _ Rp _ . 7 6 tons at distances of 7 feet. the deflections must be calculated as for a propped cantilever (Arts. _ *' 1 4 u « a 'J = And at gjdRji + tJRc)j since by symmetry RB = RD C— P_i _ 2RB . 14 feet.  Equating upward and downward deflections at B and C from which f>/=fRB + ilR >>/=^RB + fRo R B = R D = *wl and R = jfw/. 78. 133. sinks a given amount. 79 and 81). the diagrams of bending moment and shearing being as shown in Fig. at B— (8).+ I2 f ~ EI^"*8 + * K °> x . Art. If one end of the beam is fixed. and feet tons. Example i. If the support at B. 1 of Art 89 by Wilson's Method. 133. Example 2. the at the four supports.— 2 20 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.«* EI ~ S EI • And using (7) and are.%wP . 86 and 87. Sinking of any support can evidently be taken into account in this method very simply. and the points of contraflexure.}±wl X 2/ = ^a//5 Ra — The bending moment anywhere can be simply stated.384 »5«*_i. the beam being supported at A and E only. = Rb = hUwt. the upward deflections due to.i>0 = ss^ M B = &»/» + = &«* Mc = 2a/2 . that amount of subsidence must be subtracted from the lefthand side of equation (6). Using Fig.
ART. BC about A^ a 4 • ¥ • ¥) + (3 8 • ¥ ¥) = *¥* + *¥* = 7466 ton(feet)» 5Tons 7Tons 6Tons c . AB C 221 Firstly. —For the spans about ABC. Moment of the bendingmoment diagram area on 7) A = = (i. A. by the General Equation of Three Moments. + (h • • 3 • ¥ • • 8) = ™ + "6  2975 ton(feet)' Moment of the bendingmoment diagram on (i .*! Fig. . 90] BUILTIN AND CONTINUOUS BEAMS.7. 90. with the notation of Art. 136.
to 7 ton load. are. deflections.080 l8 o EI With end supports at only. for * feet.576 . ward by (7) With end supports and (10) of Art.28 ° + . Taking moments to the of B 5x3Taking moments to ioRA left = C 1051 RA = 0449 ton of 5X15 + 7X822X 6 045 C i2R B = 746 RB = 9471 ton Taking moments to right of — 8RD = 746 R D = 0567 ton R c = 5+7 + 6 . „ 1.256 . .9"47 . for x = From B 4551* 79 feet.020 27S '° 4 °) = 180EI ?°= . ton load to C the bending moment is — 492*+ = 185 feet. which vanishes. VII. — Taking A as origin and taking convexity upward x 2 as positive bending. the down ~ 6EI X 30 fe * 7 * 20(400529322)} +{7 Xi6x 10(100448. by Wilson's Method.322)} +{7 X 14 X 18(64. left — [CH. for x to 6 ton load the bending moment 22) is — 3829 — = 2 3 "4 feet. which vanishes.i96)} + {6x6x 10(100576 288)}] I / ' or ^ = i8oEi (3IS 7 °° + 6 ° 9.°'4S .— 22 2 —— —— — —— STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. bending moment is — = From 5971 7 35 1214 — 9471(4: — 10) = 5971 —492*. C S ° I.88oRc .52 9 . the upward deflections caused by the props B and C are At B 2Rb X I00X 4°°} 6EI X 30 P + {RcX 8x 10(100484352)}] ) = itW 8o > ° oR b + 58.6Ei x 30 £ {5 x 7 x 8(64 .023.200.288)}} or K> / c = ISoEl^ 220 360 ' 1 + . for * Secondly.76 ° + 1 s \ 3°°>96°) = 1.057 = 751 tons Inflations. 80. 7'5i(* — = 1269 — 543*. From = 5 ton load to B 4'SS 1 * bending moment 5(* — 7) — 0449* = — 35> which vanishes. From C 208* i{x — 14) = 208* — 3829. at B — only.44 8)}+{6 X 6 X 22(484 . which vanishes.
Firstly.88oR = 1.200.000 tons per square inch.. find the bending moments and reactions at the supports. by Wilson's Method.20o.oooR B ' + 58.080  40. ton. 8 ( 64 22$ C ' I0 X 6EI..30 K _Rb X ~ 4 °°  4oo)} + 2 RC x { 64 x 484.88oR w ) J ' 2 ' and corresponding S8.88 ° RB + 6l >95=Ro) Equating the upward and downward deflections at B and C— (u) (12) 8o. The downward deflection at B due to the load would be — ^ ± — 1 / i.020 — 20.9S2R = R = 1.88oR = + 6i. 136).312 = 1. bending moments at the supports. and by an equation of moments about D.023.179. If ton (feet) 2 E and I are in foot and ton E and I are in inch units the deflection at B would be 1. . .708 (13) i8oEr ^(8o. E being 13.Q2o \ f ton(feet) 8 E1V if 180 ) units. If the crosssection of the continuous beam in Example 2 above has a moment of inertia of 300 inch units.200...000 8o.. and position of the points of inflection follow by direct calculation very simply (see Fig.200. RD = i"33 R A = 037 tons.9S2R R = = 1.88oR B to (12) with o  i inch subsidence at C 982.oooR B + s8.080 .455 (14) + 6i. hence = y (1.020 inch ya? EI 180 deflection at the dimensions bei 5 torches) ton(inches) 1 The upward B due to the props has to balance 005 inch less than this amount.020) . which equations give the values RB = 947 tons 751 tons confirming the previous results.625 = From tne simple equations (13) and (14) 6*13 tons RB = io'23 tons And by an equation of moments about A. and the support B sinks inch and the support C sinks inch.020 1. 90] At BUILTIN AND CONTINUOUS BEAMS.ART. Example 3.] = l8^Ei (S8.. The reactions at the ends. putting I = 300 and E = 13.200.oooRB S8.005 i8oEP or corresponding to (n).88oR B + 58.023.
• C =4^46 6 X 13. moments at B.000 Z X 300/005 \^ 199 (^ + ^) (16) o'i\ i2M E from (15) and (16) + 4oM c = And MB = From an „ „ » 1 1 '87 tonfeet M = 1404 tonfeet of B. Continuous Beams of Varying Section. 90. left right of C. becomes I4 4 (44M B or. etc. Art.. left „ „ „ „ of C. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 90. With such modified meanings for the symbols equation (3). From Secondly.000 X 3°°(^ . . 90. X M4 (15) 44M E + i2M = corresponding to (10)—  113 . the 2 Using inch units. and under the 6ton load may be noted . an equation corresponding to equation (9). right of B. refer to xdx = ^(A. . . The modifications — in the first method will be as follow.7^) = 55183 S5i"83 . The methods of the previous article may be applied to cases where the moment of inertia of crosssection (I) varies along the length of span. Art. — + i2M ) + 6 X 13.. but it may also be written in integral form thus ah the origins being fh 1 1 fh fh v A for the left side and C for the right side..'*/) (1) areas of the curves M y. C. >. also the change in position of the points of inflection to the right and left of C.— 224 — j — [CH. becomes— ^— where A! and Xi. VII. 91. by the General Equation of Three Moments. this units of which are ton(feet) . And «M b + 4°M or. equation of moments to the » . Art. etc. Equation (1).*! + A. Re = RB = RD = RA = 0*31 ton 133 tons 613 „ 1023 •> confirming the previous results. equation (5). The diagram of bending moments is shown in the lower part of The serious changes in the magnitude of the bending Fig. may be formed. holds good. involving change in signs of the bending moment over some length of the beam : all these changes arise from the slight subsidence of the two supports at B and C. 136.
as the sum of two triangles similarly.M B .. j. are not simple and convenient to graphically . . and... from the curve j.MA) and for the right side 22. . by treating separately the effect of the moments at each support on the two adjacent spans. = M A + j(M D . as in Art. 88. . For a beam on n supports. ARSB. 91] For the BUILTIN left AND CONTINUOUS BEAMS. or with origin —We ARB A h h .M c +j. ^ry} !^H p(f Jo) ! . 68. integrate.ART. as in Art. side M' * measured positive towards B. Fig. the integrals may be found /•h by plotting the curves as in Art. —x x i l . can be expressed as simple functions of x (from either above integrals can usually be found without much trouble. 134. with A as pole. M' and with origin C r = V' MA+ / /. may state the above Alternative Form for Graphical Method. this relation (3) provides B A and « — 2 equations. M' = M + 7(M E M C) x measured positive towards B. and the other two necessary for the n unknown bending moments at the n supports follow as before from the fixing origin) the M M . with BSTC. + J and I fc j (3. and (3) becomes a simple equation with two unknown quantities. This is equivalent to regarding the trapezoid and ASB. conditions at the ends.p^. etc. Note that  J^dx J is represented by the area of a figure derived._jjp ¥ * + H. equations in a convenient form for graphical solution. .£j* + wo If /x. y. MB M' = 4^.. hence (2) may be written j{jV + H. If the quantities J ax x x* j. 88. and similarly with other curves.
Divide the ordinates of these four curves by the variable values . I ~mm x and 2y A Also draw the 2 lines CS and which represent —M with C as origin. x 7M0 as origin. 137). Draw the lines Br with (Fig. the ordinates of which represent jM.226 Let STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. M A = aM. B(. M c = yM 2 where M„ M„ and M. [CH. 137. VII. are any assumed equal or unequal values of the Fig. and ' T AS and * • M. M B = 0M. B. and C respectively. bending moments at A.
68) of the areas under the six curves. xe and area under the y M curve on the Aa being the span BC. CwB. supposing the beam to be supported at the ends only. Aw Cw 22 J I. corresponding to we have— ' A This is 1 (4) a form of the equation of three moments in which the unknown are a. Fig. Then. 92] of BUILTIN AND CONTINUOUS BEAMS. 90. Wllsoris equating the deflections Method of solving problems in continuous beams by downward deflections produced by the load to the upward produced by the supporting forces. The equation (4) may very conveniently be reduced to an equation of areas by taking the " first derived areas " (see Art. the pole being at A for those on the span AB. (3). 90. 90. as in Art. and let xj and xj' be the respective horizontal distances AwB = of their centroids from A. 83. 90. Fixing of the girder ends at any inclination may also be taken into account as indicated in Art.ART. by using terms E ^ and E 8. 88. and other diagrams of bending moment for continuous girders which the reader may sketch. Let a' and_«" be the areas under the curves Az/B and respectively.2 in the above equation (4) in place of EISi and EI&. may be applied in cases where the value of I varies. provided the deflections for the necessary equations are determined in accordance with the principles in Art. a graphical method will be the simplest for determining the deflections. and at C for those on the span BC (see dotted curves. (3) in the . 92. Let <? and AB and xu the horizontal distance of centroid ' <!' be the areas under the curves C«B and x". where the deflections are found by a novel graphical method. Sinking of the supports may readily be taken account of in this method. and y. and B«. Advantages and Disadvantages of Continuous Beams. An examination of Figs. Wilson's paper already referred to. as shown in Fig. and so get the curves and Bv. 137). the horizontal distances of their centroids from C. of Art. /?. and the requisite number of equations follows from the consecutive pairs of spans and the conditions of support at the ends just as in the previous cases. and at the end quantities . Let Aj be the area under the curve its M on the span from A. . 137. and x2 _ the horizontal distance of its centroid from C. is therefore required. — average bending moment throughout and less material to resist bending (2) disregarding algebraic sign. 87. shows that generally (1) the greatest bending moment to which the beam is subjected is less than that for the same spans if the beam were cut at the supports into separate pieces . 133 and 136. Generally. Full details of a numerical example will be found in Dr. in equation (3a) of Art. Art. the is smaller for the continuous beam. at the end of Art.
form serious objections to the use of Another practical objection in the case of builtup continuous girders. resulting from very small the points of contraflexure. Find the bending moment and supporting forces at each end and the position where maximum deflection occurs. a small subsidence of one or more supports may cause serious changes in the bending moment and bending stresses at particular sections. 6. i. hence." . and the position of the points of contrary flexure. [CH. and changes in load or subsidence of a support do not produce changes in sign of the bending moment and bending On This is the principle of the cantilever bridge ' the portions between the hinges are under the conditions of a beam simply supported stresses. the other hand. builtin beam of span / carries a uniformly distributed load iv per unit of length over half the span. placed 5. at the supports. the deflection at the centre and under the load.228 continuous STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. in girders of variable crosssection the heavy sections are not placed in positions where their effect in producing bending stress is greatest. the bending moment diagrams become very simple. at a distance \l from one end. each 5 tons. the bending moment and reactions at the supports. the bending moment there remains zero. builtin beam of 20feet span carries two loads. Find the bending moment at the supports and centre. the deflection at the centre and under the loads. Examples VII. the position and amount of the maximum deflection. If the moment of inertia of the section is 220 inch units and the depth 12 inches. if at these two points the girder is hinged instead of being continuous. A builtin beam carries a distributed load which varies uniformly from nothing at one end to a maximum w per unit length at the other. beam the bending moment due to external load is not greatest at points remote from the supports. Find the bending moment at each A W A A 1 See the author's " Theory of Structures.) 2. changes in level of a support. A builtin beam of span I carries two loads each units placed \l from either support. beam is firmly built in at each end and carries a load of 12 tons uniformly distributed over a span of 20 feet. 3. find the maximum intensity of bending stress and the deflection. or of determining to what degree the conditions In a loaded continuous girder two points of contraflexure are attained. Find the bending moments 5 feet and 13 feet from the lefthand support. (E = 13. : at its ends. as well as changes of sign in bending moment and bending stresses over considerable lengths. and find the points of W contraflexure. with change in position of These changes. The points of zero bending moment being fixed. but at the supports . girders is the difficulty in attaining the conditions of continuity during construction or renewal. Find. builtin beam of span / carries a load 4. VII. usually occur between two consecutive supports . and the portions adjoining the piers are practically cantilevers which carry the simply supported beams at their ends.000 tons per square A inch.
if the support B sinks fa inch.000 tons per square inch. and carries loads of 2. and 18 feet respectively from A. 11. VII.] BUILTIN AND CONTINUOUS BEAMS. (b) if both ends are built in. 8. is moment at the end and middle. CD = 5 feet. A W A force. and 8 tons at distances 3. Solve the previous problem when the load is uniformly distributed W W over the span. 10. I being 90 (inches) 4 and E = 13. 14. the points of inflection. 40 feet. the position deflection. The supports divide the length If the beam carries a uniformly into three equal spans each of length /. 6. 11. 229 support. the end A being fixed horizontally. Sketch the diagrams of bending moment and shearing at each support. and D. Find the bending moment at B and C. C. The moment of inertia of crosssection of a beam built in at the ends Find the bending varies uniformly from Io at the centre to £I„ at each end. and magnitude of the maximum "7. on the same level.) 12. BC = 7 feet. and the reactions at A. and 20 feet. 11. and the central deflection when a load supported at the middle of the span. AB = 8 feet. per unit length. (a) if one end of the beam is firmly built in. 13. Solve problem No. 90. continuous beam ABCD 20 feet long rests on supports A.EX. A and D. It carries loads of 7. continuous beam covers three consecutive spans of 30 feet. and 3 tons per foot run Find the bending moment and pressure respectively on the three spans. 1. C. 9. (The results should be checked by using both methods given in Art. 11. B. Solve problem No. all . continuous beam rests on supports at its ends and two other 9. Solve problem No. find the bending moments and reactions at spread load the supports. B. Sketch the bendingmoment diagram. supports on the same level as the ends.
it may conveniently be expressed in the form limits. 42). Art. and c is a coefficient depending upon the manner in which the beam is loaded and supported. the — fXsX where/ volume of the material of the beam .Ibd? = bdl . The total flexural resilience (see Art. 41). SECONDARY EFFECTS OF BENDING. W x (deflection at the load) . (1) is the maximum intensity of direct stress to which the beam is subjected anywhere. although it may be a stiff one. it is a spring.g. For a beam of any kind supporting only a concentrated load W.. VIII. .e. which is the constant for uniformly distributed stress is the intensity of stress at the elastic limit of the If (see Art. Resilience of Beams. and therefore possesses elastic strain energy (Art.— —— — — CHAPTER 93. i. gj depth d — beam is of rectangular section. a cantilever carrying an end load W has a deflection \ . material. the resilience is evidently e. the breadth being b and the p volume = W/f. 42) may be calculated in various ways .. 79) (XgX If the volume = i .. (2) WP Pi hence the resilience is (see (2). When a beam is bent within the elastic material is subjected to varying degrees of tensile and compressive bending stress. but which is always less than the value §. then f c is X p X volume the proof resilience of the beam.
For a beam of uniform section and length /.ART.M.. its The same coefficients. the change of slope strain energy of that portion is is dx. the resilience will be in inchtons. 93] and hence SECONDARY EFFECTS OF BENDING. over the elastic i. If with the notation of Art. . (3) neutral axis since For any shape of is k — crosssection. and carrying a load midway between dimensions are in inches and the loads in tons. etc. beam simply supported at them. in a short length of beam di.tf and over a finite length the resilience is (4) i/Mtf which may also be written (5) or. * % E = . 61 and 76). I 23 = ±bd* or resilience '=xa> = j^ . 77. if the radius of gyration about the / = W/ 4. if EI is constant ml Wd* resilience.„„ XpX/=x I_ 4 PE L k* 3EI fi • fk\2 ( >) hence < and resilience = = k2 f . is £M X If change in inclination of extreme tangents is = \ ^T MV • (&) such a beam rectangular in section. . which the bending moment is M. 2 55 %X volume v) .3 and 2I area of section I r £* from (1) resilience =cx = WW X X /a X W^ . the breadth being b and . If all the as those above will evidently hold for a ends. for which the bending moment and curvature are constant.usually re> f° r standard I sections \ is about 0*4. &> From these forms the resilience of any beam may be found when the bendingmoment diagram is known. . subjected to " simple bending " (see Arts. the from (4) or (7). W/ .
For circular sections the corresponding coefficient is \. using (7) the deflection at a distance x from — W a J hence vc J » = which agrees with (8). and the resilience ft* = Ms W/ . and integrating over the whole span. klbd2 .p=M. and similarly for the remainder di at a distance = a I  Wx . 112. Taking as a second example the case (ft). d. di = I— I . Similarly. (i). of a noncentral load beam. a ..(Ix . and in the form . 3 hence = £.* dx I a from one end. — EI j dx . per unit length of span. the In the case of a distributed load resilience corresponding to (2) may be written w \fwydx where y is (9) the origin. and Fig. Art. consider the It would cause an additional bending moment El£? dxr at or a distance x from the end anywhere over the range of length a. 80 and Fig. 80.. . the resilience. For example. Wxdx j x from the other end — EI . Beam Deflections calculated from Resilience. 65) To find the deflection at a distance effect of a very small weight W placed at that section. at a distance x from either support id M = . taking each end as origin in turn.x>) (see Fig. if the resilience is calculated from the bending moments by (5) or (7). Art. in which the same maximum intensity of skin stress/ is reached at every crosssection. using the notation of Art. In equation (2) the deflection has been used to calculate the elastic strain energy. oi a uniformly spread load w per unit span on a beam simply supported at each end. 80. MVx K^ . EI*'=^1?.W. in on a simply supported the case given in Art. The same coefficient (£) will hold for any of the rectangular beams of uniform bending strength. 78. the deflections may be obtained from the resilience. — — — — — — [CH. 116. VIII STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. and which bend in circular arcs. hence over this portion .— 23 2 the depth (7). from 12 is— c X / X volume g <: or c 36M 2 X g^s „ xM = J.
83. the integration being over the whole length of the beam and if necessary divided into separate ranges with convenient origins. per cubic inch of steel.x3)dx] Jo ) = hwy Reducing this. h/Mdi = i^7 El/ \(l  a) (°(lx*  x>)dx 2 { Jo + a [~°{W . volume or ^= .ART. (io) iXiX. The resilience of a carriage spring constructed as indicated in Art.p X (volume This of material) for the resilience may be verified from (n). or y=\~dx . In the particular \Vm. steel would usually be about 12 to 15 tons per square inch. nbdl Or. Fig. A beam of rectangular section is supported at its ends. 93] SECONDARY EFFECTS OF BENDING. 65 M= j(/x x 1 ) . and the resilience is g J* . take W section the deflection at which is _y. so that the proof resilience would be about o"oo2 inchton. = 1. 122a. and any type of beam. under proof load. dx. (5) the total increase of strain 233 beam Hence from due to W would energy in the whole be . or say 5 inchlbs. M= y = w/ I ^ (n) Carriage Springs.000 tons per square inch. Using the notation of Fig. Example. and case of the deflection under a load W. deflection = £YV X \ ~t>Cm 83— P of/ _ 1 3 * ' _VW nl>d 2 Substituting this value „ cX ^^Fd' X E X WV nbdl_ J_WP_ ~ la nEid 3 2  hence c = \. y = ~^ " (/* + /« a2) which agrees with the bending (9). . 83. where/is The value of/ for the intensity of bending stress at the elastic limit. and the volume of the beam.. the resilience is £ . Art. and carries a uniformly distributed load. Art. 78. then di =. would be — P* f. Art. Generalising this for moment at let m be any section due to unit weight at the particular Ttt when x is written instead of a. Find the resilience in terms — of the greatest intensity of stress. aCx volume = ^W x and from (10). = i/W = */*p. and that of E 13. gX volume of spring.
and let P be the equivalent static load. midway between the supports. the greatest intensity of stress / occurring at midspan . the strain energy or resilience of the bar at the extremity of the deflection is equal to the kinetic energy and potential energy (if any) of the load and bar immediately after the impact.\bd* .2&* + f 4 is **)<** = 240E1 ^Jr breadth of section b and the depth is d. then from (4) Art. Let the bar be supported freely at its ends. in. the loss of kinetic energy at impact is negligible. =• E ^ ie . rrnt>ai= •" #( W 2 4 aV  240EW c =£ = £g and resilience =£X 3^ X volume This might also be obtained as the sum 5 I ay<£a using the expression (9) of Art. If the inertia of the bar is negligible in comparison with that of the load and the supports are rigid.2WP  . 93a.. and the load fall through a height h on to the bar of span length /. Impact producing Flexure.. — W = = . " ~ P/ s _ ul or * 48EI is ~— P= 48EI8 ~ —p (1) If the weight of the bar negligible. which would produce the same deflection and the same bending stresses. as in Fig.e. 78. the central load. = ttj wP X 12 and hence c T? • f E <: • volume or """""•= " l . If an impulsive load such as that of a falling weight be applied transversely to a bar so as to produce flexure and the limits of proportionality of stress to strain are not exceeded.— — 234 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. and the resilience of the bar is equal to the kinetic energy of the load before impact. 78 for_y. \wP a/ / • 4. VIII. the total resilience from (7) •4t 2E1 If the y \wdx = 2E1 4t • — Jo CV . i. equating the work done by W to the resilience after the deflection W<* + 8) = 4P8=^ 48EL P2 96EW/1 . Let 8 yc deflection under the central impulsive load W. is ICH.
. this becomes W . in. viz. If the effect of the bar is small but not negligible. t^)' + <f> Then if « • v = velocity of the centre of the bar just after impact the velocity at a distance x from the centre is v y X — From the equality of the total bar per unit length momentum before and after impact. 2 i vV*rW. and P to 235 (3) =W+ if ^W* + 9*™™ negligible  W = ^/W + 2^^ and 8 is compared h — 2 P WP^ — *™ (4 ) Correction for Inertia of the Bar.S+2w( ydx Jo Jo (7) or substituting from (5) and (1) V*and substituting for F. . g g —J ycJ.8+2wf ydx=^F.?(W + gw/) = (6). . Fig.art. (6) + f w Again. rtt j if w = weight of the W and substituting for X >J zgh v = Wv + 2w— ydx y from (5).^+2X*. (8) v from and solving the quadratic 17 wl (9) . equating kinetic energy plus work done after impact to the increase of strain energy i.W^. 93A] P secondary effects of bending. <Jlgh = v(W + \wt) or v = I  . 78. Art. for the purpose of an estimate the deflection may be assumed to take the same form as for a concentrated static load (2) and (4). X •J'igh .
Cantilever. the depth of which is greater Art. may be similarly found in more general — same methods as above. in place of (5). be concave upwards. is the amount by which impact load exceeds The quantity P — diminishes with increase of W. being propor — B \ \ / '1 \ tional / \\ / to the longitudinal ones. was assumed in This is nearly true for sections. except near the edges. In the case of the bar being fixed in direction at both W W W W — midway between its ends. flat strips. 61. are proportional the distances from the neutral surface. of the bar The effect Positions of Points of Incidence of Load. is — the times the longitudinal radius curvature. — T being Poisson's and the 138. the coefficient 55 is replaced by §§. and splitting the integration into suitable ranges. Fixed Ends. These lateral strains (Arts.— 236 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. just as free longitudinal strain. R'. [CH. using the results of Arts. 1 of transverse curvature R'~^R where It or R' = wR the radius of longitudinal curvature. I by f. curvature if is therefore 138. 8 radical sign in (9) disappears. i tudinal ones. the upper fibres are compressed and the lower ones stretched. here assumed that lateral movement is free. Hence. 2). the coefficient ends and subjected to an impulsive load W — W ^ ^. hence lateral expansion and contraction will make the upper portion of the beam wider and the lower portion narrower. More General of the inertia cases by the 79. 1 Fig. The amount of the transverse curvature may be found from the strains in exactly the same way as the longitudinal curvature (Arts. Transverse Curvature. VIII. 86. using the results of Art. 12 and 19). U \ Fig. 2 in (7) and the first term (W ) under the omission of the term . This approximates to a is R is . and 87 (Ex. In the case of a cantilever receiving the impact of at its free end. but is not true for broad. If a horizontal beam is bent so as to 94. to V u \\ ' / ' ' The transverse strains are — x m times the lonsiratio. In very broad beams practicallyno transverse curvature occurs. its ratio to the static load the impact bending stress bears the same ratio to the static bending If 8 is negligible compared to h. where a lateral strain is free to take place. 61 to 63). uninfluenced by surrounding layers. 79 in a falling weight and the coefficient is replaced by place of (5). using the results of Art. 8o. and . and the coefficient § by 5. the work is simplified by the stress. and transverse bending accompanies the longitudinal flexure. than the width.
is placed at the centre . 21). Elastic Energy in Shear Strain . 4 inches wide and £ inch thick. In the first position I = ^ 4 \ = ^. the central deflection is 0149 inch. Example. Using the equations of Art.000 " .75 ° second position = 1^ 8 5 t G4 _ 3 8 E= 2000 48 36 x 2 ~X—kX36 x 36 x 0025 = 29. causes a central deflection of 0025 inch. is placed on horizontal supports 3 feet apart. Art. gives — p = x ~ E ~ «E u hence ex 2 »\ = A/ . 9 represent a piece of material of length easily calculated.2) = AO *) (i A £ A ^^ — . and that of 4 being the breadth. A piece of iron plate. elastic strain energy For simple is stored just as in the case of direct stress and strain. . Dividing the previous result by this 111 — I 10738 '° 3'8i ™* = 00738 = rr^» 0263 10738 r 4SS m= ^= 95. with modified modulus — • • (rf=T) E And in the nfi 200 = x 48 I X 36 X X &X 36 X 36 0149 • _ ~ 3I. distributions of shear stress the resilience or elastic strain energy is Let Fig. 19. Shearing Resilience.—When material suffers shear strain within the elastic limit. 237 case where lateral strain is prevented in one direction. Art. rectangular in section. the long side of the crosssection being horizontal.ART. and a load of 200 lbs. x m E^— ^ 2 t the quantity — ttr E 1 being a modified modulus of elasticity.3I2. and the modulus of elasticity appropriate to such a case of flexure is a modification of the ordinary direct modulus (see Art. the direction of ex being the length of the beam. 19. 78. gives— r ' _A ~ A_ E «E and equation (2). The plate is then placed on the supports with the long side vertical. Art. and a central load of 2000 lbs.160. Find the value of Poisson's ratio for this material. equation J> (1). Using the formula (4). and for such cases of flexure longitudinal deflections are only about jf of what might be expected if the lateral strains were free. 19. which if m = 4 is ff times E. or e. 95] SECONDARY EFFECTS OF BENDING. a being zero.
59). causing shear strain Then the resilience evidently is \ and i deflection BB". which is the resilience for uniformly distributed direct stress (Art. the deflection with uniform distribution would is A be W/ ^N* But we have seen (Art. BB" = ./= N /or m where the area of crosssection. In the case of a cantilever of length / carrying an end load (Fig. Deflection of a Beam due to Shearing. but varies from a maximum at the neutral surface to zero at the extreme upper and lower edges of the section.. In addition to the 96. 64) a further deflection due to the vertical shear stress on transverse — This sections of a horizontal beam. AB<£ 2 — where I hx volume or i^ per unit of volume N is the modulus of rigidity. the calculations of Chap. and are approximate only. stress / perpendicular to the plane of the diagram. 64). 64) if a very accurate estimate of shearing deflection is required. If the section were rectangular. VI. VI.AB.BC. then. the deflections due to shear at the free end would W be— / X (angle of shear strain) or *. VIII. In a great number of practical cases. be remembered that such calculations are based on the simple theory of bending (see Art. 71) that the shear stress is not uniformly distributed over the section. Note the per unit volume. to check the results by those given in the more complex theory of St. if the shearing force F (= W) were uniformly distributed over vertical sections. of breadth b and depth d. We can get some idea of its amount in particular cases from But it should the distribution of shear stress calculated in Art. 42). Venant (see Art. BC . The consequence is that the deflection will be rather more than W7 j^. 71. ordinary deflections due to the bending moment calculated in Chap.— 238 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 71. having uniform shear of intensity q on the face BC. q) X = l. <£ [CH. /. the portion of the total deflection which is due to shearing cannot generally be estimated with equal accuracy from the distribution of shear stress deduced in Art.. . and the cases was not taken into account in magnitude of it in a few simple may now be estimated. q ./. X (force) X (distance) = £ X (BC /. . similarity to the expression \ r=. While the simple (or BernoulliEuler) theory gives the deflections due to the bending moment with sufficient accuracy. there is in any given case other than " simple bending " (Art. It becomes desirable.
and thickness dy. a longitudinal strip of length /. the shearing x w.  / for /. will store strain energy — 1 .dy (see Art. Cantilever of Rectangular Section witft End Load.l. iL . Assuming the distribution of shear stress to be as calculated in Art. /\f _ 5/ o end due 3 wv NW»yi6 If 8 5 NW be the deflection at the is to shearing.b. the shearing resilience £ . Hence ^ = 3_^_ + y _ _Zj total shearing resilience in the cantilever is The bl 2 or 3 6w2//y^ _ ytfa 6 free . W. parallel to the neutral surface and distant y from it. 71. 96] SECONDARY EFFECTS OF BENDING. Art. and for which the simple theory of bending is approximately correct (see Art. 64). the end load. W — . The breadth being b and the depth d. and constant over a narrow strip of the crosssection parallel to the neutral axis of the section. And from (4). Similarly. and W for — ends and of length /. (/) which is 20 per cent. width b. 239 however. the deflection due to shearing is negligible in comparison with that caused by the bending moment. 71 i=bAiy) where F = W. for a beam simply supported at putting carrying a central load deflection is W.ART. 8 = WV 6 ' f xtTj> hence <> s NW W/ _ — = alueof^ v /mean value of q x X V. 10 "Sbd . greater than it would be with uniformly distributed its shear stress. a few deflections due to shear will now be calculated for cases where the shearing force is uniform. 95) due to shear strain.
99). dy =R cos 6d0 (see Fig. W/ W/ 3 j ( . and is integral resilience corresponding to (1) 2  2 nV r 2 i6Wa 4 . In a cantilever of circular section. provided the breadth is not great compared with the depth. Art. uniform distribution of shear stress in a horizontal direction across the 1 — section and vertical variation as in (5). this becomes 4EM or for the cantilever . 71. is or the total deflection due to bending and shearing W/8 48EI .{ © is The second term is negligible if (5) large. agreement with the more exact expression deduced by St. assuming Circular Section. z = 2R / cos 0. VIII. where the y =R sin 6. 1 "1" ^ . STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.— 240 — — [CH.Efrfyi s 10 NW W/ 3 4EW1 nV // J E or if jj = f. which is generally the This expression for the shearing deflection is in fair case in practice. q 4F = —^ cos 2 6. Venant.
1 7 1. 7 1. the length of beam. hence the above ratio is \wtP to AV 3 or w = \( — ). particularly when the depth is great in proportion to the In an I girder section. using a value of E about 25 per cent. mating the total deflection of large builtup girders is to calculate for — A ordinary bending deflection. Any Section. hence the strain energy J 1 s first In the case of a varying section. for q substitute the value given in the footnote to Art. etc. B J J ^ q*zdyUx. and for . For example. in the case of a uniformly distributed load per unit length at a distance * from the free end F3 a/V. \Section Girders. For any solid section instead of (1) the elastic energy — W8 would be— iw8 where z is the it / = 2 "NL« J 2 (*) breadth of the section at a depth y. 64). if the sections of the beam are constant throughout its length. the effect of a distributed load being \ that of the same load con centrated at the end. below the usual value to allow for shearing. good for and uniformly loaded.e..writer.z. for example. which is not a constant but the extreme value of y for any section. 71. as in Art. A method of obtaining a rather more general result is given by Prof. 24 shearing force on the crosssections is constant throughout the length (see Art.dx If z and y are not functions of x. April. The same its coefficient will evidently hold a beam freely supported at carrying the ends. 191 1. and 4 =r F yzdy. Slocum in the. the effect of integrating the energy expressions throughout with respect to x will be to multiply the previous values for the cantilever by the ratio of I FV* to IW. E. Journal of the Franklin Institute. however. stress in the web is (see Art 71) much greater than the mean intensity common method of roughly estiof shear stress over the section.ART. compared to similar beam same load concentrated midway between the supports. Neglecting this. and for the righthand side of (2) write "This — \ different befound if I and j\ are known as functions of x. the resilience due to shear strain of an element of length dx would be \£. S. 96] SECONDARY EFFECTS OF BENDING. as in Ait. may . The cases in which the shearing deflections are of more importance are the various builtup sections of which girders are made. i. the intensity of shear length.dy.
— 242 ) STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 71 and. 101. a cantilever may be found from diagram of q is it by multiplying by jj and dividing by W. the ordinates of which are proportional to q* x s by squaring the ordinates of Fig. 10 1 and multiplying each by the corresponding width of the section. If the not required it is rather more convenient to proceed as follows (see Fig. plot a diagram (b) showing q z instead of q. 71. say. 101. the would be \ of the above expression. ' 1 qz = j X (area of modulus figure between y and  . Art. 139). and the deflection of. somewhat similar to Fig. or for the cantilever symmetrical about the neutral axes of the sections with end load W. where F 2 iW. a graphical method will be most convenient. The total area of this diagram would represent deflection I 2 q zdy. Equation (3). 139. on the depth of the beam as a base line.8 = ^ K/f y*Y* and 8  wJo K/! "*)* J I ' For a simply supported beam of span / and central load W. Fig. Draw the ordinary modulus figure for the section as shown at {a). shows that at any height y from the neutral axis *. may then be plotted. A diagram. The values of q may be found as in Art. VIII. =W [CII. and Fig. For sections the width (s) of which cannot be simply expressed as a function of the distance (y) from the neutral surface.
and this method might be used as an approximation for any I section by using mean values an example is given below'. to obtain the deflection in inches. and the full size. The deflection due to shearing of an I beam with square corners such as Fig. # 4 for which d 6 inches. 100 may be found by integration in two ranges over which the breadth is constant (see example below). the area of Fig. the cantilever deflection. Scales. = shearing deflection of a cantilever would be 0*416^ inches. say. and then plotted in inches. No. for the thickness of the flanges and web : 1 In the case of a beam the section of which varies along S/. not necessary to actually plot the diagram (b). I = 4361 (inches) . It is. W to find the deflection (see . its m length. W7. provided and 5 this if W — W . the units of which are (inches) Wl when inch units are used for /. divide the whole into a number of short lengths multiply each value preceding footnote). (a). on Fig. the units being (inches) 6 it . 96] SECONDARY EFFECTS OF BEADING 243 from which equation the ordinates of (b) may be found by measuring on Fig. or a central load W. and N. the actual shearing force. W/ For the centrally load beam the factor would be ipjjFig. Square the ordinates of this diagram (8). the ordinates represent f y yzdy on a scale of inch =/ d x . say.. is \ of this for a beam of length /supported at its ends and carrying is used as above in finding qz. for convenience.ART. by 5/ and divide the sum by N . If the ordinates of (J>) in inches are square and divided by (c). and the deflection (see (2) above) is found by multiplying 1 by . and dividing by W for a cantilever with an end used in finding load. Fig. and divide each by the width z and plot the results as ordinates of the diagram (c) on the depth afasa base.(inches) 3. J is To obtain.i39> when drawn : represents the British Standard Beam section. n. The area of the resulting figure (e) represents areas n \ fzdy as before. of course. 10. is qz. the width of the modulus — figure represents 4x». i39(«) being drawn full size. I. only necessary to ' 6 multiply the result in (inches) by ^j. P  . by 1 2v If/ square inches of modulus figure area at (a) are represented iInch ordinates on (b). and find graphically j q^zdy for each . and the web is o 4i inch 8 thick the area of the diagram Ic) represents 761 (inches) . (c) represents Hryzdyjdy on a scale of 1 square inch = / «( d\ 2 .
 — — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. all the linear units being. inches. I being about the same nearly the same in each./W 15^(1*65 . In the web ^*+mt(»$i(*3 v yfl — — _ fiM21 _ py 64 145 v" s j t —/ +) 4 is Taking both sides of the neutral by (2) axis. — ?44 [CH. carrying an end load. Wf V W ^=^(8118/+/) Fie. and perhaps the simplest approximation may also be the best. to calculate the deflection due to shear as if the web carried the whole shearing force with uniform distribution. shearing _ 63 2 W/ * ' . being proportion that the web thickness is greater. the total shearing resilience 8 = . viz. say. K— —M* —^rr j tions Example. Owing to the limitations of the simple theory of bending none of these calculations can be regarded as correct. 63 2W/ + 3H5) = pjT = Wl °"34°n less in (This agrees closely with the result given for Fig. Simple Approximation for I Sections. Find the ratio of the deflecdue to shearing and bending in a — cantilever of I section. 140. 4 (see Fig. 6 inches deep and 5 inches wide.x Ratio of deflections "I w/ W~  N > .) 3EI _ 1896 E 1 . VIII. so that for a cantilever — S= AN and for a beam simply supported 8 at its ends = W/ 4 AN / is where A is the area of the web and the length of the beam. I = 43'i2S (inches) In the flanges 140). E ^ being taken as \ .pjj. the flanges and web each \ 3 I inch thick. 139.
how many cubic inches of material would be necessary to take up 1 inchton of energy. VIII. the ratio would be per cent. or 60 inches. 4. If the safe limit of stress in a carriage spring is 10 tons per square inch. A length of steel wire ^g inch diameter is wound on a drum 5 feet diameter. 43'i25 and 245 taking I = ~ = 5. A strip of steel I portion of the total deflection is due to shearing if the ratio =^ E= 25. how many would be required ? What would be the proof load. find approximately what pro1. Find the elastic energy stored per cubic inch in a bar of circular section resting on supports at its ends and carrying a central load. Find the work stored per cubic inch and per foot length of wire. A beam of I section is 20 inches deep and 7$ inches broad. if For a simply supported beam of span / the ratio would be ^jt .nearly. 2. E being 13. or over 12 Examples VIII. per square inch. per foot length of the strip if E = 30 x io8 pounds per square inch. If the beam carries a load at the centre of a 20feet span. 5. the thickness of web and flanges being o'6 inch and 1 inch respectively. E = 30 x io6 lb. compare the proof resilience per cubic inch of steel with If steel weighs that for ash and where both are bent in a similar manner. and initial radius of curvature ? 6. this latio is —=.] SECONDARY EFFECTS OF BENDING. ^^. per cubic foot. the span were 10 times the depth.EX. State the result in terms of the greatest intensity of bending stress and the direct modulus of elasticity. 3. 480 lbs. proof deflection. If the limits of safe bending stress for steel and ash are in the ratio 8 to 1.000 tons per square inch? If the longest plate is 6 feet 6 inches long and the plates are 4 inches wide by J inch thick. inch wide and ^5 inch thick is wound on to a drum Find the intensity of stress in the metal and the resilience 8 feet diameter. per cubic foot and ash 50 lbs.and . and the direct moduli of elasticity for the two materials are in the ratio 20 to 1. . compare the proof resilience of steel with that ot an equal weight of ash.
In either case the resultant longitudinal intensity of stress at any point in a crosssection will be the algebraic sum of the direct stress of tension or compression and the direct stresses due to bending. or that the crosssection of a beam resisting flexure has brought upon it further direct stress due to an end thrust or pull. Combined Bending and Direct Stress. The effect of the additional direct stress p„ is to change the position of the neutral surface or to remove it entirely.. such as were supposed in Chapters IV. DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES. direct load — If the line of action of the on a prismatic bar is parallel to the axis of the bar. Fig. the pillar or tierod suffering flexure in an axial plane . there is a . the load P passing through the point C. 98. O OD A D FG OC m addition to the direct tension or compression r or /„. Let be the area of crosssection. the loads on the beam not being all transverse ones. The stress intensity p will change sign somewhere in the section if the extreme values of p t are of greater magnitude than /„. but such as make the beam also a strut or a tie. 141 represents the crosssection of a bar. 97. and is of the same sign as /„ in part of the section and of opposite sign in another part. and let I be the moment of inertia of the area of section about the central axis perpendicular to Then. and )\ distance from the centroid O to the extreme edge in the direction OC. 63.— CHAPTER IX. Thus. and intersects an axis of symmetry of the crosssection at a distance // from the centroid of the section. and V. If / is the intensity of stress anywhere on a section — subjected to an end load P=A+A where /„ is (i) the total end load divided by the area of crosssection. and is the centroid of the section. but the stress will not be zero at the centroid of the section as in the case of a beam bent only by transverse forces. It often happens that the crosssection of a pillar or a tierod mainly subjected to a longitudinal thrust or pull has in addition bending stresses across it. and fi„ is the intensity of bending stress as calculated from the bending moments for purely transverse loading in Art. Eccentric Longitudinal Loads. bending takes place in the plane of the axis of the bar and the line of action of the eccentric load.
= o for y = — r less k 1 . 247 stress at bending moment = P h on the section. the extreme stress intensities of stress are . . . i. 141. The extreme stress intensities at the edges of the section will be A+/I and A// Fig. and '=A( I >) <*) D and E. If the section is FG . symmetrical about <* Evidently/ crosssection. the former being on the same side of and the latter on the opposite side. 142. as a(i+%).h. and negative on the opposite side. the intensity of point distant y from FG being . Fig. /= l+S = x( I+ %) y.e. /=A(*+f) on the extreme edges the centroid as C. The intensity varies uniformly with the dimension shown in Figs.ART. 2 is the radius of gyration about or FG— . (1) y being positive for points on the same side of FG as C. 98] DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES. if this distance is within the area of if h is than yi the distance from the centroid to . 141. 142.v — I ( Art 6 3)  = A^ where k . M any / =A +A = a + or since I P V. where /1 and// are the opposite extreme values of/t or if^ and yi are the distances of the extreme edges from the centroid O.
ing intensity of stress where h If r is greater than _y/. and about is P x. shown in Fig. in which no OG Core or Kernel of a Section. at a point the coordinates of which. is— . the bending moment about OE is P y. 143. 68a. If the line of action of the stress is on neither of the centre lines of the section. distant 248 the edge . or within the middle third. 143.e. 142. * b . The . If the line of action of P fall in the quarter GOEB say. of stress is shown in Fig. where x" {3) evidently always at = 2 /= when the least value of/ is ™(iy. — from on the side opposite to it is section.t STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. same s ig nj tne maximum deviation in the direcof the line of action of the resultant stress from the line tion through the centroid is —— 1 OE ^ GH n H • y >* a 2 ~ 6 From this result springs the that across a rectangular joint the resultant thrust tension is allowed across the joint must fall within  of the thickness from the centre line of the joint. such metals as cast iron. — wellknown rule for masonry. 141. in IjJ c order that the stress on the section shall be all of ig. this uniformly varying distribution With loads of considerable eccentricity. are x and_y measured positive toward E and G respectively. ultimately fail in tension G under a compressive load. uniformly vary in Fig. which are strong in compression. — OG . * ~®~ii Rectangular Section.— In the rectangular section * of breadth b and depth d. it should be noted. An axis parallel to FG and . h is — the stress throughout the section is of the same kind as p . for might be called the neutral axis of the the intersection of the area of crosssection by a surface is C along which there no direct longitudinal stress. E opposite to C. F The and least bd^ ±db 3 value of this is £W 3 bdV'^ p + #)' D. and the stress at any point in the section the coordinates of which are x\ /. and may conveniently be resolved in the planes of the two principal axes as in Art. the bending is unsym metrical. referred to OE and OG as axes. IX. The limiting deviation in the direction under the same conditions is \b.x\ e bd\ b d) This just reaches zero when y+* 1 b d == 1 °> 0f y = d x+ 6 . if k% is greater than less than — is shown i.f — — [CH.
y' — T m* k? <s. for a corner . and the limits of deviation of load from the centroid for no change in sign of the stress will be the bounding line d in */ b 2k* and three others forming a rhombus having the principal axes as diagonals. In the case of a circular section of radius R. and for zero stress at a point the coordinates of which are x'. provided the line of the resultant load falls' within a rhombus the diagonals of which h lie along is EF and GH. x =2 b and y J = d — 2 Mx and y are stress the coordinates of the centre of the loading. For a symmetrical I section of breadth b in the direction of x. Similar bounding lines will fix the deviation limits or cores for various other sections the boundaries of which can be circumscribed by polygons. 249 OG. and depth the direction of y. Similar limits will apply in other quarters of the rectangle. 82. if the axis OY is taken as the vertical principal axis of the section.and  respectively. x^ \ is where kx and k„ are the radii of gyration of the area of section about the axes of x and y respectively. For a symmetrical I section such as Fig. and are of length . 98] DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES. Other Sections. This rhombus called the core or kernel of the section.ART. A more general form of (3) is evidently — r A\ + yy' 4. the four corners will be limiting points of zero stress. the unit from (4) is . deviation which just produces zero stress at one point of the perimeter of the section and double the average intensity diametrically opposite is — h = l?^Vi = — ^R = R and for 4 a hollow circular section of internal radius r and external radius R the deviation would be 4R which approaches the limit £R in the case of a thin tube. and the stress will be of the same sign in all parts of the section. the Circular Section. and the equation to the straight line joining points g from O along d g from O along OF.
but it is to be remembered that. 132. The subject is treated in Art. Crane Hooks. the effect being to underestimate the tensile stress at the inside of the hook (often by nearly 50 per cent. seating The moment is of the seating pressures about the centroid of the nearly the same as the bending moment is at the entrance to the wall if the seating short. IX. Frequently. the axis of which is at a considerable distance from the centroid of the middle section of the hook.). Taking the case of a cantilever of length /carrying an end load W (Fig. members of steel structures. Masonry Seatingfor Beam Ends. the deviation h is a variable along the length if flexure takes place. If b be the (constant) breadth of the beam and d the length of the seating.— 2 50 — [CH. If we assume the forces exerted by the walls on a cantilever or a builtin beam to consist of a uniform upward pressure equal to the total vertical reaction and equal upward and downward pressures varying in intensity uniformly along the length from zero at the centre of the seating to maxima at the ends.e. however. formula (1) may be applied to calculate the maximum intensity of pressure on the masonry. this variation in h is negligible. frames of machines. The formulae (1) and (2) are very frequently applied to find the extreme stress intensities in crane and coupling hooks due to the pull. in columns which are short in proportion to their crosssectional dimensions. and to overestimate the compression at the outside. p„ = — — R 7—. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.. 59).a?+0 For various values of or A. i.d for w p the particular line = o. particularly in the case of pillars. the inclination of the lines to the axis would be at an angle 6 such that OX ^ and equation (6) fs 6 b =%. giving a resultant couple or fixing moment. such as reciprocating engines. The minimum eccentricity of loading to give any ratio P — at the corner of the section would occur when a line joining the cenlroid to the load centre is perpendicular to the lines represented by (7). and in which the deviation h of resultant thrust from the axis is considerable. the . It has been shown to be wrong to use the theory applicable to a straight beam to such bending of a hook of very considerable curvature. P/ yd xb \ >s(A»+. and columns or pillars of all kinds . inclined to the axis at an angle the tangent of which is OX tA Common to avoid k 2 d (9) examples of eccentric loads occur in tiebars "cranked" an obstacle. exceeding it by RX d .=i+iv l p yd xb • (7) — equation (7) would represent a series of Pn straight lines on which the load centre would lie .
. I he centroid increases the maximum over the mean value. the is extreme intensity of pressure at the entrance to the wall /max..64 „ 35 8 — X 8 „X 32 rr X 2800 = is i 'oi 7 tons ' per square inch r H The additional compressive stress f = C909 ton per square inch 1*926 tons maximum compressive stress is .e. find the extreme intensities of stress. h. writing this for P . and \bd^ — in (1) or (2). and b. short castiron pillar is 8 inches external diameter. 98] DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES. Example 2. load deviates from the centre of the column by i\ inches. o*io8 ton per square inch tension. w( / 25 for moment AJP is +  J .o'ooa per square inch.1*017 4. If there is just no stress on the side remote from the eccentric load the deviation would be hence the = = .X 10 or to — /= 2 = r x = M 2 x = 1 3 tons per sci uare inch To tension and compression along the opposite long edges of the section.dlot A. these must be added algebraically a tension of lg 5 tons per square inch hence on the side on which the pull deviates from the centroid the extreme tension is 5 + 3 = 8 tons per square inch and on the opposite side the tension is tons per square inch fg of the thickness from intensity of stress to 60 per cent.. and carries a load of 20 tons. and the minimum compression is 0^909 — roi7 — o*io8. i. In a rectangular crosssection 2 inches wide and 1 inch thick the axis of a pull of 10 tons deviates from the centre of the section by yo ' ncn in tne direction of the thickness.. If the the metal being 1 inch thick. Example i.ART. and is in Find the extreme stress intensities. _ + ld which serves to calculate the maximum pressure intensity if d is known. _  W 6wf/ " + ) . determine d for a specified value (say about 500 pounds per square inch) of the working intensity of crushing stress on the seating. The extreme bending stresses are 1 . What deviation will just cause tension 5 — 3=2 Here a deviation of the load a distance of —A in the pillar ? The area of section is (64 4 — 36) = 22  o square inches The moment of resistance to bending is equal to 20 X if 35 toninches = hence the extreme •" je intensities of bending stress are —— ' * • 32 ——= 81 . the centre of the width.
Hence the distance of the line from the centroid 1196 cos 7555° = 300 inches for is a direction inclined 1445° to tne horizontal axis. From equation (1) of Art. io8a. r // C0S (j cos a y * Sln sin a "A /r'l ^=M~ yi. IX. 74a. by a bending moment in the plane OY' (Figs. a transverse load. say (3) . The inclination of this locus to the horizontal principal axis is I tan. X °'9°9 . 7 inches wide./. r cos x?l z sin r „. the bending stress produced at any point (such as Fig. the former being about an axis in the direction of the breadth..— 2 52 —— STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.1196 3 ^  5 . 143A) the coordinates of which are a/.*. i Example 3.—A useful method of dealing with the extreme produced in unsymmetrical bending (whether caused by an eccentric longitudinal load. stresses The SPolygon. the deviation to produce the same extreme stress would be in 1196 = 3" i inches 3854 98a. io8a and 143A) is Q M T. y = —1196 inches. • (*) or. If the centre of pressure were on the horizontal axis of the I section. short stanchion of symmetrical I section withstands a thrust parallel to its axis such that the stress would be 2 tons pei square inch if the thrust were truly axial.„_'— ^ a y . a v .(3"8S4) = 180 7S'5S = i°4"45° and x = o. or by a pure moment or couple) may conveniently now be noticed. 17:06 square inches area. the principal moments of inertia being 2295 (inches) 4 and 463 (inches)'.„. this gives^ as the locus of the centre of pressure to produce the extreme stress at one corner. if —A oi 7 = i'g6 inch ° t L which would be and in equation (7) r = \ = L S. .°=4 = 1345 + ^^2714 or j = 3854. with the notation of that article and in Fig. *'75 '•' — [CII. Determine the eccentricity sufficient to produce a stress of 10 tons per square inch the section is 9 inches deep. M A = ^r.
63 is the particular value for a = o). and IT yi„ cos a where Ak 2k 2 x?I x sin — a tfkf cos a — oik? sin a " * ' A is the area of crosssection of the If the plane of the bending moment M makes 6\ beam or column. 143A.ART. the tangent of the angle which the inclined 6 to the initial line This straight line makes with OX OX is . with a radius vector S. an angle 6 with (4) OX. and we may write a 6 inverting both sides = — 1 90. . __ 1 and making this substitution in S~A\I?~ + // sin 6 oi cos k* ) (5) Fig. the section modulus (of which 253 Z in Art. 98a] where S is DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES. is the polar equation for a straight line.
. The minimum value of S of course occurs perpendicular to the Sline. The line is defined by (7) or (6) and (7). 74a.g. of course. It may conveniently be called the Sline for the point Q. the apices of this polygon are points which might. Q." Trans. in . the section shown in Fig. is inversely proportional to the radius vector S. J. for different directions of bending. To find the bending stress produced at Q by a bending moment in the plane OY' or OK. since for all extreme (and other) points by (3) the bending stress /. form extreme points of the section. "' Soc. vol. p.e. and if the successive apices of the inscribed polygon be M O 1 "An Analysis of General Am. without reentrant angles. The for From which Q M radius vector for is of course of infinite length (6). lvi. Art. when parallel to the Sline Q. when tan when the radius vector is measured *=+£. which gives the value of S.£ O to This is not necessarily in the direction joining doubly symmetrical sections.e. the curved boundary may be looked upon as the limit of an inscribed (or of a circumscribed) polygon.e. and 3 to calculate the value of p b (viz. which is in agreement with (6). 169. i. it is easy to pick out (by nearness to O) the plane of bending which for a given bending moment causes the maximum stress Q /4 S at any point. Both are determined by drawing from the perpendicular on to the nearest side of the Spolygon. The Slines drawn for each apex in turn form a polygon which has beeri described and called by Prof. io8b). from when tan*=^ for 7 or f. it is easy to pick out the point on the section. L. — j by measuring to scale. In the case of sections having partially curved boundaries containing points which are extreme ones for some planes of bending {e. and the plane of bending. and hence be in fibres of maximum bending stress. it is only necessary to measure the intercept or radius vector OH. which for a given value of give the maximum bending stress anywhere in the section. i. Successive apices of such a polygon would have corresponding sides in the Spolygon. Johnson 1 the Spolygon. except when k t = kx . and to substitute this in equation (3).— — 2 54 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. [CH. and is independent of the position of the plane of bending OY'. _/) of and the shape and size of the section. similarly. i. the line can easily be drawn and the value of S measured any inclination 6 of the plane of bending to OX. dependent only on the position (a/. Flexure in a Straight Bar of Uniform Cross Section. y (8) then is on the neutral axis of the section. and is. (1906). IX. And. When the Spolygon has been drawn for any particular section. of Civil Engineers. If any section be circumscribed by a polygon.
contain sufficient information to allow the use of the simpler formulae (10) and (n).x ya b or Mfl*. This may be preferable. evident from (4) that the dimensions of S are the cubes of It will often be convenient to draw a crosssection full size. must sometimes be measured. If necessary such a curved side could be drawn approximately.x ya (7) to the line (5) of similarity of the Sline defined by (5) or 1 If and are not the principal axes of the section.yb )%xydxdy) Xayt. — xb a y fra x„yb ( ) ?. Then for the point the Sline equation (5) may be written A **y /a Ja and its intersection with the corresponding line for B is given by the coordinate #o5 . Another method of drawing the Spolygon for any section is to A convenient way of its by means of intercepts given locate its apices or intersections of the successive Slines for the successive apices of the polygon circumscribing the section. whereas for one pair of axes (not necessarily principal axes) they may be obtained from the tables with or without simple subtraction. and xb . x<Jb ~ *. Tbars.(xydydx) being not zero in this case. 98a] DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES.ART. the successive Slines will differ little in slope and position and in the limit they will define a curved side in the Spolygon. but xa .ya. information given in some tables . though any scales may be employed for either the cubic or linear lengths. y„ be the coordinates of a point A. The apices of the polygon are denoted by the two small letters on the pairs of Slines meeting there.x x„yb b h) . (inches)*. yt . and the Spolygon to a scale of one (inch) 8 to 1 inch. etc.?<) + yah J = lx(xa ~ xb)Z(xydxdy) — xtya . . it will generally be sufficiently near to treat the outer corners as square instead of being rounded It is off.) . . quantities. but in sections such as unequal angles. Zbars. The product of inertia for the .xbya . This may be done by the following formulae for the coordinates. and the Slines may be denoted by small letters corresponding to a capital letter used to denote the pornts in the boundary of the section to which they correspond. y^. AB being a side of the polygon circumscribing the section. which involve less arithmetical computation. the values are OX OY = o.. Let x„. Xnh h(n . 255 taken close together. where ^ = xUv»jO y xy a b or Ave**) xayb .xb . drawing the polygon is to set off each Sline by (7). . however. say. those relating to British Standard Sections.ya . for which ~2{xydydx) as here supposed. be those of a point B. (lo)1 b a = The I/*.
6" x 3") ABCD. but on opposite sides of the The core and the Spolygon origin O. o 344. intercepts are in such a case the principal moduli of the section denoted by Z. given in the standard tables. 143B shows the Spolygon for a British Standard Eeam Section (No. From the Spolygon (Fig. % on OY. F and C setting out the angle section ABCFDE. Fig. at 98 will be noted. the formulae (n) and (10) reduce when xa = —x The b and ya =y 63. io8b. The work was checked by calculation from (7) of intercepts on and OY. D and E with respect to and OY. the lines forming the sides of the core are parallel to those of the Spolygon. The A Standard Angle. and given in steel inner or smaller rhombus shows the core of the section. 143c) it is immediately apparent.% on OX x y Thus (») in place of those given in (7). 8. and then setting out the principal axes OX and OY at the inclination to OX' and OY' respectively of 19°. 98 makes intercepts . a more exact result could be obtained by putting in the curves at C and D as in Fig. are therefore similar figures. S being found by multiplying the radius vector of the core on the opposite side of O to the point concerned by A. The corners at have been taken for simplicity This polygon was drawn by as square. B. and . (6). It is easily drawn from the intercepts (7) to which. If desired. [CH. instead of a line CD. The apices of the Spolygon were then calculated by the formulae (10) and (n) from the coordinates of A. hy etc.— 256 Art. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. that the least resistance to bending {pt x S) is for a plane of bending or tan 1  OX OX . and the axes OX' and OY' from the details in the tables. the area of the section. and so on. more useful example of the Spolygon is shown in Fig. and the core might be used in place of the Spolygon. in fact. or modifying the scale. British D. measured from the drawing. and regarding it. as one of the five sides of a circumscribing polygon of the section. as section in Art. but for all practical purposes a circumscribing polygon ABCDE is sufficiently accurate. 143c for a 6" X 35" X " tables. the side a corresponding to A. C. and drawing their common tangent. IX. The two lines have the same slope as given but line (5) of Art.
and the least value of S is evidently found by dropping a perpendicular OH.Y Flc 143c . ab . from on to the line c. 98a] DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES. 257 between OX and OX'.ART.
the Spolygon for the rectangular section. .." yournal Franklin Inst. and it produces a bending P JJ J TT . Find for a beam the section of which is a rectangle of depth d and breadth b the position of the plane of bending in which the greatest bending stress will be produced by a given bending moment.1 Example i. d* . J.... Cyril Batho. inclined to OX. . 143D. bd 2 \ \ \H duce a bending stress pp Also the maximum stress which may be produced by a longitudinal thrust P with an eccentricity h. Fig. the whole of which forms . the eccentric thrust in the axial plane rjr. the hypotenuse of the rightangled triangle being the Sline for one corner of the section. 1915.. Johnson's paper previously referred to) and in a paper by Prof. L. IX.) Also i. moment is Yh. through the axis of the beam and OH.e. . its stress Yk — = 6FAV^ + S 6 2d* in addition to the direct stress P acts in this most effective position. Hence bd the maximum stress intensity is P/ 6Wb* + bd d* \ ) Stress in certain bA 1 " The Effect of End Connections on the Distribution of Tension Members. which from the simple geometry of the figure is // \ \ \ „' O evidently tan" 1 . i. triangle. [CR. The following examples illustrate the simplicity and usefulness of the Spolygon for certain problems. which \/ is 1 + (  \ minimum if value. The minimum value of S is represented by OH. Aug. from the geometry of the rightangled 6 V^ + d* a Hence the minimum bending moment is to produce a bending stress of intensity ph 6 V> + <? is (Note that the value required in a plane through the beam axis and the shorter axis of the section times the ^ X dP. 143D represents a quarter of the rhombus... represents Also a value OH. OH. 7. and the bending moment necessary to pro — . 2 * required plane of bending is therefore Fig. the perpendicular 9\_ from on to the hypotenuse..— 258 — — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. . Other examples will be found in Prof.e. \ \ \ g. the shorter principal axis at an angle 0. The .
143c. per square inch The position of K is about e probable centre of a thrust transmitted plate.000 lbs. 5 I 5 The mean a compressive stress. per square inch Hence from (1) Art. direct stress is OH being on the same side of O as K is P area — = ro. structural member made of a 6" X 35" X " angle parallel to the long leg of the angle. and by (3) . applied at a point K AE at a point in AE OK OK = H . 98a] DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES.. OH . and 2 indicates a moment of 6 x 2*45 147 toninches.3080 = 4770 lbs. This moment is quite 15 toninches if the Spolygon is drawn for a polygon circumscribing the angle with the corners rounded as in and Fig. 97 (at E) max. to the angle bar by a f gusset . while 8 and i*68 inches. Find the bending moment which an angle section 3^" X " will resist in every plane (perpendicular to the section) without the bending stress exceeding 6 tons per square inch. lbs.ART. length OH 4 in KO X produced scales 217 (inches) 5 B) i (tensile) \ ^ ph = IO >° . the shortest perpendicular OHj from O on the Spolygon measures 0*94 inch when drawn to a scale 1" = one (inch) 3 hence the minimum value of S = 094 (inch)*. (at B)— tensile unit stress = 7850 tl . per square inch Hence max. Hence from (3) carries a thrust of 10. M= (Compare the 6 X 094 = 564 toninches 1 result in Example of Art. compressivs unit stress = p + po = = b 3260 6340 + 3080 per square inch lbs. io8b.0 — i"68 = 7850 „ . 143c) fg" from 3!" from A. lbs. is the plane of the bending moment produced by the eccentric 3 thrust.) Example 3. The Hence (at 1. 74a for a plane through 245 (inches) .)oo — S x i68 = 3 3260 . This meets the e line at 8 scales 515 (inches) . OH = D 8 = C —A (Fig. 259 2. 5080 lbs. Example — 6" X From Fig. pb = which is M = io. Find the maximum compressive and tensile unit stresses in the section..ooo = 3*422 . per square inch . .
If the collapsing . in which the strut fails under bending or buckling due to a Theoretical calculation for such cases central or to an eccentric load. : which cannot be rigidly based on rational theories. for reasons which will be indicated. smaller than would produce failure by crushing in a short piece of the same crosssection. There remain the cases in which the strut is not short. Problems of this class may be solved by various means. empirical dealt with in The Chap. II. Euler's Theory : Long Pillars. and the objections and uncertainties attaching to each will be pointed out. and in which the compressive loads are perfectly axially applied. but which can be shown to be reasonable theoretically. but the stresses and strains produced in struts by known loads cannot be estimated by any method with the same degree of approximacalculation. exact calculation for ideal cases which cannot is of two kinds be even approximately realized in practice. but that given at the beginning of the following article is the most general and the simplest. 100. tion as in the case of beams or tierods. It consists in finding for what load the strut if slightly displaced will be in neutral equilibrium under the action of the load and the problem elastic restoring forces of the strut. IX.— This refers which are very long in proportion to their crosssectional dimensions. 97 and 98. and that until to pillars load is reached it would remain straight.260 99. A fixed end means one which is so supported or clamped as to constrain the direction of the strut at that point. as in the case of the ends of a builtin or encastrd beam. and secondly. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. bending and compression on a short prismatic piece of material is dealt with in Arts. as well as in a fair measure of agreement with experiments. first. and Struts. This evidently could not apply to any pillar so short that the elastic limit is reached before the buckling this critical load. Columns. Under such ideal conditions it is shown that the pillar would buckle and collapse under a load much. whether fixed or free. In the ideal case of truly axial loading the is one of determining the critical load which causes elastic instability. while a free end means one which by being rounded or pivoted or hinged is free to take up any angular position due to bending of the strut. Calculations of each kind will be dealt with in the following articles. Pillars. These terms are usually applied and similarshaped pieces of material under compressive effects — of uniformly distributed compressive stress are on the supposition that the length of the strut The uniformly varying stress resulting from combined is not great. The strength to resist buckling is greatly affected by the condition of the ends. [CH. to prismatic stress. which are perfectly straight and homogeneous in quality.
77) „ . 144. as m . The fixing will of course involve at 0 an external moment (M = P X a) and a longitudinal reaction P. at the free end x = I and for all values of * to x = /. j£ ." Art. and bending deflections y perpendicular to OR. 26 load for a strut with one kind of end support is found. the curvature — M — = P(aEI v) = d"y (approximately. 1 =a— a cos l\ Vli = acos/. = a.B sb >/m* + c cos v&) and o (2) = V gj( ° +Q hence c= ° and becomes = a( 1 — cos x\/ gj j y (2a) This represents the deflection to a curve of cosines or sines. When x = o. hence. the bending moment at Q' is P(a — y) if the moment is reckoned positive for convexity towards the initial position OR. neglecting any effects of direct compression and using the relations for ordinary transverse bending. where I is the least moment of inertia of the assumed to be the same throughout the length crossseclion. hence o = « + B + o or B = — a And when x = o. Art. which is The solution to this wellknown differential equation is l — . and the other end. Notation as in the figure. the corresponding loads for other conditions may be deduced from it. (2) B and C are constants of integration which may be found from end conditions. i8a. then. Let P be the load at which instability occurs and the column is in equilibrium in a curve under the action of P and its own flexural elastic resisting forces. t .y/^j Sec Lamb's "Infinitesimal Calculus.y = o. Taking the fixed end O as origin. . IOO] DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES. differentiating (2) % = \/m(. Fig. is free to move laterally and to take up any angular position. x +C sin /\/  . x . y=a where the +B cos /^ — . hence^ a or. initially at R. One end O is fixed.ART. Case I. and holds In particular. measuring x along the initial position of the strut OR. j = o..
In the former case evidently no bending takes place. = ?. Both ends on pivots or frictionless hinges or otherwise free to take up any angular position. Writing A J? for I. W . and for a long column is much within the elastic limit of compressive stress. 7 /p = EI ° TT ^ / \ and Taking the first /P l\/ v EI _ — =2 or — 2 37T or — 2 S7T . p( I fdx — l\ to the elastic strain y energy %f(M?/EI)dx. .e. This method of successive approximation and its particular uses is fully illusan article by the author on " Critical Loads for Ideal Long Columns. which gives the least magnitude to P ^e! = P «» 7 or B p = «*EI l^ . and dy/dx for x = 0.g. 1 result consists Another alternative method of finding an approximate in equating the work done by P. But if a reasonable form is assumed the result is not greatly altered . If half the length of . STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. trated in 1 .y EI a . Case II. is a process of writing down from previous knowledge the form (2) of the curve for y. if it is assumed that y x2a/P. etc. as given in (7). which satisfies the end conditions. From this it follows tl that either a = o or the cosine is zero. from this process a quick approach to the true value (4) may be obtained by writing from the above values^ = V2{xi jP — x i /6/ i )a. — .a(x>/2 . 93.x*/i 2 P) + o = P a / (i _ JL) = £p « 2 . ." in Sngineering. and following out the same process once or more times until the successive values of P cease to differ seriously. Art. IX.. .— 262 — — — —— [CH. y o for x o. in the latter case. With the assumption of = x?a//2 this gives the value P = 2'5 EI//2 as the reader may verify. Fig. April 24. (1) becomes Eld^/dx* = P(a y) = Pa(i  x^/P) Integrating twice. if bending takes place cos . e. value ir/2. 145. 1914. This gives the collapsing load. i. the constants being zero And and . where A is the constant area of crosssection and k is the least radius of gyration or the average intensity of compressive stress is / v a=a= ^ P «*E/*Y 7w = (S) The solution of the equation (1) from which the value of P is obtained. 'V . /« „= P 12EI y— or 24— EI Further. . = = = and y = a for x = M= *= /. at / EI .
Q e. 263 the strut be considered.. 147. 146. hence the collapsing load P = T^EI • 2 EI (6) and A = A = ^\l) Case III. 145. If the length of the strut be divided into four equal parts. Fig. (7) —Both ends rigidly fixed in position and direc tion. Fig. hence the collapsing load and loading conditions as in T^EI 47T 2 EI (8) and . ( \^^J ^Moment applied to fixed end Fig.ART. end t rvy/" ~H> W/y>//?//A\V//W. IOO] DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES.. 146. Fig. . Moment ap lament applied to fixed /////////%//////. its ends and loading evidently satisfy the conditions of Case I. evidently each part is under the same end Case I.
e. 147. These two are the most important cases. since lateral movement is prevented there.P .. Evidently. i. but not to move laterally. One end O rigidly fixed.x) . IX. is F(/ . if bending takes place.264 Thus the freely STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. and the other R hinged without friction. Take O as origin. The bending moment at Q'. [CII. free to take any angular position. ideal strut fixed at both ends is four times as strong as one hinged at both ends. Fig. Case IV. some horizontal force F at the hinge will be called into play.y. reckoning positive those moments which tend to produce convexity towards OR. hence— — .
and 0*35 (approx. known .). 100. the shortest length to which formula (7) could possibly apply would be such that the point of inflection I (Fig. which by x= or * = 0*30/ from o and 070/ being under conditions similar to Case I. Art. \. 148. The values of pt for columns of mild steel and cast iron with freely hinged ends. y in the original equation. Euler's rules have evidently no application to struts so short that they fail by reaching the yield point of crushing or compressive stress before they reach the values given in Art. allowance must be made for this. Most actual struts will not exactly fulfil the condition of being absolutely fixed or perfectly free at the ends. = tan d'Kx L j~. 101. and will. evidently give much too high a value of the collapsing load . in other cases the ends may be so fastened as to make the strength conditions of the strut intermediate between two of the ideal cases of Art. 4. 104). \j\ I being about 80 times k. if used.ART.. The ultimate strength of the strut in each case is inversely proportional to the square of its length. and 147 to the square of the numbers 1. the effect of very small deviations from the ideal conditions being very great (see Art. and 28 diameters for a thin tube. \. i. and the yield point 21 tons per square inch. . Art. and an end which is attached to part of a structure by some form of pinjoint will approximate to the " free " condition . 146. 100. the use of the formulae there derived must be accompanied by a judicious factor to take account of such deviations. a mild steel strut freely hinged at both ends (Case II. however.). equating satisfied is to zero. and sometimes to make the conditions different for different planes of bending. of very common occurrence in structures and machines. the fraction of the lengths between a point of inflection and a point of maximum curvature. shorter struts than these Euler's rules are not applicable. 16. "Fixed" and "Free" Ends. it is to be expected that they would not give very accurate values of the collapsing load until lengths con For siderably greater than those above mentioned have been reached. 147) (approximately) from R. beyond the ordinary margin of a factor of safety. The strengths in the same order are therefore proportional to the numbers 1. For example. Since actual struts deviate from many of the conditions for the ideal cases of Art. . in applying Euler's rules. as calculated by (7). IOI] DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES. 144. and. which would be about 20 diameters for a solid Since these rules circular section. 100. An end consisting of a broad flat flange bolted to a fairly rigid foundation will approximate to the condition of a perfectly " fixed " end. only contemplate very long struts.000 . 265 and is By substituting the dy* j* values of .000 tons per square inch. and taking 13. 13. considering.e. ioo. Elastic Failure. / we find approximately 45 0*30/. and 8 (approx. and comparison between the four cases above shows that the strengths are inversely proportional in Figs. 100). 145. such shorter or mediumlength struts are. say. 0*35 of the length — — — E= /„= 21 =ir». are shown in Fig. Use of Euler's Formula?.
Let this load be denoted by P.A^EI where a + <D if = gk. the equation (3.« — — — — — [CH. or strut. evidently gives a value of for P which holds well for a very short p * then becomes negligible. For a strut with both ends free. or p a is the mean intensity of compressive stress on the cross section p°~a In the case of a strut " fixed " at I+a Kk) 77v is .. For a strut so very short that buckling impossible the ultimate compressive load is — is practically P C =/ XA C . for P= P„ very nearly. Art.. Rankine. and also holds for a very long 1 — 1 ° then becomes negligible in comparison with Further. . very nearly. 100) P. („ If P is the crippling load of a strut of any length / and crosssection A. P caused by it increasing is /. strut. ™ and it both ends the constant for 4 a strut fixed at one end with angular freedom at the other 1 a1 is   is simpler and more correct than the value a often given (see Case IV. because in short specimens frictional resistance to lateral expansion augments longitudinal resistance to compression. a quantity difficult to find experimentally (see Arts. (i) where is the area of crosssection and intensity c is the ultimate of compressive stress. taking the case of a strut free at both ends (Case II. /A l+ **E& _ I /. must be a continuous change. 102. Rankine's and Other Empirical Formula. for a constant value of A. reasonable to take (3) as giving the value of P for any length of strut. The ultimate load for a very long strut is given fairly accurately by Euler's rules (see Art. and in longer specimens failure takes place by buckling .. the equation (3) may be written P=.A (4) /. /„ may well be taken as the intensity of stress at the yield point in compression. 100). 36 and 37). . IX. . A f = ^^EA©° p~p + p. since the change in p* and P = P. 100). Art. a constant for a given material. then. 266 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.
g. the same is true of deflections resulting from end loads and beyond the elastic limit. Art. for The values/ and . usually accepted values of /... and give the closest agreement with experiments on a series of struts of different ratios •= when the constants are deter mined from such experiments rather than from the values of a short length. and c is a constant which will differ not only for different materials and end fixings. —The .. . 1 02] DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES. but they depend on the inexact assumptions that since the deflection of a beam under purely transverse loads is directly proportional to the square of the length within the elastic limit. and for a strut fixed at one end and free to move in direction and position at the other it is 40 (see Cases III. Rankings Constants. but with the shape of crosssection. The above are Rankine's rules for struts. " Rational " derivations of Rankine's and Gordon's formulae have often been given. Gordon's Rule.ART. d = 2R. and c = 16a. 267 (approximately). 100). =a /<As \k) in a solid circular section of radius R. viz. its relation to Rankine's constant a being c _a or c d*~¥ e. and I. E and f. — P= + <Q" (6) where d is the least breadth or diameter of the crosssection in the direction of the least radius of gyration. jfe of the constants in (4) may be called the " theoretical " constants less the value of a would evidently be frictionless. : and a in Rankine's formula are about as follow Material. they are really empirical. than ^ for ends with hinges which are not and which consequently help to resist bending. k =— . IV. Rankine's rule is a modification of an older rule of Gordon's.
[CH. as calculated by Rankine's formula. 148. obtained from Rankine's formula (5) with the above constants will generally be rather above the values of Euler's " ideal " strut.268 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. castiron i . IX. because the values of a (generally deduced from experiments in which the ends are not absolutely free) are smaller than the "theoretical " value —$=> IT hi The average intensities of stress. and the above constants. or load per unit Urea of crosssection. for very long columns with absolutely free ends. occurring at the ultimate loads for mild steel and struts of various lengths with free ends. are shown in Fig. and therefore obviously too high .
as might be expected. these values of p being based on is experimental results. 100 modified to i6E(t1 and 25E(^) respectively. for cases in which it may reasonably be used. and several empirical formulae have been devised to suit the various results. A great many experimental determinations of the ultimate strength of struts have been made under various conditions. and no formula. empirical or otherwise. like all others except Euler's. and b is a constant determined so as to make the parabola meet the curve plotted with Euler's values of For a strut absolutely "free" at the ends this confa tangentially. For values of values of j beyond the point of tangency with Euler's curve. Johnson has adopted an empirical formula — t>=f<il) which. a (for medium + 1 1. and in the conditions of freedom or fixture at the ends. a trifle more 103. I03l and DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES. or (n). is when plotted on a baseline giving values of a parabola. Art. The form of Johnson's formula convenient than that of Rankine's.% for pin r ends and „ 100E for flat ends. 100. and to allow for the to bending offered by pin or flat ends. is not very direct for finding the dimensions of crosssection in order to carry a given load . and shape of crosssection. more or less eccentricity of the thrust. (8). but. has the advantage of directness . (6). on the other hand. f. Johnson's Parabolic Formula. Euler's frictional resistance is A must be adopted. and. Euler's formula. The results have been most consistent. (7) of Art. such conditions do not correspond to those for the practical strut. Johnson adopts the smaller values of about / 04E . when the conditions of loading and fixing have approached most nearly to the ideal. dition makes b = —4]?. Rankine's formula. The results of tests obtained for struts under more or less working conditions show great variations. as used in machines and structures.ART. is W j. it leads to a quadratic equation in the square of some dimension. /= 1 269 steel) 17. can more than roughly predict — . the yield point in compression.000 . Comparison with Experiments. while quite convenient for finding the working or the ultimate load for a given area. owing to friction. which deviate from the ideal in want of straightness and homogeneity of material. the necessary area of crosssection may be found for a given load from (4). and in agreement with empirical algebraic formulae.000 \k) where / is the length of a structural its strut centre to centre of the pins at ends.
and the simplest is the best form to use. for design purposes one empirical formula is generally about as accurate as another. even been given by Southwell. This leads us to consider in the next article the effect of eccentric loading on a long column where the flexure is not negligible (as it is in a very short one). intensities over Experiments always show that flexure of struts intended to be below the maximum ultimately and other variations from the premises upon which Euler's and Rankine's rules depend." "The Strength of Struts. Experimental confirmation has been found by Robertson. A.7 — = 1293 (inches) — 2 I A&Y =  \U ) 72 x 72 '— 1203 93 ' = 4000 References to experimental researches. 1 [CH. mildsteel strut hinged at both ends has a the area being 3*634 square inches. 1912. the crippling load of the strut. and the least moment of inertia is 470 (inches)4. section. by Rankine's formula. the constants in any case being deduced from a (short) range of values of l/k. The full paper will be published later. 23.2 He modifies Euler's theory so as to allow for the fact that in flexure beyond the elastic limit. —A T The square of the least radius of gyration is. the rate of increase of stress with strain on the concave side of the strut is much less than Young's modulus (E). while the rate of decrease on His result for struts of square the convex is approximately equal to E. this being due to eccentricity a constant. IX. forms struts are given in the Author's " Theory of Structures. axially loaded." Engineering.— 270 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. has section is t jl= 2/(1 +\/^r. and where the greatest bending moment is mainly from the increased eccentricity which results from flexure. axially loaded begins at loads much borne. within limits for which experimental information is available. which is 6 feet long. 1 and proportions of builtup 2 . This result is also approximately correct for The calculated results struts of solid circular and thin tubular section. 1915. Report. Aug.'i e best experiments approaching ideal loading conditions. for example. Find. )> where /' is the length of a strut which has the same collapsing load as one of length / as calculated by Euler's formula. straightline formulas of the type p =f— (constant *i) f is where p„ is the load per unit area of crosssection and may be used to give the working or the breakingstress short ranges of //£. so. An abstract of his results is given in the B. An when interesting rational explanation of the failure of short struts. This being the load at which failure will take place in a given case. and E' is the rate of increase of stress with strain on the concave side in buckling. numerical straight line formula. Example t. if the ultimate crushing strength is taken at 2 1 tons per square inch. with the modified theory agree well with t.
149 has a crosssectional area of 39*88 square inches.000 X 3988 X(384)a = 480 X 480 21 J ' formula. —A steel stanchion of the form shown X in Fig. Art. the outside diameter being 8 inches. viz. and the crushing load is to be 6 times this amount. 20 feet long.000 Example 3. 149 inch. The sectional area is — (8 2 4 . Both ends being find it fixed. and its least radius of gyration is 384 inches. Find the necessary thickness of metal in a castiron column of hollow circular section. if — P is applied at a distance h from the centre at R' Fig. crippling load. fixed at both ends. Variation of elasticity of the and material and initial curvature of the strut must give a similar effect. are only strictly applicable to struts absolutely axially loaded. and I = ^ (8 4 d*). (E and the length being 40 feet. and the constants given P = 21 . it is eccentricity interesting to find what modifications follow if there is an h at the points of application of the load. 104] DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES. 144 (and . I 271 Using the constant given y^ . (2) by = 13. Rankine's formula.ART. Long Columns under Eccentric Load. with the constants given in Art.000 tons per square :Y Fig. Taking Case I. if the axial load is to be 80 tons.d2). (1) Rankine's formula. for this case P= 3 T 1 34 T 4^oo 7S00  =MX 3634 X 21 = 497 tons Example 2. X 3988 384 x 3988 1 + 480 X 480 1520 = ss r tons 384 x X 30. hence °4 &= The breaking load being 480 tons. may be looked upon as an increased value of h.. Let d be the necessary internal diameter in inches. Thickness of metal = — 408 = As Euler's formula? 104.) By Euler's formula 4^ X P= By Rankine's 13. in the text. becomes 36 X j(8° * 2) '' 480 = 1 + d2 4 240 X 240 6400(8* 9 b(8 4  X 16 2 2oS + d 4) d2 M ) d'+ 17^560 = = 1665 ^=408" 196. or nearly 2 inches. 102. 100. by Euler's formula.
—
272
—
— —— —
[CH. IX.
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.
on the principal axis ' perpendicular to that about which the minimum A — y), value I is taken), the bending moment at Q' will be P(a and (i), Art. ioo, becomes
+
g + gH'f <+*>
I
&
• • •
and the solution (2a) of
Art.
100 becomes
cos
y=
and
at
(a
+ A)(i /
x =/ this becomes— y =
a
^Vei)
/P~\ l^J gjj
(
2)
= (a + A){i 
cos
a
= ^sec \/gj. 
1)
(3)
The
eccentricity of loading at the origin
O
is
a
+ h = h sec l^J Z
(4)
the bending
moment
there being increased sec //\/
^y times due
to
flexure.
The bending moment
at
O
is
P(a
+ A) =
YA
sec
/*/ =r;
1
which, so long as the intensity of stress is proportional to the strain, causes in a symmetrical section equal and opposite bending stresses of
intensity
A
YA
,
/T
Yhd
.
/ ~P
where d
is
direction of the least radius of gyration
y,
the depth of section in the plane of bending, i.e. in the ; if the section is unsymmetrical,

and y, must be used instead of
(see
Art 63) ; hence the
greatest
compressive stress/, by
(1), Art. 97, is
.
P=1C + 2^ A A
,
P
YAd
2
«Vlrl('+S~V£)c5>
.
/T
P/
hd
which becomes
infinite, as in Art. 100,
when
Vei =
1
or
2
P
=
17^
general case of eccentric loading in which the line of resultant thrust intersects a crosssection on neither of the principal axes offers no greater difficulty than the case here given ; two components of h would be used, and from the maximum resulting component eccentricities stresses may be written down from (4) or (7) of Art. 98 (see (10a) below).
The more
ART. 104]
Also
DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES.
~a
273
A
=
i
7= TT^ hd / r + ^sec/y/jp EI
,
•.
i.e.
w
(6)
and
if
^
is
the crushing strength of the material,
say the stress
intensity at the yield point in compression, at failure
by buckling
*>
= l=
I
f
+^
hd
°
MC
Vei
,
/p
•'•<«
In the case of a column free at both ends (Case II., Art. 100, and Fig. 145), with an eccentricity h of the thrust at the ends, by writing
/
2 instead of
/,
(4)
becomes
(a
+ h) = h sec '^y^
1+ hd
.
(8)
and
(5)
becomes—
P( ' = Al
.
^
SeC
I
/ P~\
'
'
• •
iVEl)
becomes
(9)
and
at failure
by compressive yielding
(7)
A=X= A
1
+ 2/4 a
hd
I
2
sec
x / 2V
/p
==
.
—
x
EI
^t
+12 2
2k
hd
I
sec "/v/
2V — j?E
steel,
/?
(10) '
It is
convenient to note for calculations that for mild
taking
E
to
as about 13,000 tons per sq. inch, the angle
/
\/ isk radians
is
equal
ziypa degrees very nearly ok
/
when/
is
in tons per sq. inch.
In the more general case, (7) of Art. 98, (10) would be
A=
I+ 2l? SeC lVi7E
ht d
I
T=?= /A + V
,
^
SeC
/A 2VvE
'
7=
•
(
Ioa )
where h, and hy are the component or coordinate eccentricities about the two principal axes of the crosssection, and k, and ky are the radii of gyration about the corresponding principal axes, and b is the greatest breadth measured perpendicular to the depth d. o, (5) and (9) Allowing for a slight difference of notation, when reduce to the form (1) of Art. 98, the increase of bending stress due to flexure being only important when the length is considerable.
/=
Similarly, if /
for the
=
o,
is
secant value
(ioa) reduces to the form given in then unity.
(7), Art.
198,
T
—
274
—
.
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.
by
[CH. IX.
If failure occurs
tension, as is usual in cast iron, the greatest
intensity of stress corresponding to (9) is
=
and if^
is
aUf sec 2 Vei 1 )
Y(hd
I
•
•
'
•
<">
at failure
by
the limit of tensilestress intensity at fracture, instead of (10) tension the average compressive stress is
/.
F°
.
_ P A
—^ sec
From
and and
hd
I
2
V EI ~
IT
_
'
/.
,
.
hd
a
I
'
ji«*
/a ;V ^£ ~
{I2)
x
equations (9) and
tensile stress
(n) the extreme intensities of compressive may be found for a strut with given dimensions, load,
eccentricity,
intensity of stress
It is
may be
or the eccentricity which will cause found.
any assigned
evident that/ becomes infinite for
the eccentricity
P
= —*—, just
w^FT
as in Euler*s
h = o ; but these equations show that theory, where where h is not zero, / approaches the ultimate compressive or tensile The strengths for values of P much below Euler's critical values. reader will find it instructive to plot the values of P and p for any given section, and for several different magnitudes of the eccentricity h, and to observe how/ increases with P in each case. For a strut of given dimensions with given eccentricity h, the
ultimate load P (or /„) to satisfy equations (10) or (12) for a given ultimate stress intensity c or /, may be found by trial or by plotting as ordinates the difference of the two sides of either equation, on a baseline of values of P, and finding for what value of P the ordinate
f
I
is
zero.
It is
convenient to write
^/
/"P
_
IT
<
/Y ^/ _
where P.
EI = ~7T
2
when
solving for
P by
trial,
the angle in degrees being
/P 90*/ —
150 shows the ultimate values of p„ for mildsteel struts of and various lengths, taking /„ =21 tons per square inch It shows that for struts about with various degrees of eccentricity. 20 diameters in length, for example, an eccentricity of y^ of the diameter greatly decreases the load which the ideal strut would support. Also that when there is an eccentricity of ^3 of the diameter an additional °f tne diameter does not greatly reduce the strength. eccentricity of
Fig.
circular section
^
this
note that for practical design purposes curves kind are not greatly different from those for the empirical rules Nor do they differ greatly in type from the ideal case Art. 102.
It is interesting to
of of as
corrected by Southwell. To find the dimensions of crosssection for a strut of given length, load and eccentricity, and shape of crosssection, in order not to exceed a fixed intensity of stress/ or /„ the above equations may be solved by c 2 and k (or I) are put in terms of d, viz. c% x d , trial or plotting if
A
A=
ART. 104]
I?
DIRECT
AND BENDING
STRESSES.
275
c2 x d* (or I cs X d*), where et and c2 (or cs) are constants depending on the shape of crosssection. In solving by trial a first approximation to the unknown quantity may be found by taking the secant as unity, as in Art. 98 ; the further adjustment of the result is then simple.
=
=
Prof. R. H. Smith l has shown how, where a large number of such problems are to be solved, the calculation may be facilitated by drawing a series of curves corresponding to various degrees of eccentricity and adaptable to any shape of section.
— —
276
and 4
at the
—
—
[CH. IX.
STRENGTH OK MATERIALS.
This point is end of the present article.
illustrated in
(at the yield point, say).
Examples Nos. 3
In the case of a long tierod with an eccentric load the greatest
intensities of stress are at the
end
/
sections,
where the eccentricity
is
h;
in the centre
it is
only h sech
\J ~V
/T~
trigono
Approximate Method}
metrical function sec
critical value of P algebraic function
— Professor Perry has shown that the
Ell
or sec
jV
when h
=
i'2
2~v p"» wller e p . = ~p~> Euler's o) may be replaced approximately by the
ra P
5"
or
1
—
"
P.
I *
—
P/ 2
7T
2
EI
the factor
p
ra being about an average
which
errs
value applicable over the range
safety for
= =
o"5 to 0*9,
on the side of
working loads
;
for
p
p1
i which
is
about a usual working load for a
strut,
the constant
is
"05.
Making
this substitution, (9)
becomes
V2hd
\
)
ir'El/
(n)
which
may most
neatly be written
@ )(.£)
and (11) becomes
<&)( &)—?<«)
'
(I5)
which reduces to
As
before, from (14)
strut of
be found for a
known dimensions
assigned eccentricity ; for a given limit of the tensile or compressivestress intensity.
1
intensities of stress may carrying a known load with any or the allowable eccentricity may be calculated
and (16) the extreme
Also
for
See the Engineer, December 10 and 24, 1886. A more accurate and equally ample approximation is given in the Author's " Theory of Structures."
ART. I04l
DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES.
277
a strut of given dimensions, and maximum safe intensity of stress with a given eccentricity, the load P may be calculated directly as the root of the quadratic equation (14) or (16), according as the specified stress limit is compressive (p c ) or tensile (p =/,). The dimensions of crosssection for a strut of given length and shape to carry a given load, with given eccentricity and a given
=/
stress limit,
I
may be found by
where
c,
taking, as before,
A=
=
ca .d*
= ti.Ci.d',
cx
.
ds
,
&=c
2
.
tP,
Since P, is proportional to d\ (or sixthpower) equations in d, and (14) or (16) being used according as the specified limit of stress intensity is compressive or tensile, d may be found by trial or plotting. For a solution by trial a first approximation may be obtained by taking /= o when equation (14) reduces to If h should be specified as a fraction of d, the form of (i), Art. 98. the equation will reduce to a cubic in d*. The approximate solution may be tested by the more exact rules (10) and (12), and adjusted to satisfy them. Assuming any initial curvature of a strut to be of the form of a curve of cosines, Prof. Perry, in the paper referred to above, shows that initial curvature is equivalent to eccentricity not greatly different from the maximum deflection of the strut at the centre from its proper
position of straightness.
in (14) or (16). these equations evidently become sextic
and c2 are constants,
This
may be
It
verified
by
substituting h± cos 
X
.
for
for
h
in (1), the
conditions being
y
=
o and
~ =
is
dy
o for
x
= o and y = a
/$,),
x
= I;
the
maximum bending moment
then P(a
+
which
is
equal to
where P.
of P.
is
=
—yg
A
similar value holds for other cases
when
the value
modified as in Art. 100.
Example i. castiron pillar is 8 inches external diameter, the metal being 1 inch thick, and carries a load of 20 tons. If the column is 40 feet long and rigidly fixed at both ends, find the extreme intensities of stress in the material if the centre of the load is if inch from the centre of the column. What eccentricity would be just sufficient to cause tension in the pillar? (E 5000 tons per square inch.) The corresponding problem for a very short column has been worked in Ex. 2, Art. 98, and these results may be used
—A
=
p„
= 0909
ton per square inch
increased in
& = i(8 +
2
6
2
)
="
I
/p
or
The bending
SeC
stress
is
the
ratio sec
\J == EI •kl 4
37°
IX/A 4 V El
2
= sec = "^
~V ooox 25 = ^\ZtB££
S
sec °' 6 4 6
= sec
=
125
— —
278
Hence
—
—
LCH. IX.
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.
the ben ding stress intensity
is
1*017 X V2 5 = 1*27 ton per sq. ia The maximum compressive stress = 1/27 + 0909 = 218 tons persq. The maximum tensile stress = 127 — 0909 = 036 ton per sq.
in. in.
or
more than
treble
that
is
when
there
is
no
flexure
increasing the
eccentricity.
If the eccentricity
its
just sufficient to cause tension in the pillar,
amount
is
175 ' J
X
—z—2 =
127
125 inch J
Example
2.
—A
is
compound stanchion has
the section
shown
in
is 384 inches, and its breadth Fig. 149 ; its radius of gyration about parallel to is 14 inches. The stanchion, which is to be taken as
YY
XX
If the load per square inch of section the line in which the resultant force acts at without producing a greater comthe ends deviate from the axis pressive stress than 6 tons per square inch, the resultant thrust being
free at
is
both ends,
32 feet long.
4
tons,
how much may
YY
XX? How much would it be in a very short pillar? 13,000 tons per square inch.) Evidently from (9) the bendingstress intensity must be 6 — 4 = 2 tons per square inch ; hence, if h is the eccentricity
in the line
(E
=
4
\.h. 14
2
X
(3'84)
;«
2
sec
fjo ^ Wm? = 7Ta;\/ — — = V v
sec
hd
I
2
192
/
384 3 °4
1, 13,000
2
^(1897 sec 503°)
h
= =
2 2"97^ 0675 inch
is
=
For a very short pillar where the flexure evidently be 2 h h X 1897 1055
negligible this would
=
=
i
ncn
is
the equation reducing to the form
practically unity.
It is interesting to
(1),
Art. 98, since the secant
compare the solution by (14)
10,000
( v*

/
i)l 1
X 4 =2
'\
13,00071^
= h =
1
"\
,
o6
/
x
1475
14 ~ X h
,.
,
0605
mcn
'
This
than the previous result, because the factor 12 introduced too great for an average stress so much below the ultimate value ; without the factor the approximate method would give a value 0726, which is too large, and errs on the 20 per cent, higher, i.e. h
is less
is
in (13)
=
wrong
side for safety.
3.
Example
— Find
the load per square inch of section which a
ART. IO4]
DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES.
279
column of the crosssection given in Ex. 2 will carry with an eccentricity of 15 inch from XX, the column being 28 feet long and free at both
ends, the
inch.
maximum
compressive stress not exceeding 6 tons per square
Find also the ultimate load per square inch of section if the (E = 13,000 ultimate compressive strength is 21 tons per square inch.
tons per square inch.) Using first the approximate method, (14) gives
ft
or,
U
hence
\l
/i
pSxia Vl A X * _i 4__ 8 )» *»Xi3,oo<A 384 )\° 4 (3  /„)(i  0050/0) = 0858/0 (6
A
2

37'3A>
+
102
pa
=o — 295
tons per square inch
Testing this value in (9)
'•95 ( * V
r
+§ 2
X
—^— 2X14
is
=
295 (1 4
0715
sec ) 3'84v 13,000 J 75 sec 37'8°) 562 tons per square inch
^J^*
=
instead of 6, hence 295
rather too low.
Trial shows that
/o
satisfies (9),
=
3' 1 2
tons per square inch
is the allowable load per square inch of section. Subper square inch for 6 in the above work gives 82 tons per square inch of section as the crippling load. Note that while the factor of safety reckoned on the stress is £ = 35, the ratio of ultimate to working
and
stituting 2 1 tons
load
is
3'12
—=
263. °
steel strut is to be of circular section, 50 inches Example 4. Find the necessary diameter in order long and hinged at both ends. that, if the thrust of 15 tons deviated at the ends by ^ of the diameter from the axis of the strut, the greatest compressive stress shall not exceed 5 tons per square inch. If the yield point of the steel in compression is 20 tons per square inch, find the crippling load of the strut (E 13,000 tons per square inch.)

—A
=
k
=

d
4
A=
.
W —
4
2
h
d =—
10
Using the approximate equation (14)
/
I
emf
1
^4X15
W A
(
15
1
X
64
f
^

it
X
13,000
f
x 2500 ^ — 31 = X WV
—
1
o6
X
d —d — X dxi6 = 096 j 10
2

(o

26i6^ 2
d*
_
7
= — 1) 1 74J  5BSd + 225 = 5 d*
2
,
c*88 \
096
o
a cubic equation in
d
2
which by
trial
gives
^=79 d = 2 81

inches
—
28o
—
— —
[CH. IX.
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.
Testing this result by equation (9)
v£fa + 8 sec °"484) = 4S8
instead of 5 tons per square inch. By trial d 27 inches nearly.
=
Taking
gives
this
value for failure
when/
=
20 tons per square inch, (14)
\
p / =
J\
128,000/
*
815 tons per square inch
and by
trial,
from
(9)
/„
=
8'43 tons per square inch
the whole load on the strut being
843
x

4
X
(27)
a
= 484
tons
Thus
is
the factor of safety reckoned on the greatest intensity of stress
^
=
a8m
4,
but the ratio of crippling load to working load
is
=3*22.
105. Struts and Tierods with Lateral Loads.— When a prismatic piece of material is subjected to axial and lateral forces it may be looked upon as a beam with an axial thrust or pull, or as a strut or tierod with lateral bending forces. The stress intensity at any crosssection is, as indicated by (1), Art. 97, the algebraic sum of the bending
stress,
and the
direct stress
which the axial thrust would cause
if
there
were no
is
lateral forces.
In a beam which is only allowed a very limited deflection, i.e. which not very long in proportion to its dimensions of crosssection, the bending stress may usually be taken as that resulting from the transverse loads only. If, however,' the beam is somewhat longer in proportion to its crosssection, the longitudinal force, which may be truly axial only at the ends, will cause a considerable bending stress due to its eccentricity elsewhere, and will play an appreciable part in increasing or decreasing the deflection produced by the lateral load, according as it is a thrust or a pull. In this case, the bending stresses at any section are the algebraic sum of those produced by the transverse loads, and those produced by the eccentricity of the longitudinal forces. Unless the bar is very long, or the longitudinal force is very great, a fairly close approximation to the bending moment may be found by taking the algebraic sum of that
and that resulting from the eccenof the longitudinal force, on the assumption that the deflection or eccentricity is that due to the transverse loads only. The solution of a problem under these approximations has already been dealt with, the bending stress due to transverse loads being as calculated in Chapters IV. and V., the deflection being as calculated in Chapter VI., and the stresses resulting from the eccentric longitudinal force being calculated as
resulting from the transverse forces
tricity
ART.
1
06]
It
DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES.
28
remains to deal with those cases where the end thrust or and where consequently the above approximation is not valid; this is the work of the two following articles, which give the stress intensities for members of any proportion, and indicate the circumstances under which the simpler solution of the problem will be approximately correct. 106. Strut with Lateral Load.— Let /be the length of a uniform strut freely hinged at each end and carrying a load w per unit length. Let the end thrust which passes through the centroid of the crossTake the origin O (Fig. 151) midway section at each end be P. between the ends, the line joining the centroids of the ends being the
in Art. 98.
pull materially affects the deflection,
Fig. 151.
axis of x.
The bending moment
at
Q'
w(P
is
{
x
1
\
)
due to the
lateral
Since each tends to cause load and P .y due to the end thrust P. concavity towards the initial position of the strut, the sum is equal to
— El 73
where
I is the
(constant)
its
moment
of inertia of the cross
aection about
an axis through
centroid and perpendicular to the
plane of flexure, or
2 $*)''
«
(2)
^ + El^=iEi(4^The
y
solution to this equation
is
w , A = jp*2  gp  "pT + A
wEI
,
wP
cos
/ 2jX V/~P + B V gj*
K
.
.,
.
.
"P
,
.
sin

(3)
and the conditions
7
dx
.
=
o for
x
=
o and y
=
o for x
=
a
give—
B=
hence
o
„
wEI / A / P A=pr secV wf EI
y
wP w = p* 
^
a/EI /
^{i 
/
/P
sec
y/
/
2
gj^V
„„ c
/P
\
•
£,*}
(4)
and
at the origin
wP wEI / * =  8P " "M
1
" MC
V EI
/ P~\
J
' •
.
.
'
(5)
—
282
—
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.
at
;
[CH. TX.
and the maximum bending moment
O
is
M,=
or,
P.J.
+ W^^^ec^/Ji)
/
ir.
.
.
(6)
 ., = M
2TPT
wEI
^p ^sec
/P~ \ jVp'j
infinite.
.
'
.
(7)
where P„
Art.
= —=, Euler's ioo). If P = P„ M
sec 6
limiting value for the ideal strut (Case
II.,
andjc become
6*
5(9'
, ,
The expansion—
8
,

1
=r+
,
^ + jj + ^ +,
,
6i0 6
1385c?
etc.
may be
applied to
(6),
which then reduces to
—
.j.
(8)
M =
.
T {i+L( FJ + _
I
ro
(_) +
P
'
_ii_y +)etc
,
or
w/4 _ 5 " M = wP » + st ET p
F
,
6ir 2
1
27771
4
/P
\
2
,
)
,
.
•
I
+
6^0
P.
+ ^k(pj
+> etc
f
<»>
These two forms (8) and (9) show the relation of the approximate methods mentioned in the previous article to the more exact method of calculating bending moment. The first term in each is the bending moment due to the lateral loads alone ; the second term in (9) is the
e
product of the axial thrust
P and
the deflection §
Z£//
4
^v
(see (n), Art.
78) due to the transverse load alone.
will
Even
p
in the longest struts p
not exceed about
\,
and
in shorter ones will
be much
less.
The
errors involved in the approximate method of calculation, 1 the first two terms in (9), are evidently then not great
which gives
An
writing,
this
approximate solution
instead of
2
of equation (1)
may be
w//2 — —
f
\
x*
J,
the very similar expression 5 cos jir
obtained by w£* x
makes—
TTX
n cos ~T
y y"
~Tp7=p
~
ml'
2
••••••
(1°)
8(P«
2
l3
P)
••••
(11) (12)
M =>/ ^p
1
See a paper by the Author in the Phil. Mag., June, 1908. See a paper by Prof. Perry in Phil. Mag., March, 1892. The same may be obtained by taking all the numerical coefficients in (8) as unity.
2
result
ART. I06]
DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES.
283
Whether the bending moment is calculated by the approximate methods of the previous article applicable to short struts, or by (7) or by (12), the maximum intensity of bending stress p h disregarding sign, by Art. 63, is d , _ M^y,
A  j _ Y = ^
M
M
.
...
.
(13;
where y^ is the halfdepth d/2 in a symmetrical section, and Z is the modulus of section. Hence, by Art. 97 (1), the maximum intensity of compressive stress
/.
= £
+A
or
7f+A
(m)
where
viz.
is
p
is
the
mean
P/A, where
A is
intensity of compressive stress on the section, the area of crosssection, and the bending moment
taken as positive.
And
the
maximum
intensity of tensile stress
is
M /<=Z"A
M„<f
or
jfA
....
(15)
which, if negative, gives the minimum intensity of compressive stress. If the section is not symmetrical, the value of the unequal tensile and
compressive bending stress intensities must be found as in Art. 63 (6). The formula (14) affords an indirect means of calculating the dimensions of crosssection for a strut of given shape, in order that, under given axial and lateral loads, the greatest intensity of stress shall not exceed some specified amount. As the method is indirect, involving trial, the value = \wP may be used to give directly a first approximation to the dimensions, which may then be adjusted by testing the values oif by the more accurate expression (14), where M„ satisfies c
M
(7) or (12).
An
interesting case of a strut with a lateral load arises in a locomo
The lateral load is that due to the centrifugal force exerted by the material of the rod, so that is proportional to the area The area of crosssection is often Ishaped, and the of crosssection. rod often tapers from the centre to the ends. Exact calculation in such a case becomes very complex, if not impossible, even if the axial loads could be accurately estimated. good estimate of the bending stress may, however, be found by estimating the bending moment and deflection due to lateral loads alone on the beam of variable section, as in Art. 83, and increasing the central bending moment by the amount due
tive coupling rod.
w
A
a lateral load at the centre instead of the uniformly distributed load, equation (2) becomes
to the axial thrust. If the strut carried
1
W
d 'y
,
P
W (l
\
1
e.s
1 For comparative results in an actual case, see " Struts and Tierods in Motion," by H. Mawson, Proe. Inst. M. £., 1915, pp. 47° and 471.
—
284
and
— —
P
—
[CH. IX.
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.
W /EI /P" W« j,^^.^^ __
/
,
.
.
.
.
(l? )
.,
W
/EI
/
/T
Other cases may be found in a paper in the Philosophical Magazine,
June, 1908. 107. Tierod with Lateral Loads. 1 The notation being, as in the previous article, the only change necessary in considering a tierod instead of a strut is a reversal in the sign of P. Thus equation (2),
—
Art. 106,
becomes
d*y
P
J
'
^EIand the conditions of
=
w
(I*
\
2EiU~^
same, the solution
is
W
fixing being the
y
and
=  w + wP _ «/EI/ ~ 2 "P^ 8P "Fl/
Se
V ElI
a/EI/
I
/PI cosh /P x
V EI
\
.
J
•
(2)
M
=
^
a/EI/
I
sech
,
/
V/ET) = ^(
\wP
X
/P \

,
tt
sech
iVpJ
for
/ P\
.
,
•
(3)
If the previous substitution
cos jw be
made
.
"W f I
—
\
«"
f
J
also be
in (1) the solution
makes
— M„ = \wP p
p
'
p
Which may
obtained by expanding (3) in a series of terms of rising powers of =the coefficients being approximately
P
+1
and
—1
alternately.
axial pull calculated as in the previous article, disregarding the sign of
stress
The
intensities
due
to
bending
and
M—
may be
/«
=
^+A
~
(4)
f—
c
—p
(which
may be
positive or negative)
.
.
(5)
If the tierod carries only a lateral load
W at the centre, (16) of Art.
• • •
•
106 becomes
and
W // \ P iPy ^EI^^ElU*; j W/ W /EI / / *=^2pV T tanh iVEI
,
(6)
M = M
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5 00 . and being freely supported in a horizontal position carries the lateral load of its own weight (0*28 lb. is A=^ and since 7 Z M = o/EI/ sec t /p \ 2V jri. Art. X =  0*22 lb.h — EIA = g__=e_.ART. The maximum intensity of bending stress. w= 028 «. is ^p=( 1 — X sech  X 07036 J = 6600 X (1 — sech no42) p = h /. may be found in 285 Other cases June.. per square inch far 2. Let h be the necessary eccentricity of the thrust below the axis. compressive stress/. per square Maximum tensile stress /. 106. Then. .= 8100 — 637 = 7463 lbs. —Find how from the axis the 500lb. per cubic inch).. 106 (1). 107] DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES. (E 30 X io 6 lbs. as in Art.. 4 (a) The maximum intensity of bending stress by (7) and (13). by (3). (c) with no axial force. per square inch P .)_.) —A = P. = 8100 + 637 = 8737 lbs. + „ . \b) 30 X 10' sec (9° X 07036)°. Art. 37 per Square . 1908.1 ! " 10/ X 2 SOO U~ ( 6600 X 1*2274 = 8100 lbs. per square inch 637 = 2029 lbs. Find the greatest tensity of compressive and tensile stress in the bar : (a) under an axial thrust of 500 lbs. with the addition of the moment P . per square inch 637 = 3303 lbs. round bar of steel one inch diameter and 10 feet long has axial forces applied to the centres of each end. per square inch (c)f t =fi= ^=8*^ 100 8 Z M„ _ 1 22 I2Q X 120 ir X 32 = Example Ex. a paper in the Philosophical Magazine.. = rr» X 30 X io 6 120 X T „^ 120 X « . Example i. X 04 = 1010 lbs. 1 4030 lbs. pz\ = r 5 inch A = IOO X = ^ = A = 07854 = Maximum inch.*. end thrusts in should be applied in order to produce the least possible intensity of stress. per square inch. per square inch. = f= c 6600 2666 2666 + — o'4040 = 2666 lbs. 107. (b) under an axial pull of 500 lbs. 22 l .
sive stress in the rod. IX. . P.000 tons per square inch. moment of inertia 10 (inches) about a The maximum thrust in central horizontal axis. per square inch is Example —A locomotive couplingrod 100 inches long of I 4 section.000 1283 tons ^ P 17 = = —3.sec^ X/ P^ El which causes upward concavity if the first term is greater than the second . the solution of which as in Art. EI + 1. inch to 3"2274 eccentricity in the ratio 1 and the value p b being reduced by the 32274— /. and the magnitude of the bending moment at the centre decreases. ? . = 3 z ^74 637 + 2 S°7 = 3144 lbs. or A „. and depth 4^ inches.— 286 — — — [CH. and I A at the centre y> =  wP sp /a/EI ~{~w  h A/ )\? ~ sec i and — =P(. the bending moments at the ends and centre should be equal in magnitude and opposite in sign. + I7ZZT. (E = 13.) + v/P~\ m) / I M f = ^(sec^ V JP.iJ.= 01326 1283 . and for the least bending moment. area 6 square inches./5 )P. Using the numerical values from Example h = —X 22 30 x 10 s 100 250.X 64 ir 12274 — = 0492 . estimate the maximum compreslength.EI hence h = wEI 32 sec V EI Wii2 se 4v P .h a/EII ~V v 2 secV 1 / „ ST' EI /P w. ?h = ^p^ec  wYA( I P V/ gj. • 13.000 X 7. = A' 7.. = 6 37 3.000 X = ^ 7T 2 X 10 = _ 10. 106. . Ei +I sec and /. / / P_ ^/. A sec . and at the ends the bending moment producing convexity upwards is consideration of the bendingmoment diagram or the above expressions will show that as h increases the magnitude of the bending moment at the ends increases from zero. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.) is „ P. per inch Neglecting friction at the pins. bending stress and value of/c. the rod (estimated from the maximum adhesion of the coupled wheel) 17 tons and the lateral inertia load at full speed is 24 lbs.„ \ 1 P.= A'PZ\ 7+ x I + Z P .. is.
144. From this general solution and the conditions of slope and deflection at the ends the critical load was deduced. we can. the central bending moment by the other method (which for working thrusts is very nearly correct) is W*p^Tp = x 3'4 X ^gg^ = 1 15*45 toninches 107a.. 100 the general form of the deflection curve of a strut or column was found by solving the differential equation (1) of bending. and. after two integrations of the bending equation and equating the resulting end deflection to the assumed one." in Engineering. may be briefly described by reference to the case shown in Fig. deduce a value for the critical load. April 24. as in Art. repetition of the process leads to as close an approximation as may be desired to the true value. and. 100. by Euler's formula (4). moment K>EI = —=. by is then divided into. 21. if necessary. lengths. By choosing a form of curve which fits the end conditions it is usually easy to secure a good approximation. and so obtain a closer approximation. 1914. any arbitrary deflection a (which may If the strut conveniently be unity) of the free end may be assumed.000 X 10 1) 1 I inch 17 A= g^i =2'5 2 „ „ ^= P 6oi „ As a check. Whether it is a good approximation to the true value depends upon whether the assumed form of curve is a reasonably good approximation to the true form. 10 equal 1 "Critical Loads for Ideal Long Columns. say. Art. In Art.ART. the solution may be used to correct the assumed form of deflection. For the simple general cases this method offers no advantages. say. which would offer great and often insuperable difficulty by the method of Art. Sept. 1917. Moreover. . 107a] Central bending DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES. v 9 = 3'49 tons P er s q uare v 24 X 13. 100. This makes it possible to test the value of the first approximation.. and "Critical Loads for Long Tapering Struts. A trial value of the critical load P may be found./ sec \lIT — p 7T 1 287 . 1 Another approximate method depending upon trial and correction applicable to struts the sections of which vary in any known manner.." in Engineering. If instead of solving the differential equation of bending we assume a form for the curve of deflection. which was written and solved in terms of any arbitrary deflection (a) of one end. Columns of Varying Section. but its value lies in the fact that it makes possible without difficulty the solution of cases in which the crosssection varies along the axis of the strut. \ 1 j = (sec 3277 — " 2240 X 17 = 82 x 0189 = 5"5 toninches 5'S X A = rr. it is then possible. 100. Details and examples of the method are given in — papers by the author.
). where if P has been guessed successfully the value found for_y would be a. to find the slope i or j J a at 10 points by estimating successive increments Si and 8v from the fixed end O. if necessary. VI. and deflection y approximately in terms of [CH. or by tabulating increments as below and using the relations given beside the table. If the value of y there exceeds a. I o oi/ 03/ etc. where both are zero. and a trial value sufficiently below this will give a final value of y less than a.). onwards to R'.288 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. closer approximation to the true value may be made. . IX. By further trial. beams (Chap. The various quantities may be obtained graphically (as in Chap. the relations applicable to bent ( VI. the trial value for P is too great.
assuming perfect elasticity up to this load ? The distance from the centroid of the crosssection to the compression edge 15. the least radius of gyration is 4*5 inches. 5. IX. the two 6inch crosspieces being placed back Take the working load as \ the to back. 10. inches. fixed at each end. If a cylindrical masonry column is 3 feet diameter and the horizo&tal wind pressure is 50 lbs. find the crippling load by Rankine's formula. 16. fixed at both ends. 13. the distance from the centroid of the crosssection to the tension edge being 3x132 inches ? 17. 4. find the maximum intensities of compressive and tensile stress in the pillar. The length being 24 feet and both ends being fixed. is as shown in Fig. per foot of height. of which is 4771 square inches. 7. Use Rankine's constants. the least moment of inertia of which is &07 Find the ultimate load for this strut. if the depth of section (E = 13. 289 When a load of 10 tons is carried at a radius of 14 feet horizontally from the centroid of the section of the pillar. Find the load which will cause an extreme compressive stress of 21 tons per square inch in a stanchion of the section given in problem No. the ultimate load being 6 times greater.) With the eccentricity found in problem No. crippling load by Rankine's rule. if it is fixed at one end and free at the other. of what length may the strut be made in order u . Find the ultimate load for the column in problem No. fixed Solve problem No. 11.) With the ultimate load as found by Rankine's formula in problem what eccentricity of load at the ends of the strut (in the direction of the least radius of gyration and towards the crosspiece of the T) will cause the straight homogeneous strut to reach a compressive stress of 21 tons per square inch. Find the breaking load of a castiron column 8 inches external and 6 inches internal diameter. 1 if the column is 10 feet and the other having complete lateral freedom. 102. 149. per cubic foot ? mildsteel strut 5 feet long has a Tshaped crosssection the area 5. if the length is 8 feet and both ends are freely hinged. one end being (E = 5000 tons per square inch. the working load being \ of the crippling load and the constants as before. 5 may be used. No. the ends of which are freely (inches) 4 hinged.section as that in problem No. Find the external diameter of a castiron column 20 feet long. 15 and a load of 16 tons square inch of section. 14. with ends freely hinged. 12 feet long and freely hinged at the ends. 20 feet long and fixed at each end. is 0*968 inch.] DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES. 7. using the constants given in Art. Find the ultimate load on a steel strut of the same cross. to have a crippling load of 480 tons.000 tons per square inch. 8. in order to carry a working load of 4 tons per square inch of section. if the crushing strength is taken as 21 tons per square inch and the constant a of Rankine's formula 73^5. Find the greatest length for which the section in problem No. the thickness of metal being A . long. 10. the strut being fixed at both ends. to what height may the column be built without causing tension at the base if the masonry weighs 140 lbs. 12. 9. the crosssectional area of which is 5352 square 7. A 1 inch. assuming perfect elasticity. 6. Find the necessary thickness of metal in a castiron pillar 15 feet long and 9 inches external diameter. per that the greatest intensity of compressive stress shall not exceed 21 tons per square inch ? What is then the least intensity of stress. to carry a load of 50 tons.EX. mildsteel stanchion. Find the working load for a mildsteel strut 12 foet long composed of two Tsections 6" x 4" X £".
What load will the column in problem No 1. the greatest compressive stress not to exceed 6 tons per square inch. Weight of steel. If an axial thrust of 2000 lbs. [CH. per inch length. Solve problem No. the eccentricity of loading \ inch. 18 if the deviation may amount to I inch. (E = 13. if it has to carry a thrust of 12 tons with a possible deviation from the axis of ^5 of the diameter. per cubic inch. 5000 tons per square inch ) 19. A locomotive .000 tons per square inch. estimate the maximum intensity of stress in the rod. IX. is applied to each end. and the magnitude of the stress intensity. 21. Find the necessary diameter of a mildsteel strut 5 feet long. 3J inches deep and i£ inch wide.29° STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. carry if it is fixed at one end and has complete lateral freedom at the other. thrust in the previous problem will make the greatest intensity of compressive stress in the bar the least possible.) 20. A round straight bar of steel 5 feet long and 1 inch diameter rests in a horizontal position. The length of the rod between centres being 8 feet 4 inches. find the extreme intensities of stress in the material. Find what eccentricity of the 2000lbs. C28 lb. neglecting friction at the pins. (E = 30 x io6 lbs. couplingrod is of rectangular crosssection. freely hinged at each end. The maximum thrust in the rod is estimated at 10 tons and the maximum inertia and gravity load at 17 lbs. (E = 13. and the deviation of the load from the centre of the crosssection is 1 inch in the direction of the 16inch depth. if the column is 10 feet long. per square inch. the ends being freely supported.) 18.) 22. 23.000 tons per square inch. and the greatest tensile stress 1 ton per square inch ? What is the greatest intensity ot compressive stress ? (E = in the direction of the least radius of gyration is 16 inches.
and (2) the plane through that point and the axis. and the intensities of the two principal stresses. 8) being (1) that conthe point and perpendicular to the axis. the two planes across Fig. which represents a solid cylindrical bar in equiline ABC librium under two equal and opposite couples at its ends. 8 and 15). on the curved surface. after the strain takes place becomes part of a helix A'BC. which are parallel to the axis . which everywhere makes an angle fa with lines such as AB.CHAPTER TWISTING. it is subjected to pure torsion. The direction of stress on the former plane is everywhere perpendicular to radial lines from the axis. are of the same magnitude as the which the taining intensity of shear stress.— When a cylindrical bar is twisted by a couple the axis of which coincides with that of the bar. when A'BC would be a straight line. 10) A . which are of opposite sign. stress is wholly tangential (see Art. 108. Circular Section. The stress at any point in a crosssection is one of pure shear. The nature of the strain within the elastic limit is illustrated in Fig. originally straight and parallel to the axis of the bar. The strain is such that any section perpendicular to the axis of the bar makes a small rotation about the axis of the bar relative to other similar sections. 152. X. Stress and Strain in Pure Torsion. 152. The angle fa is the shear strain (Art. The principal planes are inclined at 45 to those of tangential or shear stress (see Arts. the constancy of this angle would be apparent if the curved surface were developed into a plane one.
EGHF T KEFL Fig. Relation between Twisting Effort. and the elastic strain being & = ab = S ( radians ) (*) where f. the shear strain <£ and intensity of shear stress q are similarly connected by the equation *= AB =N( radians ) ( 2) The radial line originally at OA. 109. 152.N = <j>Vl (S) and from (2) and (4) q = jN (6) the intensity of shear stress on the crosssection being at every point proportional to the distance r from the axis. If the radius of the bar is R. and N is the modulus of rigidity (see Art. 153 represents the radius crosssection. the total shearing force on an elementary ring of . —The relation between a given torsional straining action and the effects produced within the elastic limit on a cylindrical bar of given dimensions may be calculated from the principles of equilibrium and the formulae of the previous Considering the equilibrium of the of the circular bar. X. distant r from the centre of the crosssection. . after straining occupies a position A'O. 153. [CH. the end AGH. Fig. the angle of twist AOA' being 6 in a length AB or /. (radlans . hence the latter must reduce to a couple of magnitude T.. • • • R • (3) and similarly from (2) 6 OD = 7 ( radians ) (4) From (1) and (3) /. piece the only external forces upon it are those of at the end AGH. varying from zero at the axis to the extreme valued at the circumference. for all the material at the curved surface. For any point such as D. and width hr is q X . is the intensity of shear stress at the surface. 2irrSr If Fig.— 29 2 small — — — — — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 10). Torsional Strain and Stress. and of opposite sense to that applied at article. from (i) . 6 = = AA' AO = /&. and those the couple exerted by the piece in the shear stress across the plane EBF. = ^N=^.
32T/ . the same units must be used for (poundinches or toninches). t The quantity I t*dr =  — 2 ITU or J is —= J (say) the polar axis. inch units of length are used for the dimensions and for^. In this form (2) the close analogy between the relations connecting the couple. The product NJ to which the amount of twist is inversely proportional. ^ may be called the polar modulus of a From (5)./ N7j . 293 108 hence q this x zirrlr = f. (3) also in degrees ^ = w degrees w the amount of twist being proportional to the length. and dimensions for torsion and those for bending T (Art.. IO9] and from (5) TWISTING. 108 „ " = f. . stress. and inversely proportional to the (polar) moment of inertia (J) of crosssection about the axis.e. . „ . i. may be called the torsional rigidity of the shaft. For other than circular sections quantities . the total couple exerted across the section is (1) where D or 2R is the diameter of the bar. . in a shaft of solid circular section.R = 2r rr.ART. Art. of the area of crosssection about the or TR . and (6). °r or =^= radians per unit length T ^N Mians). say. (2) It should be remembered that if.l RTN = T. and (1) moment of inertia may be written . • ^r'Sr and the moment of about the axis is ST Dividing = *wdr>hr R summing the whole section into elementary concentric rings and the moments. and the quantity solid circular section. . / = ^r and ^ = y Tr .J J T =f. . Art. 63) is apparent. . inversely proportional to the fourth power of the diameter.
are 8000 to 10. 109 s be . — be the external and internal (1). (1) The maximum twisting moment will generally be considerably in excess of this amount. (3) the constant for steel shafts being about 3 "3. but not to zero! With the same magnitude of maximum stress the average intensity of stress is greater. radii respectively of a hollow shaft limits. Art. gives then Art. caused in transmitting of a horsepower (H. The necessity of this torsional stiffness will be understood from Art. X.P. as before.000 X H.. that about the centre is only carrying a much smaller stress. if poundinches. common working values of/. sion of power through a shaft the product of the mean twisting moment or torque multiplied by the angle turned through in (radians) gives the — work transmitted. the intensity of safe maximum shear stress. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. In the transmis110.. Hollow Circular Shafts." or of Machine Design " (Longmans). The intensity of stress in a circular shaft being for all points in a crosssection proportional to the distance from the axis. as the twisting moment usually varies considerably in driving of all kinds.) at n revolutions per minute T 1 = 12 X 33.P.000 lbs. . 109 integrated between 1 See Unwin's "Elements of Machine Design. everywhere proportional to the distance from the axis. Shaft Diameters for Power Transmission. L> = a / —7T /i6T ""ft v = \//H7r\ X v n S constant . or of the constant in (3) will be found in manuals of machine design. is the mean twisting moment in Hence. If some coefficient to represent the ratio of the maximum to the mean torque be adopted. Low and Bevis's "A Manual .— —— 294 somewhat — [CH. when the material at the outside of a solid shaft reaches the maximum safe limit of stress. but it varies from a maximum to some smaller value. For solid circular less than J must be used (see Art. sections the intensity of stress from (1) is inversely proportional to the cube of the diameter. and consequently for a given crosssectional area a greater torque can be resisted. 111. 112). 167. from (1). the twisting moment will be XT T= and p —— • x constant (2) if f„ for a shaft transmitting torsion only (without bending stress). 1 In long shafts the condition that the twist in a given length shall be within some assigned limit may require a larger common value of When the maximum a diameter than considerations of maximum intensity of shear stress.. per square inch.. — Let Rj or — • and R2 or . In the case of a hollow shaft the stress intensity is. Suitable values of /. twisting moment has been estimated. .
Torsion of Shafts not Circular in Section. — from which the following values have been derived. Venant. s. in a thin The ratio of the torsion rigidities of the two shafts is the same as that of their strengths.ART.. Art. The crosssections originally plane become warped._ Ris _ /RaV t R 1 solid R (R ls R a2 ) * Rj2 2 ~ * + \Ri/ . The greatest inten of stress . s" . shafts 112.e. The angle Of tfrlfc— : 1 6 = *w . The torsion of symmetrical but not circular in section is very complex. 112] TWISTING. Square Section. greater than —r '/. which tends to the limiting ratio tube.R a4 _. the value for the inscribed circle. T>* (1) x 16 the value of J in (2) and (3). . 2ttZ [ it 295 it = . ii. r>n. Df D.d/)n 32T/ . The greatest intensity of stress /occurs at the middle of the sides notation — T= which is 0208 . The subject has been investigated by St.n(d?^d7) de e rees • < 2> Comparing the strength (or twisting resistance for a given extreme intensity of stress) per unit area of crosssection or per unit weight of a hollow shaft with that of a solid shaft. who has devised simple empirical formulae for cases where the more exact results are complex. Venant's work will be found in Todhunter and Pearson's " History of the Theory of Elasticity. An account of St. T = f ^/. and the greatest intensity of shearing stress generally occurs at the point of the perimeter of crosssection nearest to the axis of twist or centroid of crosssection./ Tl 4 4N. shaft. 6 _ 16 (a* + i>) Tl 6 » aW "N (3) W ./s 7r (1) . . part 1.J <2> — Major axis a. sity T. both having the same external diameter 4 hollow _ . only about 6 per cent. ( radians> ^ 5 8 3 T/ =*. Length of side s. 2 as R approaches R lt i. minor axis b." vol. is The that of the four preceding articles./i occurs at the ends of the minor axis. Also e=7 '"N7?o8 J being g Elliptic Section. being— for a hollow . 109. 2 RJ B R R R 4 x 4 2 .
P. a and Pearson's " History of Elasticity.125 10. the factor is about 42.125 lb. where 7 is less than 3. at 80 revolutions per minute if the maximum twisting moment exceeds the mean by 40 per i.inches is 33.125 x 12 —X Example 2." vol. 55. Hound Shafts with Keyways. and depth h times the shaft diameter. Example — Find the maximum + o 4w +  07^ cent. H. . A is the area of crosssection and J is the polar moment of Instead of 40. is 47T 2 . the external diameter of which is 15 times the internal diameter. Long side a.A«""N a (6) where inertia. p. Rectangular Section.. 42 of the Engineering Experimental Station. is taken from Bulletin No. per square inch? The twisting moment in lb . 39.400 lbs. Allowing the same intensity of torsional stress in each. University of Illinois.39 8° 81 X X 10 s *" is replaced by a hollow one. Maximum intensity of stressyi occurs at the middle points of the long sides — For more exact values of the empirical 1 coefficient see a table in Todhunter pt. for a circular or elliptic section the exact factor and for rectangles. per square inch twist per foot length in degrees is e° = 2 55. —A3 solid round shaft 1 This experimental result. z x Js = o.000 x 12 X 50 X 14 12 foot of length if T= 50 16 — o —r~ X 16 : 27T —= = I2 . For a given elastic stress limit f„ the torque applied to a circular shaft having a keyway of width times the shaft diameter. compare the weight and the stiffness of the solid with those of the hollow shaft.inches DJ J . X. due to Prof. . F. For any symmetrical section including rectangles approximately 6 . 1.' — iih The elastic deflection is increased in the ratio 1/0 intensity of torsional shear stress in a shaft 3 inches diameter transmitting 50 H. Moore. fs = The X r z T= x 55.—— 296 —— — — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. [CH. short side b. . N= What is the greatest twist in degree per x 10 6 lbs. expressed as a fraction of the torque applied to the uncut shaft may be taken as ' —  w I'O — 2'. ii.
Combined Bending and Torsion. Let be the the maximum principal stress is at the circumference. the shear stress resulting from the bending forces need not be taken into account. usually. 63 and 66) . II3] TWISTING. be the extreme value of /= ^ 109 (1) ) . the maximum principal to the axis.ART. (2) tensile and compressive bending stresses parallel to the axis. on planes parallel to and perpendicular In shafts which are not very short. (3) shear stresses resulting from bending forces. 297 and Let d be the diameter of the solid hollow one. 71)./ o 4o96)D> . (1) = —d 32 3 is the modulus of section for a round shaft of diameter d subjected to g. shaft. V 05904 = v i'6q6 = §=Vc <f  * i io2 y Ratio of weight solid hollow Ratio of stiffness _ ~ (n 9 2) 1 2 (i  o8 2 ) _ ~ Vg6 hollow solid (rio2)Vi 1 o8 4) In the preceding articles it 113. value of the extreme equal and opposite intensities of longitudinal bending stress occurring at opposite ends of a diameter of a section. /= ^ = where Z ^ (Art. so that a bending moment M. the component shear stress caused by the bending forces is more important than the direct stress parallel to the axis in this case. the greatest principal stress may be within the section . . in this case. the intensity of torsional shear stress occurring at the circumference. has been assumed that the shafts have been subjected to an axial couple producing torsional shear stress only . : — / viz. however. For equal strength rf3 D be that of the = D^8Dy =(i _ v. stresses will generally occur at the circumference of the shaft. on planes perpendicular to and planes through the axis. (2) . (Arts. or to the thrust or pull of cranks and belts. Let /. in practice nearly all shafts are subject also to bending actions due to their own weight or that of The component pulleys. where the tensile and compressive stresses on opposite sides reach equal and opposite maximum values . stresses in the shaft will therefore be (1) shear stress due to torsion. being zero at the In very short shafts it may happen that circumference (see Art.
in (6). it is instructive to notice that if the principal the values of direct strain is (2) of Art. Combined bending and torsion being perhaps the most important case of compound stress. and Poisson's makes the equivalent bending moment ratio is \. 5 )} (4) = S»8(M+ VM^ + T M„ (5) From (s) it is evident that the bending moment 2 = i(M+ Vm' + T ) (6) without torsion would produce a direct bending stress equal to the maximum principal stress /. stresses [CH. is = M+^M +T 2 2 . — bending Substituting the above tensile /^^(M+JW+T*) or /. since a twisting moment of this value without any bending action would produce a torsional shear stress of intensity f and consequently a principal stress of the same u called the equivalent twisting magnitude (see Art.. i8. would produce this intensity of shear stress (on planes inclined 45 ° to the axis of the shaft) is «/M 2 +T a (10) . . (7 ) moment. M +VM + T 2 2 (9) the value in (6) is used. For a hollow shaft of external diameter D! and internal diameter M. Similarly. When shear stress. from the relation (4) the quantity T... maximum values for/ and f. as in Art. which is </~iT+7? or ^M + 2 T2 the bending moment which.— — — —— — 298 the STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. rather lower working value of the intensity of stress would be used If the criterion is the maximum than with the value (9) (see Art. 8). from (6) and (7) being as before. acting alone. 25).. The intensities of the principal maximum value being may be found A=\f+J\r+f? this stress.. (3) being tensile on the skin which has and compressive diametrically opposite. a which is greater than M. . 25 the criterion for elastic failure. and T. X. it is therefore sometimes called the equivalent bending moment...
acting alone. Art. (if positive). and the bending moment upon instead of in equation (3) of the previous article to find the greatest intensity of compressive stress.ART. by (3). addition to bending and twisting forces. maximum principal stress. . . 299 would twisting moment which is greater than (6) or (9).000 lb. II4] TWISTING. ij \f. If 6 is the angle which also produce the same intensity of shear stress.«* + * " Z A the area of crosssection.\f*= 1886 + 100V356 + 5694 = 9664 lbs. . For an axial thrust P the extreme intensity of longitudinal compressive stress will — be J where it . Effect of End Thrust. If Poisson's ratio is \. the direct stress which.000 lb. The extreme intensity of longitudinal tensile stress will be is A M f c may be used / M f'Z which stress. A shaft 3 inches diameter is subjected to a twisting moment of 40. would produce the same maximum Intensity of torsional shear stress f= t t6 X 40. persquareinch Intensity of minimum principal stress 1886 — 100V356 + 5694 = —5892 lbs. P A / when used give previous article.inches. will instead of in equation (3) of the the greatest intensity of tensile principal Example i. per square inch maximum principal stress V4. 17 tan 26 A ^M' + T 1 =j =M If there is an axial thrust or pull in 114. or which the principal plane makes with the crosssection. per square inch Intensity of bending stress /= Intensity of J %2 x 10.. find — Find the strain. per square inch .000  =7544 lbs. 3772 lbs. the intensity of stress due to the axial force must be added algebraically to the intensities of longitudinal direct bending stress before the principal stresses are found.000  = . and a bending moment of 10.inches. the axis of principal stress makes with the axis of the shaft.
strain in the direction of the maximum is ( 9 « 4+ 4 EV' T ^) = i¥2 Direct stress to produce this strain would be 11. lbs. whether ductile or brittle. 19) — — — —— [CH. 2"86 t tons per square inch . metals.— 3°° Maximum (see Art. and limit of proportionality of angular strain to twisting moment. are less marked than in a tension test. Torsion beyond the Elastic Limit.. is The maximum /. The maximum bending 40 stress is 2 x —x 12 = 1*27 ton per square inch and the compression due to thrust is — X 07854 5 30 = 192 o20 ton per square inch r ^ is The direct compression parallel to the axis therefore 1*27 + o 2o  = 1 '47 ton per square inch is hence the maximum compressive (principal) stress 2 °735 + V'°'73S + 2 '86 2 = 3'688 tons per square inch 115. and the " bending " modulus half this amount. and a direct thrust of 30 tons. the yield point elongation (see Fig. If its external diameter is 16 inches. exhibit characteristics very similar to those which If the twisting moments are plotted as they show in a tension test. and its internal diameter 8 inches. find the maximum intensity of compressive stress. X. — . torsional shear stress in a crosssection = x ——— = 180 12 „. the outer layers first reaching them. . and the more plastic condition spreading towards the axis as straining proceeds. principal stress STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. ordinates on a base of angular deformations measured on any fixed length. When twisted by a gradually increasing couple until fracture takes place. particularly in a solid bar. P er square Example 2. The polar modulus of section is — * 73 i6« y 73 —= is 2 4ot =755 tt (inches) 3 .137 inch. being masked by the fact that the whole of the material does not reach those points simultaneously. 31). A propeller shaft is subjected to a twisting moment of 180 tonfeet. a bending moment of 40 tonfeet. the resulting diagram is very similar to that for tension and In the case of ductile metals.
95). recovery of elasticity with time. Torsional Resilience. Hence the f. indicates that the material has become practically perfectly In such a case the intensity of shear stress. An account of sundry experiments * of this kind by Dr. xii. The elastic strain energy or shearing resilience of a material having a uniform intensity of shear stress q is — — If we consider a solid shaft torsionally per unit of volume (Art. is practically uniform over the section. E. Hancori. G. and Fig.27rlr. 1 1 6] TWISTING. of Edinburgh. the twisting moment T is related to the ultimate intensity of shear stress^. the shearing resilience of any tubular element of radius r. proportional to the distance from the axis of the bar. Art.. as follows 2 : T= a. Soc. may be observed in materials torsionally strained beyond the primitive yield point much in the same manner as in tension experiments. the surface of fracture meets the cylindrical surface in a regular helix inclined 45° to the axis of the specimen. part ii. in which under torsion fracture apparently occurs by tension. vol.ART. 426. is ll. xl. 1906." by Prof. and similar effects. Roy. Trans. The raising of the yield point by stress. 1 . and instead of (1). thickness dr. 14. — Other Phenomena. . such plane and perpendicular to the axis of twist. 8 and 108. Coker is to be found in the Phil. and the in the radius R or . L. E. there is no droop " ' curve such as occurs when local contraction takes place in a tension test. d> Fractures. of the shaft is See also " Tests of Metal in Reverse Torsion. No.dr where q = = /. Mag. as cast iron. 109./ Jo [W = f^R 3 or f* ./. total torsional resilience being the intensity of shear stress at the outer radius R. In ductile materials the fracture is generally almost In brittle materials. p. 1 P&il. and length /. 219). vol. this being perpendicular to the direction of the tensile principal stress (see Arts. strained within the elastic limit. instead of being plastic. 30I The yield point would be more clearly observed in a thin hollow tubeThere being no appreciable reduction in section. 116. but the curve becoming almost parallel to the strain axis or base.
In the case of a hollow cylindrical shaft of outer and inner radius R. say tensile. When the helix is not " close coiled " the axial force causes bending of the coils in addition to torsion of the wire. and be the mean radius of the coils in inches (see Fig. i. 154). in (i) and (2) represents the intensity of shear stress at the elastic limit. 112. Helical Spring's.0 substitute for T and 6 from (1) and (3). 0I 54^ X volume (3) The same method might be extended to the other sections given 117. is a = in Art. however. (a) — Taking a closecoiled helix of round wire of diameter d. 112. when the spring is acted on by an axial pull or thrust . Axial Load. the twisting moment exerted on the wire of the helix is the product of the axial force and the radius of the cylindrical surface containing the helix or centre line of the wire. and in any case there is on every crosssection of the wire the shearing force due to the axial load apart from the torsional shear.— 302 —— [CH. If f. the above expressions may be called the proof torsional resilience in conformity with the terminology adopted in Art. that strains other than torsional ones may be neglected. viz. in the case of a solid cylindrical shaft. for a thin tube where the intensity of shear stress is nearly uniform.e. using the formulae (1) and (2) of Art. Art. the resilience. 42. Let n be the number of complete coils R W . the torsional strain is so much greater than that due to bending or shear. close coiled. in). half the product of the twisting moment and the angle of twist or . let be the axial load in pounds. the mean radius of the coils. An alternative method of arriving at the above results would be to take the work done in twisting. e. for a square shaft.g. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. and corresponding values for the hollow shaft and (Art. X.T. z". and R 2 respectively the torsional resilience is similarly which approaches £ £? per unit of volume as R^ approaches Rj.i». This method might well be applied to other sections in which the distribution of stress is not so simple. The material of a helical spring wound so closely that any one coil lies nearly in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the helix may be regarded as subject to torsion only. In many cases. 109.
109 (3))— 32T/ "NJ or or ^ivr _ 32WR/ radians = mkj (1) _ NJ radians per unit length. (as before) The resilience in inchpounds i6W 2 RV WN 4 or i~ /2 x volume as in Art. The stiffness of a spring in pounds is may be defined as the force If in the per unit deflection. may similarlyTe obtalnea~frorrr(T) and ^TATtTTi 1. = —»WR.be obtained very simply by equating the torsional work done by the twisting moment to the work done in terms of the axial force and deflection. iW and „ . and equal to ^ when W is one pound. 303 so that the coils being /= and 27rR« (approximately) let be the modulus of rigidity or shearing modulus in pounds per square inch./^ 16. — made The of tubing deflections for a spring of hollow circula r sectionJ?'. 8 = T0 or 64  (3) 8 = 32WRV s^r<rd*N is WR « — — d*N S jst. <») This might also . one end being fixed. as in Art.<?. and remembering that. viz. 116. 109 (1).6 = resilience or 32WRV ird*N or 64WR * dN 4 . the free end will have an axial movement as may easily be realized by considering the axial movement of the free end.ART. consequently. 6. 117] and close / the total TWISTING. twist through an angle 6 (Art. . inches . . Consequently. 8 is the axial movement or deflection of free If the 11 end = R. due to the difference in twist at the ends of any short portion of the total length. where . the whole axial R movement must take place at the free end. length of wire in them. The whole of the wire is subjected to a twisting moment N T = WR and if one end is held fast the other will.
because the material is for most usual cases more uniformly stressed.= 1 — • • (5) of the free end in radians is = 2ir(ri — n) = gj M/ (radians) (6) . the force per 12WN _ 3^ N _ ~ 32RY _ ~8RV~ 4 in the units commonly employed in considering the kinetics of vibrations. 129). and the numerical coefficient being greater for torsion N than for bending. the (see Art. and that the same relations hold good as in Arts. the resilience being C154 ^ per unit volume.r'r. the wire of which the helix is made has to resist at every normal crosstending to bend or unbend the coils of section a bending moment the helix. that sense of the applied couple. the coils which have considerable initial curvature behave like a beam of initial curvature zero. It is interesting to note that in any of the above cases the resilience per unit volume for a given intensity of shearing stress is much greater than the resilience for uniform tension or for a bent beam (Art. 30 tons per square inch when suitably tempered for springs. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. When a closely coiled spring is held at one (t>) Axial about the axis of the helix. X. is several times as great as the crosssectional dimensions of the wire If the bending moment increases the curvature. 93) for steel being with the same numerical intensity of direct stress.e. end and subjected to a twisting couple the free end to which the couple is applied is twisted by an amount Neglecting any slight proportional to the magnitude of the couple. i. only about §E. whether one coil or several be considered. to increase or decrease their curvature according to the If we assume. above formulae the linear units are inches may be taken as e where e (as is usual). The steel from which springs are usually made has a high elastic limit and correspondingly high capacity for storing strain The safe working value of shear stress for small wires is over energy. 61 and 63 — M M bending moment M = EI X (change of curvature) . Twist. In the case of a square section S = R<?=7ii^j WRY as in the previous article. which is through its centroid and parallel to the axis This is very nearly correct when the radius of the coil of the helix. and 27172R where I is the moment = R = m= and the total twist ob tf> ei 1.— 304 foot of deflection — — — — [CH. obliquity of the coils. as an approximation. to R' and their number mean radius of the coils decreasing from / 2tt«'R' increasing from n to «'. (4) of inertia of crosssection about the neutral axis of the section.
becomes • • + = 64M/ lrEd> i28MR» °r Erf* • W (9) and the extreme values of the intensity of direct bending stresses are 32M /=1SF For a square section of side S (6) becomes * 4 and Resilience. 93— i M* = <f> % bend per unit length (7) hence = == The change in curvature or angle of R'~R is . let the coils make everywhere an angle a with planes perpendicular to the axis of the helix (see Fig. the plane of which is tangential to the cylindrical surface containing the helical — centre line of the wire) the length / of n coils is then Then the moment WR on the normal crosssection 2tR« sec a OX. for ' 305 bv (1) u" This result might easily be obtained from the Art. With the notation of the previous article. per unit volume (see Art. = W I2M/ 0r 24ttMR« ES 4 r ( I0 ) '/ = 6M "S . \ '"' —For a circular section the resilience is ft z • ^r per unit volume and for a rectangular section g it is I 118. (1) . or ^ (5) uniform throughout the length. Axial Load W. M For a wire of and from or (6) its amount "ir solid circular section and diameter d radlatlS • (6. which the at O may be resolved about axial force W exerts x into two moments and M' T = WR cos a = WR sin a . resilience.ART. 93) Open Coiled Helical Spring. 1 1 8] TWISTING. 155.
(2).R. and the latter a bending moment about an axis OY' perpendicular to the axis of the wire and in the plane of Fig.rRHSeCa(^p+g ) I (2) 3 2 W/RVcos 2 a 2 sin 2 a\ 64WR'« sec a/cos ~r* which reduces to the form the effect of the obliquity cent.— — . . using (3) and (7) of For a circular the previous article. (3) Art. [CH..dt. when a on the deflection if = = o.. /W R 2 2 sin 2 a r EI /cos 2 a sin 2 and S=W^(^^ EI NJ or .e. the former giving a twisting moment about OX' tangent to the centre line of the wire. T17. 155.S = iT'0' + iM'4. i. due to twisting moment about 0X'. 155.T2 / t M'Y NJ +5 EI where Fig. increased curvature as a positive value of <f>. —VTr+^y 2 a . reduction compared to the o) having the same length of wire I for case of a closewound spiral (o a wire of solid circular section . Taking an increased number of coils. ff and <j>' are the angular dis placements of the free end about such axes as OX' and OY' respectively. NJ X sin a . for noncircular sections the values of 6 given in = = Art. If the axial extension only is required we may most easily find it from the strain energy.o6 — . 112 must be used instead of TV ^ in (1). wire of diameter d — iW. if this rotation <j> is required it may be deduced by resolving the rotations about OX' and OY' of a short length dl at O into components about OX and OY. X. and for a 45 is about 10 per cent. Taking N = a = io° is under 1 per I.' (1) . • STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. = WR about cos a NJ Xdl and equal to W — (5) and the component of this OY is positive cos a W. " ') o\ 2W. Both the bending action about the axis OY' and the twisting about OX' cause rotation of the free end of the coil about the axis of the coil . or— /W R cos Wo = — c?? TTTC> —NJ 2 2 2 o . for some other sections the effect is much greater. the rotation is ( d6 . 2sin 2 a\ .
o/cos + gpj R0 W/R^^j . negative (or " jnbending ") and 2>°7 The bending about OY' . may be used. = 32WR/ — jf— sin a cos al /i ^—^ 2\ I or 64WR —— « 2 /i sin al j^ 2\ „ — ~ radians I (10) which when =. N= § is evidently positive. /sin « cos *(± . in the For noncircular sections.ART. as in (2) For a </> solid circular section of diameter . . or = C on(9) stant. the 112. d — . cj> may be much negative. vol.rf/. . given in (2).sina X EI hence the total component rotation about cos a is (7) OY <ty=W. Ayrton and Perry. Proc. Art..R. The component rotations evidently reaches a of an element dl about the axis OX would similarly give the total rotation = ~ and ! 1 the deflection S 2 a sin a\ = ~ „ = „. In the case of such elongated sections the rotation larger than for a circular section. T/ coefficients of s^.) which.sinacosa(~~) and for all equal lengths dl the rotation d(f> is . of which the principal crossdimensions are very unequal. 188.rf/. $ = W R . 1 and may be positive or 1 See a paper on the theory of such springs by Profs.R.. and . ? al (8) the same. Soc.WR% sin «(i .. and (6). maximum when a = 45°. (4). Xey.T.±) or 2.J. the torsional and flexural rigidities may differ greatly while in the circular section EI when  » N= p f . . 36. I 1 8] is TWISTING. is— (6) d$= and the component of this WR sin a „ ^—dl OY is about W..1. instead of ^ above expressions. for any given length / and crosssection.. in such sections as ellipses and rectangles.
—— — 308 The (3)./M sin +1 ^j sin 2 — 2 a /cos 2 a sin2 a\ (12) * = m\EF + . estimated by may be WR stress/ results from a bending moment cos o. 113. reduces to The component WR / = ^WR(i The maximum 16 . which reduces to the form (8).. sin a. . intensity of the greatest principal stress [CH. d — . and by i2 per cent. Art. Art.. 112. —The tends to increase i. 113. moment about OY. when a = o. this exceeds the value for 0=0 and the same length of wire by under 1 per cent. as cos a about OY' and M resilience 2 becomes . AM<£ . Art. f. 117. f . when a = 45 The axial extension caused by the couple M may be found by resolving the rotations as before. = 32/MR sm jrwa a COS a[^ ./cos2 a a\ nj7 = 27rRnM sec VeT + "NjV < I3 > in of J for noncircular sections being as before accordance with Art. % . . sections the principal stress by (4). the component f.e. components and the equation of M . X. when a = io°./M = A gj 2 cos2 a .. The various formulae derived in this article must be regarded as approximations only. <j>. Taking N= ^ . from a twisting moment For circular for noncircular sections being calculated as in Art. .. (15) and s 8 for a solid round wire of diameter . (2) it WR 2 2 sin — = ^516WR a 2 Axial Torque M. reckoned positive if to increase the curvature of the coils. The result for circular sections is 8 = M/R sin a cos a( ttv — pyJ . may be sin a about OX'. and — — : STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.. sin 2 a\ . split into before. because and a have been treated as constants actually they are variables which are changed by changes in axial length and by twist according to the obvious relations R . . 112. gj (16) the modifications in (15) for noncircular sections being as before. . and for a circular wire of diameter d the modification — 32/M/2Cosa a sin 2 o\ 64MR /2cosa a . Sin a) (n) intensity of shear stress is ^jiJWR? cos2 a + as for a closely coiled spring.gj /i 2\ 64MR2 or —f sin a(^  /i 2\ .
N = 12 x io6 lbs. = 200 x 16 x 8 = 8150 lbs. and resilience per cubic inch when the spring carries an axial load of 40 pounds. 125 lb. 1 1 8] TWISTING. °' 432 lnch P^ . _  (ioi8) 8 8 X 30 x X io« io« = .\RT./ ^E Example end of a 3. and its ten coils have a mean diameter of 10 inches.inches is applied. per square inch The resilience per cubic inch is * .. the changes in a and R may be neglected.nd twist of the free — Find the deflection and the angular helical spring of ten coils 10 inches diameter. and the twist <f> is the change in 2ir# . Find the elongation. A closely coiled helical spring is made of finch round steel. The twisting moment about 40 the axis of the wire is x 5 = 200 lb.„/? = X .. for small deflections and twists. 32M = n X 125 X 8 = 10. — per square inch. Example i. intensity of torsional stress. and work stored per cubic inch in the spring in Ex.inches is The angle of twist consequently 200 12 * ioe I0. Example 2. however. . 1 if an axial torque of E = 30 x io 8 lbs. — X The 4> angle of twist = M/ = EI 125 icrar X IO X 64 X 16 3o xio'Xt stress is = * „ . and the formulae given are nearly exact. made of ^inch .180 „ lbs. radlan = 24 4 S de g rees ' The intensity of bending 32 /= and the . Find the axial twist. . per square inch resilience per cubic inch 2 is . intensity of bending stress. per square inch. axial length of coil 3°9 2ir«R = / sin a = / cos a The deflection 8 is the change in axial length. 8150 X 8150 * N * la X io* = x ' 38 lnch P° unds „ .r X IO X X ts X — = ft radian and the deflection is ft X 5 = 4rs inches is The intensity of shear stress f.
118. j: \k 10 — = o 7q7 '*'  Then ^r^. of stress in the material. Art. of which there are five. 118— i = 4^ X sec 30Y cos2 30 + £. 118 1. estimate approximately the rotation of the lower end per pound of axial load. If a is the angle which the coils make with the horizontal when the ^ — N axis is vertical tan o hence sin pitch = = mean circumference = 0*623 a .4°oo.. if the helix makes an angle of 6o° with the axis (i. If the upper end is held firmly. Using the results of the simpler case of Ex. for a rectangle b may be used. Estimate also the greatest intensity. Art. load . 1 and of (3). n = 9 is gleeS n 8.100 3 120 l = Ti bd> 12 = T^Tr. in (9). A helical spring is made from a flat strip of steel 1 inch wide and inch thick. is 4 inches.000 _ 10. hence J=T5Xto(i °iJ=7^ 40J while A=A A A1 s° hence. (Note that the length of wire And from (10). per square inch Example 4. 12 x io« 33 " 7 .e. 16 Art. due to an axial load of 40 lbs. a 30 ). 1 and 2. 12. X.000 is (9). instead of v. Art.sin2 30°) = if X i"i55(°75 + 02) = 468 inches is Ex. 112. (1 V ~ *V = * ^ i'5 2 \ .) / 15 "5 per cent.= ° 00935 radian =053 5 degree .— 3IO round — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. (6). the thickness being perpendicular to the axis of the helix. and their pitch is 10 inches. the maximum principal stress intensity X 200 X + 5) = 8160 X = 12. greater than in * = 128x40X25x10x16 X 1 a X 10' From (n). and J by d  is ^bd(b 2 + d2).240 lbs. viz.ioo _ I2. Take the values of and E given in Exs. . Art.. = — — — [CH. the angle of twist for ilb.. The mean diameter of the coils. steel. * _ ~ 2ir X 4 X 5 X o 623 / io. Art. 8. 118. from 4 ~ _ 40 X i'oi X 10.OO0\ 10° \3X~12 v 30 / _ 2^X4X5x0623 .
shaft 4 inches diameter is at a certain section subject to a twisting moment of 40. . how much is the 1800 toninches.inches and a bending moment of 30.P. 2. Examples X.000 lbs. 7. the maximum twisting moment being 1 j times the mean. If twist in a length 20 times the diameter ? 6.000 lb. What is the angle of twist in correspond 10 feet length 3. per cubic inch. and the twist is not to exceed l° in To what maximum intensity of torsional stress does this if N = 12. with an elongation of 2 inches. of a closely coiled helical spring of round steel necessary to take a safe load of 500 lbs. and what is the inclination of the greatest principal stress to the axis of the shaft ? 9. the weight of steel square inch.000 lb. H 521 to • be stored =§X = 500 inchpounds. per square inch in a shaft 3 inches diameter.feet and a bending moment of 40 tonfeet. • j * rf N = —X 4 r 12 X io . What is the maximum intensity of direct stress in the material.. 5 with those of a solid round shaft of the same weight and length. The negative sign denotes that Example 5. the safe intensity of shear stress being 50. If a shaft 3 inches N A mum . per square inch.000. Compare (1) the torsional elastic strength.] TWISTING. greater than the mean and the limit of torsional stress is to be 8000 lbs. . Find the weight — N= 2 The proof resilience 1 per cubic inch 2 5°° is f. at 150 revolutions per minute. 5 with that of a round shaft which has the same torsional rigidity and is solid. 5. find the greatest intensity of torsional stress. = X io 8 x 2 8 52 T inchpounds J r . . 1.000. (2) the stiffness or torsional rigidity of the shaft in problem No.000 lbs. and being 0*28 lb. per If N = 12. Work 500 coo Cubic inches required. Compare (1) the weight and (2) the strength or moment of torsional resistance for the same maximum stress of the shaft in problem No. X. per 12 x io 6 lbs.X °' Weight : 2% = 2*69 lbs.inches.P. A steel 5 feet length.EX. the maxidirect stress being limited to 4 tons per square inch ? What should be the external diameter of a hollow shaft to do this if the internal diameter is o'6 of the external diameter ? in 10 feet length ? 4. at 60 revolutions per minute if the maximum torque is 30 per cent. shaft is 3 inches diameter. 8. What diameter transmits 100 H. 5°° w u of spring = . per square inch ? diameter of shaft will be required to transmit 80 H. What must be the diameter of a solid shaft to transmit a twisting moment of 160 ton. what is the maximum angle of twist square inch? if N = 5200 tons per square inch ? Find the twisting moment which will produce a stress of 9000 lbs. Find the maximum stress in a propellor shaft 16 inches external and 8 inches internal diameter when subjected to a twisting moment only of = 5200 tons per square inch.000. 311 the spring unwinds.
(N = 12 x io9 and E = 30 x io8 lbs. A propellor shaft of solid section is 10 inches diameter and transmits 1200 H. supported at points 50 inches apart. intensity of shear stress in the wire. section.inches.000 lbs. which 19. what horsepower can stress exceeding 5 tons per square it transmit without the greatest direct inch? 1 1. A [CH.) 18. 23. . per square inch. Find the maximum safe load and deflection of a closely coiled helical spring made of Jinch square steel. Find the necessary weight of. what length of wire will be necessary ? 16. Find its deflection under an axial force (N = 12 x io6 lbs. estimate the maximum intensity of compressive stress in the shaft where bending stresses are negligible. : . If in the previous problem there 10 tonfeet. per cubic inch. twisting moment will be required to twist the spring of problem No. Bending stress not to exceed 60. per square inch.000 lbs. If it runs at ioo revolutions per minute. per square inch.) 22. and (4) rectangular section J inch wide and J inch thick.) 3i. and twists 2 96 degrees between two points 40 inches apart under a twisting moment of 1500 Ib. the thickness being radial to the axis of the coil. 13.) 17. closely coiled helical spring made of Jinch round steel wire has 14. of load if 12 x io6 lbs. it is to be made. Find the twist of the springs in problem No. N. 21 due to an axial torque of 1 5 lb. . If a round bar of steel 1 inch diameter. (2) elliptical section \ inch by I inch. 12. per square inch).) 20. find the is in addition a bending moment of maximum  intensity of compressive stress. shaft i\ inches diameter is subjected to a bending moment of 6 toninches. Find in each case the stretch due to an axial load of 12 lbs.) What is the maximum of 12 lbs. The coils in each case make an angle of 30 with a plane perpendicular to the axis of the coils. A closely coiled helical spring is to be made of steel. find the length and diameter of the round steel of  A A ^ . ten coils of 4 inches mean diameter. and what is the stiffness of the spring in pounds per foot of deflection ? closely coiled helical spring is to be made of £inch wire (N = 15. if the thrust of the screw is 10 tons. per square inch. (N = 5200 tons per square inch.inches. Maximum safe shear stress 50. Find the rotation of the free ends of the springs in the previous problem. and is to deflect the coils are made 3 inches diameter. having ten complete coils 2 inches mean diameter. and give a deflection of 1 inch. and Poisson's ratio for the material. at 90 revolutions per minute . maximum safe stress 25 tons per square inch weight of steel C28 lb.P. find E. What per square inch. x. 14 through an angle of 30 about the axis of the helix ? (E = 30 x io° lbs. (N = 12 x io 6 lbs. per square inch. inch per lb. If the mean diameter of the coils of the spring in the previous problem is 5 inches. 10. Helical springs 4 inches diameter and having ten complete coils are made of steel (1) \ inch diameter round . the smaller diameter being radial to the axis of the coil (3) i inch square . deflects o io6 inch under a central load of 60 lbs.312 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. the necessary length and thickness of the wire to construct the spring. 6 (E = 30 x io lbs. per square inch. square in and is required to stand an extreme couple about its axis of 500 lb. inches and to twist through 360 Estimate for this twisting moment. a closely wound helical steel spring of round wire to stand a safe load of 3 tons.
AND DISCS. t . which causes a hoop tension of fx Consider the equilibrium of a half cylinder ABC of length DE or /. CYLINDERS. p X irl. and the stress may be taken Let r be the internal radius and / the as uniformly distributed. section. 1 2f . viz. . 156) subject Fig. Thin Cylindrical Shell with Internal Pressure. The walls not being subject to any shear stress. which is The intensity of the • radial thickness of a thin seamless circular cylinder (Fig. neglecting the weight of the fluid. Hoop Tension. Hence . 122). but where the Wall is of a thickness which is small compared to the diameter of the shell the variation is negligible.CHAPTER PIPES. XI. it is subjected to uniform pressure normal to the walls.l '.l. These must just balance the resultant fluid pressure on the curved surface ACB. 156. an internal pressure of intensity/.r. planes perpendicular to the axis the total hoop tensions perpendicular side of the cylinder to the diametral plane AB will be . — a very thin circular cylinder or pipe contains fluid under pressure. = £ . (1) (2> and s /. When a transverse tension. and this causes a tensile stress in the material in directions which are tangential to the perimeter of usually called circumferential or hoop hoop tension is rather greater at the inner side of the wall than at the outer (see Art. .t=2p. which is the same as that across A / the diametral plane AB. I on each as shown at and B. on to intensity . 119. .
the total longitudinal tension 2 . and E. and so prevent or reduce longitudinal stress in the material of the shell in other cases the ends may be connected only by the material of the shell.e. which varies from p at the In thin shells this stress inner side to zeio at the outside of the shell. Hence (3) f i . . circumferential strain ex is evidently. 2ml t\ or . .2irrt=p. in addition to the hoop tension u a longitudinal tension ot intensity. 157. XI. and E is the direct or stretch modulus of elasticity. 314 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.«E E\ which reduces to \fi when or i(\) Ev m/ ^(t) 2iE\ m) (7 ) E. The ends of a cylindrical shell may be connected by some form of stays parallel to the axis which resist wholly or in part the tendency of internal fluid pressure to force the ends apart.2m) or Pr( JeV ~ W 1 \ where — is Poisson's ratio.=/(i^) m= Evidently. 25). (6) which reduces to £/i if m= 4. 2irrt. 19 '" 1 \ _ A A _/if ~ E " mE ~ IV . . say The forces in an axial 2 direction on any length of the cylinder. . the longitudinal stress strengthens the shell in a circumferential direction. by Art. » the circumferential or — just half that of hoop (5) A = \A In addition to the two principal stresses/! and^ there is a third principal stress which is radial pressure.Trri /=£ the intensity being tension. Longitudinal Tension. is The 8 longitudinal strain e2 ^/'^(xI) m) E .^/AA) 2m \ J or ^fi— L).— /— — — [CH. and in this case the shell will have. according to the 4. the axial thrust of the fluid pressure. bounded by a closed end and a normal plane of crosssection FG (Fig. The may generally be neglected in comparison with x and a f / . are Fig. "greatest strain " theory of elastic strength (see Art. . which of the shape of the end and is equal to / irr2 and is. independent — f f . i. 157).«.
—In any oval section. 315 The radius increases in the same proportion (ex ) as the circumference. as in (3) and (4). T. The proportions and pitch of the rivets are not always fixed from considerations of strength alone. A. 158. Sept 23.1\ fEV m) (8) According to the "maximum shear stress" or "maximum stressdifference" theory of elastic strength. and the proper arrangement of such joints. B. A and is C is found just as in (1) and (2) to pX Ok be t ' and at B and D is /XOB similarly t and."the intensity (9) Oval Cylinders. Weston in the Engineer. the maximum effect would be equivalent to that produced by a simple tension^ — (— p) \p l =f i and from (2) /. cylindrical shells are not seamless. being alternately of opposite signs at those four points. such as an of hoop tension varies from point to point along the periphery. as in pipes of large diameter and steam boilers. and passing through zero between two consecutive points. but are constructed of plates curved to the correct radius and connected by riveted joints. 8 _p X / (internal area of pipe) X (perimeter of pipe) their extreme values at A. Very frequently.+/=Xj+i) thin cylinders of elliptical cylinder. C. 158. based on rules formed from experience. the longitudinal tension . In addition. and D. AND DISCS. CYLINDERS. 1904. The bending moments reach A 120. the oval section tends to become circular. simple graphical method of finding the bending moment and shearing force and tension at different points in the perimeter of such a pipe or cylinder is given by Mr. The hoop tension at D Fig. as the distribution of stress is very complex when stresses in the rivets and plates are calculated the average stress is generally understood. The strength of a riveted joint cannot be calculated with any great accuracy. a bending moment tending to increase the curvature acting in the neighbourhood of points of minimum curvature such as in Fig. and the proportional increase of capacity or the volume enclosed by the shell is therefore 2<?i + i?2 or Ml . 1 20] PIPES. and B and a bending moment of opposite sign acting at points of maximum curvature such as A and C.ART. — . Seams in Thin Shells.
the ellipse of stress being a circle. 119 — f /X 2irrt= p X irr > J This 2t is the direction of stress in every direction tangential to the The circumferential spherical shell. as in (3). If to the plane of a transverse section. strain in every direction. XI.i)=f(. Art. is— resulting stress 8 a v//i cos 6 which sin 2 is oblique to the helix. Hence circumferential riveted joints are often made of much lower efficiency than longitudinal ones. 1 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. In a cylindrical shell exposed to internal pressure having circumferential and longitudinal seams. and if r is the radius the intensity of the sphere. neglecting radial compressive stress in the shell. ing any frictional resistance of the riveted joint. Thin Spherical Shell with Internal Pressure. p the intensity of internal pressure. 120 — — 3 /2 cos 6 +/i sin 6 2 or 2 /(§ cos 6 + sin 2 6) and the intensity of the by Art. by Art. The forces across a diametral plane are the same as those across a transverse section of a cylinder perpendicular to its axis. The weakest part of a thin cylindrical shell being the longitudinal seams. 15 (1). and of tension in the shell of thickness t." vol. with the notation of Art. see . than in the longitudinal seams which resist the circumferential tension. the average tensile stress at the minimum section in the plate perforated to receive the rivets is greater than in the solid plate in the same ratio that the sectior of the solid plate is greater than the smallest section of the perforated plate perpendicular to the direction of tension. is evidently— fts) w(.i) 1 For a discussion of the points involved in the design of riveted Unwin's " Machine Design.— 3^6 — [CH. evidently the area of section perpendicular to the direction of tension may be reduced more in the circumferential seams. joints. +/ a 2 6 121. or 90° 6 the inclination to the axis of the cylinder. which resist the longitudinal tension. the intensity of the latter (in the solid plate) being twice that of the former. the efficiency being the ratio of the strength of the joint to that of a corresponding width of seamless plate. i. Neglectbelongs to the subject of design of structures and machines. 15 (3). the intensity of normal stress across the helix is. it might evidently be made stronger with regard to internal pressure by making all the seams inclined to the axis of the is the inclination of a helix on the cylindrical surface cylinder. Helical Seams.
CYLINDERS. the third principal stress being parallel to the axis of the cylinder. 159.xhpt . 3* reduced • limit when the thickness of the element is A=A«^=S^«*) Another relation between to longitudinal strains. an assumption which must be nearly true at a considerable distance from the ends.ART. Art. . The intensities of the circumferential and of the radial stress in a thick cylinder of homogeneous and isotropic material can be calculated if simple assumptions are made. 119. Fig. 159). considering the equilibrium of half of any very thin cylindrical element of radius*.lxtyx =p. / .(A + 8A) 2 (* + 8*)/= 2A. say. The following theory is due to Lame" Let Ri respectively be the internal and external radii 2 and (Fig. Then. 122] PIPES. 160.. : — R A A A ?x +sJ>x jyiFig. as in (1). the outward resultant of the pressure on inside and outside. must be equal to the total hoop tension across a diametral plane. and let and be the internal and external pressure intensities. and be the intensities of radial compressive stress and circumferential tension respectively at any variable radius x. 3*7 The is proportional increase of radius is e.hx . .e. independent of x.e. AND DISCS. and. length / (Fig. however the ends may be supported or even if they are free. thickness 8x. This involves the longitudinal strain Now at any point in a crosssection being constant. i. 160). and of the enclosed volume 3 ^org(ii) 122. It is (I) • * • an assumption as A and A depends upontransverse sections that plane assumed remain plane under the pressure. Thick Cylinder subject to Fluid Pressure. lSx the outward pressure on the curved surface.A 8* . i. or (A x and in the indefinitely 2x1) . Let/.
— 3 18 if STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. XI. And since e. 19 say. at any point distant x from the axis. [CH. E /i. the longitudinal stress is uniformly distributed and its intensity is f u and the longitudinal strain is e. and m are constants./. EV . 1 m ) which is constant with respect to x if crosssections originally plane remain plane. Take to . tensile. — pz must be constant. by Art.
161. this greatest " stress difference " is 2 which determines its value from (5) and (6) 2 A + A = zARi R 7(Ri 2 R is 2 V  • • • (7«) and its maximum value. 319 which also shows the radial and hoop or circumferential strains which. that the walls of the cylinder carry the whole end Fig. 25. at the inner surface. — Stresses and strains in thick cylinder. 161 (7) greatest algebraic difference of principal stresses is also shown according to the "maximum shear stress" theory of elastic . It has been assumed. *H +A = 'Mt/WXf) • • • (7*) . 161. according to the maximum strain theory. AND DISCS. 25). elastic failure . in estimating the strains in Fig. should be used as a measure of elastic strength. of the internal pressure as is a uniformly distributed the tensile The greatest intensity of stress hoop tension at the inner surface of the tube where x =R » 2) and is a =a r7^r? The in Fig. it is strength (Art. thrust stress.ART. CYLINDERS. Art. 122] PIPES.
internal ^= _p ARi R. . maximum hoop stress is i) } > i \ *. by Art. depend upon the maximum The principal stress..R V . 1 R 2 2 ) (10) — \ If the external pressure is zero. (14) which has the same maximum value (13) when x = R 2 It may also be noted for subsequent use that everywhere A = M* + R 122a. . or the maximum stress difference (and therefore maximum shear stress) at the inner side of In order to the wall where all of these are greater than elsewhere.. 161. 2 (13) The stressdifference is A +A = .J or/4 **(Ri R 2 ) which is V . . (15) — for Tubes and Cylinders. Dimensions Results. pressure p2 is 1) +R («  2) } 4. . External Pressure. —— — [CH. thickness form which lends = = ." .R R1 RA ( I+ 7] A a A x ( RfR* 1 R ' t _ 2 .— 320 strain — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. using the constants fx and the a and b as found above .. Let / or value of /2 just necessary to cause elastic failure. (II} R?^ 2 2 . Experimental to strengths of thin striking and thick tubes subjected examples of the different conclusions theories of elastic strength (Art. and in this case at the inner 2 2 E eH = A{ R*(m + which is less than (8).2ARa2 R 22 4.V +/l R . ( 12) x the negative sign denoting that the circumferential stress /„ is in this case compressive . (8) greater than the value (7). XI.(R12 . If the longitudinal stress f x is zero. 25) may lead. For a given internal pressure the safe ratio of thickness of wall to bore of the tube will. for a given material. 2 + fR 2)HRi R* ) 2 If the cylinder wall carries the —/ = R 2 2 2 ^ (R^ — end pressure tRJA. viz. understand the application of the three theories of strength to tubes it is desirable to restate the results of Art. ( a a 4r7=r? + . Let^ internal pressure. 122 for the inner skin in a itself to easy comparison. The elastic internal pressure form to which the different s * ) ^ (^  R 2 2 ) • • • ..? + R f Rflw + ') + R 2 nr e ^ = . 19 .R22V ~ f RA W . difference in distribution and amount has been shown in Fig.. maximum principal strain. reduces (9) A(iRi uniform tension. taking f as x R22) . the stress equivalent to the greatest which occurs in the direction of the 2 a . and which. it reaches its greatest magnitude when x R2 = . . : A =2/ R 1 2 1 ^(R1 2 R 2 2 ) . R1 2 » 1 2 r "^R.wfR. when 2 2 m= 4.^ surface.
s= / &+ 1* .&/£$}. Let value of p„2 at the elastic failure. Let/' maximum " equivalent " safe stress. Art.1) 1) 1) } (5) 2ma(i 1 ~ k\m + +m m+ 2a(i +a + *){m + ) 1) W fr+s) / and a or a v '>0 + =) ! 7 V +IHUJvA^liL. CYLINDERS. &+=) /" " ' I 1 'X'+=) If the tube carries the whole longitudinal tension due to the pressure d 2p.. Maximum = Principal Stress. AND DISCS. 32 Let of wall = Ri — Ra. R^Rj or ^±^= stress k.e. p k2  I or 1 —+ 20+T* + 2a 2a(a . 122 (10) becomes rWy+i} Y « . — / = maximum Then safe principal Art. and d = internal diameter = 2R2. i.. and t/d=a = \(k  1).ART. elastic failure. E times the maximum principal strain or value of E et at — = . 122 (7) becomes and . 1 22a] PIPES. Art. Maximum Principal Strain.3v^i These are the most convenient forms for finding dimensions to suit given conditions. 1) 1 2 ( 2) w . Then for the case when the tube carries no longitudinal 122 (8) becomes f ~ P\ and p /' . m(# m(P . stress.
122 (7^) becomes — + pa necessary to cause / =^*nn and •. XI. (io) Also *= / fK m) or / V m> . and for being taken equal to 4. ' a or  d / / (l6) 2 / / p p J J p 7m J according to equa The values of ls t for given values of ^. 161A. and (16). . . The dotted curves each case represent equation (12). an effect which is. where the circumferential strain diminished by longitudinal stress. . marked and becomes less as the thickness increases relatively to the bore. it may be. by any desired factor). given tube to read off a safe internal fluid pressure for a specified maximum value of the stress or " equivalent stress. v /" _ 2Z 1 • • (i5) • > and . . Or 2 2tn — i Ama(l + a) 7 —^7 + 4<i(i + a)(m + .or n tions (4). given internal pressure p and any given maximum stress or any maximum working equivalent stress/' or/" (reduced. — Let/" = the maximum pv stressdifference. it is easy from these diagrams to read off the necessary thickness Or alternatively. = mfk1 — £r(m 13/  i) + . StressDifference. for in is a specified internal fluid pressure. most in thin walled tubes.. 2^ . i the value of then Art. p [CH. are shown plotted in Fig. / J.(1+ + 4a + *I : a) 40^ (14) v ''• — = if 1 t P I \Zjn~. of course. etc. v l) +m— . for any of a tube in terms of its internal diameter.322 and STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. e." or to read the m stress. For a thicker cylinders also in Fig. (xx) and u or a V i (») /'\ m> I \ \ m> safe algebraic elastic Maximum failure. (8). (12).I 757s f 2k' ' — or —2. 161B. (13) / = I?. x) . j.
CYLINDERS. AND DISCS.ART. . 32 3 020 "hi 15 S oio 4> 005 ft. I2 2a] PIPES.
324 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. [CH. . XI.
His experimental methods of detecting the first signs of yield under pressure are not published in his paper . p. Experimental Results. (n). i6ib) demanded by the theories of maximum principal strain and maximum stressdifference. for which proportions (see Fig. differing mainly on the safe side. although they supply useful information as to the working strength of commercial welded pipes. but is based on the external diameter and may be stated as cylinders. and an approach towards the " maximum This stressdifference " theory for ductile materials under static loads. Soc.E. to the form (16a).. and all of thickness less than 0*02 of the diameters. Dec. " Engineering. Some excellent experiments made by Cook and Robertson a on thick cylinders under internal pressure gave for mild steel cylinders of widely varying ratios of thickness to diameter consistent results for the stress at yield point. Barlowfs rule for the strength of thick (and thin) which has had considerable use but has no rational justification. "Strength of Thick Hollow Cylinders under Internal Pressure. by over 30 per cent. 161 a) the calculated stresses do not differ very greatly. (12) corresponded most closely with tensile yield point tests of the material. From a large number of tests on commercial lapwelded steel pipes Prof. For cast iron (a brittle material) they obtained consistent results for the internal pressures at fracture agreeing very closely with those calculated by the formula (4) for maximum principal stresses equal to the ultimate tensile strength of the material. Incidentally.ART. CYLINDERS. 191 . 15. AND DISCS. These results point strongly towards the substantial accuracy of the " maximum stress rule " for brittle materials. (10). 1. Stewart x concludes that the stress calculated at yield point by the method of formulae (9). is in general agreement with the best of other experiments (see Art. I2 2a] PIPES. as such. the pipes were not seamless. Cook and Robertson found that the ultimate strength of their mild steel thick 1 — Proc. as compared to (16). i6ia). M. according to the maximum stress rule. d+2t 8 / This reduces. it follows fairly closely the curve based on equation (8) for maximum strain. 325 It may be noticed that in each case these are less than the corresponding rule for a thick cylinder. lying about halfway between the values (see Fig. * Am. 297. T. and must be looked upon as an empirical rule. moreover. so that to treat a " thick " cylinder as a thin one is to err on the unsafe side (see Fig. 1912. 25) on compound stress made in widely different ways. while the simple rule (40) overestimates ^. is of the same form as (4a). R. For a cylinder with a wall thickness equal to only onetenth of the internal diameter the error is over ro per cent. For these reasons such experiments cannot be accepted as conclusive evidence as to the relative merits of different formulae for the strength of seamless thick cylinders.
may collapse by buckling or flexure. four points. while a relatively thick walled tube or cylinder remains circular in section up to the limit If a tube is short in length of compressive resistance of the material. say. . (3). IX. as a this is form Fig. 119. Art. points which divide increased curvature (in and HM) from decreased curvature (in and LM). (2). or rather. where T =/. if/ be taken as the ultimate tensile strength of the material. the notation of Art. H. X / X 1 =pr (2) The critical value of T necessary to produce instability might by analogy be deduced from Euler's rules of Chap. (say less than 6 diameters). XI. 122b. and the simplest symmetricalform would strut are be that in which the circular section begins deformation by taking a slightly oval form. it may derive some support from its ends Using so to simplify the problem a long tube may first be presumed. KL HK HK . When a cylindrical shell or tube is exposed to external pressure the wall is subjected to a circumferential or hoop thrust of the intensity given by (12). K. cylinders under a bursting pressure agreed with an empirical law corresponding to Lame's formulae (i).— STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. from that of the tube with internal pressure in much the same way as For just as that of a strut differs from the simpler case of a tie bar. the wall of total circumferential length 2trr and rectangular section t X 1 is subjected to a total thrust T. Then considering. M. if long and unsupported. If the wall of the tube is thin the nearly uniform compressive stress may be calculated by the simpler formula (2). L. if the length and end conditions of the equivalent known. say. Art. as before— fPL '(1) Now consider a very short axial length of tube which may conveniently be taken of unit length. In an ideal case of this kind some form of symmetrical collapse must obviously be assumed. and borne out by exIn such a case there will be. 156 being reversed. of contraflexure. 119. and p the external — pressure. each of length \pr. periment. i6ic. as in Fig. r the external radius. 122. so may the thin wall of a tube of large diameter. and (4). applicable to struts or columns. but letting f represent the intensity of comx pressive stress in the walls. Tubes under External Pressure. a strut. and these four points will divide the tube section into four equal arcs. 326 [CH. the direction But the problem differs of all the forces in Fig. 16 ic.
Fig. where 8 is small. Soc. but as representing the form of expression for the critical value oip. of radiils r become an ellipse of semiaxes r + S and r — 8. the anticlastic curvature of the unit length considered is resisted by the adjoining portions. deduced not by rigid analysis." p. Cook's section of a report on " Complex Stress Distribution " in the British 1 Assoc. This value. CYLINDERS. 77. If a slight distortion of the circular section into an elliptical shape be assumed. must not be looked upon as exact. More rigid mathematical analysis leads to the value— m> E /As i r »i  4 \r> m m* — 2 _/A» 1 \dJ V3/ For a simple demonstration of this result the author is indebted to Mr. I2 2b] strut PIPES. Southwell. i (4) which is approximately the critical pressure for tubes so long that the ends have no appreciable effect in resisting collapse elsewhere. Section G. Love's " Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. E. vol. Phil. E. 287 (1888). the curvature at any point is Q p P H r r rv to the first order of smallness in 8. with the resulting circumferential thrusts /(. . = 4E^ 2 I2/ — / r A E/A = —() 3V7/ 8 or 8E//V  — \d) I 1 . G. Bryan in Proc. R. vi. Cambs. 530.ART. 94 would not be E. where —= Poissori's ratio. V. too. H. or A. p. 161c. Then the ellipse is or y = r8 ^r^(r + hfx> Differentiating this twice and substituting in the formula for curvature given in the footnote to Art. but by analogy to the case of a straight strut with an axial load. Art. Report. or hence from (3)— pr . . and Bibliography Mr. and the appropriate modulus of elasticity as shown in Art. to See papers by G. Let the circular section. at the critical pressure T_ Also I 4 EI ** {3) =±x 1 X /' and „ T = pr. its AND DISCS. from r'EI _ (W)*~ (6). Since the tube is not really of short axial length. then the critical pressure / will be such as will maintain the slightly distorted shape in equilibrium against the elastic restoring force of the tube wall. H. 1913. 327 hinged at ends H and K. but — l .• + 3) and p(r — 8) as indicated to the right of the figure.
a ltd) in this position of slight elliptical displace ment. and deviation from the ideal in imperfectly circular section. and the value given above for^ in terms of x. . inequality of the wall thickness. 1 E— 12 of resistance at Hence from (5a) the moment Q is ' 4^( i S 1 s and at x = o mE 2 mr — 4/" (5<) and at x = r M A =+— For neutral equilibrium 5 . positive moments producing increase of curvature. 328 The STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. Taking moments about A for the quadrant shown in Fig. = nr — . This critical pressure.— . — m l 2 . it is only necessary to multiply the increase of curvature by —„ 2 m — EI 1 : that is. 161c. To obtain the moment of resistance to flexure at any point of the section.BGJ Moreover. « ^. 94). these moments must balance the corresponding bending moments produced by the pressure p. —— — [CH XI. it will be found to the first order of smallness 8 that with this value is equal to the resisting moment as given ofp the bending moment at which is the value given in any point Q of the portion CQ Q by (56) for a slight elliptical distortion. of course. variation in and finite elastic limits of the material will all tend in practice to produce collapse at lower pressures. 129) is proportional to the bending moment. bearing in mind the prevention of antielastic curvature (Art. MA = M c /(.M c = —. increase in curvature is a P r rl r r r) and this in a curved piece (see Art. using the value (5c) for the moment applied at C. E 472 1 / = 4{m '  E^ 1) (5). applies to an ideal case. if we take moments about of the tube wall.•  Sf + \p(r + S) + \p{r 2 Sf = M + 2//S c Substituting for M A and M from (5(f) and (5c) 2prl * = M A .
Sept. Am. CYLINDERS. 3. Bridgman in Phil. W. See also various experiments by R. vol. . I. See paper by R. 1906. Jan. obtain. vol. that the following held Carman and Carr found good * : For seamless steel tubes/ = 95. conditions between failure according to (5) or (6).520— 2090 1025 2 474 lbs. AND DISCS. p. a more or less empirical formula may represent the ultimate resistance to collapse over a considerable range of the slenderness ratio .. vol. Thus over a considerable range. pp. See also vol. M.ooo. . p. e4>' f j 1S less than °' 02 S the experimental values are about For steel tubes p= 5o. 2 In the case of tubes which are neither very thin nor yet very thick. vol. 1906 . will say . M. inch . July. 17. failure occur not by buckling but by crushing of the material. as in that of very short struts. 33. gradually and uniformly closing up the hole.. 4 In this case. (7) For brass tubes/ = J „ „ . (8) In the case of very thick tubes. * 329 have Experiments made both on seamless and on lapwelded tubes given values for the collapsing pressures of the form <Sf (6) in agreement with (4) and (5)." Carman and Carr. pp. 3. but the constant c has generally been about 25 to 30 per cent. Mag. Phil.(10) S^ » » (") Resistance of Tubes to Collapse.30S3I2 . Such a formula may again follow the types of the strut formulae. of Illinois Bulletin. 730.E. Univ. Southwell. 2 " Collapse of Thick Cylinders under High Hydrostatic Pressures " by See P. 190506.3 6 „ „ . and failure at the elastic limit. 29. 27. of Illinois Bulletin.Welded Tubes.greater than 003. ' Contrary to what might be expected. vol. less than that which would be given by (5). T. 1912 . for. vol. Am. per sq. Trans. June. 730822.above 0025. 4 "Resistance of Tubes to Collapse. 19056. vol. 1912. Stewart in Trans.ooo( lbs.ART.ooo. tubes of moderate thickness fail almost immediately after the occurrence of overstrain. and " Collapsing Pressures of Steel Lap. Soc. 1907.. No. 29. Mag. xxxiv.270— p= 93. also Physical Review." Univ. PP.. (9) For lapwelded tubes For brass tubes 1 / = 83.. 123130. and 191 1. 27. June. 17. inch .E. as for struts. V. Soc. " No. per sq." Stewart. I2 2b] PIPES.. 1913.ooc/J 25. No. 123.
i(^2  i)rf F> Lilly. Eng. 1913. a continuous rule might be written 1 — P= I 77T. vol. from (1) / = *£ d where /is the is (") and the cases where 1 stress at the elastic limit. 102. Trans. pp. May and September.. neglecting the term —5 m — 3 in ( k). Whereas a long tube collapses through an oval form into a twolobed or more or less 8shaped section. In this connection Southwell 2 has derived for very thin tubes the interesting formula _/( 1 Z d* . increases with the number of lobes formed. Feb. being roughly (as for struts) inversely proportional to the lengths of such arcs. 1910. 8 Phil. also upon the thickness of the walls." Proc. which. and Phil. as in Art. VJ/ is p Such a formula would be = 2E Q 2 (13) '—7? 1 (I4) + E/ Or if the constant a deduced from experiments on tubes be used. XI. Effect of Length. A. viz. elastic limit stress A somewhat similar formula was suggested by Dr. 187244. or 1 77* • • • • (15) + «©' 1+® and probably Below a length dependent upon the diameter. rising discontinuously as the length of tube decreases. collapse into shorter arcs. but in place of the crushing resistance. when the material under consideration is one for which the constants involved have been determined by actual experiments on tubes . Civ. but it is. of course. tubes offer a resist — ance to collapse greater than that of a very long tube. 1915.. a short tube collapses into a more or less symmetrical shape showing in section an increasing number of lobes as the length Thus shorter tubes have their circular sections divided at decreases. / he used the ultimate .— — — — [CH. to construct an empirical continuous formula to embrace the cases where failure takes place at the elastic limit of compression. Mag. instability reached.. and January. See " The Collapsing of Circular Tubes. and the collapsing pressure. Inst. possible. 33° STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 213 (1913). Probably this is the best form for practical purposes. of Ireland.
ART. AND DISCS. The length L has been taken to be about = 1700 cj 1600 ^. and / the total length Experiments on tubes of different lengths lead to the conof tube. CYLINDERS. I2 2b] where k stands is PIPES.1300 g 1200 . clusion that below a certain critical length L the collapsing pressure p is approximately inversely proportional to the length or that * where/' its is (i7) least value the collapsing pressure for a long tube which approaches to when / L. 331 for the number of lobes in the collapsed section and Z a constant for any given type of endfastening. 1000 £ 800 &H 700 600 S\ .1500 0.
(x 9) Vy ' Fig. thin fluetubes are used to resist collapse by maintaining at intervals a circular form and approximating somewhat to the conditions of a shorter tube. and then. 16 id. may then conveniently be taken to represent approximately the type of relation of collapsing pressure to length for To agree with the form (18) up to the limit /= L. Mag. after finding L from (22). 191 5.. the value of (16) when k = 2 and / = 00). first by using the formula (6) or (15) for long tubes. 2 Phil.— — — 332 by writing — [CH. uneven in thickness or in other ways different from the ideal or from elaborate experiments. — 1 "The Collapse of Short Tubes by External Pressure. Spacing of Collapse Rings. /= * shown on f e'L7£ f ^_Y£l #V 36V0Z J d* /^ V »6W 9 1 . 7477.. 5156. Southwell a has indicated how a rational method of spacing such stiffening rings may be deduced from is to materials. XI. January. curve represented by the least values of all the curves (16) obtained This hyperbola different integral values of k. Mag. by using (17) for lengths less than L. Stiffening rings of various types at the junctions of sections of long. x variations — m* 1 e . but only slightly for jj differing for different types of end in \i — m 4 constraints. Equating the two values (19) and (5) °f j*i ^e critical length L is 16 9 «/ Z m 2  V = 36 r~S 1 d6 .. 1914..e. the short tubes. In practical design the constants used will depend upon the type of fixture of the ends into a truly circular form and liability of the tube to be initially imperfectly circular in form. pp. / materials. Experiments by Cook on steel tubes of various lengths and thicknesses point to agreement with the relation (18) when (21) is taken as V? and it (22) be expected that this will not greatly differ for other Subject to confirmation by experiments over wider ranges and other materials.. . the critical collapsing pressure of thin tubes of any length may be predicted. July. ( > 2 °) which is of the simple form <V^ different (21) where C 5 is an unknown constant. n g unimportant. pp. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. critical length L must be defined as the length at which the relation (18) ends and the critical pressure reaches the value (5) (i." Phil.
and the tube in practice will have other imperfections itself. and consequently the righthand side of (25) should be divided by such a factor. valuable bibliography on the subject of the Resistance of Tubes to Collapse will be found appended to Mr. Thick Spherical Shell. Inasmuch as the rings fail to maintain a truly circular form in the tube wall. the material. say. the limit (26) of t is about 55 of the diameter of the tube. .000 pounds per square inch for steel. found by writing s (22). 34. etc. possibly as high as 2. 333 the preceding results. G. modified perhaps to meet deviations from ideal conditions.being from (12).ART. an equation between the principal stresses p* and /„ may be formed by at A — . 1913. which gives is =L in (25). the collapsing pressure would be If s is made such by as to bring the tube as indicated (12). If px is the radial compressive stress 123. collapse rings will be useless because. References. the left side of equation (24) should probably be multiplied by some factor greater than unity.e. which in the spherical shell is equal in all directions perpendicular to the radius. any radius x and py the circumferential tensile stress. and E as 30.. i. This limit and substituting the value of L from iJ\ (26) For tubes thicker than this. Section G. British Association. failure would first take place by crushing at a stress intensity/. AND DISCS. 123] PIPES. Collapse rings will only be useful so long as they increase the critical collapsing pressure. Using the approximate value (13) for/ in (17) for lengths s between consecutive collapse rings and Cook's value (22) tor L. so long as s is less than L.000.000. even though the value of the critical collapsing pressure be raised by reducing s. CYLINDERS. with due allowance for corrosion. Cook's contribution to the report on Complex Stress Distribution. equating (23) up to and (12) its full pressure resistance V/=346 7x/J and which gives (24) *j=*13ys/j> s in (*5) terms of the dimensions of the tube and properties of previously fixed. If/ be taken as.
. and from (2) P. 19 .p.respectively. . distant x from the centre of the sphere.. say) I ... strains being by symmetry the same Hence from Art. #. the radial and circumferential tensile strains are ex =— dtt and ev = tl . STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. Another equation connecting x and pt may be found from a consideration of the strain. w f ) • * (7) ' • dx=x* which on integration gives A=p + « where a is (8) a constant.— 334 — —— — — [CH. is displaced a distance u (as shown fully in p Art. '' u 1 (m — 1 r \ = * = eV1^A+aJ du 1 (3) / 2 \ . v Eliminating it (by differentiating equation (3)). . XI... considering the forces on an elementary spherical shell of radius thickness 8* for x and (i) ix*px  tt(x + Sx) (px + 2 8A) = 2ttxSx . = ^~ a l> (9) . 126). the circumferential in all tangential directions. If a point in the shell. we find <* ~ x >* ^x + *fi + (OT + (2) I)(A +^ = ° • • (5) dp and substituting for/„ and ~r from €h^ dh = .. The solution of which (as an equation in / 6) y") is x*—— dx °r = constant = —6b.
. and = for x Rj. solving substituting the values of/.. The state of stress when the compound tube sustains an internal fluid pressure is the algebraic sum of the initial stresses. x1 ) when integrated as in (n). \ '* du ^J Mrf» \xdx = *. 161 shows that in a thick cylinder subject to internal pressure. This is attempted in various ways. (13) at the outer surface * =R lf 124. and that resulting from the internal pressure as calculated (Art. gives— A A = * = + R °' W \ / ^ which varies from tion (9) gives =p2 pz. 122. gives du r dx + 2.=/8 to o as* varies from as * R 2 to R lt lf and equi equa(II) a=/2 r7^~r?(1? +i ) which varies from *» at the inner surface _/ R + 3 2 t aR. so producing a compound cylinder. while the metal near the inside of the tube may carry a heavy intensity of stress.R23 x= R 2. Considering a compound cylinder consisting of two tubes. CYLINDERS.ART. that near the outside may only carry a much lower stress. if the inner radius be R 2 and the outer one R s and at the junction the radius be R^ for the inner tube .' (I2 > 2 ' R. equation (8) gives >r Rj. 335 In the case of internal pressure itemal outer p2. 123. A=p« (1) A=^ + * 1 ( 2) The reader c„ ' may «  verify this after reading Art 126 by writing — = x = k{^t^ + d'u itm  I I . Art. — A the initial circumferential stress in the outer part being tensile. 3 to . The initial stress intensity anywhere may also be calculated as in Art. + 2«„ = constant x . Compound Cylinders. = *{*• k\ U . if px o for x R„ the out* radius. one shrunk on to the other. ~™ h ) these 2 \ where « is the radial displacement at a radius x . Fig.= e. more uniform distribution under internal pressure may be obtained by giving the inner part of the metal an initial hoop pressure. 124] PIPES. and/„ in (2). and that in the inner part being compressive. the inner radius. one method being to shrink tubes on to smaller tubes. we get an equation equations and _ _ dx 1 which. 126 or as in Art. down A^fA%' J R ft 8 R 3 3 K. a The stresses and strains may now be found as in Art. 126. 122) for a single tube. AND = DISCS.
To explain condition (4) more fully. by condition (3). at the junction of the tubes the circumferential tensile strain of the outer tube is E R A. XI. the conditions (3) and (4) are unnecessary. ga  a = ^ a Hence condition (4) leads to the equation \(V — b . Also for the being compressive and pt being tensile when positive. and the amount original radius is A (S ) therefore increased after the shrinking by an *£+fi)MG&+')i + (£')a> The increase of radius of the inner tube at the radius R. four conditions necessary to find the four constants may be stated as follows : (1) /. o for * o for x R. \ _ original difference of radius at R t . . and the strain being compressive.— 336 px — — — — — — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. [CH. . 4 below). (2) px each tube has the same magnitude for x B^ .{(£ + «)l + (£"fe} <« a and b being in this case negative quantities. divided by M or equals the algebraic difference of the hoop strains. outer tube. (4) the algebraic difference of the hoopstress intensities for the two tubes at * lt b' and The = =R = = = =R = divided by equals the original difference of radii at the junction radius Rj before shrinking. is < 6> similarly K. (3) px for 2 . (10) where a and b will be negative quantities (see Ex.{(& + ')» + (p)a} The total difference of original radii at junction is therefore <8) h E since. similarly ?' = ?*' b' (3) A =p+« a' (4) being constants other than a and b. the decrease of radius being ». If a value of/z is assigned for x R.
. unknown AND DISCS. b. 4 X QoY X is IS.X 5^0) = 047854 square inch . If 8 is known. 122 with the necessary change of notation for the outer tube. stress in the material of the the intensity of this stress 1 1 78 r (2 X 0*2) = 2945 pounds per square inch (a) After the pressure is in the tube. From 119. If this tube is closely wound with a inch diameter. Per inch length of pipe the total force is 400 X 6 and the resisting area is (2 = 2400 pounds X 02) + (40 X . have the same change in intensity of stress. 124! PIPES. —A ^ ratio = 5. and then the most important stresses in each cylinder may be written from where = = the results in Art. 2 a ? 2 2 3 a ~ a a 8_ 2R. Find the stand an internal pressure of 400 pounds per square inch. 122.000 pounds per square inch before the pressure comes into the tube. CYLINDERS. having a uniform tension of layer of round steel wire 15.) (2). (a) if no stress in the direction of the axis is borne by the pipe. of complete coils of wire a iinch length of pipe is = The 40 X . . necessary thickness if the intensity of tensile stress is to be limited to 6000 pounds per square inch. px may be found from (n).R 2 2 2 . the bursting forces across a diametral plane are resisted jointly by the wall of the tube and the winding. Then (10) becomes their values in terms of pi A pV + Rx + Ri + R R^ .a in (9) are the values of/. having practically the same strain and same modulus of elasticity. (Poisson's (b) if all the stress in that direction is carried by the pipe. . o'2 inch Number total tension across 20 per inch length of pipe. in the and inner tubes respectively at the common surface at x = R„ may be written down from (7) and (12) of Art. Art. since the two quantities =£ outer + «' and ^i \.R E (R . d and V. • * * (1 1} original difference of diameters at the junction of the 8 cylinders at x Rj. which. find the mean intensity of stress in the metal of the tube and wire before and after the pressure of 400 pounds per square inch is in the pipe. 337 Instead of finding the quantities a. 000 = "78 pounds which causes a circumferential compressive tube . the pipe thickness t ^1 = 400 X 3  0000 = . steel pipe 6 inches internal diameter has to withExample i.ART.
the longitudinal stress being. — 2 inches thick. from (4).000 + 4389 = cylindrical boiler 7 feet internal diameter has to Example 2. in intensity of stress is therefore 047854 = 5015 pounds per square inch tension The tension of the tube will therefore be 5015 — 2945 5015 = 2070 pounds per square inch be 20. Art.— —— 33^ The change 2400 f — — — —— — [CH. find the average tensile stress in the plate at the joint. XI. From (3). at all points in the crosssection. Art 122. stand a pressure of 200 pounds per square inch. If the section of plate through the centres of a row of rivets in a longitudinal seam is 70 per cent. as in Art. no. the intensity of radial pressure A=3o b . and the hoop strains of the tube and wire being equal f where/' is the increase in tensile stress in the wire.714 pounds per square inch A hydraulic main is 6 inches internal diameter and and the water pressure is 1000 pounds per square inch. equating the total change of tension to the bursting pressure per inch length as before 04 x/+ 007854 X 5 (/ 750) = 2400 /= °"47*£ 8 f— The and 5139 in the wire =5139 pounds 75° per square inch S'39 — = 4389 pounds per square inch tension in the tube will therefore be — 2945 = 2194 pounds per square inch 19. 1 1 9 /.015 pounds per square inch and the tension in the wire will 15. —A For the . of the area the intensity be 9600 X ^= 13.389 pounds per square inch 15. Hence. of that of the unperforated plate. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.000 + = (b) If is the change in hoop stress in the wall of the pipe due to the pressure. Find the intensities of circumferential tension and radial compression Example 3. equal to 3000 pounds per square inch. the plates being \ inch thick. = 200 X 42 8 X— = 9600 pounds per square inch full Where will' the plate is reduced to 70 per cent. full plate.
outer. CYLINDERS. 339 = 1000 for x = 3. 4 inches external diameter. for all parts of the metal walls are shown in In calculating the radial and hoop strains. —A final compound tube made by shrinking one tube dimensions being internal diameter. fi At the inner surface x square inch = ~ — 3 2' 3 A — 1000S £ + = 2126 pounds per square inch fir( = pounds per 8 1) px At the outer surface x= l) 5 A = i iiF( + I = II2 S pounds per square inch is : A=° Example 4.000 pounds per square inch. and E = 30 X io pounds per square inch. and common surfaces. 124. find the hoop stress at the inner.) and from 122. PIPES. and what is the least difference of temperature necessary to allow of the outer one passing over the inner one ? If the compound tube is subjected to an internal pressure of 15. AND o for DISCS. Using the equations of Art. 124] Putting/. 6 on another. How much heavier would a single rube require to be in order to stand this pressure with the same maximum hoop tension ? Take the coefficient of expansion as o ooooo62 per degree 6 F. and A= # = 5— 9000 225.000 hence A = 2229(f (4). If the radial pressure at the common 3inch radius is 2500 pounds per square inch. — 2 x = 4 A= u 2 5°° f° r 2. in the external diameter of the inner tube and internal diameter of the outer tube before shrinking on. the intensity of hoop tension The I'ig. the end pressure has b sen assumed to cause a uniform axial tensile stress of 1000 X 5 a 562 pounds per square inch. values of/* 161. and/. the inches. diameter at the junction of the tubes.ART.5°o 7 = 3 6 °.o° 7 — * = 3 ..000 and for the outer tube = = o for hence a . 8 inches . Art. . find the greatest hoop tension and hoop What difference must there be pressure in the compound cylinder. for the inner tube  px = hence o for a= px *= —4500 2 px = 2500 for x = b= 3 —18.
or 6500 pounds per sq. Pv = . 2500 I" W30 X = O"OOO2Q70 4v/ . inch Outer tube at x = 3..py = x = 3. using new constants a and b.000 for 80. [CH. = — 6500. Inner tube at x = 2. =— 9000. 0*30 X io 6 . inch 18. coo 6429 » Circumferential tensile strain at 3inch radius in outer cylinder 8929 s 6 30 X io where . — — = 8929 pounds 22. is When the internal pressure of 15. 3. 10' 2".000 at 4500 compression.. at * =4.A = 75. —— + 5000 = = —g— + S°oo = 80. inch (tensile).A = 7*l6" + 1 360. T «X3ox 2500 « 10' m  is Poisson's ratio./„ = 360. 9000 pounds per sq.. i.= O 00O2l6 .oo •.000 pounds per square inch exerted.000 ^^ = io 6 i 22.000 7x9 + .000 *= 2 and due at to the internal pressure alone x * * = = 2.° ° .= b = 5000 = 15.+ .ooo5i43 = 0*003086 inch The minimum temperature difference to allow of the outer passing over the inner tube would therefore be ©•0005143 f 0*0000062 = 83 F./„ = 18.e.p. io" The total difference of original diameters at the junction surface would therefore require to be 6(o'ooo2976 + o'ooo2i6) = 6 X o .— 340 — — — — — — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.000 pounds per square inch 13. = 4.000 .ooo 5°°° = .. 8c. 2C00 mX 30 X . as in Art. „ » „ » „ •• . 122 since pk = a o for x= 4 and /.889 I0 . XI. Circumferential cylinder compressive 1 strain at 3inch radius in inner 6500 30 X —. 25.500 7 per sq.000 4500 compression.
636 = 3909 At the outer surface . so that x becomes x u (« being here negative). AND DISCS.3909.+ a 4 iS.nearly 124a. vol.889 10. The circumferential strain at radius x is Still + 2ir(. 341 Finally. CYLINDERS. F. 124. shaft. 819. practical data will be found in Record of Press Fits.429 The variations of stress throughout the tube are stress shown in Fig. taking account of the initial stresses resultant hoop tensions are at due to shrinkage. using the notation of Art.818 b =.E. 124a] PIPES. p.818 at the 22. 1913. 162.636 K = o=>: x* . 162. „ * = 4. Soc.. = 3. Press and Force Fits on Solid Shafts.ART.889 13. 35.ooo =b 4 a a hence b = 75. and E that for the solid shaft on to which the hub is forced or shrunk.75. m and tri be Poisson's ratio for the shaft material and that of the hub respectively.000 —  + + 9000 6500 8929 6429 = = = = 7389 16. . i. M. 1 An interesting special case of a cylinder shrunk or pressed on to another occurs when the bore of the inner cylinder — vanishes.e. for greater generality let E' be the value of Young's modulus for the outer cylinder or hub. x*= 1935 The i^16 excess of weight in the single tube is 16—4 = 1A5 = 28percent. by C.000 13. »x = 3.818 „ (outer „ ) „ „ 16. the = 2.000 pounds per square inch (bner tube) „ „ „ 22. With a single tube and maxi mum tensile of pounds per square inch inner surface 22." Am. » x * 25. Trans. Let « be the radial outward displacement of a point distant x from the centre of the solid shaft. when it is a solid Fig.* + u) — 21TX 2ttX u ~x "A (1) 1 Some MacGill.
124 ii&'+sM's)} • » • • i8'+=M=)}At x • <»> o.e. Art.+ A + A_ _?. in a solid shaft (unlike the case of a shaft with an indefinitely o. W A {R\ Mi)^Ml * <« = at * = Ri> an d = ° at Also from (3) Art. evidently small central bore).. Hence from (1) and (2). Let /j be the circumferential at Ri.e. (6) the shaft and also in the which is the radial compressive stress throughout hub at the shaft surface. in notation /i=a r7^r? Substituting this for /j in (9) (l0) d ~El and + E' W + E' R ... often called the "tight" allowance.h. i. over that of the x x the total pressive strain of shaft) =R tensile unit stress inside the hub and let S = the excess of the original shaft diameter hub bore. 124. E wE E' m'E' ~ d l 1 . tensile strain of hub + comis t . 342 But this STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.R^j 8 1 ENRjfR* = fAimi + ^'E'jR7+R? + E) ^ Ell^ E'i/« * S 2 • 3 " " " {ll > .— — —— — — [CH. u o. and putting these values in (5). hoop strain is equal to Hence  = ^(a+a) (i) (3) and substituting for/* and/„ from and (2) of Art. or \d. Art. XI. 124 b = = — —py = (a positive quantity) +A = ~ a = constant . with the necessary modifications A A . at x = R^ or A= x= a (7) which will be a positive quantity. 122. At circumferential strain (i. by writing = R 3 or directly from (7). * • * (I2 > .
(12 a) gives = = m= = .2a 1) + + E'5 . 2a '+ — + 1 or E. • „ <"*> (12). AND DISCS. v g which varies from E' . <af S  2 65a 4. For the rather important case of a castiron hub on a steel shaft. A "= 30. 124a] If PIPES. and ni 4. .000 pounds per square inch. If the hub and shaft are m = m'. CYLINDERS. (15) . or (12*) stress it is easy to find for given materials the maximum produced in the to hub by any given allowance ../ EN 20(0+ E'/2a» 4. a.. 8 .for an indefinitely thin hub down to about . 162A. E) . For the purpose of design such a diagram might be drawn to a larger scale from (14) and (15) within the limits of hub thickness used in any It is clear from the diagram for a given value particular practice.ART.000 . 4(^+1) ' 2 </ 13^ „ + . which varies only from E x for an indefinitely thin hub down to £E .000. The values of the maximum hoop stress^ for given allowances are shown for cast iron and for steel hubs on steel shafts in Fig. #+1 • rf"7p W M . or the a stress within a g thickness of hub necessary a keep the maximum given 8 limit for an allowance .// « i rf~E\\ m + Or if 1 /. .650 —+ 2aa . 343 (12) the ratio of hub thickness to diameter or .be may be written *_/. _ E I 2a8 4 a V + 2a + 1 + 4a +I g . in a press fit or the safe tight allowance a 8 to be used with a hub of given dimensions to keep the stress within given limits.1 + E e(V^. — 3 . (12a). .+ ^'e ^^+7 e'1. for an indefinitely thick one. E= E' and l_My* + A*±±( *r~El2a + 2a4i3 2 A °r »** E^ + E 8 i" ' • * ^= .i E V .000. 2E' taking E 30. 0*62 times this for an indefinitely thick hub. and (12a) becomes made of the same material.  (I2a) 1 the ratio of outer to inner diameter of hub 8 2 2 d = —^ = k— R 1 5 From = AW** i.
d 8 #2I? i .— 344 of in — [CH. ts . STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. XI. (16) x ' 2*000 Steel Hub on Steel Shaft N22000 Oi to o 18000 S c.an increase in hub thickness gives a considerable increase in gripping pressure p±. the case of a hub and shaft of the same material (n) gives For in *— A = E. how comparatively little f x is reduced for a considerable increase s hub thickness.. 14000 12000 g 8000 X I 2000 . But for a given allowance .—i 4a f d 4a + i 8 2a(a + i) or E..
m . to use such a rule. (I9) The factor depending upon o only rises from 0*5 when a = o to when a = 00. from (15) and (17) /i+A^E. For a steel hub on a steel shaft it may in such a case be reasonable In the case of a castiron hub on a steel shaft.000 pounds pel square inch. independent of the thickness of the hub. . . and a = 04 in (15) — A 3000 8 = 30. shaft is drawn to a sufficiently of the diameter of a steel hub. Example 2. . 124a] PIPES. it will be more convenient to plot a curve of the values of a on a base of values of . AND DISCS. be found in an article by the Author on " Stresses Aug. from (14) and (16) — + /. what driving allowance may be made on the diameter of the steel shaft if the bursting stress is not to exceed 3000 pounds per square inch ? Writing^ = 3000.000 i__ • X ' . it is necessary to consider the maximum algebraic stress difference. find the necessary thickness of hub in order to limit the bursting stress to 12. In cases where the elastic strength of the hub is to be measured by the maximum shear stress.ART. and depends only on the " allowance " and the property of the material. 0*615 „ 8 ^^ 4as + 4a + 1 ." in Engineering. 191 1. 345 If it is desired to read off directly hub thicknesses for given allowances and safe stresses.e. can be found from (n) and (12). d X 0376 d~ 3760 or 8 = 0*000266 = 0*000266 x diameter of the shaft if which might be read directly from Fig..' a Maximum Stress Difference. For other cases the value of/i 4Example i. which is here equal tof x pv For cases where the hub and shaft are of the same material. 162 a. CYLINDERS.— If an allowance of made in driving it into a steel ^ 1 Such a series of curves will produced by Force Fits.000. but the maximum shear stress can scarcely be considered a criterion of strength for a brittle material like cast iron. If the thickness of the hub of a castiron wheel is 0*4 times the diameter of the bore. i. 11.^.+A»Ex which is (18) independent of a. Thus the stress difference rises a little with increase of thickness of hub. .. large scale.
1 2a —X— 4a 600 1 2 + 2a + + 4a + 14a 2 + 14a — 9 = = 0*445. — What 8  the maximum hub allowance which steel shaft driven into a steel in order to limit the may be made maximum stress difference to 12. and to a perhaps more serious practical objection that the very small differences of external diameter of one cylinder and internal diameter of the enveloping cylinder are more easily calculated than adhered to in turning and one which in Art.000 X —. except in resisting forces parallel to the axis of the cylinder. E. = 12. and to wind round it " wire " or strips of rectangular section under tension.000. or t is a = 0^445 times the diameter of the shaft. the winding behaves under internal pressure in the cylinder like the more continuous metal of a compound cylinder formed by shrinking on successive tubes.000 pounds per square inch? 12. Cylinders or Tubes reinforced by External Winding. tension may. The winding .000. has been dealt with The process may be extended by the use of several 124. [CH.000 = 30. Inglis. XI E= 30. made use of notes of lectures delivered some years ago at Cambridge by Mr. to produce finally 1 Tn writing parts of this article the author has.2 — 34^ Substituting^ STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.000 From (18)— a = = 1 30. boring long cylinders.000. An alternative plan which has found its most important application in gunmaking is to use an inner cylinder or tube having a sufficient crosssectional area to resist the stresses (if any) in an axial direction. by kind permission. C.000. successive enveloping cylinders so proportioned as to make the final stress up to a predetermined maximum value in each portion. Example on a 3.000 2500 or 0*0004 as against xioo> or 0*000625 in Example 2. In what follows 1 it will be assumed that. 124b.000. and the same or other given stress (or given " equivalent stress ") at the inner For a given cylinder with given pressure and surface of the cylinder. and 2 a = 1 I —z 1000 — in (14) 12. The production of cylinders to resist internal pressure with economy of material by shrinking or forcing an outer hollow cylinder on an inner — is thereby put initially in compression. be so adjusted as under the internal pressure in the cylinder a constant stress or strain or stressdifference throughout the winding. stress limitations the depth of winding necessary may be calculated. theoretically at least. Such a plan is open to the theoretical objection that the whole of the material is not stressed up to the full maximum value.
. while p' and x /. inner. of the compound cylinder. (6) or /I== •— /"log* + Putting px R2 . being.. and (8) A= ^_j) +/Mo g ° . as in Art. and intermediate radii respectively From (la).).ART. Art. are and circumferential tensile stresses respectively after the winding has been applied to the inner tube.. CYLINDERS. A(const. pt and/. . The resultant maximum stressdifference in the wire and tube limited to a fixed value/". 124b] PIPES. Case (i. respectively represent the corresponding stresses produced by the explosive or other internal pressure and calculated as in Art. the radial compressive The Then in the wire winding throughout A +A+A +/.R 2 3 R2 2 /„. Art.. the outer. where c = 2p' 2 2 2 Subtracting (2) from (1). AND DISCS. 122.). (7) = o at x = R» A = g+/"logR. (9 ) . (1) R 3 R^ and R. ^47 notation used will be that of Arts. in the winding 2 A+A=/"^ and from (1).. throughout tube and winding w _l v ^'2 R»2R22 _ R2 Rs .3) 122 A=A"*S Hence in the (4) winding a +A* r% so that (5) dx(c^ c Q = dp. (. 124. 122 and 124.=/" Let /'a be the internal (" powder" or other) pressure. 122.
122. and value of/". 122 A2= r7^r? and and from (2) (II) Afc = ° c ( I2 ) P\+P'Vi = (13) Hence. and/„ throughout the tube can be obtained by (n) And in particular from (13). (x = Rj) From and (12) of Art. common surface of the winding and the tube.. /" 2 ( X 6) K ' : or R = R A/" S 1 »*i' > • (i7) thus giving the outer radius of the winding for a given inner tube. 3? R„a using — (3) A = 'Ajzi=A + /''< i2 4 R 2 R 2 • • (18) . and (13). To find the winding tension /say everywhere. (1. adding (11).« R\_ 3 W— =^^LJZ^a 2R g R. which/.2). say (though any other agreed value might be used for a different metal) A +A a a +A+A a =/" = ^Rp^ • • (14) and substituting the value otfa from (10) and simplifying and substituting the value of c — / BJ s R.— —— 348 and at the — — [CH. Art. /„ is reduced below / by the hoop compression internal pressure ** +R  2 2 Pt or. from (15). Art. 122. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. XI. and making the total stressdifference at the inner surface also equal to /".
at x = R.e. 8. CYLINDERS.— and substituting for log — from (16) t> * and at the outside. Art.2 \ and from (1). Case (ii. Then throughout the winding A+/. 124b] PIPES. * = R — 3 ''"('ID ' (») ' 3=/ "~ 2/ 2 r7^r? (23) The stresses throughout the tube and winding may be calculated by the preceding formulae. = o for x = R A = R /. from (6). 122 *'*(*rtS*. i. AND DISCS. 349 and substituting for/x from (9) and simplifying— And in particular at the inside of the winding. Art.).jjZrv*Rjr^* Hence integrating (27) and changing signs and putting/.=/ and in the tube (24) and winding.ART. The maximum principal stress p +p\ to be limited to a v fixed value/. 122 /' =/2 R7^li' + V Hence subtracting (25) from (24). in the winding Rs /R 2 \ ( 2 5) P's&i /R. 3 .
the tube being initially under the external pressure given in (30).RJ and from (2) ^ =A g±J the ( 32 ) Hence adding and making equal to /(though a modified value maximum stress at the may be used for other 2 ° 2 inner surface material) R R * +P /2 _ A ±wH w Ra + R 2 3 3 2Ri(R3 Ri.Ri) . • ._ _ R 2 J J 2 • • . the winding tension exceeds /. .2 _ _ 2R 1 (R3 . since /„ is known from (26) A from (29) °r ' = ^R?i^ + ^ " '*•' } " R^O . XI.. 2 . As in the previous case. and the whole tube and winding subjected subsequently to an internal pressure The written down from fly. by R /. . *'r7=r? . 122. best be solved by trial or by plotting. (34) From which equation R 3 may be found for a given tube with given The equation. being a cubic in S) may pressure and limit of stress. (33) A I+ . STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. A 2RJ(RA R1)1 r>r 2 2 = } R/+R. using (13) of Art. VR and ^+R 2 2 2 2 hence. therefore in the winding > = (£'> and at <"> x = R. • .— 350 And — —— — — [CH.(35) + ¥) tension throughout and all the stresses may now be easily the above formulas and those of Art. *=(!.0/ In the tube at (30) x =R _ 2. 122 2AR.
. . Values of /„ and (40). and therefore from (39). thus obtaining the external pressure on the tube. (3 6) 122 T.R 28). Asin(i8) and substituting A = T ^±i A in (1) of Art. (x But the " powder " stresses and stressdifferences (as in Fig. and it is possible to make the final stress or stressdifference in the winding fairly uniform.__ ^+R R 2 3 • • • (40 _£.l0S R?^R? which • (42) • * • may now be substituted in (11) and (12) of Art. . we obtain in the winding A+A^r^log^) . or see equations (25) and (2)) increase inwards.*? .R ^Jrs = log d( x 1 \ Tx ! (38) 2 Integrating (*  R2 + A 2 ) . in the winding 2 a RA ^V^^^^TrtJ / . .=.ART. . AND DISCS. (39) Putting A=o for x =R A=T 3. in place of RJ. in (36).). A= 2^7. From (40) and (41) it is evident that the maximum initial circumferential stress /„ and the maximum initial stressdifference p. and say equal at the inside and outside radii. 351 Constant winding tension T. The additional "powder" stresses due to the internal pressure may be written from (5) and (6) of Art.  ' • • • «°> and substituting for/. log (R32 . 122 (using R. 122. CYLINDERS. viz. 124b] Case (iii. \px vary from at the outside (x s) to lower values at the inside of the winding Rj). (4 3) .^r1A + ^=° or (37) ^^tria. PIPES. 161. throughout the winding are given by (41) and and the values of the winding or initial stresses in the tube may then be found by writing x = R t in (40). By T =R = adding (40) and (41). in the winding x* R R R> *>!—****!?=*? 2 T  2 .
If it is desired make the final stress or stressdifference at the inner surface of the tube equal to that at the inside and outside of the winding. = 874 tons per square inch (2) *9' 2 5 c— X f^f = 12 I9'2S . Hence initially in the tube. we should have simultaneous equations for the approximate values of both T and But for practical 3 numerical use in design. and the winding tension necessary R . Find the least depth of winding necessary if the greatest stressdifference in the cylinder or in the winding is not to exceed 12 tons per square inch. steel cylinder. has to be wirewound to resist an internal pressure of 8 tons per square inch. and can be solved by trial. —A R = s 6 . XI. 12 inches internal and 21 inches external diameter. from (n) and 36 (12). say x x =R and x determine to R s if = R for a given tube and working stresses.— 352 Using at — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. X 2*303 x 01434 = 244 tons per sq. Art. In each of the foregoing cases caution should be used to ensure that the tube section is large enough to make the axial tension less than the final hoop or circumferential tension. include logarithmic values. / =8 a From (16) l0 ^ ^ /2 Rs B 3 ^" T^T^J x ( 8 IO '5 2  3 6\ = °" 1434 = l0 *» 213 1 'W R = From (22). R = 2 ios . we can T be arbitrarily fixed. /" = 12 . The equations s. at 105  x 1391 = i4'6i". —— [CHAP. in. Example i. this expression for the final stresses or stressdifferences. by writing the necessary three quantities all equal.*J r S6 \ A= 363(1 +§) . hence from (10) p = x — X 36 X103 + . trial values will be most serviceable.2) — 8'°8 tons per square inch From From (23) r3 12 — 16 16 X ?6 . Rs2 = x = io 5" = = i2( 1 . 122 £44x110/ \_„. or T if R8 is fixed.
/« +/'») an d : A +/'» nave /'« /»> and f anc* by addition been calculated and are set out in the following table . 122 In the winding initially— From (9) A= = ~ 1925 x 18(2 T3 213. 353 tube and Due to internal (6) the " powder stresses " in winding are from and (5). I4'6i 2764 log10 _ 2 3465(213 . Art. log 576 — 36 or more usefully.ART. AND DISCS. . from (18) t = A + "a _ A> A> 6 A > From the above expression (A +A +. x or 12 +^ „ 864 .x 2  x 2) + 1461 12 log. pressure.x ) [2I3J x * 213*2 From (4) or (5) A = A .60? + *£ s X  x* J72 36'p . 1461 jc 2 + 36 .^r + » Finally the initial winding tension from (19) and (20)— / = 12 . + 12 = .A .^''^ 3 is. 124b] PIPES. . CYLINDERS.
In a steel cylinder the internal diameter is 12 inches.. _ ^X and from (30) p x = 6 = i'9i4 JO'S In the tube and winding.^ 6J1+—** P2 3 6 L 11036 ) R 2 + 36 o2i 25 R . Art. first perhaps calculating the stresses for some intermediate values of x. R/ = 192 In the winding f„ <"> * . from Art. R. Example 2. 3 3 3 a Solving this by trial R = s i3'8s . n (34) = 105 /= 6 ff = 8 J 2i(R3 . t .) \ X or / Q — _. and the external diameter is 21 inches. XI. 122— 3>) *** _ 1914 X no X 74** (x* + *s + 3<5 * A = 284 ^36 is and from (35) the winding tension .— 354 The x as abcissa 1 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS [CH.« . (6) and (5)— '— *$&) "(^ In the tube. 161 and 162. . reader will find it instructive to plot the above quantities with after the manner of Figs. .^(' +$)«p. Find the depth of winding necessary in order to limit the final hoop tension in the cylinder and winding to 6 tons per square inch when there is an internal pressure of 8 tons per square inch. and investigate the initial and final stresses.) = 6 ('JiS. 122. ^ + 36 . — R = 2 From .x479 = RTr^6 6 . from (12) and (n). — * A .105)) 8 R 2 + 36 Z^(= R . 8 M* V 6 9 ') From(.
ART. AND DISCS. 355 The shown stresses in the following table. from these expressions have been calculated and are which may be advantageously plotted to : exhibit clearly the stress variations — . CYLINDERS. 124b] PIPES.
a thinner tube would be required (with a different value of T). inch at x = 6. from (14) and (70). p i/ jr p x — X 314 X no = — ^—J 9 35 tons per square inch P'> +A = 2x8x213 — = = i9»6 so that the final stressdifference It is = 1926 — 9*35 = 991 tons per sq. evident from comparison with Example 1 that to equalize the x 6. which ?6 . Art. inch. at x = 10*5" in the winding Stressdifference T= = 630 + 0*716 3*25 x 8 = 12*028 tons per square inch and at * = i4'6i Stressdifference = +8= 9"3S And in the tube at x = 6— 1125 tons P er square inch A +A = Final stress difference at  X ^J =  g 6 95 1926 = 6 is — 695 = 1231 x tons per square inch . 1075 has given a final stressdifference of 1400 tons per mate square inch at x = R 3 and x = R^ and of only 991 tons per square Let T be reduced to. 8 tons per square inch. at the inside and outside of the winding. say. in. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS for equality at the inside and outside of the winding 325 630 or + o7i6T = +T is T= 1075 tons per square inch so that the total stressdifference in these places 325 +T= 1400 tons per square inch log E  From (42) x ' A= —— X no 2 —= 74 314 tons per square inch In the tube at x 2 = 6". XI. is already— 3 '88 tons per sq.— 356 Hence — — —— — — [CH. modifying the results simply. giving a stressdifference of 8 x no — 388 — = 36 +8= n88 tons per square inch well illustrate the value of a practical approxi This trial result may result with the simpler practical plan of using a constant winding tension. but in 6 would be governed by the axial this case the stressdifference at x stressdifference at = tension. 122 .
357 stressdifferences at x = io 5". evidently gives a not much inferior stressdistribution. under internal pressure. The The final (12028. CYLINDERS. this hoop tension is nearly uniform. has induced in it a tension due to its inertia. and i2'3i) have therefore been approximately equalized. and 6". in which t varies from 8"o8 to 875 tons per square inch. In order to rotate with uniform angular velocity w radians or linear velocity v inches per second. an axis through its centre of gravity. Rotating Ring or Wheel Rim. giving a stressdifference of 12 tons per square inch throughout the winding and at the inner surface of the tube. constant tension T. every point in the rim must have a radial inward acceleration u?r or — inches per second per second. AND  DISCS. 125] PIPES. 163. Let r be the radius of the ring in inches. ii'2S. the radial inward force on a length of rim 8s inches is w  ASs pounds r g where g is approximately 322 x 12 inches per second per second. i4"6i". and the material per cubic inch. when suitably adjusted from a trial result.ART. viz. the tabulated results of Example i. and perpendicular to its central plane. The normal force per unit length of arc is g r A pounds . A slightly higher value of T would evidently result in a still closer These results might have been inferred approximately from equality. when rotating about 125. ring. as in the case of a thin cylindrical shell —A Fig. and if the crosssectional dimensions are small compared to its radius. If A is is the weight of the area of crosssection in square inches.
or arc PQ.  1. 1914. 1 For an example see " Stresses in Rotor Bindings. and the intensity is measured per square inch. the weight — of cast iron being 0*26 lb. This force is the resultant of the tension hence.— — 358 — — — [CH. (2) is the weight It is to be noted that for all the above formulae if per cubic inch. it will only be necessary to add to the righthand side of the above equations for T a term to represent the centrifugal force of the It may often be convenient to consider half the cylinder extra mass. 1 Example. subsequent centrifugal action will increase the tension of the binding and reduce the compression of the hub by amounts dependent solid . XI. 163). the resultant radial inward force w v2A g r X chord PQ or w iP Ax r g zr sin 2 . If v and g are in foot units (1) becomes w p = \2W1)t = 12W1? — = o 3722«/zr pounds per square inch „ . .= A v g 12 wv2 X 322 (1) x ' a result which also holds good for the " centrifugal tension " in a belt running on a pulley. resolving these along P and RO Q. by taking 6 — 180 If a thin binding is wound.6 T at along RO. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. v and g must be in inch units. Dec. (Fig. or shrunk on to a hub so as to put the binding in an initial state of tension and the hub in compression. find the limit of peripheral velocity. is On a length of arc rO. If the safe tensile stress in a castiron wheel rim is 1000 pounds per square inch. in Engineering. per cubic inch. 2T The ™ sin = A wi? x r » 2 g 2r sin 2 9 or w ^ = Av T k g rim is 2 or w 2 n Awr ° g intensity of tensile stress in the therefore . 18. / \ (3) In the case of a wheel rim or cylinder containing a fluid or loose masses which do not contribute to the resistance to the centrifugal force. . is the limit of safe stress for a wheel rim the limit of peripheral If velocity is given by / w v = V — = \/ — inches per second ." by the Author. pressed. upon their relative elasticities. * r 2 — =T=w .
(This also follows for the central plane.) Let the intensity of the radial principal stress be p„ and that of the circumferential or hoop stress be p y . pt. of the Cambridge Philosophical Soc. 126. and cu be the uniform angular velocity of rotation. 359 From (2) X 32'2  X 26 inches per second or 102 feet per second (nearly). Rotating Disc. 164). and there can be no shear stress on or perpendicular to that face. Hence the radial and the hoop or circumferential stress are also principal stresses. Let t be the uniform axial thickness of the disc. 165. va\. 165. Consider the forces on a element of the disc at a radius x. we assume that the thickness of the disc is uniform and very small compared with its diameter. For a rigid examination of the problem by the mathematical analysis of the strains. both being reckoned positive when tensile. Chree in the Proc. 126] PIPES. The solution of the disc problem here given is due to Grossman. for all points on the originally flat surfaces. vii. iv. CYLINDERS. 1891. and their approximate application to any part of the material can be iustified. and further references. Evidently at the free flat faces there can be no stress normal to those faces. Fig. very nearly the direction of the axis of a principal stress of zero magnitude. See also a correspondence in Nature. aboveIOOO AND 12 DISCS. from the symmetry of the displacement of any point due to strain. the weight of the material per unit volume. and let Ri and Ra be the external and internal radii respectively (Fig. In the case of the circular disc rotating about its axis. 1 . the displacement must be radial. 1 The stresses in rotating circular discs and cylinders can be found approximately by making simple assumptions. Hence the direction of the axis is.. (1891). let w be Htl* FlG.ART. 164. Fig. see a paper by Dr. Stresses for a circular section of the disc will — then hold approximately for any such section.
(circum ferentially) ii(Ai) where « m 1 — . and of radial width 8*. if or f»V+!(. and the radial inward force in gravitational units. XI. is Poisson s ratio.(A + 8A) 2 (* + Sx ) sin 7} (a) or to the first order of small quantities /(Aa*A8**3fc)80 Equating (1) and (2) in the limit when 80 is reduced indefinitely AJW+A + **Considering the strains.xlQ. And in the direction of A (radially) du dx E \ m J . in the direction of /. the principal stress direction of the axis being zero. resolving as in the previous article / I /„ . (3) owing to the purely radial displacements of points in the central circular section the radius the circumferential strain is evidently 21t(x increases to x + «. is the limiting value of— + Su — Sx _ Ix du dx (5 ' in Hence from (1) of Art. 19 and (4) and (5) above. x + U) — 2TTX _U X / 21TX The radial width of this element is evidently after strain x+Sx + u + Suand the radial strain.lx (1) g This is equal to the resultant inward force exerted on the element by the (variable) radial and circumferential stresses px and p„ viz. t. The volume is x80 X 8x X t. subtending an angle 80 at the centre. neglecting small quantities of the second order. 8* . (x + u) = Sx + Su which Sx is tensile if positive. 2 sin — +A • 2* sin — . is u?x. — —— \CU.— 360 — —— STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.A x ) .
ART. 191. • Ibid ... AND . 126] PIPES. DISCS. (12) 1 \ or..= . = A*2 + B r =A+* ^ ( x 3) and from (12) or (13) ^ = A ~P To find a particular integral of equation (ro). CYLINDERS. / \ .. Art. 2 (u du \ and/z in (3)— d u \dii_ii_ dx2 dx x~ d 2u . du \ W Em Substituting for/. dx2 xdx x2 u\ _ dx\x ) d I which on integration gives du u — +. 36 Solving the simultaneous simple equations (6) and (7) *> = ^Am x + TJ Em ( u . 2 (I4) assume u Differentiating this twice = Cx* and substituting in (10) 2 _ WO) g 8E gives— C= and since  ot ' 2 — 1 ~~«?~~ x = Cx* and^ dx = 3c*2 . *^+«=aA* And integrating again ux hence a. the complete solution of (10) is— (I5) * </« = A + ^78E^^^ B x2 3u<.' *« 2 * • * ' »? 2 1 ' J J . l6) <&: 1 g 8E Or see Lamb's " Infinitesimal Calculus. constant = 2A a (say. w ^ + 5S? = ^"^E~ ' idu u 2 — 1 m2E g w „m — 1 a »z a * ' 2 /„•> ( ' ' } ' To find the complementary function of (11) d 2u idu u _ d 2u dx2 .
2. « ^ = S?^l('»+ )A(«i) ? (3<" + i)^8E^ ? « . . is : (») 125. and solving the simple equations for A and B w «? (3 m+ i)(m i)(»<  1) w q>2 (3^ B = ~ 8E g Substituting these in (17) + ' « + i) v 1<2 Rl2R s and from (8). 2 v'Rilis at which radius the radial tension (max. and u = o for x = o.e. positive Ra approaches R^ it approaches the form value of p„ which is zero at x tensile) for all values of x between Ri and The =R is and * 2. (i7) J from which A and B may be found if the values of px are known for two radii. The condition necessary to determine A and B for a disc with a central hole are p x = o for x = R. is a maximum. A = ^(3^ + i)(RiR disc has 2) —When the B no central hole the conditions which jc determine A and in (15) are/. 9 2 Substituting these values in (9) Eot B a. . zero for x= viz. and px = o — for* = R2.*+i)R a + (**i)R 2 }. R ~ —^oc ( ? — 2x which J. XI. 1 2 . f . (20) R 2 is very small this approaches the value f^(3* + and when W (1).) Solid Disc. at x with increase of x.from 2 (15) and (16) A= g Wn{^ M + *K R * + R * + T) " it <* + 3 ^} (I9) The value of p„ is always positive. Disc with Central Hole. decreases continuously 2 is =R A(max. = o for = R. Substituting these values in (17).— 362 — — — —— — [CH. Art. eo  1 > I . =R (i. substituting for  and j. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. and Its greatest value.) In cases where = !^{( 3 .
as in the previous article. and px in a rotating disc is very similar to that of the corresponding stresses in a rotating cylinder shown in Figs. Numerical Values. as mentioned in Art. and weight per unit volume . in this case g must be taken as about 322 X 12 (inches per second per second). 125). 363 The gives latter from (15) gives . 4. and decreases continuously from the centre to . varies between 3 and 4 for most metals. CYLINDERS. In estimating stress intensities by the above formula?. the — error is on the safe side if 3 be adopted. In estimating numerical values a caution is required. AND  DISCS. where x i)Ri 2 = o.(»Rf (23) or just half the amount of the expression (2 1) for the greatest intensity of hoop stress in a disc with a very small hole through the centre. From (9) the radial stress intensity is A = Jg£(3* + !)(]*. inch (25) and (23) becomes p. using inch units and C28 lb.) = g^(3^ + *£. The expressions (22) and (24) may be obtained from (19) and (18) respectively by omitting every term containing R* The general variation of intensity of the principal stresses/.ART.*) This is ' • • " (24 > always positive. (20) becomes n 2 x ro " /„ (max. and == "ifft 4 1 times that in a thin rim with the same peripheral velocity (see (1). stress intensities. (26) . the outer edge its greatest value at the centre is A (max. 126] PIPES. Art. 166 and 167. This value is approximately correct for cast iron .) = __( 3 « + 'W to !)R* the same intensity as the greatest hoop tension. 1 2.) = (6 46R! + r49R  a X pounds per sq. m= m= s 2 ) w= m= and « = revolutions per minute. per cubic inch. A(max. . (max.and then the (3 former condition in (17) _w g ^ 8E m+ j)(m i) m2 Kl . if inch units are used for the dimensions.) =  3 23» 2 R 2 1 x 10"° pounds per square inch . B = o. Hence from (8) This is a maximum at the centre.. For steel. or viz. The value of m. for steel 4 is probably more correct.
and axial the ordinates x./. y. either of the complementary parts of which (Art. each of these principal stresses will be shall assume that the plane reckoned positive when tensile. — We We A = !<oV+A + *^ + will (1) u.. is evidently a constant with respect to x. and must in a long cylinder be nearly correct everywhere except near the ends. . Let /„. and z be— ' = e. From symmetry this cannot be wrong at the central sections. the direction of z parallel to the cylinder axis. 1892. Soc. ') v ' ) . part vi. 8) form a couple about Hence the radial. viz. At any point in the central crosssection let the direction of x be radially outwards from the axis . from Art. £ = eV»« ~ *VV  du 1 / A. +A\ <*> ') • • • circumferentially.du . Chree by the method See Proc. 'x = {m Em 2)(m !){("* ~ ^dx + x +e>) . XI. or z. vol. vii. 19. For an element of a crosssectional thin disc cut at the centre of the cylinder axis there can by symmetry be no shear stress. originally perpendicular to the axis. Camb. and z respectively... remain plane after straining by rotation of the cylinder. An equation of the forces acting radially inward on an element of the cylinder (Fig. 165) will be the same as that for the disc in the previous article. (4) and if plane sections remain plane.y. and z be the normal stresses in the direction x. stresses are all principal stresses . ourselves to the stresses about the region of the central circular section perpendicular to the axis of a cylinder. the length of axis being great compared to the radius. and that of y be perpendicular to the other two. 283. = = g(/„  * axially. > (7) • The results here strain analysis. in directions x. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. du dx u . p. 1 An approximate solution of the problem 127. radially. circumferential. From (4) A =^±^ + E4 and (S) Substituting this value in (2) Em r* ** 1 >tt (m — 2)(m + + i)V 1. of finding the intensities of stress in a cylinder rotating about its axis shall confine may be found by making a few simple assumptions. sections.— / 364 — [CH. as in Also the displacement of a point at a radius * being to x the disc. Phil. the principal strains. of . deduced have been obtained by Dr. e  = E\A — (3) t m (3) nr) e. Rotating Cylinder. or y.
exactly as in the disc problem of the previous article ** + * dor t dx x = _ «J» + ' ')(* ~ 1) g Em(m — is ^ • . there must be no resultant thrust or pull in an axial direction across the central section or 2irj J — p^cdx R2 = O (6) (13) From . 2 (m + i)(3m i) 2) T ( Em(m 8 . Rl Rs ("> 3) ( A = ^ W + !)(». and inserting the con W *?<JMJ_ 01 Rl4 ~ 2 <r. > = WR^ + — g 2 77 mE R. 127] PIPES. (16) v . and (7) with the values (9) and (10) ( P~(m2)(m Substituting for Em + i)\ 2A w <o* (m gl — iy limits Em(mi) + i)(m2) ar+ 2 e «}+ E M I 4) t \ A from g (12). the external radius. and multiplying by x w^.. (5). 1) _^ m s ' To find the Constant ez If the cylinder is divided into halves by a plane perpendicular to the axis and midway between the ends.Ra4 + 2(. which gives B =w g «. substituting the values of/.« — 1) Rl* > I Elf / Rl2 _ R 2) = 2 ." . 2 )( 3 £ Em\m — ^ . integrating between dition (13) Rx and Rj.3?M 2 r A +?. and no external force parallel to the axis acts on the free end. . R24 _ g 4 \m(m — 1) . and/* o for the internal radius. (8) » ' The complete solution practically as before 1/* .# . m— \) r v J/ Hence.= A .. and/s from .) u B i)(w« — 2) • • (9) » • (W I)(/W g &Em(m — " a) g» fio) v ' 1) Hollow being px x= R 2. CYLINDERS.jm2 rr^ 4 \m(m ' — ^_.ART. the constants and B are found by substituting Cylinder. in the disc with a central hole. AND DISCS.w Jm + + ^ /8l(I. since either half of the cylinder has no motion parallel to the axis. = o for x= R 7 —The conditions. 365 Substituting these values in (i). as t where R t is = A the values of and o> from (9) and (10) in (7).
(20) % The radial tension r* The g \3J^ Ra + R/ _R^_ & m— \ * 1 2 A /• 2 v/ (2J) axial stress intensity The hoop greatest value tension /„ is 2. Art.£3). The circumferential strain • (... The radial stress p„ which is never negative.2) Ri R _ s(m+ 2 2 i){m 1) 2) m(m — 1) a? m(m — ^\ / * I 9' The hoop tension A= g rv ^W 8\ *» m — i\ Rl! + Rl!+ l a ' ^_'^} m— #2 / \ ) . Inserting this value in (12) A5£w + W . 1 rn 8 + i)(3?. and has its when x =R viz. (max./ .7) x g 8EI m — (» 1 v ^ i)(3« 2/ + ~ 2) 2 a Ri R2 »z(7« — _ (» + ')(« ~ i) 2) 1) a? z«(ot — T "J ) (l8) * ' The du radial strain w 2 <o f 3«S _ (ot / r . XI. evidently always positive. and .— — — 366 — —— — — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 125. the same value as in (i).3^zJ Rl2 ^ 4 w/ 2 — 1 (24) x ' which is the maximum hoop tension for a cylinder with a small central bore. [CH.)A Note that = ( w o>V v* — 2 Ri 2 + m— 2 R22 \ ) • • (23) when R2 is very small this approaches ^. is zero for x = R. and when R2 approaches R„ py approaches — (coR!) 2 w .
the cylinder is strengthened by the axial stress.. while the "greatest stressdifference" indicates the same elastic strength as the maximum principal stress. is greatest for x = R 2 and x increases . where it is equal to/.7. and (7) — = = = = B= and ° A = ^8K g 8E 2 t J «V« m\m _ r\ 1) Rl. 166 (see Ex. is py — px at the inner curved surface. according to the "greatest strain " theory. according to the "greatest strain" theory. however. 127] PIPES. according to the "shear stress" theory. the greatest compressive at the external curved surface being The manner in Fig. is the measure of elastic strength. Art. Art. we a) w and hence. 367 x= dp x Rjj. ' • ' < 2 S) as The axial stress /. (10). CYLINDERS. and J> j>z a short y and — distance outwards from it . When the cylinder has no central bore the conditions as in the solid disc. 25. are px o for x o for Ri and u x o.ART. Thus. ' • \ y/ . from equations (9). it passes through zero when decreases continuously * becoming negative stress which occurs = V g( Ri2 + R22 for all greater values of x. which makes J vanish. The greatest " stress difference " which. evidently reaches a maximum x = VrTrI. 1 below). are less than the corresponding values of p„ the hoop stress. the maximum value of E at the inner curved surface. occurs at the inner surface. all values until near the outer surface. AND for DISCS. m " ( 26 > inserting the condition pjcdx = find ( 2 7) corresponding to the condition (13). R 2 i Ra 2 ) which the three principal stresses vary is shown in This figure also shows the strain which. its maximum value. from (26) 2 R. Solid Cylinder. a w 2 <o %m — 8E m — 1 g e. hence. is the measure of elastic strength . and for this radius max A w v? xm — 2 = i 8 fcr7< R *•>• « . 25.
. (31). and (32) may be obtained from (20). (21). and substituting x and £ in (6) and ^~ w <ff 3 m 0)2 2 2 „ 2 m+ 2 ) 2 v — .. A and [CH.. and . (32) values (30). Inserting these values of for B in (9) and (10). XT.3 68 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 166 and the axial stress W The (I) 2 „ T .„ W ^^is'^rr^ •?*» (3i) Fig.
in calculating stresses the lower value of m errs on the side of safety. (max. In the solid cylinder the " greatest stressdifference everywhere/. (20) and (21) of the present article with The value of m may be taken to vary for (19) and (18) of Art.. the axis when it is equal to the hoop tension (33) . (33) being only half that in (24) for a "hollow" cylinder with a very small central bore. 126. intensity of hoop stress *= *%<v + v + *§*)>*} • • (34) intensity of radial stress . it is everywhere tensile.. . and the strains  369 and 7 by omitting terms which contain (9) is obtained by putting the above values (26) of and B in (10). Taking . 167 (see Ex. Comparison of Cylinder and Disc.^*">3. are equal to the corresponding values (18) and (19) with all terms containing Ra omitted.=p. 2 below) . we have — For a disc. + r. The intensity of axial stress/.)A this value = . In the solid cylinder the hoop tension which may be A and greatest at the axis. The values of the hoop and radial stresses in the cylinder and disc do not differ very materially. varies from a greatest tension w g at the axis to ' a>* Ri' " 4 m 1 a compressive stress of the same magnitude at the outside passing through zero at where x = R» x = A.// = 3 for comparison. pa and its greatest value occurring at the axis is considerably less than the greatest principal stress. 127] (22) PIPES. the dotted curves illustrate the case of the same cylinder with " a small central bore.) equivalent to the maximum principal strain which is reduced by positive values of the radial and axial stresses. DISCS.e.ART. all AND R c..(r. but greater than the is — simple stress (E. i. viz.. CYLINDERS. . metals from 3 to 4. (35) a b . The intensity of radial stress p„ has its greatest value at.g^—R« . the former being approached in cast iron and the latter in mild steel .. as may be seen by comparing. falling off continuously to zero at the curved outer surface. of giving a higher calculated intensity of stress. v 2 The variation in stresses and strains in the solid cylinder is shown in Fig. say.
with the supposition of free axial expansion or contraction in the disc or very short cylinder.370 — [CH. XI. stress For a cylinder.— . 167. if we suppose such end forces applied . Thus. the stresses are not greatly different from those calculated for the long cylinder on the supposition that plane crosssections remain plane. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. The results for a long cylinder may therefore with some confidence be applied as approximately correct to cylinders which are not long. It is interesting to note that. intensity of hoop (36) intensity of radial stress (37) Fig.
(20) .8 x io 6 pounds per sq. and g being 322 x 12— 0*26 R 2 being 4 322 x 12  = The value at 35(80 — K^F)**^^)^} j^J — py 2 . . The maximum x = 4 is— # 3 5 x 144 — 40 = 464 pounds per square inch which may be checked by the formula (38). a castiron cylinder 16 inches external and 8 inches internal diameter. From the formula (20). —Taking  w= + 0*28 lb. putting = R2 = ^ in. for the hollow cylinder (23) becomes (max. rotating at 1040 revolutions per minute. per cubic inch. (39) Mild Steel. Art.) py = t?(6'46Rf + o^Rjj2) x io~6 pounds per becomes sq. Ri being 8 inches. Numerical Values for Cylinders. (41) A comparison of (41) with (26) of Art. AND DISCS. Cast Iron. 322 x 12 inches per second per second.ART. inch (38) For the solid cylinder (33) (max. 2 5* pounds per square inch various values of are shown in Fig.)/„ = 3*3i« 2 R. n number of rotations per minute.)/„ = »2 (6 62Ri* i"32R 22) x io pounds per sq. and the calculation of theii values is considerably simplified. Taking the constants as in Ex. taking the weight 0*26 lb. 166. Example 2. e.e. inch .)/. Art. Inch units. CYLINDERS. 126 shows only about 3 percent. 127 2 "5a: 2 p = the If there I x 64 — 2 f# = 224 — pounds per square inch maximum is o. to make = o). inch . per cubic inch and Pois son's ratio §. 026 lb. Taking 3. per cubic inch. inches. Find the intensity of hoop stress in a solid cylinder of cast iron 16 inches diameter when making 1040 rotations per minute — about its axis. for the hollow cylinder (23) becomes — = w= — g= m= (max. 127. 371 to the cylinder as to prevent axial strain everywhere {i. the hoop and radial stresses are not affected. I27] PIPES. = 2 2 3 23» R!  x io 6 pounds per sq. 1 above. difference in the Example i. 6 m= 4. inch (40) For the solid cylinder (33) becomes (max. from (30). — Find the intensity of hoop maximum hoop stress of solid discs stress in and cylinders. value being 224 at x a hole J inch diameter at the centre.
radially.E. XI. as for the thickness Sx. (2) Equating . as y. we A — may as an approximation find the stress in a disc of small but varying thickness by the method of that Art. 168) of radial centre. with uniform angular velocity symbols as before. 1913.Disc of varying Thickness. 1912.— 372 For x — — —— STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. uniform disc and the (Fig. 167. 3"5 x i28 oi  — 2'5 x o'oi = 448 oi pounds per  sq. with the same a>*x . . 126. and that the axial principal stress is zero. for both cases are shown in Fig. z being the variable thickness of the and axially disc at a radius x. respecin the previous article. Moss.)/." in Engineering. the forces Considering..z8x. in Art.. . 19 =o and u is the radial displacement at a hoop . 168. and in a paper on " Increase of Bore of HighSpeed Wheels by Centrifugal Stresses. 126. strain =£ = £(/.£) if ? = — = I px — A. . May 17.z. x89 .\ du dx radial strain 1 E\ m/ I Interesting experimental tests of the theory of turbine wheel stresses by measurement of the expansion of the bore of the hub are to be found in an article " The Deformation by Centrifugal Stress of Turbine Wheels. by Art. Am. (0 to the same order of smallness the internal radial inward forces pv . Rotating. cylinder. z g and are or. and z be measured tangentially. if it rotates the radial inward force. in Trans. A. Let x. (1) and (2) . Soc.86+px . _ Fig. if p." by S. inch The values of or twice the value 224 for a solid cylinder. on May 9. Having found that the radial and hoop stresses in a long cylinder do not very materially differ from those in a very uniform thin disc in which free axial strain is assumed. x8B 8x . M. + A*g + dx = ?M + ^(xzp f xz x) (3) As radius x. 1 128. .A = ^% + a.(A + 8px)(x + 8x)80(z + 8z) (A z 8X — A z 8x — xz8px — pxx8z)8d • • • • . = = j^ [CH. inch this gives (max. must be on an element of the disc and subtending an angle 80 at the 10. assuming the radial and hoop stresses are principal stresses. tively.
(8) a homogeneous linear equation. example. n + du n dx2 . . DISCS. an . (S) Substituting these values in (3) and reducing <& <^» dx2 \ + \zdx + x)dx + \nix~z dx _ £2)" x / 1 dz_ . probably the intensities vary 1 Curves article cle on "The be found in facilitating the estimation of stress in turbine wheels will Strength of Rotating Discs. 30. u Cx** particular integral of (8) Substituting this in (8) we find A may be found by assuming « = . z = kxn dhi (6) becomes 1 —m w m2 — 1 ~ m2 m 2 E mx2 g tPu du n — m w jn — 1 1 ^+(«+i)^ + '^r "«=o." in Engineering. 191 2. . u part of a wheel the known conditions of stress or of the strain . .ART. obtained by assuming « The complementary function may be d?u = a? du ex*. When . 2 ^^^ 2 . /« . j and tj on the left side of the equation a must satisfy the condition + na\ m = dxa + i 1 = and the complemen(9) being either of the roots a^ or og of this quadratic tary function being a. as before— Em Eot *' ( it du\ du\ . at the junction of the disc and rim the hoop strains in the two parts must be equal. w g and the complete solution is ' a? ' m2 — 1 . Ca are to be found from some known condition. x dx . . Substituting the value for u. E m(zmn + 8m + n)' ' ' ^°' Inserting the value of  and J in (4) and (s). for example. . AND . . = l#=\\x + " te) .the constants 1 d and . CYLINDERS. 373 and hence. the disc forms . Aug. and the mean radialstress intensities in the rim and disc near their junction must be inversely proportional to their thickness . 128] PIPES. *\du / 1 w ~} m 9 m* — 1 "Y^F x < 6' for The integration of this equation if depends upon the form of z .arise at the rim and at the hub or nave . ' • . B«".
What must be the thickness of metal in a spherical shell 20 inchesdiameter. the constant being the is a constant . Z . What is 5. XI. where A = = Examples XI. per square inch ? 6. per square inch. . if the stress in the material is not to exceed 4000 lbs. Find the thickness of metal necessary in a hydraulic cylinder 12 inches diameter to stand a pressure of 1200 lbs. if the working tension in the solid plates is not to exceed 10. and for a: thickness of the disc at the axis if it extends so far. the allowable internal pressure. if the stress in the material is limited What is the intensity of stress at the outer to 1500 lbs. per square If the pipe had been closely wound with a single layer of steel wire inch. What is the necessary thickness of a seamless pipe 4 inches diameter in order that when containing a fluid under a pressure of 200 lbs. I Substituting W g dz OX. An interesting case arises if the radial and hoopstress intensities are to be everywhere equal to one another — and of constant magnitude. what J inch diameter under a tensile stress internal pressure would it stand with the same intensity of stress in the pipe? What would be the intensity of tension in the wire under this pressure? Take the modulus of direct elasticity for steel as twice that for cast iron. 1. 7. per square inch ? 2. Disc of Uniform Strength. per square inch. containing a pressure of 200 lbs. per square inch ? 3. 4. per square inch ? A .000 lbs. this value in (3) i. this variation being greater when the change in thickness is abrupt. per square inch. if the greatest tension in the material is not to exceed 4000 lbs. of 1000 lbs. if the greatest intensity of stress is not to exceed 500 lbs. z A.000 lbs. px = pv 2 =f = constant. Find the intensity of stress in a castiron pipe 10 inches internal diameter and J inch thick under an internal pressure of 50 lbs. What working pressure may be allowed in a cylindrical boiler 6 feet internal diameter with plates f inch thick. per square inch. per square inch. 2 j d / * dx^ dx — +W — g f . Find the necessary thickness of a 5inch hydraulic main to contain a pressure of 1000 lbs. z = Ae oV • xM o. surface of the pipe ? hydraulic main is 4 inches diameter and is 1 inch thick. across the thickness. X =o 2f x' e Multiplying by the integrating factor — and integrating.e. and take Poisson's ratio as C3. ui. per square inch. [CH.— 374 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. per square inch the greatest intensity of stress should not exceed 12.
Take = 3 5. per cubic inch.000 lbs. find the circumferential stress at the inner and outer surfaces and at the common surface. per square inch. If. blocks on the case is 80 lbs. 9. 375 cylinder is formed by shrinking a tube 6 inches external internal diameter on to another tube. which has an internal diameter of 3 inches.] 8.) 12. AND DISCS. after shrinking. PIPES.EX. If the compound cylinder in problem No. the velocity of the ring as unity and 13. 1 1. 8 is subjected to an internal pressure of 10. weighing Neglecting the effect of the spokes. and the case makes about its Estimate the greatest intensity of tensile axis 500 revolutions per minute. (2) a solid thin disc.to be allowed for shrinkage in the previous problem to produce the necessary radial pressure. and how much is the diameter of the wheel increased ? (E = 30 x 106 lbs. Find the necessary difference in diameter. the radial compression at the common surface is 4000 lbs. per square inch. (3) a thin ring. CYLINDERS. (E = 30 x 106 lbs. find the intensity of hoop tension at the outer and inner surfaces and the maximum hoop tension. The thin rim of a wheel 3 feet diameter is made of steel. A compound and \\ inches m  . per square inch. per cubic inch.) 10. stress in the material of the case. XI. Compare the periphery velocities for the same maximum intensity of stress of (1) a solid cylinder. revolutions per minute may it make without the stress exceeding 10 tons per square inch. how many o"28 lb. per square inch. per square inch. Weight of cast iron 026 lb. which may be taken as a thin shell. The castiron cylindrical case of a friction clutch is 19 inches internal The internal radial pressure of the friction diameter and J inch thick.
Art 63 m = e '(?e) or together.. with the same — R notation and from (4). when the bar is not originally straight. it is to be borne in mind that generally the dimensions of crosssection are not very small in comparison with either the radius of curvature or with the length of the bar we are thus pushing this theory beyond the limits assumed in the case of straight bars. In applying a modified form of the simple or BernoulliEuler theory of bending to bars of great curvature. such as hooks. " actions and the stresses and strains produced in the " simple bending certain fundamental assumptions were of a straight beam under These relations may also be applied with established in Arts. we should then have from (1).j According to this approximation. sufficient exactness to cases where the curvature of the beam is small. Art. 117. we make the same fundamental assumptions as in Arts. as it is in many cases where strength calculations are of importance. the intensity of stress varies as the distance from the central axis of a crosssection perpendicular to the plane of bending. BENDING OF CURVED BARS. The relations between the straining 129.— — CHAPTER XII. If. 61.  = j = E(. Let be the original and p : R . 6062 we arrive at a different result.e. is the initial and p is the final radius of curvature of the longitudinal If central axis. Theory of Bending. 6064. where the radius of curvature of the central large in comparison with the dimensions of crosssection of the beam. longitudinal axis is i. and the results must be taken as perhaps the best working approximation for the calculation of strength rather than as rigorously correct. links. It will be assumed that the central line passing through the centroids of radial sections lies wholly in one plane before and after bending. the difference being of considerable magnitude when the curvature is great. which has been used in Art. and rings.
y from the central axis is— The . be denoted Z by y. 377 be the final radius of curvature of the central axis of a bar acted on by equal opposite couples at its ends (Fig. where an element of area. O.ART. through the and perpen centroid M dicular to the radius of curvature. and negative let inwards towards it. original (R+y)* and the final length is (P +y)6 Hence the circumferential strain where / is the value of y after strain. hence / R ^ and substituting this value in (1)— P 1 . and after bending subtends an angle 6 at its new centre of curvature O length of the layer distant . Let distances of points on the radial crosssections measured from an axis ZZ. and let A be the conarea of section stant ~%(zdy) 80 is or 2(8a). the (AB) of which originally at subtends an angle <j> its centre of curvature . 129] BENDING OF CURVED BARS. '«) ( 2) where e. is of this layer e = (p+y')o (1) (R+y)<t> Also the central line has the final length— p6 = R<j>(i + . short a Consider central axis length. breadths of the section perpendicular to y be z. 169). is \iney the circumferential strain at the central <? = o.P+y xd+e) +2 (1 + '0)  1 (3) R . and be reckoned positive when measured outwards from the centre of curvature.
.8a) S( \_ t.+< &(£$ • • w and From (8) and (9) the unknown quantities e„ and p may be found. (8) Again.8 B) + ^A = o . XII. using the values of/ from (5) and (4) as before moment M = 2(y or. la) =E ^) + ('+<^5)j 2.r <A) =a . will be greatly simplified and y. since p .— — — — — — — [CH. 63. as in Art. as in Art. and then from (4) and (5) p may be found for any value of y.. y being measured from an axis through the centroid I *. as follows : <+r' s ") = s {( i jr>} = ^). 62 (5) S(/8a) dividing by = o = E2(<?. however.A ' (io) . at the layer distant y from the central line the intensity of stress / = E. conveniently reduce these summations before solving and (9) for e„ and p. The values of e and p will involve the above quantities S(—jj. 378 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.(y$a) = o. We (8) may.Sa) (6) E and 11 substituting the value of the variable e from (4) + 'Xp ~ i^(~JL l • Sa + 'oA = ) ° • • • (7) R(i + ^Ii) S (^. equating the bending moment to the of resistance. and write approximately if The subsequent work difference between y' we neglect the And assuming the circumferential strain to be free as in simple and uniform direct stress.. S^)i which can be found by ordinary integration or graphically.« Also.
= /&(say) (i7) which gives the position of the neutral surface. (13) . From (i6£) the intensity of stress on the outside of the central line evidently reaches a maximum value when y reaches its greatest positive value.A R5 d+^0A'A) =  . the negative sign denoting that it is on the "inner" side of the central line. ' T>79 A = 2 (_R_ Sa ) or R 2 (^). „ ).. . .RA + '. .. "L ) It appears to the author more convenient to express \y + R/ in terms of A'. . symbol for the ratio — .ART. 129] where » BENDING OF CURVED BARS.A)R 1 * ^5) hence.A. 1 The quantity A' is commonly expressed in terms of R2f . substituting these values in (4) and (5) ^RlO/ + R)(A'A) + Al MJ y 1) • • • • (16) M or. ( y A! \ • ^fJ+KjAV+R'A'^X' /> < l6a) or > = M /A' R \ (l6 • • R(A'A)U~y+R/' ^ From (i6a)f is evidently zero when< j=RA~. (1I ) = or a .A > values RA or 2 C^)= R A ( ^Tr^) and (12) in o • • • (») Substituting respectively the (11) equations (8) and (9) R(i+^0A'A) = ^ . Sa j or A' . the modified area to use a special and other known constants. a modified moment R2( ^ of inertia of section. . (I4) M EAR 1 _ P M A _ R~ EAR + M X (AT . Other or a alternatives would be symbol for — 2{ _f „ .
And since E2(<?8«) = S MJ v VR = —" + 8a \ ~ <rJW z Vy R(A'A) ~~A' — . M Alternative / =ym(i)— 6(P +y) ( P + y)0 z ~ e ~(R+y)<t> is Form of Result. • • . stress on the inside reaches its maximum value when y reaches According to the above formulae and congreatest negative value. y . . vention as to the sign of y. the stress on the convex side of the section will be positive. ( as before ^ + R/ E2. XII. and that on the concave side will be negative if is taken as a positive quantity.<j>R <t>(R + y) „ (lS) <t>(&+y) which zero when y = _ . 8a) = E3(ey8a) = C X £ ~%a} M "ffcyM Substituting this in (20) and multiplying by E y — h p^Ve=l——. is the distance of the neutral axis from the centroid of the Substituting in (18) e =y p — — 4>y — h „ 1 = R+y X C X ft4> R+jk —jT .. ~. ^+ R S \ I M y y .S ^AR/f>}. .o*Ao M yA ( 22 > hence This form is />=zmjt+r very simple in appearance.h) 8a\ i R +y I . hB — o . ..{ y<i Also since M = S(/ C= . — Making as before +y) _ y(0 4>) the approximation «ft(R + eP .— —— —— 380 and the its STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. (20) ' where C is a constant. =h (say) (19) where h section. but in order to use it h must be . (21) and a{^^}. [CH.
y = r sin z = zr cos dy = r cos Odd . 130] BENDING OF CURVED BARS. 129.ART. 133 and 136 below. Circle. d radially. or the value (2) substituted in in a bar of rect(22). As in the case of bending of straight bars. value (1) substituted in (16). the area of section which can be found graphically as in the next article. but which can easily be calculated for simple sections. breadth b perpendicular to the depth. A'=w{i+A(£) + A(!) +. but when in addition to a bending couple there is a shearing force in the planes of the crosssections as in Arts. the form (22) reduces to The evaluation of the quantity the values in (16). the result is a rectangular hyper bola (see Fig. A bd— *R\d 2R l0 S"2R^ 4 +d If (1) be expanded . Art.. Art. Fig. these formulae strictly referring to "simple" bending may be applied as approximations to cases where the bending action is not simple. 38l evaluated: substituting for A its value (17). 171. Radius r. Fig. article it is necessary to find the quantity — 8a orR2 8a A =s (yrR. easily Rectangle. The +' etC l Frc 170. 129. The variation of this stress for a section curved to a a? is shown in Fig. the curve of variation is a mean radius The straight dotted line indicates the stress rectangular hyperbola. gives the intensity of bending stress angular section.) CTR ) ' This is a modified value of A. In order to use the formulae of the previous 130. 170. — Taking A' = dy Ri> R+J _ Rb +d (0 equal zRd being and consequently from to (17). 171).. A' (and consequently of h) for common forms of section is dealt with Equation (16b) shows that if y and p in the two following articles. strips b 8y = 8a . 172. or (16b). — Depth iR log. (16a). are plotted as rectangular coordinates. R= intensity resulting from the same bending moment on a straight bar of the same crosssection. Various Sections.
'r {r^o + s + sTlhre + R}' 2 Intensity of Stress. J _« Convex Side.3^2 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. Graphical of the 1 Method of finding Modified . A! = o + 2*R2 * . etc (4) where I is the moment of inertia of the sec tion about the axis from which y is measured. 25. Fig. 171. . Sept. Neutral Axis.27rRVR 2 H /. dQ A'= R = 2. [CH.. 1 / Central Axis. 131.^wy sec/ion — etc = 2 t( i 4 + fiR» + ^' and for symmetrical sections terms give a zero sum. and H the alternate A' = A + 2 + ^iSC/to) ^ R R 1 2 4 +.2) (3) K . 1 Concave Side. the second term of such a series giving a first approximation to the value of A' — A. XII Ci cos 2 6.2 = 2ttR(R  VR 2 /. 1914.—The value quantity A' or RS( Rj for any section 1 may be found See also appendix to article on hook stresses in Engineering. . Area A'.
AB from O are decreased. so that OC R. Andrews and Karl Pearson. 129. Stresses in Hooks. Goodman in Proc. the centre of curvature for A and B being at O. S. for only half the figure. the width EF is reduced to E'F' by joining F to O. An through thus alternative construction would be to join pendicular F to the foot of a per O alter from E on to a line and parallel to AB. Sept. 68. by E. "Drapers Co. the radius of curvature R. equal to the radius of curvature of the curved surface at D. 1914." Technical Series I. C. clxvii. 1 Let Fig. vol. To use the formulae of Art. 132. and the vertical load line of the weight passing through D. Then A' is the area of a modified figure AE'CF'BH'DK'.. 130 or 131. 1 74 represent a hook. C being the centroid of the section AB. of the various theories see an article by the Author on " Bending Stresses in Hooks and other Curved Pieces. The centroid 383 graphically as follows: G of the section AECFBHDK. need in any case be drawn. and A' the area derived from it. viz. if A is the area AEBF of the section at AB. y through G cutting AB in N. the width of which. also an experimental For a comparison investigation by Prof. perpendicular to OG. may be found as in Art. so that CD = /.. 173. 129 as a very good approximation to find the bending stresses in the principal or horizontal section through the centre of curvature of a hook carrying a vertical load. Inst. or. Then.E. — = W = . by the process shown in the figure. and BC y.ART. For a theory taking account of the lateral strains of change in y as in (3). say." in Engineering. and then OG is OD. Art'. n and 25. is everywhere modified in the ratio the distance from the axis AB and perpendicular to OG. set off equal to Fig. Research Memoirs. the original area and the modified area A' should be measured accurately by a plani AB N A meter. see a paper . is y —+ R' where j^k. and AC = yc allowing for the average tension W/A in addition to the bending line of_ the original Fig. In symmetrical figures this does not offer any advantage. as above in Art. 1 129. and only half the boundary figure. 132] BENDING OF CURVED BARS. We may apply the formulae of Art. a line NF' per pendicular to from cuts EF in All widths more remote than F'. For example. 173. . CF'BH'DGC. published by Dulau & Co. and the remainder are increased.
and remembering intensities of stress. the extreme that values of y towards by (i6#). the — load line passing 2 inches from the inside edge of the section. XII are negative. — — J STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.1 £3* if (+. are intensity of tension at • B= R ( A _ a) Vr^j'« ~ A ) + A * W/ W/ _ / R A'\ W A ^ ^2' intensity of r compression at A=R .' if inch. =  2 Fig. 175.?> •> 1 425") . /A' .— 3«4 stresses. The section is shown The distance CB of the from the inner edge is in Fig. Example i. 129. and the centre of curvature being in the load line. the inner width being 2 inches. A> A) VA  R R+y W \ ~ In welldesigned steel hooks these two values are generally not very unequal. BC X (3375) = BC = HX 1 \ X 2i) + (i x OC = 2\ x i X 2l) inch is Hence the radius of curvature R at C The width of section HK is 2 —  HK 3 inches. The 3 "37 5 square inches. [CH. Art. 174. Estimate the extreme intensities of stress when the hook carries a load of 1*25 tons. the variable width of section is = y from hence "" A' = 3 X I . The central horizontal section of a hook is a symmetrical trapezium z\ inches deep. and measuring positive towards A. centroid C found by taking moments of the area about DE. and the outer width being 1 inch.
the bending or change from original between direction is zero. taking moments about the large A G A M XX XEFX centre of the section XX M = M. If in estimating the bending moment at any section we neglect the curvature of the ring. from Art. and direct pull or thrust.sin 2 6) (1) And since the total bending between A and F is zero. and and F. Let be the bending moment producing greater curvature at any inclined 6 to the line of pull. it is evident from the symmetry pass through the centre O after the straining. in calculating the stresses at the extreme inside and outside of the ring we may neglect —A the and shearing force at the section. tions. The intensity of shearing stress on normal planes being zero at the extreme inner and outer edges of a section. calculate from the bending direct pull or thrust. i. the N maximum rz 5 ) tension at I2 5 B is X 3 (l 3 X oi6 3 i\2 2 A _ 3'538i J 3375 / _ + T 3375 "= 01631 X °'«i7 + o37 ^l 0^163! = 383 tons per square inch stress at and the maximum compressive 3'538i _ _3_\ i'25 X 3 f 3X01631X3375 425/ A is. 132 i'25 (i). F. ring subjected to pull or thrust through its centre has. for example. treating the 2 C . 132 (2) 037 = 262 — 037 = 225 tons per sq. the total amounts of bending in opposite senses or of opposite sign are equal. moment and Approximate Variation of Bending Moment. and — use the rules applicable to straight beams. and therefore.ART. at any radial section. 176 represents the ring subjected to a pull W. 176. in. If Fig. Stresses in Rings. a bending moment. by Art. D. 133. 385 square inches A = f(. 133] ' BENDING OF CURVED BARS. The piece and the shearing force on EF being zero.22 5 + 6# S X 2303 x 03273) = 35381 A — A = 35381 — 3375 = 01631 square inch Hence. there is bending at various secthat the four sections at A. we shall not make nearly so an error as in neglecting curvature in calculating the stress.R(i . although Fig. and Mj be the bending section being in equilibrium moment on the section EF. + . shearing force. more rigorous examination of the variation in bending moment follows at the end of this article.e.
Taking the circular section. beam.. *'= Jo I J ri*ri M<# = o n *^ t Substituting the value of IT R M from (1) and dividing by ^r. 71.— — 3 86 ring as a straight STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. the stress of W intensity —r. The bending moment vanishes for sin 6 = and its values at all sections are shown in Fig. since j M = pj as in Art. XII. giving an additional cir cumferential stress of intensity W sin 2A and a shearing force radial sections. . \V — cos will across the which produce shear ing stress distributed more or less as indicated in Art. In addition to the bending stress there is on every section such as the direct — W force — XX • sin 6. shearing force W at — 6 = will produce an average shear for example. of this maximum intensity would be about f amount. .f where 6 = — WR or oM = sin e) . The greatest Fig. 177 plotted radially from the central line SLTK. (3) — 3 i8WR (4) 2 . 177. 77. Additional Direct and Shearing Forces. 7T 11 and therefore from (1) and at the section AB M = WrQ. [CH. — =o r •J M i= WR/ ^rl V . . di equal to RdO. where ds is an element of length the bending per unit length.
k \R^i A/ A K} This reaches critical values at 6 = o (a discontinuity) . The two equal and opposite principal stresses corresponding to this state of simple shear are.A = R ^jj . stresses. At 6 = . /> =^A^A (A3^+RJ ) W /A' R \ (tensile) ' (9) At 6 reversing the sign "'0 ~ * = A J/ A' A U JT+r) ~ 2A stress R \ W (expressive) (8). ^^ —^ + + Rj ) Wsinfl 11 fp" 2A * (8) At * = °°.and A'\ R at . = . 133] viz. and AB below. 176. putting the value (3) in (i6£) of Art. and adding the direct stress 1 end of Ex. at BENDING OF CURVED BARS. 387 the centre lines of the section AB. The most important stresses are those arising from bending and direct stress at the inner and outer edges of the ring at the sections where the bending moments and the direct stress reach their extreme values. . At the intrados or inside edge of the ring. and let y2 be the distance from the central line to the extreme outside edge of the crosssection j and consider a pull as shown in Fig. _ A'\ _W sin 6 2 . . of much lower magnitude than the greatest bending Even the stresses at the centre line arising from shearing force direct pull are not at any section so great in comparison with the bending stresses at the section (See as to be of much importance. . reversing the sign A\ W . W ~ . the modifications for a thrust being obvious. 129 (y being equal to —yj. W '6) ' the greatest intensity of stress in the ring. Let y x be the distance from the central line to the extreme inside edge of the crosssection. . ) 1 • • <») The intensity of stress reaches zero for a value of 6 which can be calculated from (5). — W W intensity of compresA sive stress/ _ \~ W 2 A. writing y +y^ = — intensity of tension/ = W( ygjsinfl) x_ \. At0 = which is °> / ^ = ^A^X)(R^yrAj( compresslve> . (10) and the position of the zero can be calculated from . _ A ( AVA jf2 . At the extrados or outer edge similarly..)/ R P— A^A(R^ A)+iA( ( « . tenSlle . .) Resultant Stress at Inside and Outside. even in the smallest rings.ART.
and as R When is small. owing to the greater the same magnitude as (6).. 129. 129. Substituting the value (1) in (14) of Art.— A •yi A is less than A'. In rings the mean radius of which is large compared to the dimensions of crosssection. XII. and the curvature decreases. For a circular section R= 396^ For rings of larger radius than this the tension at the extrados in the line of pull is the greatest tension in the ring. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.—— 388 — — — [CH. The intensity of stress at the intrados and extrados is shown for all angles in a particular case of a small ring in Fig. we proceed as follows. curvature the greatest tension may be given by (9) . with the same notation as in Art. 178. below.) In estimating the bendexact Estimate of Bending Moments. +  WR (1 —  sin 6) = ER»(i + *. this must approach ring. the critical radius above which the tensile intensity (7) exceeds the intensity (9) maybe found by equating (9) and (7) and solving the equation for R. a somewhat greater value. writing ds for JLdO — / S/  A) (n) o= M<# = ER(A'A) ±^»dsJ (i+e«)do\ ! (12. we similarly that the critical radius find R=. ing moments. as the error involved is small j to take account of these. (For details see Ex. we have M = M.)(. since of radius r this gives 45. equation (7) will give the greatest tension in the increases. Lr 0=0 But evidently in a complete quadrant after strain the between two normals OS and OL (i+e„)ds Jo total angle _ ~ it f P 2 . f\ 1 \ )(A' Hence. and for rings of smaller radius the tension at the intrados for the sections perpendicular to the line of pull is the greatest tension in the ring. the initial curvature of the ring and the effect of the " 1 More — normal forces W sin — 8 were neglected. For any symmetrical section with halfdepth y t this gives R R R= _^ y is 1 or 366)/. Taking the more exact value of the bending moments below.
jVtf} 2 = ER(A'.. 8a) = e{r(i + ejQ. w w 389 hence (12) becomes it f* Md6 = ER(A'.A)J V# Art (13) and instead of the relations (6) or (8) or (13) of this case is 129.ART. i)(A  A') + *«a} (14) which with (1 1) gives '0 + 2EA EAR T 4rr ^3 M W (which v is independent of v 6) ' (iS) Substituting this value in (13).. 133] BENDING OF CURVED BARS.f n „ A' . the total normal force across the section in j sin 6 = E% .A)g . WR\ .A/„ .
J sin *) instead of the value (3).. is stretched by an amount . • is W p~6 — sin this • ad approximately. XII. Thus the bending a value lower than (4) since moment at any point of the ring is dependent upon the ratio between the crosssectional dimensions of the ring and its mean radius. n quadrant between A and F amounts W iAlJ . . (. .—— 390 — — — — — [CH. viz. MB = W Sln ^AE = WP 2El> I where * =A .. .. bend M = ^rX ? °r °'3i8WR^.. the bending stress at the point of application of the load in the intrados. equating (16) and (17) instead of the value (2).7) Hence. force W sin 6 causes a strain Wsin« an " an element of length as —Tt?~i — . and substituting this value in (1) M = Wr(^ . and not and the mean radius of the rings as only upon the external force The use of these corrected values of indicated in (3). T^'ds. becomes A W M W / R A \ / K ^^(a'aAr^a'V A A • • • • («) is less than A'. o. it will be sufficient to notice that the greatest intensity of stress. the bending or change of direction in a length as . . ing moment » .. a rather lower value. Dividing by R. . p.. and in a complete to . instead of (6).. since very close approximation to the above corrected bending moments may be obtained. (1) IT But integrating F J /s'M^M^ + ^f. on the radial crosssections. . taking account of the bending which results from the normal forces W — 2 sin 6 . (19) and in particular at = the maximum . (20) is less than A'.. . in deducing formulas (5) to (10) will give slightly more correct values for the intensities of stress .. The normal . STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. .) .
From (5). in (18) and (20) of the present article. 130. Art. W= ton and the steel 4'Q*? is 1 maximum intensity of stress is ^ = 6*3 tons per square inch. S'io— J . W/16 \ ' 5 sm V quantities from the central line The maximum are shown plotted radially inwards for positive on the righthand side of Fig. the 5 of 1 irr 2 X X even 16 . — W If in ^ yJ irr* 1*0294 extreme case this (1 W = aok — 4*96 loading maximum stress intensity becomes s. the equal and opposite intensities of stress would Be. through its centre. 130 (3) and the mean radius of the A' = —A= A' 6'nT (3 2 — v 8) = ro294?i? J 0*029411?* A = irr* = A 10294 A' r using the approximate values of the bending moments. the (22) with (20). 39 1 Adding this we get _. The value (22) gives 5. Art. 133. WR J_ _ T2 JW . showing the very close agreement of inch diameter. the difference being under ° % per cent. value at 6 o is p = 16 W —— r» 2 or . WR/ ir #\ WR/ Z?\ . which may also be obtained by substituting the approximate values of A' from (4). 178. from Art. 133] BENDING OF CURVED BARS. find the intensity of stress at the inside and outside of the ring. the intensity of compressive stress — Wgisinfl) p = The 00294^ values of (rs ~ I '° 294) Wsin0  ^r ^U ~ 8 W . using the approximate bending moment Art.ART. ring is subjected to a pull the line of which passes Example 1. (This represents the smallest ring which could be used as a link in connection with other links of the results —A same ring size. 63) had been used. If the ring is made of round steel the radius of which is 5 of the mean radius of the ring.) The R = radius of the round steel being r 3/. If the more exact value line A WR the ls adopted for the bending moment in W — — k 16 . Intrados. term to the equations ab6ve (2). If the rule applicable to the bending stress in straight beams ( (6). ° r  2 — ^) = 1 W — of curvature.
CBcosBCD = DC. the direct stress W sin5—. and in particular. which much less than the extreme bending stresses on the same section. B would move to E. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. (Fig. Deformation of Curved Bar. 179. —From ^ (8). if the remaining part of the bar were unchanged while the element ds turned through an angle di. 16W m value — —g The Extrados. being supposed fixed. 134. 178. greater than . consider the effect of the bending of an element of length ds . and the 9 2irr bending stress estimated by. this. 179) represent the centre line of a curved bar which is subjected to a variable bending moment..di = M r El ° Js M * = ET* _. — — [CH.cosBEF=^. .94^ ro2 9 4 " °7S)+i Wsin* W 491 ^=^^— fg 4' Q 24 8 sin 6) . 129 . distributed as in Art. find the alteration in the points on the Let ACB To length AB. say. such principal stresses are everywhere of lower intensity than the maximum bending stresses calculated above. is 33 per cent. XII. 77 the change of curvature di or y. The greatest stress arising from the radial shearing force is at the central line of the section in the line of pull. {16b). the horizontal projection of this displacement being A EF=EBcosBEF=CB.^.\ These values are shown plotted radially from the central line on the lefthand side of Fig.— 392 . 133. is and is about f —W — j. Art.— The bending of a curved bar results in an alteration in the shape. the intensity of tensile stress is P = wfe  1 sin 6) 00. For points within the perimeter of other sections the principal stresses may be estimated approximately from the radial and circumferential shear stress. Art. 71. chords joining Fig.<# And from Art. original centre line may be considerably altered in length. .
the decrease 2 f 5 WRVi rpnp/ is i sin 6d6 = 2WRV1 EI y A y (a negative quantity) . Thus. 176. the agreement between calculation and experiment is very striking. the decrease 2WRYA The y = alteration in the diameter 1 A < mr\A'7y ST may similarly be found is 2> by writing R w sin instead of R cos 6 0) \ sin . it is 135. 133. Art. or the increase 2 WR 3 ^I (H) (19). ds = RdO. Hence the alteration ing of the element ds is EF in the chord AB resulting from the bend M and the total alteration v is due to bending / »•* the integral or CO sum being taken between limits corresponding to the ends Bending moments producing greater curvature evidently cause decrease of length of the chord. easy to estimate approximately the change in the principal diameters due to bending of the ring. 2WR /7r 1 AN . and 393 E is the modulus of direct elasticity. considered in Art. and from (3). 134. curvature cause increase in length. 133. moment of inertia of crosssection. for 1 (3) or using the more exact value M. Art. 133. Illinois . 135] where I is the BENDING OF CURVED BARS. and those producing decrease of A and B. 134. putting y = cos 0. the decrease in the diameter KL is— or if the more exact value (19) of Art. Since this chapter was written the Author has received from the University of a bulletin containing an account of experimental tests of this theory of rings and chain links by measurements of the deformations.ART. the increase is— . Deformation of Ring. — R M= WR. 133 is used for M. 1 From the result of Art.T — i sin 0\ in (1) of Art. using Fig.
660. and E = 12. XII. Substituting the numerical values i. Example. diameter. The alteration of diameter (4) in the direction of the pull is of greater magnitude than the alteration (2) perpendicular to the pull. the increase in diameter is W= = 633 x 1 X 2 77 12.rEA = VVR . r \. r. we have. ds = / 2 2 cos 6 e . 133— — e° ~ W ttEA' total increase of diameters and due to the normal force the KL and STis— 2 sin .660 tons per square inch.EA I 2 cos 6d$ Jo (5) = 2WR Hence of pull the total decrease in the diameter is KL perpendicular to the line 2WRYA EI and the total increase in the i \A'tt A »WR y~wEA' ST in the line of pull is 1 (6 ' diameter aWRVr A\ 2WR EI V8~7rA7 + rEA' 1 • • : • W The last terms in (6) and (7) will generally be small in comparisdn with the remainder .660 = . . and E 12. 6Wr Eir X Ew' 1 Eirr* 1029471/ 947T/ •0294. the ring 3 inches mean Art. The alterations in the principal mean Effect of Normal Forces. diameters given above are those due to bending only. 133. and are much the most important part of the whole change. i A' = 1 '0294^ is R= y and substituting in 54W?3 the increase in diameter > X 4 /T _ \8 _I_ W. Calculate the increase in length in the ring in Ex. they will only be important when is small. e .— 394 — — — — [CH. Take the total load as 1 ton. Using the values previously obtained — R = \=rA 4 A=irr (7). 059) = gp 633W In this extreme case of great curvature the stretch due to the normal is over ^5 that due to bending. o'ooi inch . \ . ds = 2 J . + o S9 = g^S'74 + ) . from (15) and (18) of Art. To take account of the alteration due to the normal stress at the central line.' • = g^(27 pull 2126 W. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.
and / the length of the straight the other quantities sides. Simple Chain Links. Let be the mean radius of the semicircular ends. 395 136. ./ jgj = o RM. Again using the relation of Art. Art. 1 Mi =o . 133. . M x = WRY 1 . Hence. and as shown in Fig. . (2).). 133 to make at least a useful estimate of the intensity of stress in a simple chain link.from 2 V to F. c the second term representing the angular change of direction or bending a length . substituting for M and for ds as in Art. M. The simplest form of chain link is that which has semicircular ends and straight sides connecting them.ART.+ hence . 136] BENDING OF CURVED BARS. when / = o . which reduces to the form and is smaller for all other values of /.* \ j — ) ( ^ rR nr or WR/2R  . 133. Then in the ends at a section R XX W M = M!+— R(rsin0) where (1) the bending the section and in all the straight parts of the link.rR\ —i^^—^. since the total bending or change from original direction between and F is zero t M is moment at UV A r in M _.. (1 — m K„ sin *)}</* . being as in Art. 180. + . 133— EI i M > WR. 77. We may extend the approximate — theory of stress calculations for the ring in Art. ( 2v ) a negative value. M.
intensity of compressive stress at the inside (B) M. — 2A x sin 6 to be the added algebraically to the bending At the section is AB . this value (6) is less than the tension at the outside of the section AB.— 396 —— — / — — [CH. by (i6£) of at the point A Art. including EF. 1 below). AJ {5) where yx is the distance from the central line to the inside edge B. W 2 R(A . x  2R) A'> j(. the tension stress. N / (3) and in particular at AB. 2 . At edge all sections. may be found by There is. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. the intensity of tension at the inside is I 2A 2 I %R + /) + A) = • • W For symmetrical crosssections.rR + /)(A . in addition. M from IT when / = intensity o. towards 2 when at The of bending stress the intrados of the curved ends (i6£) of Art. R(A' / R x . +Rj = W( Z R + /) a(»R /A' _ y3 + 0(A'  A)V. just in the curved portion above U.y A) +A I * K ' This value (8) being for a curved portion will always exceed the value (6) for a straight portion under the same bending moment and . where 6 AJ = o WR 2R + and greater magnitude than increases with increase of / is very great./ sr>+ — R 2 2 . substituting the and extrados above values in 129. There is also a tension W —2A to be added alge bending stress.A)\R y _ A\ = W(aR + a(«R /) A/ + /)(A'  / A)V.A)\R y _ Wj 2 Aj (ttR A / R. J ~ Sln e> « = WR/2R+/ d T 2 \irR + / ( — r a\ Sln ^) • . is evidently always of opposite sign Moreover. which (2). which is.A R + \ R/ M W Again. since / is always positive. 129 M„ /A' _ y2 R \ R(A'A)\A pull. The bending stress in the straight portion is that resulting from a bending moment braically to the M t.R R y _ A\ . XII. /.. including the direct the intensity of tension at the inside edge would be M t / R x _ A'\ . Substituting this value of M ( 1 in (i) • 27T M = WR irR \l Wt.A)U . in which j/3 yx even in the smallest link practicable (see Ex.
M„ = WR 2R . Estimate the stresses on the principal sections of a link having semicircular ends and straight sides. method is. 397 . A = 7it2 And from Art. the stresses (5) and (7) are usually most important. howev<y. which affects the bending stresses (5). W = 1 ton. approximate theory. * 2 f. 133. using the proper values of integrations over the curved and straight portions. ^* 2 + 1) (ir . (7). (7) gives the maximum tension in the link. and we may take the values (6) and (8) as holding approximately at short distances on either side of the section .ART. made of round iron. If we make the more exact calculation of bending moment as for the ring at the end of Art. be a sudden discontinuity in the bending stress at the section UV. (This represents the shortest and most curved link which it would be possible to use in a chain with others of the same kind.. Art. this correction. only approximate. 130. using the first 2 approximation from (4). and (8) slightly. 136] direct stress BENDING OF CURVED BARS.V3) = putting. the compressive . . does not seem worth making. 9=0 we find. where the radius of curvature suddenly changes from The to an infinite value. in the plane of the pull. the = 2r = /. 130 (3) mean radius of the ends R  A' = 411/(2 . is 6Wr 2 y(2ir+2)Xo07l8ir/ (2 r °7 l8 J _ . The deformation of the link may be estimated by the methods of the and e0> and using separate previous article.) Taking r as the radius of the section. In the smallest practicable link (8) is the greatest tension (see Ex. for I _. 4'68 „ stress is = 597 tons per square inch. and the length of the straight sides being also equal to the diameter of the sections. 1 below) in more usual sizes. +/ (very nearly) This gives a maximum bending moment rather below the value (4). _ 1*07 i&rr* A' A= 00718117* A' r = 10718 For the section litress inside. the intensity of compressive = r . There would. being a little greater than (8). the total change in a quadrant being R R UV 2 (i + e^ds p =• ir MJ 2EI =r? instead of  . (6). W 3 X 09282 X 00718 ~ W 4 ir/"2 If . and the iron is 1 inch diameter. according to these approximate estimates. in (5). Example i.?. whether or not it will exceed the value (7) depends upon the ratio of both and / to the dimensions of crosssection. In this M — the mean radius of the ends of the links being equal to the diameter of the round iron.
The bending moment at any elementary length ds of the s P" n S> distant x from the line AB. 133. for the ring in the The from tensile stress intensity at the outside of the same section (7) is 6Wr . . 4r(:r + . 181. Flat Spiral Springs. the other end being attached to a small spindle C. — — — S — — 3 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. These results should be compared with those example at the end of Art. [CH.ds = Fx . and I is the moment of inertia of the crosssection about a central axis perpendicular to the plane of the figure. .is. o o "0718117^ . .ds Wl . l is the change in the angle between the tangents at the two ends of the elements ds. (l 0718 ' — 4) = 3/ 2'04—2 V. (1) is usual. Hence the total angle of winding up due to the force P is where di \ = 2(fPx J ^jds if I is or P jfjfxds (radians) . or the whole length of spring / multiplied by the distance of its centre of gravity constant. £=M ds El OT M di=^ . actions and the winding up of a spiral spring such as is used to drive various mechanisms may be determined as which A small — D /^^^*\ //s'—~\\\ // //~\\\\ "Tl'{"( ~®) r)'\ T V X\£~^S J I I Suppose one end A of the spring be free and pulled with a force P in the direction AB. B p ^/ A M = Vx The given by angular winding due to this element is Fig. . where the straight sides join the curved ends from ia) (8) Wrfr 2r( 1  2) 2 r+i)(oo7i8^ is I0 ' _ + 2nfs ~ W (r 7 8 + o.i8r) to NSf^^V/ ~ : . .— 398 — . as the moment . W The tensile stress at the inside of the straight sides from (6) —r/ —+ X i 2 2(7T l).i7 \i 4 x 2717^ = ?rr II ° + °"S) = ~3( '3/ 2v i'6o—2 . 7IT The few//* stress at the inside of the sections is. increase in the length of the sides and radius of the ends is necessary to make a link which would work freely. (Fig. 1) r— X .5 )W ~~™*~~ 228W *** the greatest tension anywhere in the link. is follows. The relation between the straining 137. XII. and such increase is sufficient to make the tensile stress greatest at the outside of the sections in the line of pull. The quantity jxds is what may be called of the profile of the spring about the line AB.
ART. 137]
from
BENDING OF CURVED BARS.
//,
399
AB; this distance is practically equal to centre of the spindle C from AB, so that
jxds
.
.
the distance of the
and
where
'
= h.l = FAl
EI
or
Ml
FI
.
( ra
J " lans )
.
.
(
2)
M=
Y/t.
In an actual spring the point A is usually fixed and the spindle C is turned, the action of winding up bringing into play a force P nearly parallel to AB, and an equal and opposite force through C, forming a couple P X AC or P/4. So long as the spring at remains sensibly normal to CA, and no two parts of the spring come into contact, and the shape remains such that the centre of gravity is at C, the above relations will remain practically true. The angle i is proportional to P or M, and consequently the work stored in winding, or the resilience of the spring, from (8), Art. 93, is
A
...
.
.
MV
,PAV
.
,
Yh, the external moment applied. greatest bending stress on the spring may occur where the spring joins the spindle if the curvature there is very great, but it will diametrically opposite to A, where the bending usually occur about moment is greatest. If the spring is very thin, we may neglect the curvature and calculate the bending stress as for a straight beam. At the bending moment is nearly P x 2A, hence the greatest intensity
where
M=
The
D
D
of bending stress
If the spring
is
=— where Z
,
2P/&
is
the modulus of section for bending.
d and
is
is rectangular in crosssection, the depth or thickness being the breadth b, Z \btP, and the intensity of bending stress at nearly
—
=
D
? ~ bdl ~
If the
_
I2P^
_ 12M
~bd*
safe
or
proofstress intensity is /, the
/. btP
12/1
maximum
value of
P is—
(max.) '
x
P =^y
or
bd* M = Jf. 12
and
substituting this in (3), I being j^bd 3
—
volume
(nearly)
is
proof resilience
or about
= ^^ x bdl or^^ X
which
^y
is
f per
unit of volume,
only \ of that of a closely
117), where all the subjected to the maximum bending moment instead of a bending moment varying from zero to a maximum with a mean value about half of the maximum.
helical spring subject to axial twist (Art.
wound
material
—
400
Example
i.
—
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.
[CH. XII.
spring is \ inch broad, inch thick, and attached to a small spindle, and the other to If the spring is " run down," or in a state of ease, find a fixed point. what turning moment on the spindle is required to give three complete How much work is done in winding, and what turns to the spring. (E = 30 x 10 6 lbs. is approximately the greatest stress in the spring ? per square inch.)
flat spiral
is
—A
^
10 feet long.
One end
I
= T2 X
(2)
\
X
3
(?o)
=
(inch)
4
1
I)53 6 )000
=
6tt
radians
From
EI./ 30 M = —/j— = ——X io" X 1,530,000 x
,,
2
6jt
120
=
b 3'o68 lb.inches
,
,
,,
.
The work done
is
M x
6ir
=
3068
X
37r
=
28'9i inchpounds
The maximum bending moment
ingstress intensity is
2
is
nearly 2
x
3*068,
and the bend
nearly—
—x X
x
2
3"o68
(50,)
X
,j_, 2
—=
6
.
,
117,800 pounds per square inch
138.
used
in
Arched Ribs. Curved beams, usually of metal, are frequently The straining roofs and bridges, and are called arched ribs. actions at any normal crosssection are conveniently resolved into a bending moment and
a shearing force, as in the case of a straight
—
beam
carrying transverse loads, with the addi
tion in the arched rib of a thrust perpendicular to the section; for, unlike the case of the
all perpenthe axis of the rib, the resultant force perpendicular to a radial crosssection is (Fig. 182) of not zero. Thus, at a section an arched rib the external forces give rise to (1) a thrust P through the centroid C, (2) a FlG lS2, shearing force F on the section AB, and (3) a bending moment M. These three actions are statically equivalent to a single thrust T, through a point D, in the is the resultant of the rectangular comsection AB produced, where
straight
beam, the loads not being
to
dicular
AB
"
T
ponents
F and
P, and the distance
CD =
M p.
The
curve to which the
line of thrust is everywhere tangent at points vertically above the The straining action centroids is called the tinea?' arch for the rib.
thus be specified by the normal thrust, the shearing force, and the bending moment, or simply by the linear arch, and when the straining actions are known, the stress intensities in the rib can be calculated. As in straight beams, the shearing force may often be neglected as
may
ART. 139]
producing
SENDING OF CURVED BARS.
401
little effect on the stresses. The bending stresses might be calculated as in Art. 129 if the curvature of the rib is great, but usually it is sufficient to calculate them as for a straight beam, as in Art. 63.
The uniform compression
ally to the
from the thrust P is added algebraicas in Arts. 97 and 98, and the radial and circumferential shearing stress arising from the shearing force may be calculated as in Art. 71, and, if necessary, combined with the bending and other direct stress to find the principal stresses, as in Arts. 73, 113, and 114. Arched rib may generally be taken as bridging horizontal spans and sustaining vertical loads, and three cases will be considered. 139. Arched Rib hinged at Ends and Centre.— rib hinged at the two supports or springings and at the crown C, and loaded with vertical forces only, is
arising
bending
stress,
A
AB
shown
in Fig. 183.
reactions at
into vertical
A and B
The may
conveniently be
divided
components
and B together with the horizontal component h H, which must be the same at both ends, since these two are the only Fig. 183. external horizontal forces to which the rib is subjected, and consequently the horizontal thrust is constant and equal to throughout the rib. The vertical components A and B may be found in exactly the same manner as the vertical reactions of a horizontal beam with transverse loads (Arts. 56 and 57) by taking moments of the excurve ofji ternal forces about or B. The constant horizontal com,
VA
V
—
H
V
V
A
ponent thrust is found in this case from the fact that at the hinge C the bending moment
is
necessarily zero,
and
there
fore the moment about the horizontal thrust
H
C
of
must
be equal and opposite to the
of the vertical forces to C, including the vertical component A of the If /* denotes reaction at A. the bending moment calculated for the vertical forces only, as for a straight horizontal beam, and at,C (Fig. 184) n = fi represented by the ordinate
moment
from
A
V
,
ED
H = CD
2
/*0
(1)
D
—
402
— —
,
—
[CH. XII.
is
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.
its
Then
and y
at any other section of which (Fig. 184) height above the line AB, the moment is
G
M
the centroid,
M=»Hy = ^J§.j,
(2)
where bending moments producing decreased convexity upwards or decreased curvature are reckoned positive instead of the opposite convention of signs adopted for straight beams in Art. 77. If, therefore, a diagram of the bending moments /* as for a straight horizontal beam be plotted, and every ordinate be reduced by y or
H
.
r?f>r,
the resulting ordinates, such as P'Q' (Fig. 184), will give the values
of the actual bending (2) may be written
moments
M on
same
scale as the curve of
/x,
or
FQ'
= PQgGQ
A
.
slightly different
/a is
the curve of
,.
to
draw the
method of obtaining the bending moment from linear arch. If each term of (2) be mul
, , tiphedby—
CD CD or— CD ., MX CD = '*EDy ED
(3)
Hence,
if
the ordinates, such as
PQ,
of the curve
APEB
of u, are
CD
reduced in the ratio
ordinates
pT.
,
the difference, such as
GK, between
the resulting
scale
and the ordinates y, represents
M x ^tz
CD
on the same
as before, or represents
M
on a
is
scale in
which the bending moment
represented by unit length
increased in the ratio ==vertically
ED
"
The bending
moment
in such a case is
measured
from the curved base
AGCB,
but to the modified instead of the original scale.
Or
(2)
may
be written
M = H( y)= h(^p y)=
H(QK  GQ) = H x KG
hence the bending moment is everywhere equal to the horizontal thrust multiplied by the vertical distance between the linear arch and the centre line of the arch. This is called Eddy's Theorem. The line ANKCB is the linear arch, and the normal thrust P may be found by dividing the bending moment by the perpendicular distance GN of G from the tangent.at to the linear arch (see Art. 138), and the scale is such that
K
M
P =
HX NG
(4)
In the neighbourhood of points of maximum bending moment the linear arch is parallel to the arched rib, and the resultant and normal thrusts are then practically the same. The resultant thrust may also be obtained by compounding the
ART. 139]
BENDING OF CURVED BARS.
403
constant horizontal thrust with the vertical shearing force determined as for a straight horizontal beam. It is evident that if the centre line of the arched rib is of the same form as the curve of /a, the bending moment is everywhere zero, e.g. in the case of an arched rib carrying a load uniformly spread over the length of span the bendingmoment diagram of //. is a parabola (Art. 57, Fig. 65) symmetrically placed with its axis perpendicular to and bisecting the span ; if the rib is also such a parabola the bending moment
H
M
is
everywhere zero.
thrust can often
determination of the linear arch, bending moment, and normal be very conveniently carried out graphically by means of a funicular polygon, the pole distance of which is determined by (1)
these methods will be found
The
more
fully
developed in
treatises
on
Structures.
symmetrical parabolic arched rib has a span of 8 feet, and is hinged at the springings and crown. If it carries a uniformly spread load of £ ton per foot run over the lefthand half of the span, find the bending moment, normal thrust, and shearing force at the hinges and at £ span from each end. Taking the origin at D, Fig. 183, the equation to the parabolic curve of the centroids is
i.
Example
and a
—A
40
feet
rise of
x2
and
= c(8 — y)
*
2
and
at
A,
x
=
8
20
y=
50
o
hence e
=
50
=
5o(8.y)
or
y=
 
% dx
=
 *
25
which gives the tangent of slope anywhere on the rib. The vertical components of the reactions are evidently
VA = I X
75
20
x i=
\
7'S tons
VB = =
o
25 tons
Taking moments about
C
x
20
—
10
X 20 X
—Hx
8
H=
625 tons
Normal Thrust
Resultant thrust
at A.
(625)*
RA = J(TST +
dy
Tangent of inclination
to horizontal
=
V = =r
= 9763 tons 75 r— = 12 =
tan 5020°.
Tangent of slope of
rib
from
20
j is
— = o8 = tan 3867°
=
5020
= 1153°. = 9'S& tons Shearing sin 1153° = 195 tons 9763 Between A and C at x feet horizontally from D M = 75(20 — x) — i(2o — xf — 625_y = 25* — \x* This reaches a maximum for x = 10 when M = 125 tonfeet.
Inclination of
RA to
centre line of rib
—
3867
Normal
thrust at
A= force at A =
9763
X X
cos 1153°
The
—
404
— —
—
[CH. XII.
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.
—
vertical shearing force is then 7*5 10 x J 25 tons (upward external to the left), the slopes of the rib and the thrust are the same, viz. 1 tan C4, and the normal thrust is equal to the resultant thrust, viz.
=
V(62 5 )2
At the crown, vertical tons (downward external
Thrust
+ (2sf = shearing force =
to the
left).
673
75
tons.
—
10
= — 2*5
tons
tons or
.25
T =
*/(62sY
+
(25)*
=
673
The
of the rib
direction and magnitude of the thrust on all the righthand side is constant, being in the line BC. At 10 feet from B the bending moment, which is evidently the
maximum
value on
2'5
BC,
is
X
10
—
625
x
6
= — 12"5
tonfeet
i.e.
125 tonfeet tending to produce greater curvature of the rib.
At B, tangent of
inclination of thrust
=
t— = 0*4 = tan 21 8°
tangent of inclination of rib (as at A)
o8
Inclination of reaction at
is
=
tan 3867°
line of rib
Bto centre
Normal
thrust at
Shearing force at
B= B=
673 cos 1687° 673 sin 1687°
140. Arched Rib hinged at the only diners from one having three hinges, in that bending stress
result
= 3867 — 2r8 = i6'87°. = 644 tons — r 95 tons Ends. — A rib hinged at the ends
may
from
expansion
or contraction of the rib if the hinged ends are rigidly fixed in position. The stresses in such a rib are statically indeterminate unless some condition beyond the zero bending moment at the two hinges is assumed. It is usual to suppose that before loading the rib is free from stress, and that after the load is applied the hinged ends remain at the same distance apart as previously, i.e. the span remains unchanged. This condition allows With the notation of the of the horizontal thrust being calculated. previous article, let be the bending moment at any crosssection of which G, Fig. 185, is the centroid ; then
M
M = /iH..y
(!)
ART. 140]
BENDING OF CURVED BARS.
405
and from Art. 134 (i), the of the normal thrust, is
total increase of span, neglecting the effect
j>=/:
(/* f1
Qx

Hy)yds
EI
where 1 is the moment of inertia of crosssection and ds represents an element of the arc AGCB; and by the assumption that the hinges remain in the same position
i
— —
Hy)y ei

ds
=°
(2)
/eT^ = h/eT*
(tlds
™*
H = T#1b>
(3)
the summations being taken over the whole length of the rib. In a large builtup arched rib I will generally be variable, but if not, and
E
is
constant, (3) reduces to
H
If y,
11,
~JyW
<
4>
and ds can be expressed as functions of a common variable H may be found by ordinary integration, and in any case it may be found approximately when the curve of /t has been drawn by dividing the arc AGCB into short lengths 8s and taking the sums of the products \l. y ,8s and _y2 8s, using values of /* and y corresponding
this value
of
.
to the
middle of the length
8s.
If I varies, products
^y
.
8s
and
j
•
8s
must be used
in the summations. In a circular arch y, ds and horizontal distances can easily be expressed as functions of the angle at the centre of curvature, and if the moment /j. can be expressed as in Chapter IV. as a function of horizontal distances along the span, the integrals in (4) can easily be found. In the case of concentrated loads the integral containing When /1 can be split into ranges over which /* varies continuously. has been found, and the normal thrust P may be found from (1) as in the previous article, or graphically from the linear arch drawn by a funicular polygon with a pole distance proportional to H. Graphical Method. If the force scale is p pounds to 1 inch, the
H
M
—
correct pole distance for drawing the linear arch
is
h
=—
XT
,
and
if
the
linear scale is q inches to 1 inch, P' (Fig. 185) being a point on the linear arch or line of thrust
/*
=
P'Q X /
.
?.
A
(Art. 58)
and
^
= ?.GQ
—
406
— —

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.
fP'QxGQ^
[CH. XII.
hence from
(3),
H = ph =
J
EI
ds
xp.hf
therefore
7r*7vi
=
*
If the diagram of bending moments /a be being n times the true ordinates ordinates
PQ
drawn P'Q
to
any
scale, the
/'
fPQ.GQ
EI
'*
=
«
J
To
as
get the true ordinates
P'Q of
1
the linear arch, each ordinate such
to
PQ
must be altered
in the ratio /'
« or multiplied by
, i.e.
by
IT*
EI
PQ.GQ^
I
lengths.
a ratio which can be found for any case graphically, by approximate summation after subdivision of the curve into a number of equal
Example i. A circular arched rib of radius equal to the span is hinged at each end and carries a uniform load w per unit length of span. Find the horizontal thrust and the maximum bending moment. Solve also the same case when the rib is hinged at the crown as well as
at the ends.
—
Fig. 186 represents the centre line of the arch
I
where
cos a
=R
and
ds
sin «
= —= =
2R
k *
=
7 01
6
°
w
=
—
2
=
=
R.d9
y=
sin 6)
x=  
Rsin0
(4)
R(i 
ED = R(cos 6  cos a) = x(Z  x) = —ft p.
sin 6)
3
Then from
liyds
2
R
4
(i J
n

sin
J
0)(cos 6

cos a)dO
H=
J
D= a
y*ds
{
2R f(cos0cosa)V0
s
wR
4
—
7rV 3
•
'Sir

a
— 5 7= = V*
o923a/R
ART. 140]
BENDING OF CURVED BARS.
bending moment anywhere
is
407
From
(1) the
M = ze/R (i  sin
dM
dd
—
(
2
2
0)
 o923wR (cos
s
/
6

~)
iJ~t\
= — sin
6 cos 6
+ 0923
8
sin 0)k<R
2
0923. Substituting these two a bending moment producing de= — o"ooi46k/R2 creased curvature at the crown. At cos 6 0923, a bending moment producing increased curvature; the position of 226°, sin 6 = 0384, # 0116/, ijs. it this bending moment is 6 occurs at distances o n6 of the span from the ends.
which vanishes for 6
values, at 8
= and cos = o, M = o"ooi32«>R
=
2
,
=
M
,
=
=

If the rib is hinged at
C
as well as at
A
and
B, since the bending
moment
at
C
is
zero
H
X CD = \wl 2 = fzoR2
and
CD =
_
r(i
 ^)
H=
Hence from
(1)
oi25a/R 0134
=
oo34aiR y,vt
M = —(I  sin
dM. —jK
2
8)

o93 4 M/R^cos 8

f)
= — ze/R
for 8
2
sin 8 cos 8
+ o934zcR
=
0*934. 8
2
2
sin 6
latter value gives
which vanishes
the point of
=
—
and cos 6
01277)
The

maximum bending moment,, sin
«/R 2
(°'*5
(max.)
M=
= 0*3573, and ~ 0934WR X o o68 = — o*oo23«/R
2
—
408
a bending
(horizontally)
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.
moment producing
[CH. XII.
increased curvature, 0*3573 of the span from the centre of the span. Example 2. A circular arched rib of span / and radius carries a single load at a distance a from the centre of the span. Find the
W
—
R
horizontal thrust if the rib is hinged (1) at the crown and ends, (2) at the ends only. With the notation in
Fig.
187—
sin
a
= =
2R
/ 4r
sin /3
R
y = R(cos0cosa)
(1)
*=Rsin0
CD = R(icosa)
CB
ds=R.d6
Taking moments about C, of the forces on
H
X R(i 
cos a)
= VB
=.
I
H
(2)
4R(l
— 2a .W — COS a)
.
From
to
A to E
/»
= /+
/—
20 .„ 2a
2/
Wx = „ //  _ W[ R
sin
\/ 6)
+
23
from
E
J
B
pyds
a
*
=
~ir wV  *) = w t(i + R sin V
H=
«=~"
f
fas
)(cos
—
cos a)dO
+ W^27 f
(^+Rsina)(cos0
COS a)<$.
rT
which
(cos 6

cos a)V0
easily be found, the limits o and ft being as given above. Temperature Stresses in Twohinged Rib. If an arched rib were free to take up any position it would expand, due to increase
may
141.
—
ART. T4IJ
BENDING OF CURVED BARS.
409
of temperature, and remain of the same shape. But if the ends are hinged to fixed abutments the span cannot increase, and in consequence the rib exerts an outward thrust on the hinges, and the hinges exert an equal and opposite thrust .on the rib ; a fall in temperature would cause forces opposite to those called into play by an increase. In either case the horizontal reactions arising from temperature change produce a bending moment as well as a direct thrust or pull in the rib. The change in span arising from these bending moments and that arising from temperature change neutralise one another or have a
sum
zero.
Let a be the coefficient of linear expansion (see Art. 39), and / be the increase of temperature of the rib ; then the horizontal expansion, being prevented by the hinges, is
at.
where / is the length Of span. Hence if is the bending moment produced at any section of the rib, the centroid of which is at a height y above the horizontal line joining the hinges, and ds is an element of length of the curved centre line of the rib, from Art. 134 (1)—
M
atl+
and since
fM
}YA' y
'
ds
=
°
W
(2)
M arises from the horizontal thrust H M = Hy
atl
producing increased curvature (see Art. 139)5 hence
 Uj f ds = m
o
or
atl H = "775"
\k ds
and
if
<3>
E
and
I are constant, this
becomes
EIo/Z
,
X
tt
H = j7*
(4)
the integrals being taken in either case over the whole span. The bending moment anywhere, y, being proportional to y, the ordinates of the centre line of the rib measured from the horizontal
H
line joining the hinge centres are proportional to the bending moment, thus giving a bendingmoment diagram; the straight line joining the hinges is the line of thrust or " linear arch " for the temperature effects. The stresses at any section due to bending, and due to direct thrust or pull, may be calculated separately and added, the former being the more important. If h is the rise of the rib above the hinges at the highest point or crown, and d is the depth of the section, taken as
^3) = ~a fds = = 2 a 1 R»(cos 6 . hold good for the builtin arched rib. 188). EI hence the extreme change of bending stress is EI 000417^ X g^j R = 00000521 x 13. it is necessary to know the fixing couples applied at the builtin ends and the horizontal — . 186 — ^ / =R sin a =i 4 a =7 o 9 cos a = — 2 8 . The principles of Chap. this f~ H/j I X d_ Eatl/id 2 2fy ds l~ (S ' Example. inch 142. Art.000 tons per square inch. from (4). Arched Rib fixed at the Ends.' — —— — — [CH. the coefficient of expansion being 00000062 of the span. In order to find the bending moment at any section X of such a rib (Fig. As in Ex. and Fig.. find the extreme change in the bending stresses. XII 410 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 140. ° X EI • J 34 ^= 000417^.J\ cos 6 + fW0 = R 5^9^3 o'oo996R' the horizontal thrust hence. A circular arched rib of radius equal to the span is hinged at each end. If the depth of the rib is per degree Fahrenheit and E = 13. the moment due to temperature change is maximum bending and the section is resulting change of bending stress at outside edges of . ds = "RdO y = r(cos ( . Find the horizontal thrust resulting from a rise of temperature of 50° F. 1. EWR _ H _ ooo996R ~ 50 ~ 3 X o ooooo62EI  ooo 99 6Ra is ~ _ °'°3" 2 EI ga The bending moment tt/ HR( 1 at the crown ^ ? )= 003112 v. constant and symmetrical about a central axis. The arched rib fixed or clamped in direction at both ends bears to the rib virtually hinged at each end much the same relation as that of the straight builtin beam to the beam simply supported at each end.000 = 0677 ton per sq. VII.
instead of positive ones as in Chap. the fixing couples B will generally be A and negative quantities..By )  • (1) beam the bending moment on a straight horizontal freely supported carrying the same vertical loads. Art. andy is the height of the rib at above the supports Bending moments being reckoned positive if tending to decrease convexity upwards as in Art.MA 7 . [Ux fiue. /S8*/fi* + */$ + M  MA fxyds /#"/y. as in Art. (2) The assumption. that the total bending or change from original direction over the whole length of arch is zero when the ends are firmly fixed gives the integrals being over the whole length of the curve. and 88— . 85 to 88. to that and the equation A B B remain fixed leads. as in Arts. 140. 139. 87 If the ends (3) A . if E and I are constant they may be omitted from each term.= ° w the integrals being taken over the complete length of the curved centre line of the rib . VII. 142] thrust. M [xds . thrust. 87 and 88. BENDING OF CURVED BARS. as in Arts. 134. allowing for the effect of horizontal thrust M = p + MA + (M B . The three unknown quantities the following three conditions : MA M B . and B remain at the same level. as in Arts. 411 Then we may write. where /* is A H M M X A M M Fig. and EI being omitted when constant. and H may be found from (1) The assumption from (1).ART. B are the fixing A and couples at the ends and B respectively. is the constant horizontal and B. 188. . MB  M A [x*ds _ „ [xy . where the opposite convention as to signs was used.
— 412 — —— — [CH. /_£ _ J ^ (3) and as in (4). in that case equations (2) and (3) reduce to A M M . V 143. 88.— With the same notation (Fig. The bending gives the necessary equations to find A V. (2). and the two equations (2) and (3) reduce to one. AB M =M /fi*W£. may be used. into short lengths Ss. E and H. Temperature Stresses in Fixed Rib. again. moment anywhere in the rib then follows from (4). In the case of symmetrical loading. some approximate ordinary methods of integration may be used. and B. ^. for symmetrical loading the unknown quantities reduce to two. and let A be the fixing couple at the supports due to the temperature change . and (4) are sufficient to determine the If all the variables entering three unknown quantities A.xH. 188). VA . the integrals being over the whole length of curve between and EI being omitted when constant. A being then equal to half the load. and H.ds + atl=0 (1) 142. say here.y JL (4) the three equations (1). then H V M M = M + V. the span. V M = M A H> which. 141. The three equations (2). Art. being substituted in (1) (5) and (2). and equation (4) becomes This value of M substituted in M . gives ^jii dt ~H fm' dt + 'J/= ° (6) . or form of summation by division of the arch graphical methods such as are explained in Art. A B and equation (4) becomes unnecessary . unknown quantities.H/f • if <6» further simplified E and I are constants.H/£. XII. If not.•••<»> /lr* + which are still M '/n. (3). If the rib is symmetrical about a vertical axis through the middle of is zero. into the integrals can easily be expressed in terms of a single variable. and MA . and (3). STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. alternative plan An would be to take as H. — ds = be the vertical and horizontal thrusts at either end of and Let the span resulting from a temperature change of t degrees (V is equal and opposite at the two ends). in which expansion is as in Art. 142. for the direction prevented as for the twohinged rib AB / Also as in (3). Art.
and EI M = 00164^. 141) 6 ds = R = 3 I0472R r.~)^ = 0134R EI ° I 34g. a—yds  = zR 2 (cos 6 . B is the fixing moment at B. 141 in the case of an arched rib rigidly fixed in direction at both ends. R2 — 000996R H + oooo3iEIR = o ro472MA R — o o93ioR H = o  2 . A Example.. AB. A and " line of thrust " in this case is a straight horizontal line the distance of which above (Fig. 4*3 (7) M A Jj . 88 9 oHR . 143] and from which BENDING OF CURVED BARS. "* hence °^93£°.01845 X = „ EI 000833 . viz. In this case H A — and and M B when T M +V .H j^ds = o may be found.ART. Find also the points of zero bending moment. 10472 HR = . Solve the problem at the end of Art. passing is at distances =r and ~r the thrust the components of /. n H = 0184532 EI MA = 00164 EI ^ At the crown (Fig. 188) is The M H AB MA H In the uncommon case of an unsymmetrical rib the line of thrust line would be inclined to the respectively from which are and V.^jdO = r/i  ^\ = oo 93 iR» f fds = 000996R 3 (see Art. 186) y = (1 . 6 Substituting these values in (6) and 3 (7) o  o93iMA .
141. Hanging Wires and Chains." Art. XII. 166. The problem of the hanging wire or chain carrying vertical loads is closely related to that of the arched rib . an analytical solution is the simplest. . easily expressed as a function of the length of chain or span. Let iu be the load per unit length Fig. The maximum bending moment is A at the supports. the form of the curve in which the wire hangs is parabolic.— 414 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 189). and the axes of x and y horizontal and vertical 1 span. rigidity is negligible. y cos 6 = = ^= oo88 9 R = r(cos 6  ^l) J\ —. P (Fig. the load being supported entirely by the tension in In all cases the horizontal component of the tension the hanging wire.oi64EI 2l 2RI X R — = o"ooo2os 40 X 13. it is also related as an extreme case to the very long tierod carrying assume the length to be so great that the flexural lateral loads. is necessarily constant . The points of zero bending moment occur when Hy = MA . may be treated graphically or analytically from 1 If the loading is continuous and the elementary principles of statics.+ 00889 = °'9549 =173° R(£ — sin 0) Distance from support x o"2026R or 0*2026 of the span. 189. point T the of horizontal tension at any H Some simple examples will be found in the Author's ' ' Mechanics for Engineers. and the constant horizontal component tension Take the origin at the lowest point O. 144. Uniformly Distributed Loads. sections the extreme change in bending stress is /" M and at those = MA 2  X d o . The problem of finding the shape and tensions of a chain suspended from given points. [CH. = = = — We 145. at a concentrated load the vertical component changes by the amount of that load. carrying isolated loads in given positions. When the load is uniformly distributed over the span.000 = which is 665 tons per square inch nearly four times the value for the similar hinged arch in Art. a case approximately realised in some suspenI >i — ^b ^r sionbridge cables and in telegraph and trolley wiies which are tightly stretched and loaded by their own weight.
/and d mfeet. 145] respectively. . The tension anywhere is (3) VH + i»V or which at the points of support A B reaches the value W^f =Sv^¥" which does not greatly differ ..". BENDING OF CURVED BARS. 190. H. Then from the triangle of forces. the horizontal projection of OP. If the points of suspension are at levels differing by h (Fig.. ."n T d is the dip below that support. 189.' \ Co_ H = ^^d'' wx" 1 wx? w{l — x^ x N. .ART. T."r. is in pounds peifwt length. (1) V ' the equation to a parabola with vertex at the origin O. . from 'Ji—x. 190). — wP H= wx* =^7 8d 2y where / is the w (2) span AB and d is the total T= 2 dip. or moments about P WX which Also is H =— x 2JV or v J —ft = 2H its wx* ... and A t:_". and neglecting the small variation ^=A = 8A5 w (6 > Note that for a hanging wire loaded only by its own weight. Fig.p is in pounds Also that if per square inch if A is in square inches. p is independent of the area of section A. since w is proportional to A. (4) from H if y is d a small fraction. 2(d v + A) ' {5) ^ 1 d _ ° Fig. 415 Then the length of wire or chain OP is kept in equilibrium by three forces. /.T.:. "j ^ <s y* from which #1 may be found in terms of d. viz.". is— P=k where T A is inT— the area of crosssection. The intensity of tensile stress in the wire. and A. and x1 is the horizontal distance of the vertex of the J parabola from the lower support B. where x = ON. and its weight wx.
coefficient of linear expansion. is The length of such a very approximately ' parabolic arc measured from the origin hence the total length of wire s is '=»'+* 7 (7) A change of temperature affects the length of such a hanging wire two ways the linear contraction or expansion alters the dip . s s' /+ '7 (9) If dm I. p may be obtained from d approximately if y. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. The change in dip and in tension resulting from a change in temperature is thus jointly dependent on the change of temperature. and and (9) is then a cubic equation for and p„ are known from (7) and (6) d . but owing to elastic stretch or contraction a change in tension corresponds to a change in length independent of temperature changes. Let sa be the initial length of the wire. and the elastic in : properties of the material. a change in dip corresponds to a change in tension. and w A E w is then r the weight per unit volume — a r = 8A4. d the initial dip. XII. w. — —— . of linear expansion.— 41 b . the direct or stretch modulus of elasticity of the material section. /<. flat [CH. A. the initial intensity of tensile stress. ° i+r± l After the change of temperature (8) and substituting for p from (6) I t *{ + lU + (m^)i\ E are known.is small ds 1 = (1 +2ArV* 1 = x + Ic'x = x + l^ v' . / the rise in temperature. a the coefficient the area of crossthe weight per unit length.
Reducing (9) by substituting for s„ + a/ wP d d + 8EA ~^5~ = * ' +3 8 d* ' —. the equation reducing to d2 = d* + fa// 2 d= V^+P Example i. the span.ART. Find the change of dip and of tension due to a fall in temperature of Weight of steel 480 pounds per cubic foot j coefficient of expansion 50 E = 30 X io8 pounds per square inch. 62 X 10" 7 . d* =§ X 20*9 = 78375 a decrease of 0*20 foot 1 = The weight ^lb. by 1 — (6). A steel wire has a dip of 3 feet on a span of 100 feet. — sQ The length of wire is Shortening due to fall of temperature. s„ 417 and p„ and . the change in dip is almost entirely due to the direct thermal elongation at. x 8 if.) neglecting elasticity J — 100 +f . for atmospheric temperature changes. 100 x 100 = 1389 pounds per square inch . = . and the third term on the left side of equation (10) is negligible. Initially foot length of wire square inch in section =  . The change of temperature which would cause any assigned change in dip or tension is In many cases where the hanging wire is easily calculated from (10). and constants of the material. .— df 7* • approximately » (10) / v which is the cubic equation for d in terms of the initial dip. change of temperature. 10024 feet — 5° = 31 X io~ of the length s = 00*24(1 — 0*00031) = 100*209 1 100 = +I "IOO d= of 1 cP 100*209 2*80 feet . not very tight. 145] from the relation dividing BENDING OF CURVED BARS.
the parabolic form as — sumed in the previous article is a very close approximation when the dip is small. integrating. 191. 3 10.0683*/ —0521 = d = 0537 foot = 644 inches. With the same notation as in Art. measured from the lowest point A. When a cord or wire of uniform cross146. hanging vertically. = H tan = a tan 6 — = H tan w (1) 9 where weight a H = — denotes the length of wire or cord which. 191). would have a tension tan 6 ds H at its upper end due to its own _ = dy dx cos 6 2 = dx Is sine = #' ds and from (1). the curve formed is a catenary..000 30 x io 6 d which reduces to trial d* 4. =a when = aJ~Eo^9 = a sec 9 the origin O is a distance 9 = o y . Substituting the numerical data in (10) from which by inches. 4i8 Example s —Take the 100 s • initial dip in Ex. d& = a sec 9 ^%°4s%=^ and if y e a  ^ 9oxa SA (2. /•sin 6d9 i. XII. section hangs freely from two points of support. 1 is not valid in this case. 1 000031 +g"7 i 1010. . considering the equilibrium of a length AP s (Fig. 1 to be 1 = A= A ¥ +f • X i5 5 i°. 145.°°° = 1000267 feet = 4167 pounds per square inch reduction of 0*00031 of s„ would leave a length less than 100 feet. foot.000(1 d) _ 8 d* j. — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. taking an w = origin vertically below or A s ws Fig. Common Catenary. 2. a below A. the approximation made in Ex. if is the weight per unit length of arc (instead of per unit length of span). — CH.e. a decrease of 556 > The stress being proportional to P = 4167 ° 537  = 7761 pounds per square inch an increase of 3594 pounds per square inch.
tan X (7 + ~J = a lo g. The tension at any point P is. . is The length of curve s measured from the vertex = f I J cosh dx a X = a sinh X a the constant of integration being zero. adding reciprocals. with T=H sec 6 = w . «*) = • + £ + £ *©'+•«* and subsequent terms for small values of x. A rectangular bar 2 inches wide and 3 inches deep is curved in a plane parallel to its depth. Also = a sec ^ (3) and integrating x or.— cosh  =(7) or = a cosh  (7) which is the equation to the catenary.<?. XII. from (2) 145. = afsec Odd = a log. neglecting the third x2 J ' ivx* 2a 2H (1). Expanding the equation y and <' + S? + ^+. 1.J . If the bar is subject to a bending moment of 15 toninches tending to reduce its curvature.1 BENDING OF CURVED BARS. the mean radius of curvature being 4 inches. dx ~M dx ds = ~T'lB = cos " a sec " . since s = o for x = o. being the same equation as the origin a distance a below the vertex A. e~ " = sec 6 — sec 6 (6) i(^ +e ') = =y from (3). hanging vertically.y A equal to that at the upper end of a length y. Examples XII. find the maximum intensities of tensile and compressive bending stress. + tan tan (sec 4 tan ffj (4) ** X = sec (5) and taking the hence. Art.EX. . «'. 419 • . representing a parabola.
7.inches tending to bend the bar to a smaller radius. and the mean diameter of the ring is 5 inches.. 6. the ends are connected by straight pieces 1 inch long. the section Estimate the greatest intensities of tensile and compressive stress on if the hook carries a load of 10 tons. the mean radius of which is ij inch. and the contraction of the diameter perpendicular to the Take E = 30 x io6 pounds per square inch. the width at the inside of the hook being 3 inches and at the outside The centre of curvature of both inside and outside of the hook at 1 inch. ture. A flat spiral spring of rectangular section is 1 inch broad and j\j inch thick and 20 feet long. The principal section of a deep. round bar of steel i\ inch diameter is curved to a mean radius of 2. XII. it and the load line passes 2J inches from the inner Estimate the safe load for this hook in order that the greatest tensile stress shall not exceed 7 tons per square inch. and the load line passes through the centre of curvai O AB Figure for problem No. s and 4. A ring is made of round steel 1 inch diameter. Estimate the greatest intensities of tensile and compressive stress in the link when the chain sustains a load of 2000 pounds. Estimate the increase in the diameter in the line of pull of the ring in problem No.D. hook is a symmetrical trapezium 3 inches 3. 8. 5. 5. when the bar is subject to a bending moment of 4000 lb. Estimate the greatest intensities of tensile and compressive stress resulting from a pull of 2000 pounds on the ring. this section is in the plane of the section and 2 j inches from the inside of side of the section. Find the extreme intensities of tensile and compressive stress \ inch. A [CH. 42° STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 4. and how much work is then stored in it ? What pull does the spring exert on the fastening if its outer end is at a radius of 175 inches ? . The centre ot 4 of the produced curvature of the inside and outside of the hook is in the line and i\ inches from B. The links of a chain are made of iinch round steel and have semicircular ends. What twisting moment may it exert on a central spindle if the bending stress is not to exceed 100. the centres rounded corners being on the lines OjE and 0.000 pounds per square inch ? How many complete turns may be given to the spring when it is run down. The figure shows the principal section of a hook. line of pull.
42 \ 9. ? uniform wire 200 feet long and weighing 10 pounds per foot of length 21 Find is suspended from two points 100 feet apart and on the same level. A semicircular arched rib of span /. and carries a load of 10 tons at the crown. carries a at the crown. 14. On a span of 60 feet a steel wire has a sag of 2 feet 3 inches. has a span of 50 feet and a rise of 10 feet . and what is then the stress in the wire ? E = 30 x io6 pounds per square inch. Find the horizontal thrust and the bending A moment 13. weight of steel 480 pounds per cubic foot. What would be the dip and the stress in the wire in problem No.500 tons per square inch. temperature of 6o° F. Find the maximum bending stress resulting from a change in temperature of ico° F. The moment of inertia of the crosssection of the rib is everywhere proportional to the secant of the angle of slope of the rib. is What is the intensity of tensile stress in the wire ? At what tempe1 foot. 10. the weight of copper being 0*32 pound per cubic inch ? Find 18. 19. the increase in dip due to a rise of temperature of 50 F. Find the horizontal thrust for the arch in problem No. Find the bending moment. Coefficient of expansion § x io" 6 E = 12. (Hint. parabolic arched rib. XII. I = I = ds ax where I is the moment of inertia . if the load varies uniformly with the horizontal distance from the crown from \ ton per foot of span at the crown to 1 ton per foot run at the springings. what is the maximum span for a copper wire. 12. 20. in the steel. hinged at the springings and crown. the constant depth of the rib being 12 inches. 9 if it is hinged at the ends only. With a maximum sag of I foot and maximum tension of 7000 pounds per square inch. due to a rise in . the dip. A symmetrical threehinged arch rib is of circular form. If the uniformly distributed load is 1 ton per foot of span. rature will the dip be decreased to 6 inches. hinged at each end. A trolley wire j^ square inch in section has a span of 120 feet. and the tension at the points of A support . Find the intensity of W tension in the wire.EX.. a sag of 10 inches. A steel wire spans a distance of 100 feet and the dip at 90 F.) 16. at the crown. 17. and fixed at both ends. What is the normal thrust and the shearing A force S feet from one of the abutments ? 11. mean radius. E = 3oxio8 pounds per square inch. when the temperature falls to 20 F.) 19. and weighs 115 pounds per 100 yards. What is the angular distance of the points of zerobending moment from the crown of the semicircle ? (Coefficient of expansion 62 x io~ 7 . (Coefficient of 7 expansion 67 X io .) rib 50 feet Find the maximum intensity of bending stress in a circular arched span and 10 feet rise. find the horizontal thrust and the bending moment at } span (horizontally) from one end. and both ends are firmly clamped. parabolic twohinged arched rib has a span of 40 feet and a rise of 8 feet. find the horizontal thrust and the bending moment at \ span. at the crown. Steel 480 pounds per cubic foot. A piece of steel 1 inch square is bent into a semicircle of 20 inches 1 5. the tension at the lowest point.] BENDING OF CURVED BARS. and load shearing force at the ends and crown. normal thrust. has a span of 50 feet and a rise of 10 feet.
By the stresses obtained by this theory we shall be able to test the results of a simple approximate investigation. We shall examine the stresses and strains in a circular plate by the simple BernoulliEuler theory of bending. and widely quoted. 1 The stresses and strains calculated in the following articles have been given by Grashof. As in the case of straight beams.. and so in calculating the bending stress in circular plates we shall assume that the thickness is small in comparison with the diameter.— CHAPTER XIII. p. the measure of the strength according to the maximum shear stress or stress difference theory (Art. 147. 25). Crawford. it is also in itself perhaps the most important practical case of an unstayed flat plate. the maximum stress is of greater magnitude. Sec. and consequently the stress and strain will be symmetrical about an axis perpendicular to the plate and through its Art. In the case of beams it is assumed that crosssectional dimensions are small compared to the length. It will also be assumed that the loading is symmetrical. Stress and Strain in a Circular Plate. Grashof took the maximum strain as the measure of elastic strength (see Art. part iv. Flat plates supported at their edges and loaded by forces perpendicular to their flat faces undergo flexure. and where it is simply supported there. 150. As we neglect any principal stress perpendicular to the face of the plate. The circular plate symmetrically loaded. is the simplest case to consider . J. and an investigation of their strength is therefore somewhat similar to that of straight beams.. in P>oc. of Edinburgh. see For experimental confirmation of the theory made on the case treated in "The Elastic Strength of Flat Plates. FLAT PLATES. from the symmetry about every diameter. Roy. 148. making such modifications as are necessary to allow for flexure in other than a single plane. of the reaction or supporting force at its edge. 191112. with the important difference that the bending is not all in or parallel to one plane. 1 . from which the stresses in plates of various shapes may be calculated subject to a numerical coefficient. vol. it will be necessary to distinguish between cases where the plate is firmly clamped or encastri at its perimeter. 25) is the greatest principal stress. xxxii." by W. but in every plane perpendicular to the flat faces. and very frequently the values of — E X (maximum strain) given by him are incorrectly quoted as being the maximum stress . 348.
ART. 61). We 423 It will be convenient to speak of the plate as horizontal. Let a denote the cir and stresses. and the convex side will be in tension both radially and circumferentially . is the radius of curvature of the P originally horizontal surface through P at a radius x in a plane containing BV and perpendicular to the plane of BVand (compare Art.where n r V = X 7. After straining. 148] centre. all cut the vertical axis in the same point. same and must the COV 1 vertical of lines originally vertical at the suffix cumferential direction where x indicates the radial direction for the variable strains a radius x. shall assume that straight lines in the plate originally vertical become after strain straight lines inclined to the By symmetry all straight lines originally vertical and at radius must evidently suffer die same change of inclination. the concave side of the plate will evidently be in compression. is = 2ir(x + 6y) 2TTX — 2ttx — — 6y X (1) V ' which may be written . and the loads as vertical. 192) being transformed into a conical surface with the same axis. the middle plane will evidently be unstrained or a neutral plane. 192) in the plate from the central axis perpendicular to the plate . reckoned positive downwards. We shall neglect the shear stresses perpendicular to px and py in thin plates just as we did the shear stresses and strains in long beams. if at a radius x Sx the inclination to the vertical of lines originally vertical is 6 f. Let x be the distance before straining of any point P (Fig. /„ and px the circumferential and radial intensities of stress respectively. Also. and let 8 be the inclination to the vertical axis. reckoned positive when tensile. at a depth y the distance Sx is increased to OV + Ix +yS0 and the radial strain is e =y d* (») . and FlG '9a the circumferential and radial strains. e. The radius at P will increase to  ex being : x + $y hence the circumferential strain at a depth y from the neutral plane e. let y be its distance from the middle plane of the plate. FLAT PLATES.89. a circular cylindrical surface with axis (Fig.
\ =y d6 = ik*™) j x . [CH. (4) where  m is Poisson's ratio and solving the simultaneous equations (3) and (4) m" Em — Km Em ( 1 \ /0 . the principal stress in the direction parallel to being zero. 75. and consequently the stresses px and p. XIII. 193 repre + +SMO E^it a horizontal section taken below the neutral surface. and between two vertical meridian planes inclined at a very small angle 8<j> to each other. 193) included be — ~fe^ tween radii x and x 8*. 19. as in Fig. where p' dx = jg the radius of curvature of the plate in the meridian plane containing BV and CV (compare Art. for the intensity of bending stress in a beam.8a. (5) <tv\ d$\ (6) from which it is evident that both the radial and circumferentialstress intensities on the section AB are proportional to the distance^ from the neutral surface. appear as tensile stresses. Hence from the axis OV Art. On any element of area p. circumferentially (3) and radially.. resolving this angle — ) to the 8a of either face the to EH. 8<b\ on the faces middle force is AB and CD (Fig. the portion above the surface neutral where y is negative will have sents radial stress across the circumferential compressive forces acting boundaries of the element. The upper part of Fig. p. Resultant of Circumferential Stress on Element. and upon it due to the —The (it I forces p.— 424 which — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.d0\ m + x dx) . the have a zero resultant. Consider now the equilibrium of an element of the plate (Fig. 61). and may be represented. e* 1/. 193) are inclined at an radius OHE. may be written . since components forces perpendicular to on every pair of corresponding elements of and are equal and parallel and perpendicular EH AB CD .
8a). The EH from two corresponding elements are to the first one in AB and the other 2p. the resultant being a couple formed by the opposite forces on opposite sides of the neutral plane.xf/ where R. i.(p. =—^^Ax +m . the moment of inertia of the rectangular face AB is 8x f. and r positive. about an axis in the neutral plane and EH perpendicular to the radius OH. sin — =p t . from (5) the total moment AB is or CD. is positive. 8a . 8<f> .8a total force on the face BC due to radial stress is zero. x. 148] FLAT PLATES. and ^K Em / + s><^> . and f/ is the arm of the couple or distance between the centre of If pull and centre of pressure (see Fig.y. substituting U =^l(X + m dxP(^«) . the plate is convex downwards. E« (B d6\^. on the element resulting from the circumferential stress is zero. The total moment of the couple formed by the above elementary forces.8a) the summation being over the face BC. of area the value of px from (6) the moment is / . the amount (8) is of the element.ART. v dx) (9) . 192) is above the plate. 8<f>2. is 84>S(y. forces parallel to 425 order of small opposite. resulting from the circumferential stress on AB and DC. the .t> Em /Q dff\ . „ . S(y 8a). EH which might also be expressed in the form R. to the first order of small DC — quantities is px . being of opposite sign the total force parallel to on the opposite sides of the neutral surface. contraclockwise viewed from the side Resultant of Radial Stress on Element. 8a. in CD.e.8a) the summation being taken over one of the faces substituting the value of/. and the moment of the circumferential stress about an axis perpendicular to is ^ .8<f>. the moment of which is The 2(px . x . = vertex is V dB of the conical surface (Fig. &<j> p..e. i. The force on an element 8a of the face BC resolved parallel to EH. . .p. w If / is the thickness of the plate. quantities 8a . 193). the total force in the direction EO on one side of the neutral plane.
i. as before. moment and terms of * + 8x M + SM + 80. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. will have upon it a vertical shearing force T 27T 2 ^ (I) The be shearing force F + SF Ax on the vertical face AD will similarly + &c)'ty The moment and perpendicular of the external forces about an axis in the neutral plane (Fig. under Uniform Pressure on its Pace. differentiating (9). the moment (8). and (10) is a clockwise moment resulting from the radial stress on the element considered and is opposed to the couple (8). Circular Plate freely supat its Circumference. M in (9) will be If in addition contraclockwise in accordance with the j— is moment positive. is ^ If. The resultant of the two couples (8) and (10) must be balanced by the external forces. 194). including the loads and reactions. J (l0) ' ' .— 426 Similarly. — [CH. 8x. on the face AD The difference SM might be written in between SM M+ . .f. neglecting quantities of the second to EH . The external vertical force on a circular portion of radius x. is / .E. its?. which. and a face such as BC. Figs. the moment on M increases with increase of x. Let/ be the uniform pressure per unit of area of the plate. XIII. and concentric with the whole plate. the clockwise moment *:1 M + SM AD is in excess of the contraclockwise moment on BC. 193 and 194.e. and M is y dx 8x. 193). are positive. . and let r be the radius and / the thickness of the plate (Fig. We now proceed to 149. Hence the vertical cylindrical surface which divides this circular portion from the rest of the plate has a total vertical shearing force pirx* upon ported — it. dO "M tP0\ i .m/d0 *»I and </0 7 U + *S + ^ .8<j>. particular cases. the .
o.rfife^v A. the intensity of circumferential stress is— • A = {g 3 „+. such as the product of the vertical load on and the distance of its centre from E. 1$ . 148— o. Em/3 . 8<A . At the edge x r.«+ substituting. (4) 3m + 1 " . (3) The complete of the same form as equation (10). 126.K(« + 3)*'} {( • • (8) . substituting the values (4) and (5) in (6) px A = = = = . 6=0. where * of Art. shall have an algebraic sum zero. solution found. 148.i+^iC + oto. ft** .. dividing 8 • by lz( y_ ^ &* . d$\\ — £— 2 .1W 3W + 1 dx~* Em*? U' + i . . is x~ + x* * * W and B.A( 6 . d6\ ( d*6. 126. F . may be found from the The constants of integration. 149] FLAT PLATES. 427 order of smallness. + . Art. hence. 148. 8x =p — 2 . . _ A 3" / ' ' " ' W / v hence from (5). . as in Art. hence the contraclockwise ABCD moment ! is .ART. conditions at the centre and circumference.d6. Sx (2) a clockwise moment as viewed from the side DC.( w'  i^r* 1 * E^V become— and (5) *» . together with the moments (8) and (10) of Art. Evidently at the centre. Art. hence from (4) B o. The conditions of equilibrium as applied to the element require that the moment (2). 8<£ and reducing: which is *^ +  ^ Em / 2 3 «? . Bx = o E»?V or. will be ABCD.
which. is the measure of elastic strength. from (1) its average intensity at a radius x is — F 4 1 .) E e. The strains (1) and (2). since we neglect stress perpendicular to the faces »/ — 1 n E.. e. (10) If OT = 3. .) E ex = = = (max. Art.)/. = ^J.=_•/. ± ^ • 6 ^ . 148. Sd> or pirx r 2irxt 7. according to the " maximum strain " theory of elastic strength It may be noted that (Art. Following the method adopted for straight beams (Art. =§f/>2 If r and t are in the same units. at the centre of a circular plate symmetrically loaded and supported hence./ p . 150. = = (max. — [CH. (16) If *8 4. Art. generally pounds per square inch./ .) Eex = (max. 152. . If ot 3.) E.4E.) E ex = (max. <» f ~ 'jg "+ .. when (max.(max. and T53. = f/ . x . 71). g . (6). 148. 19. . . . (max.J»'^ dx ^^^(f^4 g.) E . the intensities of stress p x and/. 151. the intensity of radial stress is A = !^(3« + iX''^) Both these centre intensities of stress reach their (9) maximum and values at the * = oon either side of the plate y = ± . (max.)^ 4.= in — ti — 1 A Further illustrations occur in Arts. Shear Stress in the Plate.i 3 ^ = m (l4) each of which reaches the same maximum value at x o. . 25). by Art. say inches. 5 .XIII. = ± . .)A = (max. (17) A=A. we may roughly estimate the vertical shear stress . substituting the values (6) and (7). their value is (max. are in the same units as/. .) p.>'%gl^_ = 4 • <* # E/*V V. .) A = (max. y = + (i S ) . are *.)/. = f/p (n) (12) If w= (max. =— .—— — 4^8 and from — — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. '> .
98 and Art. and this must give a maximum principal strain intensities of the sive stress. which occurs at the middle surface y = o. The complementary shear stresses of magnitude (18) involve two equal and opposite principal stresses of the same magnisuch that. I49] FLAT PLATES.•• 4 (19) ~ ~ for * Ern^ T 2 +C I • • ( 20> and since v = o = r— W+ C= . The deflections and slopes being supposed small as in take the angle 6 equal to its tangent. m a£ * t Form of Deflection. (2I) 1 1 2 which reaches its greatest . Then the tangent of slope to the horizontal of a line in — which a meridian plane intersects the neutral surface is — 3— = dv tan 6. is I times the mean. m+ EmV \m + J 8 . Let v be the deflection at a radius x of the neutral or middle surface of the plate from its original position (see Figs. magnitude at the centre x i)(5^ = o. from tude. 08) is where x = r. and also the vertical direct compresfrom / on the upper face of the plate to zero on the lower face. — / 3 (m + i)^ 4 22) and if #z = 3. or px ~7 This has its greatest value % at the circumference. and from (6) a beam. 192 and 194).5m + 1 4 x I ' and v ^l&^(3£+l^ _*. Art. 19 E.e'= m + 1 . 71) its maximum intensity. this becomes *£ Ei 3 s (23) *' K .ART. we may ~d~x V ° * EmH* U+i Ur+T *•. We are neglecting in our theory stress magnitude (18). viz. varying <?'. 429 and if we take it to vary over the thickness of plate in the same way as over the depth of a beam of rectangular section (Fig. This magnitude only comparable with (10) if  is not small.*"+!?).
* F* greatest intensity of bending stress in the plate Putting x r in (5) that = = **£. 149 holds good so far as (5). Art.—— — 43o 150. Art.p t (6) and for y J = ±2 this becomes (max. For $ o x = o. Plate clamped at its Circumference and under 1 Uniform Pressure on its Pace. = *£?{(« + iy(*+ 3)*} (4) and substituting in (6). 2 ^) t* = +%j . XIII. 149 .Ki)Ar> _ 3\ 149 and substituting in (4) and (5). The — Fig. 148 A = l^((» + ^(3«+^) Both these stress on the faces of the intensities plate. . The work of Art. hence B condition which determines circumference 6 for x horizontal circular plate firmly clamped in a horizontal direction (Fig. *. . Circular — — [CH. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. = = = o. the radial and circumferential 2 A=A = 1 m+ 1 (8) See footnote to Art. Art. at the centre (5) reach extreme values of opposite signs. Art. The of the radial stress at the circumference. The A is at the = r. and y = ± . * = o and the circumference is x — r.)/x (7) At the centre x stresses are = o. 195. 148 for experimental confirmation. substituting in * E«V 148 ( 3 ' • • (3) (5). 195) bears to the plate freely supported at its circumference a relation analogous to that of the beam built in at its ends to the beam freely supported at its ends. hence (1) from A (4). (>**?) (2) dx hence.
x = r. and e. (max./ (10) = 4 (11) Putting the slope equal to its tangent. + \ ^ .) Ee. . as in the previous article.«r. . j2 p . = §£/ = r 2 ffy . has the same value as ex Um If«* = 3 (max.) ex =±yTx = . 43 and The from greatest strains are evidently the radial strains at (3) the values at * = r. . and integrating (Sxx*) (12) •4^0).ART. y = + . 150] FLAT PLATES. (g ) At x = o the signs are reversed and the magnitudes are halved. (13) .) E. 2 (max.
193) is F x and the equation 8* = 2 8$ .—— — • — —  432 (a) STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 8x instead of px> 8tf> .) Eex (b) =f X = = § 6400 „ „ „ From (7). It will treat separately the be necessary to two regions into which the plate is thus divided./ being equal to W — 7rr 2 . Circular Plate freely Circumference — assumed perfectly elastic. 1 ax d*6 + . d& dx 3 6 = 6(m> . [CH. If the total load. we should find the stresses and strains at the centre of the plate infinite if the material be 151. = f X x 64 X 64 = = = = 9600 pounds per square inch From (16). 149 therefore becomes .)/. If we take the load as concentrated at a point at the centre of the plate. XIII. 150 120 X 64 (max. The central load will be taken as uniformly distributed over a small circle of radius r concentric with the plate of radius r (Fig. 8* (3) of Art. 149. X 120 X 64 sr2o „ „ „ sup and ported at its loaded at its Centre.A + B_3 Q»'i)W j2 ^. X 5760 „ „ „ From (10). 150 § (max. Art. 149 — 120 (max.) p. From (u). Art. 149 120 (mux. * T~. Art.) E^.j x p irEm'r — = constant (3) . 196). the inner or loaded portion of the plate carries a uniform load/ per unit area where W is W The solution of equation (3) of Art. becomes— . g.A _B_9 Kx)W dx X* 4 Km'thcr* ( ' For the outer portion of the plate the moment of the external force on an element ABCD (Fig.i)W . Art..
and may be found from the four following conditions. B. Ki)W / .i)W / m \m 7rEz« 2 / 3 3 +1+ m .ART. • (4) The complete solution may therefore be written x <f<9 C + _ a* 5 sC ?= D ^E.rE*V 3 Kx)W^ U+ _ mji » i + 4W By substituting these values (and (2). ..«+») • (6) The four constants A. dO Solving the three simple equations for A.) A = (max. (2) The slope 6 at x — = = = (3) The curvature 7. and the TrEmH* * * 10g ' X . } .at x = r„ is same for equations (2) and (6). (5). r D8 r. = wg_ 3 (m i + i)A (w+i)W/ m r__ m^i rf\ 2 F .. Art 148 x and (4)— —\m. C. C. and (6). (5J . remembering that tensile stress and strain have been chosen as positive (max. * . and (2).i)W J D the .. . hence B (1) The slope 6 r is the same for equations (1) and (5). is 433 particular integral is the complementary function as before.)/. D from conditions A ^ 3(w« .. their greatest values. the strains and be found. which give four simultaneous simple equations : o for x o. free.. _ mi r?\ < m+ »' 1 4/J fjT\ ' ' K1) . (5). (3). o in (1). hence by r (6).^?^ 3(02* . which occur at the centre.=oforx = ax 6 . 151] FLAT PLATES. It will be sufficient examine Stresses. log. 0°g. and using the relations (1). B= o) in (1). = r o for x= r. / is the thickness — When x = o and Jy = ± > 2 where of the plate. stresses in any part of the to and plate may (6) of Art. (2). These three conditions hold good whether the For the free plate the remaining condition is (4) plate is clamped or The intensity of stress/.. 148.
i)W *E»V * lo S«* • • (H) that C and D.. such an approximate theory as the present should not be pushed to such limits local plastic yielding at the place of application of the load will modify the assumed conditions of elasticity. m 1 / 2 \ which reduces to form when r = r.) A = (max.) E . if [CH. the last term of (12) Deflection. — — — . XIII. is r \^J V 1) Note that . be sufficient to find the deflection of the that at the centre being very little greater 3 (i»» dv Tx= Substituting for = Cx + D H . (10). is (max. y =  / . e„ = (max..0) where its be W be at the radius and its maximum about Unless r is much less than t the greatest value i*5 times this value. it will = r 6 .) px = ^ + the last term of (10) or as r„ 2 log. Art.) Ee.— 434 . and finding the constant of integration so . and deter The mining the constant of integration from the condition v = o for x = r. which reduces to the form r = r. = 5(i+log. Shear Stress. (n) being negligible if— small. pressive stress W of intensity — The neglected vertical cominfinity 2 under the load also approaches as r„ approaches zero. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.)E.. If m= r<?\ • 3 W/„ (max. —The anywhere on the plate may be found by dv integrating the value y or 6 from (5) for the outer portion.i)W/ m (15).^I^) . If r is small compared to outer portion for x r. And for m= 3 (max. condition for the inner portion is that v as found from equation (1) must be the same as that found from equation (5) at x = r„. is (13) and (13) being negligible when deflection small. 149. which. accordStrains. of this expression is much less than (11). 149. approaches zero the term log — becomes very great. for x = o. is the measure of elastic — strength. The quantity E X greatest principal strain. 3 (m* = Ey 6 or dO EAy Ey^ = „ r . Art. —The mean greatest vertical shear stress will intensity will x = . ing to the "greatest strain theory" (Art. . 25)..
= r. . except that the fourth condition for the determination of the constants of the solutions (1).i)W/. Art.« ttEw 2/3 . the v positive. Art. We shall examine reckoned for the centre and circumference. Stresses. r rf\ r\ C=^ n1 . . . 148. o for * r. Art 149) caused by the same load uniformly spread over the plate. and and (6) of Art 148. . m= becomes (5) A=A = ^log. + ^A = *±2ff(log if ?i + £). 3 (^ 3 . + iWr . the strains and may be found.ART 152] v FLAT PLATES.. . using (6). (4 . 151. and — = = D . Art. which is always less than (n). —When x = o and I<* = ± . if r = r. with the constants of the present article When x = *. (2). r. (2). 152. (5). (5). 435 is =o x for for = 1\ x — and then rejecting 3(0* all terms in which r 2 1 a factor. Ki)Wr. 151 with (1). (4) form (8). the last term being negligible to the  is small. C. stresses everywhere in the plate and the relations (i). (6) of Art. (15) = 3 this gives the deflection (l6) 3lrE? or about 25 times the deflection (see (23). The investigation of this case is similar to that for the freely supported plate in the previous article. and (5) and (6). Circular Plate clamped at its Circumference and loaded at its Centre.JS[<" + c <•>? ^^^ + > "*' + }] . for the freely supported plate... If and the magnitude reducing 3. Solving the simple equations ( 2 )> (5)> an d (6) is that for A.  ^ tensile values being From them these values (and B = o).i)W/. — P and if in i)(3»» .+ ^). Art 151. 4tEw <* (approximately). 150.. .
Art. when / = 2 r. —^ 2 (tog.0) W/ 4 E ^ = „ The (for all values of /A ^<i"3^ value of Es. XIII. which is satisfied if. Strains. . 150. ± > inserting the values of C and D p = t3W/^ px at x = r 2 log.  E*.<?.i)W/ tfx which agrees with 150. the intensity of stress at the centre is the greatest stress in the plate if the diameter is is more than 17 times the diameter of the area on which the load applied.. And if m= 3 — (. . (6) which reduces to the form (7). and (6).* x 3(ot =± — if  i)W/. <. of for x = r and y a = ±  . For m= 3 At the circumference. if r„ = r.> . if log. exceeds J 0)' /.exceeds 17 approximately. exceeds 1^5 .and 2 = o E. at the centre exceeds the value at the circumference m) if log..— At the centre x = A o E and for J v . STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. E a. • • • (7) the last term being negligible  is small.exceeds i. i^ . or W/3_3^\ (5) . Art. — + —. using the above values C and D— d6 s(«« (9).e. r r 2\ 27^— ( lo g+3) .if log.  +  j = ± .— — 43 6 and when y — — — [CH. It remains to examine the relative magnitudes of o exceeds />x at +^ £ exceeds =r 33 tf x «>.
^r„ a CJ0hence.')/ • Effl'fr. 153. 153] which is FLAT PLATES. Deflection. —As D the previous will be sufficient examine the greatest deflection when  small. we find for x = /•„ = = v = $(m % i)W r 4 1 itEotV (») Vnrp and if m= 3 this gives v which is = $*' E/ 8 ". satisfied if approximately. x. Art. The vertical shearing stress in will be similar to that article. finding the constant of integration under the condition that v o for x r. 197. 151. and then rejecting all terms having r 2 as a factor. Circular Plate under Uniform Pressure and supported at its Centre. 151. for the freely supported plate. The support will be taken to be a uniform pressure on a circular area of radius r concentric with the plate of radius r. is it in a freely to supported plate.e. = r (If the plate were clamped to its the result would differ but little from . Putting the above values of C and in (14).' (3) o for x = o. and may be dealt with very briefly.)(^r. .ART. 149 Fig. " § of the deflection (16). This case (Fig.A+ x* Bj t^'F^x 4 9( 4 EmYr* X < . support so that 6 = o for x = B= o. X M "'" dj _ 6 dxi dx x~ 6 _ _ 6(01'  i)(r»  rf)p . . ' EwVV (2) d8_ dx and since 6 ' A B _ x* M'. The effective bending pressure on the inner part will be p >rrJni rTTrr L — . Art.r. .exceeds 2 4 437 i. 197) involves work closely resembling previous cases. the strain at the centre of the plate is the greatest strain in the plate if the diameter of the plate is more than 24 times the diameter of the area on which the load is applied. for the inner portion as in Art.
the term j being negligible . XIII. (s) The three simple equations to find A. this with (n). 6  d6 ^ m j. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. facts that the values of 6 from (2) and (5) and D follow from the must be the same for x = rt . .) /.x) { . 152. Art. (>*log. Art. in place of 149. 151. £)} • («) m= gives (max. we **£?{'*'+'£&' »i«*i#* From these values the stress ase of the relations in Art 148.)A=±^{ 2l °g.  r + \(*%)} Compare • • (11) if  is small. 438 the present case (2). we should have F=f H(r*x>) and the equation becomes and the particular integral follows the results of Arts. and with (5).± i£l<" + *> which vanishes for r = r. 149 and 151. A= m _ * { • ( m+ A 'JO  . the solution being 6 * D =C+ ^.= + o t for find x = r. the value j from (3) and (6) must be the same for " x =r . r*. ••>] • w w and strain anywhere may be written by t —At the centre * = o and J = (max.3 K EmV l)P x\ . . . and since p. Art. C.) y = ± T) 2 : (max. if r is very small. and. Solving these equations.— — — —+ — [CH.) For the outer portion. ^£ if h* 3. Stress. = o f for x = r.
r— * 2 being negligible — is small. . in " beams was made in Art. 84. The method depends upon estimating the bending moment on a section of the plate through an axis of symmetry. (max.) E e. and. and is therefore only applicable to " supported " and not to " clamped " plates. from the loads and reactions of the supports on one side of that axis. ex =E A y . articles. the central deflection as in the two previous when — small max vv _ = i( m ~ x )^ m + i6mi 3) . Results are subject to a numerical coefficient to be estimated from experiment or comparison with the more rigorous examination of circular plates made in the preceding articles. 154. and Deflection. Pjt £/3 . . Compare this with (13).) v g^ which is f of that when the plate with the same central load rests on its edge (see (16). 152. and in practice the "clamping" of the edges of a plate cannot always be relied upon to entirely prevent such small inclinations of the plate as are consistent with " free support " at the In a freely supported plate the maximum stress will generally edge. = (max. /. By the following roughly approximate method we can estimate the maximum bending stress in symmetrically shaped plates from the average bending stress perpendicular to an axis of symmetry.) E . Application to Circular Plates. (. t + j(i  ^) j . and in a " clamped " plate it will generally occur at Imperfect clamping may result in removing so much of the inclination at the supported edges as to equalise the stresses at the centre and edges of the plate and so realise the maximum strength of the plate . . gives E e = ±pt  % r if og . 154] Strain. 3 ) the term Art. 151). if /« = l 3. Uniform Pressure p per Unit Area . ( I4 ) . in the case of circular plates. the stress and strain are greatest in the simply supported plates. Approximate Methods applicable to Noncircular Plates.) /„ = . . occur at the centre. FLAT PLATES. + / 439 —At x = o and y = . However. ' —Finding r is / (max. . Art.ART. ) (8). 151.. a similar remark with regard to the analogous case of " built an outer edge. the preceding articles show that. Art. which vanishes for (max. jA and when m= 3 (max.
and the line of resultant pressure passes through the centroid G x such that OGi = — 3*" . 3. giving a . 149. In the case of elliptical or other oval plates symmetrical about two perpendicular axes. 2r — from O. — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. taking m= e. get the stress (E it e) which would alone produce the same maximum 771 is necessary to multiply by the additional coefficient 3. p. The at reaction on the edge ACB is is also —  . it is 194). It the load concentric circle of radius r (Fig.g. the moment about is — W AB W/2r_4r 2\t and the modulus being \rf stress would be \_W7 _ "v 2T \ 3 / 3"v as above. IT The resulting bending moment across the section AOB due to the load and reaction M We . To strain. and for smaller 22. /. the pressure on — its . and centre of action is G 2 . Art. by 5 2r . this gives AOB AB £l+lrt*=p. this average value must be multiplied by a coefficient f • — r2 or 125 when m = 3. the average intensity of bending 5(<?) The numerical coefficient to give the (3) maximum intensity of stress ratio of r„ to at the centre ((10). XIII. values it will be greater. 196). viz. 2 r \lt Vk) « 3 \ I may calculate an average intensity of bending stress at the outside surfaces of the section in a direction perpendicular to by dividing the bending moment by the modulus of section of AB. 151) will depend upon the approach r. Oval Plate under Uniform Pressure and supported at its Perimeter. Art.— 44° (Fig. shows that to give the greatest intensity of at (a) stress. f or \rf. it will 125. — — [CH.* But (10). O.— Considering the halfplate ACB. we shall only seek to justify a roughly approximate empirical rule for the calculation of bending stress — . for^? = i its value would be nearly 155. maximum intensity of stress 1*25^3. for large values of p. —~ I or § when m= giving \Pf is uniformly distributed over a Centra^ Load W.
if a narrow strip of. '/ '/ ' I > W \ V j J " j_ " " \ I" \ t2 . In the other extreme case of an ellipse. the maximum deflection 8 will evidently occur at the centre O. through OA will be 5 rising to maximum at O. 44 l designed to fit extreme cases. a uniform pressure / would cause on it at moment \p(iby or \p&. varying from. the plate not cut into strips. At the centre O. If ABCD (Fig. that in the direction at right angles to it. "~\ \ average curvature or change of slope per unit of length will be 8 . and for inter mediate cases we may frame an empirical rule by using a coefficient which is a linear function of . 155] FLAT PLATES. the mean curvature in a meridian plane p IG a jog.. viz. follow similar rules. which must be looked upon as an upper limit for a very long oval. so that the greatest intensity of bending approximately . that the intensity of bending stress varies in different directions proportionally to the curvature ( 7 ). say. we may take it from the theory of bending or from (6). the effect of the neighbouring (shorter) strips would be to reduce the value (1). unit width be cut with a bending centre line. across the section AC. if a is greater than b. 2 Art. 148. Similarly.\P would be O OB BD O Zpj* (1) In an actual oval. where the slope is zero. 149). the stress at the centre is about V2$p b —2 ((u). in the direction is greater than that at right the bending stress at angles to it. 2\ when  = o to 1/25 stress is when  = 1. say. Consider a very elongated oval in which a is very great and b is as very small . where the "' T slope 8 will be zero. the bending O in the direction OB. and will be the greatest in any direction. and if the variation of stress along stress at OA and OB i. and the modulus of section of this strip being \t*.ART.e. the intensity of bending stress \pl? j. The average 1 slope along OB will be . is ^ times Hence. Art. and the A ' ^~ ' ' . 198) is such an oval plate supported at its perimeter. the principal semiaxes OA and OB being a and b respectively. the actual curvature in a meridian D i plane varying and reaching a maximum at O. . the circle where a = b.
reaction of the two sides AB and BC will be at G2 hence the total d midway between E and F. 154). XIII. The resultant reaction at the edges AB and BC being at on a — AB ABCD AC NB . The centre of the the square will be 2a . will . 16) is a circle. Art. Let the sides and BC of the rectangle 200) be 2a and 2b respectively. 199) represents a square supported along its perimeter AEBFCHDK./. and distant 7= from AC. the pressure per unit area. in the latter case the unknown distribution of the reaction along the edges presents a difficulty. the pressure on half sides of the square and on the p The reaction /a2 on one side BC. is by But the b endingstress intensity at symmetry the same in the perpendicular directions and OB.2a case of a central load. 157. the reaction on the edge AB will have a resultant /a at E. Let be a perpendicular from B on the diagonal AC. — . 2a 3p /~ 3V2 the modulus of the section on the AC 6 v 3 is hence the mean intensity of the bending stress at the skin across AC 2 <*t — m=p "S 2 at 2 a • " j.— 442 156. A similar rale might be made for the Perimeter. we may take it that the stress across a diagonal is about as great as in any other direction. we H might take bending moments about a diagonal or about an axis of symmetry perpendicular to a side . Square its — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. and in no direction does the bending stress exceed that perpenIf 20 be the length of the dicular to the chosen diagonal section AC. however it have a resultant at the middle point F of the side. 2 Similarly. Rectangular Plate under Uniform Pressure and supported at (Fig. The intensity is also by symmetry the same in the perpendicular directions and OH. the Perimeter. hence the bending moment on the section AC is J *\ij 2 and the thickness of the plate being is diagonal 3 t. ^ f (1) 3*/s as circle of diameter equal to the side of the square ( (2). is 2 distributed. hence we choose a section along a diagonal AC. Plate under Uniform Pressure and supported at If ABCD (Fig. — [CH. pressure on the triangle ABC will be at G„ OB or a/7 ^— a from AC. 199. hence. O OC Fig. for a central point OF plate at O. Then if the sides are not very unequal. the ellipse of stress (Art.
hence 2A0. 200. if it is simply perimeter.p. b . 443 the middle points E and F. we may take that the average stress across an axis parallel to the long sides then approaches 3/J2 the formula applicable to a flooring supported by bending parallel to the joists is negligible.] FLAT PLATES. supported at inch thick . The centre of pressure on the triangle is at the centroid and distant ±BN from ABC ABC Fig. where the Examples XIII./(iBN and . XIII. A circular plate is 20 inches diameter and j its  . and the magnitude of the pressure andbreaction is the bending moment on is AC 20.000 lbs.ab + b^ AC +b a The moment of resistance of the section hence the average intensity of bending stress across 2 a' AC is aW Wa* + b* ' " 3 in «2 which >* 7 is +* 2 (1) For a very long rectangle great. joists. the resultant reaction on the halfrectangle is in the line EF and is distant £BN from AC.EX.±BN) = 2/a 2 1«%BN ab **/a 2 is BN = AB BC AC ° r BN £. what pressure per square inch will it stand if the intensity of stress is not to exceed 10. per square inch? (Take Poisson's ratio as o 3. this will approach J 1 ? and reasoning as it for the limiting case of a very long oval. AC.) 1.
XIII. [CH. . if the greatest length is 30 inches and the greatest breadth 10 inches. 1 for a circular plate clamped at its edge. Solve problem No.) 6.ooo lbs. What is the greatest allowable diameter for an unstayed flat circular plate \ inch thick.000 lbs. maximum principal strain is to be limited to that which would be if pro duced by a simple direct stress of io. supported at its circumference and subjected to a pressure of 100 lbs. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. the What pressure may be allowed on the plate in problem No. 5. 4. 2 for a circular plate clamped at its edge. and the allowable stress 10. Estimate the safe pressure on an oval plate I inch thick. i. Solve problem No. simply supported at its perimeter. if the greatest stress is to be limited to 5 tons per square inch ? (Poisson's ratio = 03 . per square inch ? 3.444 2. per square inch. per square inch.
but very closely approximate calculations are frequently very simple.— When a body held in position by elastic constraints is disturbed from its position of equilibrium. Free or Natural Vibrations. maintained by the action of the vibrations will ensue.CHAPTER XIV. The greater the amplitude of the motion the greater are the strains. Three kinds of vibration of straight bars will be considered. so that the stress intensities must be lower than are permissible with static loads. Exact calculation of the motion in a vibrating elastic system is often a matter of great complexity. and the amount of the disturbance. It is the existence of these stresses and strains which makes the study of vibration of importance in the subject of Strength of Materials. and consequently the stresses. the vibrations initial disturbance. while in other cases the attached masses may be zero or their inertia negligible in comparison with that of the rod. Elastic Vibrations. the stiffness of the constraints. the elastic force of the constraints in the disturbed position will not generally be such as will produce equilibrium. caused in the supports or constraints of the body. 158. bending. elastic forces of the constraints alone. and their amplitude upon the magnitude of the If no subsequent disturbance occurs. the elastic forces of which govern the motion. VIBRATIONS AND CRITICAL SPEEDS. continue until gradually damped by frictional resisting forces which. due to an impact or the sudden addition or removal of a definite mass. Transverse. and Torsional vibrations. are called free or — Their frequency depends upon the inertia of the . viz. Longitudinal. natural vibrations. and Such vibrations. system and the stiffness of the elastic constraints. If the body receives a linear or angular displacement. the elastic forces being those arising from longitudinal. and twisting strains of In many cases the inertia of the bar is negligible in comthe bar. however small. and it is to be remembered that vibratory stresses are of a fluctuating and often of an alternating character. Suppose a body to be held in position by supports in which it causes strains within the elastic limit the elastic forces of the supports or constraints are just such as will produce equilibrium of the body. say. are always present. parison with that of attached masses. 159. it executes vibrations the nature of which is determined by the mass or inertia of the system.
Fundamental and Higher Vibrations. We may also write equations (1) and (2) if T= where p — n~£. then. Then using the ordinary relation for simple harmonic motion. Suppose the whole mass has (2) Angular or Torsional Vibrations.per second (3) is the constant angular velocity of a point moving in a circle. about 32*2 feet per second per the stiffness e is in pounds per foot of deflection. (r) Linear Vibration. and its radius of gyration about the axis of motion is k (feet or inches). or 32*2 x 12 inches per second per second if e is in pounds per inch of deflection.— 44 6 — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. the projection of which on a diameter of the circle defines the simple harmonic motion of the vibrating weight W. i.. or any textbook of Mechanics. In the subject of Strength of Materials the most important vibration of a given kind is generally the Often other vibrations of greater slowest or fundamental vibration. the motion of natural vibration will be of a "simple harmonic" familiar instance is that of a weight hanging on a helical character. the same angular motion. or elastic force per unit deflection or per unit linear motion of W. the relation of which to the fundamental is important in the production of sound. and suppose that the stiffness of the supports. the (mass) moment of inertia of the weight W in 1 See the Author's " Mechanics for Engineers. and the torsional rigidity or stiffness is a moment C (poundfeet or poundinches) per radian of twist. in this case the vibrations are often of so large an amplitude and so low a frequency as to be easily discernible by the eye . choosing either foot or inch units — W where I — =W V? . = ~ = ~. Stiffness. 1 where is the time of one complete " to and fro " vibration in seconds A — — — W T =*VThe frequency n or ~W~ <1) number of vibrations is^ . is e pounds. — [CH. Suppose the whole vibrating mass has the same linear motion." Chapter IV. (4) J?. and Frequency. in other cases the motion involved by the maximum strain is so small and so rapid as to be not plainly visible.V H P er second or N= ^Vvl per minute (2 ) g being second the acceleration of gravity.e. . spring . and its weight is pounds. XIV The elastic forces being always proportional to the displacement. and its weight is pounds. Relation of Inertia. corresponding to (1). frequency and smaller amplitude are possible.
. or \. the condition is sometimes called one of resonance. etc. increase the total energy of the system. In some instances parts of machines are so constructed as to have a natural frequency much below the running speeds . and the increase may continue until the strain energy involves so great a stress intensity that the limit of elasticity is reached and the elastic conditions cease to hold good. and therefore additional stress on the resilience (see Arts. and therefore the stresses caused by them. 42. a single load and its elastic supports) changes in kind but not in amount. if 447 gravitational units. Forced Vibrations : Critical Frequency : Dangerous Speeds. §. but in any case the rhythmical application of even a small force of this critical frequency may cause large and serious stresses. In the mean or central position the velocity of motion is a maximum. 1 60] VIBRATIONS g AND CRITICAL SPEEDS. bring out the above relations very clearly. of the natural frequency may become dangerous through one of its harmonic components. etc. periodic disturbing force or moment may be resolved into harmonic components the frequencies of which are usually 2 > 3j 4) 5> 6. and the energy of the system is wholly kinetic .ART. The intensity of stress in the elastic constraints is in all cases proportional to the square root of the elastic strain energy or —If a body held W force has exactly the same frequency as a natural frequency of vibration. at each successive application. constraints. depend upon the relation between the frequency of the disturbing force and that of the free or natural vibrations of the body under the action of its elastic supports. Their amplitude. and its solution. and 116).. In vibration the energy of the system (consisting of. 1 160. in position by elastic constraints is acted upon by a periodic disturbing force. The frequency of vibration « = ?y = — \J y per second or N = — /y/ y per minute (5) The differential equation representing simple harmonic motion. If the periodic — extreme positions." Art. times that of the periodic disturbance. Critical Frequency. In intermediate positions the same total energy is partly kinetic and partly potential. 182. When a disturbing force has this critical frequency which exactly synchronizes with the natural frequency. particularly in the Dangerous Speeds. This may involve a fracture or a change in natural period which prevents further damage from the same periodic force. say. it will. 5. hence a periodic disturbance having a frequency of \. being about 32^2 is the linear units are feet. from its acoustic analogue. always acting in the direction of motion and never against it. and 12 x 32*2 for inch units. 93. being (neglecting any gravitational effect) elastic strain energy of the supports or constraints. The increase of energy involves additional strain energy. . in the extreme positions the same amount of energy is wholly potential. in such a 1 —A See Lamb's " Infinitesimal Calculus. vibrations having the same frequency as that of the disturbing force will be set up.
second. The differential equations of motion l representing the forced vibration of an elastic system under. it is evident that sixteen successive increments to the energy of the system may be given before the periodic force becomes opposed to the direction of vibratory motion. vol. case there is no danger of the frequency of a harmonic component of a disturbance arising from running approaching the natural frequency. It is not necessary that the frequency of a periodic disturbing force should be exactly the same as the natural frequency of the system in order to set up large vibrations. may increase greatly with increased amplitude of vibration. which may be small when the vibrations are very small. . if the natural frequency is ioo vibrations per second. 186 and 187. or Barton's " Sound. XIV.. Unloaded Rod.  ) times that at the free end. i. See Rayleigh's "Theory of Sound. and that of an applied force. during which the motion is in one direction. a harmonic or cosine periodic force. say. The effect of friction. is s The frequency of the slowest or fundamental natural vibration 1 — second • (1) n 1 _ 1 /EAjf 1 feg = T _ 2/ V ~W ° r 2V vi Per ' * See Lamb's "Infinitesimal Calculus. bring out very clearly the nature and amplitude of the forced vibrations an idea of the modifying effects of friction may be obtained by including in the equation a term to represent the retarding force which increases with the velocity. 171. If a rod of length / Ll^j (Fig." vol. The extreme cases of a rod carrying no load and a rod carrying a mass so large that its own inertia is negligible will be considered separately. xc. 97 per second." Art. by 5^. if it has nearly the same frequency it will act in the direction of motion for a large number of successive applications before becoming opposed to it. In starting and increasing such a machine to its full speed the resonant condition exists for so short a time that no excessive stress results. See an article by the author in Engineering. 149154 . say. the amplitude of vibration at any point distant * from the fixed end or M ^ — — J— — ' node being sin( . together with its solution. the difference in time of a complete cycle is ^ second . and thus may add to the system sufficient energy to cause strains beyond a safe limit For example. Arts. the fixed end forms a node or stationary point." Arts. 2 161. In this case the frequencies are usually so great that synchronism with them is not likely to occur in running machinery. and dividing the period. [CH. framed in terms of acceleration or of energy. . and so prevent the vibrations arising from a periodic force of critical frequency attaining a very great amplitude. and free at ^77m the other. 448 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. Longitudinal Vibrations. 201) is fixed so as to prevent longi1 tudinal displacement at one end. the remainder of the rod has a longitudinal vibratory movement in which all parts move in the same direction at the same time.
E 30 x io pounds per square inch.x*. If we take. as an example.v^hjY 2 W' .Sx. but is small compared to the load. 202). where 1 6 1] is VIBRATIONS AND w CRITICAL SPEEDS. to I of the same amount at the free end. where if = AE —j t so that the natural frequency of vibration is SV 7v/ Per second (») If the weight of the rod is not negligible. Art. V. hence if is the weight of the uniform rod. 159. distant x from the fixed end. e( 449 E the direct modulus of elasticity. so that v = . is the weight of the material per unit length of rod. When the rod carries at its free end or point of pounds. W V free end. 2 g . and g is the acceleration of gravity. is the area of crosssectional area. the kinetic energy of an is element of length 8x. for both e and proportional to A. the time of vibration and the frequency are given — W by the general formulae (1) and (2). the lowest frequency is w are = •4 a ^\/ 30>< 13 o23* = 4*4 per second a speed so high that cases of dangerous resonance in machinery are improbable. A The frequency is independent of the crosssectional area. if both ends are free longitudinally the node is at the centre. If both ends of the rod are fixed the nodes are at the ends. and may be taken into account. the amplitude of vibration of any point in the rod is practically proportional to the distance x from the fixed end (Fig.*x and the total kinetic energy of the rod is— [' \V'V S P. hence the frequency is given by (1) if / is the halflength. . Loaded Rod. which is about 32*2 x 12 inches per second per second. = —— ) is the stiffness 01 force per unit of elongation. and the weight of steel 0*28 pound per cubic inch.ART.^ is the velocity of the i£p distance from the fixed end where 22. by adding onethird of the weight of the mass of the rod dynamically equivalent the rod to W. if necessary. 202. a steel rod 10 feet 6 long fixed at one end. and v its velocity at a . so heavy that the inertia of maximum amplitude a load the rod is negligible. and the formula (1) again gives the frequency if / is the halflength.gJo" Hence »"" is WV g a i W Fig.W'V 2 1 . ^.
. Art. When a bar makes transverse or flexural vibrations the extreme cases of the unloaded and heavily loaded bar may be treated separately. 203). becomes H* "(£ + &<*) w Fig. and simply supported at the Ends (Fig. Eg_ per second (3) W2I (0 162. Art. distant x from one end ( (9). The vibration of the unloaded bar. (Fig. etc. Transverse Vibrations. 93) is 1 See also an article by the author in Engineering.etc hence and the frequency (2). Art. 1909. the stiffness or force per unit deflection is evidently given by aE^A„E + k + . 1 This method consists in equating the strain energy which the bar would have in its static deflected position under the same load to the kinetic energy which the system would have in passing through its mean or undeflected position. 159. An example will make the method clear. particularly for the unloaded bar. but gives a very nearly correct result by a simple calculation (see Art. is dealt with briefly in the next article. 112). 203. when vibrating throughout its length with the same period and with an amplitude equal at every point to its static deflection at that point.— 45° —— — [CH. length of the bar . July 30 and Aug. which is of greater direct importance in the science of Sound than in Strength of Materials. while in the present article a very closely approximate method of calculating the frequency of the fundamental vibration applicable to unloaded or loaded bars is given. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 163). 78) is — — w >' = w 4 2^El0 . Bar carryifig Uniform Load per Unit Length. the strain energy ( (9). The deflection y at any point of the bar. XIV. 13.2/* + /3*) S (0 and / the where I is the moment of inertia of the area of crosssection. If the rod consists of m^ft two or more parts of length lu 4> etc. This arbitrary assumption as to the amplitude of vibration is not strictly correct. . and area of crosssection Aj and Aj.
Bar fixed at both from Art._ ' " 1 "i 630/ 63 wl* • • • W tz\ (7) (8) ?EI Frequency = L = ^l^J^ per second = N = —j= .504£EI ~ _. m EI . . dx and substituting the value 2 _ r ~ (1) of y integrating ?4EI .1 ^_ jyv • S024^EI w/* 9*77 <* ™<>' " ^ji  gB.l 97 55 ^4 • . 451 vibrating about the undeflected position with amplitude y.ART. .dx g P* (2) = S] ydx 41 and y . where/ is the constant angular velocity of a point moving in a circle of radius y.y. the kinetic energy of an element of length dx is then— velocity of any point hence. and equation (2) gives _ f= £4?EI/£ / wl* V30 5 ° 4fEI . Or where 8 is vibrations per minute (8<z) the central deflection 884 =rr in inches. equating the total kinetic energy to the above strain energy \. the is p.f^fdx = \w^y. 162] If. — If the bar is fixed in direction at both ends. VIBRATIONS AND CRITICAL SPEEDS. .— \ . which defines the simple harmonic motion. (3) _ „ Frequency = Or where S is /iEI « = p i'572 ^=^ v/*— /?Ei (s) vibrations per minute = N = —^= 21 . . (5a) the central deflection ^§5 — in inches. 84 Ends.
• • ( 1J ) or from (9). • • .— 452 — — — — [CH. so heavy that other masses may be and of small dimensions compared with the length of the bar. 87. Art. 80 W <?. . in inches. and VII. 3 El/ Art. 159. . the deflection under the load If the ends are fixed. if combined with other continuous loads. only the equation corresponding to (2) will be it 2(W/) = P(W. Art. . (9) —When a bar neglected. dividing each side by JWy y 27T 27T 27T » WflV l87 Or where 8 is vibrations per minute =N= —t= . XIV. using for the values of the deflection y those found in Chapters VI. r . W W y ~ 3EI/ and writing e for W and unity for y— 'gf hence from (2). both sides being divided by %Wy . Art. on a light rod of length / freely supported at For a heavy load the ends. formula (9) may be used. the deflection 2. and using The value of e is found it in the general formulae (1) and (2). if divides / into two lengths a and b. WW „ V8 (11a) under the load is y = vv a it . The same method may be applied to other bars with terminal conditions or carrying various types of load. (») is 159.j) Heavy Single Load. this is equivalent to finding the stiffness e. Isolated loads involving discontinuity in the algebraic expression for y. the various algebraic expressions for the deflection are to be found in Chapters VI. from Ex. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. from (8). the frequency of natural vibration 1 * = ^V vvw persecond ^ AeIp/ . and VII. require the ranges of integration dividing into For isolated loads parts over which y is a continuous function of x. by equating to unity the expression for the deflection under a load placed in the position of the load . carries a single load W. lMP 3* (I2) .
162] VIBRATIONS AND is CRITICAL SPEEDS. Art. it will be necessary to take account of the fact that it has a rotatory motion about an axis perpendicular to the length of the bar and perpendicular to the plane of vibration. 79 W is at a dis y ~ 3EI « _ Wl* = ^V w/ suggest P er second ( I4) Numerous similarly. (13) If one end of the rod tance ^ from is fixed and the other free. and may be solved Effect of Size of Vibrating Load. 79 We W mi ° aEI y mi 3 EI _y \ The angular velocity of the load about the axis perpendicular to the bar and to the plane vibration is dl 2/ dt x position hence in passing through the mean \dt) and the ^\dt) is $lf J kinetic energy of rotation O *'£* . from (3) and (4). k* where k is the radius of gyration of the may illustrate the effect of this rotation on load about this axis. Art. If 6 is the slope of the axis of the bar at a distance lx from the fixed end.ART. 453 and the frequency of vibration « = — = — \/. from (4).= — \J ^l^. the above results by the case of the bar with one end fixed and the at a distance 4 from the fixed other free. the fixed end. other cases themselves. . Let I' be its (mass) moment of inertia about this axis so that I' — =W . loaded with the weight end.— If the vibrating load is not of small dimensions in comparison with the length of the shaft.per second — and .
in cases where the transverse frequency is so low as to be of importance.. corresponding to (14) when w = o. cated by (13) and (14) with the modified values of 8. of a single weight midway between similar bearings no correction is required. In the case of pulleys on shafts the term — or often so small as to be negligible in comparison with unity. the general method of this article to a single load at the centre of a bar simply supported at both ends. equating the total kinetic energy to the strain energy by adding to the general formula (9) a term giving the rotational energy 4?/y+ii'Vy = iwy 3EIjT m (.I. if — .— 454 — — — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. By adding. The formula (110) is applicable to cases indiPractical Formula. [CH. it is increased by an amount equivalent m). The effect of the inertia of the bar in less simple positions of the point of impact may be similarly found by using suitable ranges in the integrations for total kinetic energy. is zero.T .^ 2irV p'l 9zE. hence.I. 7: / / 3EIj. XIV. Hence (n) becomes < l8 > = iv/ "'^V P(W + gwl) For fixed ends similarly the frequency « is 48E. — Applying W (Fig. is ' / — 7 3E^r — or °r J. ( J 7) instead of the value (14). S) (lfi) and the frequency « = ^^ J. And for the cantilever loaded at the free end n */ 3E. 8.I. writing v X S in (7) Art. The modifications appropriate to other cases with different end In the important case conditions can easily be made if necessary. . and omitting the term =p w evident that the inertia to a load )fewl at the position of . for evidently and Single and Distributed — are always Load.^ (W + gwl) (i9) corresponding to (13) when w = o. 93A.
T» . and T is the time of vibration in seconds for all the loads together. .. a simple approximate formula is obtained. = (24) for the partial deflections under each load due to that load only. Empirical Formula. Transverse Vibration of Unloaded Rods. N = '5 where <"> 8 is the deflection under the load in inches. while (9) reduces to T = ^S(W/)h2(Wy) 2 (25) where y stands for the whole deflections under each load resulting from The same linear units must in either case the action of all the loads. s. by assuming for an unloaded bar the particular form of the static deflection under the uniformly distributed load of its own weight which gives a simple algebraic expression. distant x along the bar from a chosen origin. 163] VIBRATIONS AND CRITICAL SPEEDS. if inches are used. be used for g as are used in_y. #«> etc i respectively." Art. and let / be the amplitude of Then if w is the weight vibration or extreme value of y at this point. viz. The method of the previous article takes advantage of this fact for approximate calculation.etc. . . etc. at a time /. . 1 'Theory of Sound. T2 = where y stands ^2W .ART. 182. Wj. 455 necessary. and the frequencies of vibration when the bar carries any one alone of these loads are "u n3> n i. has pointed out that for a rod making free transverse vibrations. and including the weight of the bar when not negligible. If a bar carries several loads.. This empirical formula may be used as an alternative to (9) for the It reduces to calculation of a complex system. then if n is the frequency when the bar carries all the loads W W W — or. . about the proportions indicated above of any distributed load to a much larger concentrated load. whether concentrated or distributed. t +... = T»+ 1 T. are the times of vibration for the separate loads. (23) where T 1( T2 T3 etc.. different assumptions as to the deflection curve of the rod within wide limits make but small differences in the calculated frequencies. The more usual calculation — is briefly as follows : Let y be the deflection of a point of a thin bar. 4 . 322 x 12... £Lord Rayleigh 1 163. +T +T . Several Loads. 1 . 2.
tt. Putting x =o in (4).~ m V — °i vlz — y = A cos mx + B sin wz^t + C cosh mx + D tpy 35 2 2  sinh mx. X IV.or £]±I p^w ^rr where r fi £El . = —\/ m is simply a number substituting this value (2) of y. rest Sec Lamb's " Infinitesimal Calculus. the elastic force towards the undeflected position. The case of a bar of length / simply supported at each end may be chosen for illustration . —A + C = o. 371. so that y=y' which goes through a cycle in cos ™ \/^t 2 (2) a time —5^/ prr and has a frequency where (1) « . tPy r^ for 2 x = o and for x = 1. per unit of length. 477. equation becomes mi dS. is w — X ^ d*y . = o = o. dW (3) m = — 47tVk/ rry. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. hence A= C= o. and putting 7^=0. B sin ml + D sinh ml = Differentiating (4) twice. as in Chapter VI. 189. y o. . if the origin is at one end.— 45 6 —— — [CH. = o for all values of x.y=° where . etc. = 2x« the angular velocity corresponding to the simple harmonic motion. and this from (2) gives the frequency. per unit length of bar. and the bar is at ml = o. C. Four conditions are sufficient to eliminate three of the constants and to give an equation which must be satisfied by m." Art. y' B is not zero. The solution of this equation is 1 the sum of the solutions of the two equations (py + m y' = o and v. 77— ^ Assume y to wd*y d*y w d*y be harmonic. ml = or 2x. (4) the four arbitrary constants A. A +C= Differentiating (4) twice. B. and putting A2 d?y = o —B If If sin ml \ D B= o or m= o. Hence. Putting x = /in (4). and sin ' sinh ml = o. and D being made to satisfy the end conditions of the rod. Art. hence 2B sin nn = o. corresponding to equation (6).
Art. and ml= — reached at which the centrifugal force will exceed the elastic forces. for the second and subsequent modes of vibration and values of m. • {) The frequencies in this case are proportional to hence. Arts. For ml = coth ml. •will increase until fracture This critical speed at which instability sets in is called the occurs. vibration. 04 pounds per square inch. whirling speed of the shaft. the centre line of the shaft will not coincide with mathematical exactness with the axis of rotation owing to the weight of the shaft. 164] Taking the vibration VIBRATIONS AND CRITICAL SPEEDS. vol." . times as great as for the fundamental or slowest Critical or resonant speeds of forced vibration may occur with any of these modes of vibration. i. or for a shaft of negligible inertia carrying a 1 See Rayleigh's "Theory of Sound. 1 For a bar fixed at each end. hence the number of vibrations per minute is K ' = given by M _ 6ott / 32'2 x N 2/ 2 V 12 X 30 X io 8 X ird* x 4 028X7^x64 _ 4. For a bar fixed at one end and free at the is 3'Q2'j. 198217. first 7. 9.ooo</ ~ P m2 . shows how close is the agreement with the approximate calculation. but the slowest or fundamental is the commonest for ordinary working speeds of machinery. and the deflection and stress. cos »z/cosh ml = i. want of straightness. as the speed of rotation increases. and for the slowest vibrations the solution 1. w= 028 x d2 pounds. For other conditions of the ends of the bar different modes of vibration occur. the first solution is 164. 162. Taking a round steel shaft of diameter I d inches and length / inches. hence. or roughly other. a bar fixed at one end and supported at the other. and are resisted only by the elastic forces of the shaft. unless prevented. cos ml cosh ml = — is — .ART. These deflecting forces are proportional to the square of the speed and to the deflection..8oo. the frequencies are 4." Arts. etc. and other causes. 161181 . When a round shaft is rotating.and for the slowest vibration the solution vibration. Whirling Speed of Rotating Shafts. 25. For an unloaded shaft. E = 30 x io" rd ig= 3 2 2 X 12 inches per second per second. increased deflection giving greater centrifugal forces. The solutions will be found in books on Sound. 16. or Barton's "Sound. ml = 473. Hence centrifugal forces due to the inertia of the shaft will produce a bending moment on the shaft tending to deflect it. a value will be cot ml= 1 '87 5. 457 value which corresponds to the slowest rate of is m= the frequency from (2) 2 _m /gEl _ tt /gEl A comparison of this with (5).
Let be the weight of shaft in pounds per unit length. rd* where 04 d is the diameter. or the frequency nil. neglecting the effect of gravity. ID . viz. XIV. If we regard the centrifugal forces exerted by any portion of the shaft. V J . heavy load the radius of gyration of which is negligible compared with the length of the shaft. the whirling speed is the same as the natural frequency of transverse vibration under the same conditions of support.— 458 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. I the moment of inertia of the crosssectional area about a vibration — w diameter. and so reducing the stiffness. and length is — g . the flexural stiffness of a rotating shaft being dependent upon the righting force resulting from the joint action of the elastic and centrifugal forces. and the variable second. [CH. we might regard the phenomenon of whirling as resulting from the coincidence of the frequency of forced with the frequency of natural transverse vibrations of the Perhaps a better point of view is to regard the centrifugal forces shaft of the rotating shaft as counteracting the elastic forces which tend to straighten the shaft. the whirling speed is then that at which the stiffness becomes zero and the period in finite. a> E be the direct modulus of the angular velocity in radians per Taking the axis of rotation as axis of x. Unloaded Shaft. the centrifugal bending force per unit elasticity of the material. as a disturbing force on the remaining portion. deflections of the centre line of the shaft from the axis of rotation as y. resolved in any plane containing the axis of rotation.
This reaches the value infinity for the critical value o) 2 = ^. the rotation tends to straighten the shaft. equating the centrifugal force to the elastic righting force of the shaft W *\h+y) = e.  . (9) vy/ Below the critical velocity this varies from h to infinity. is of course applicable. i. and y is the deflection of the centre of gravity of the load from' the centre of rotation. 164] VIBRATIONS AND CRITICAL SPEEDS." A  v WJ = ~ h War  Wm*e... and e is the stifTness or elastic force per unit deflection of the shaft at the point of attachment of the load. its centre of gravity riot coinciding with the centre of the shaft. and above the critical velocity it approaches the value zero. That rupture does not occur in passing . gravity of the load deviates by an amount h from the centre line of rotation . the centrifugal force of the load is just equal to the elastic righting force of the shaft. . (14). to the length of the shaft..e. then at any speed a>.. the approach of y to the value —h means that above the critical speed the weight rotates about an axis which approaches its centre of gravity more (This is the principle of the and more nearly as the speed increases. (18).y y . and the deviation h is due to the load being out of balance.) If the weight is in perfect balance. i. equating the centrifugal force to the elastic force W. —When a mass of the shaft is negligible. y If the shaft is initially straight is negative and approaches the value — A. (7) = Wo.g ' ' • W . Art. If 01 is this critical velocity. flexible shaft of the De Laval steam turbine. and the general vibration formula (2). Suppose that initially the centre of Deflection at Other Speeds. The practical formula (21). for lower values of a> it varies from zero to infinity . (19). and true.ART. so heavy that the and of dimensions small compared the critical speed of rotation is that at which shaft carries a load W <» and the speed in revolutions 2 y = ey (4) ** '*/% per second is w w " which = ^=^vw — is the same as that calculated for the transverse vibrations (n). for higher values of a>. 162. 459 Single Loads.. 162. (20). (13). (11a).e.^70 — eg War • (ST . 159. Art. and the initial deviation h is due to want of straightness of the shaft (since y represents deflections of the shaft) the deviation of the centre of gravity of the weight from the axis of rotation is h +y =h J €S? *  eg— War jtjj = —h . Art.
XIV. 3 or h ^rj °r ~A ^w if < I0 > where o>„ is the critical value /v/ V ^. number of practical rules for shafts loaded and supported in various ways is to be found in a paper by Professor Dunkerley in the Proceedings of the Liverpool Engineering Society. A.) values in such cases. 1918. Soc. 1916. When a shaft carries several loads. dimensions in comparison with the length of the shaft. find the critical speed of rotation and the maximum bending stress when the shaft is rotating at — wheel is inch from the centre of the shaft. may be unduly great. as well as much information on the subject of Whirling of Shafts. 162. Nov. 22 and 29. If the rotating load were not of small Effect of Size of Load. vol.800.000 ~6 —v~6 = . See also Engineering. vol. and therefore the intensity of stress. Find the whirling speed of a steel shaft 1 inch diameter and 5 feet long. The same formula may be used in cases where the inertia of the shaft itself is not negligible. during which the speed has the critical value. it would be necessary to take account of the fact that. 1S5. Jefcott in Proc. 1894. 2. supported in short bearings. Mag. y= h 7. W. Example i. carries a wheel weighing 4 pounds midway between the bearings. Soc. vol. 1904 . owing to the deflection of the shaft. and March. is ^ ^ of this speed.. which may be written— lor a large deflection to occur. 1894. Engineering. A vertical steel shaft 5 inch diameter and 7^ inches between the long bearings at its ends. 3 and Mr. Trans. Art. The more exact single load placed midway between similar bearings. 86. or Proc. E = 30 X io 6 pounds per square inch. and Feb. From equation (6). 163 — — A — = 4. July 30 and Aug. and a paper by Proi. 95. Roy. . every portion of the rotating weight is constantly changing (An important exception occurs in the case of a its plane of rotation. Art. Phil. ' STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 1899 . 1918 . if the centre of gravity of the 1Q2EI 1 Phil. xix. the critical Several Loads. or force per inch deflection at the load. I 333 revomtlons P er minute Example 2. which has been verified experimentally. is loo of Equation (8). is to be found in papers by Professor Dunkerley and Dr. Soc. Roy. 1 ' May. the stiffness e. Chree* the Author. at its ends. Phys.— 460 — — [CH. Kerr. which do not constrain its direction. w> shows that m remains nearly equal to the critical value the deflection. Neglecting any increase of stiffness due to the attachment of the wheel to the shaft. From Ex. 13. speeds of rotation may be found by the empirical formula (18) of Art. interval through the critical speed is due to the circumstance that the small time. December.
or 5 of its previous value. a8EI or j of the previous value. the equivalent central load. and the M=i and the X 00426 X / X e = °'° 426 ' * o 7 5 X e poundinches maximum bending Z stress is M _ M _ 00426 8X1 X 7'5 X 192 8x8x1 Ex.e. 165. per second is 46 critical velocity in revolutions 2a 'V /{U = 3? / 192E. hence its stiffness and — frequency of transverse vibration are reduced. 2 if x 30 X X(7S)S 10' X ~ fix its I = 68. e critical = —jg—.e.ART. At of the critical speed the central deflection will be as before. Let the natural frequency of the shaft when not rotating be p/tir. hence the bending stress will be 5 of its previous value. A rotating shaft. will be \ of previous value.080 pounds per square inch. pounds per square inch the shaft —Solve bearings do not direction at the ends. 34. 86) is is 0*0426 X e. 164. and the central bending moment will be \ its X 00426 X e X / which is 2 x 5. 00426 x e. when laterally disturbed. 3? " V/ 192 4 4800 revolutions per minute (10).160 Example 3. 164 *?^r^ = (I) . Art. Art.g 8 W/3 X 30 X 10' X t x 322 x 12 X X 64 X 256 X 15 X 15 x 15 is— _ = At 09 of this speed. Then. the central deflection by °' OI i /ig \a _—jf = °' 01 * f» = 00426 inch The central (centrifugal) bending force central bending moment (Ex. —a— = ^ 00426 inch. from the equation (3) of Art 163. Art. 165] hence the <>° VIBRATIONS AND CRITICAL SPEEDS. In this case. \V iV l. has its elastic righting forces reduced by the centrifugal force arising from its own inertia. and when rotating with angular velocity o> be//2r. and its period increased. of the previous value. revolutions per minute. allowing for the centrifugal force as in (2). i. 2. Hence the 2400 speed is J\ or . i. Transverse Vibration of Rotating Shafts.
the critical frequency is that given by (4).2 =/ u? u? (2) (3) (4) p<*=fn = — y/p* — 2ir the frequency being and the time of vibration T= 2TT . when a state of instability is reached. 18 and March 3. 1 speed about per cent. due to end thrust alone. 204. freely supported at its ends by bearings which do not constrain its direction. \iy is the deflection at a distance x from one end O. Take a rotating shaft of length /. [CH. or and from (4) (6) = \f critical m = ^=p V2 7 1 which indicates a possible whirling speed. of the true 166. 163. as axis of x. tlexural stiffness resulting Fig. or for several weights. A single case will be sufficient to illustrate this. diameter d." Enginetring. with the convention of signs used in Art. Evidently the same holds good for a single weight. 2 +o. —The decreased from rotation will evidently diminish the capacity of a shaft to withstand end thrust. and let it be subject to an end Taking the initial position of the axis of the shaft thrust P (Fig. Feb. for a forced transverse vibration resulting from any periodic disturbance. XIV. hence the vibrations are of the type in Art. the shaft being concave towards its unstrained position EI S=. n «? = ta/zir. and weight per unit length w. on a shaft of negligible mass. See "On . If such a periodic disturbance arise from the rotation of the shaft We by gravitation or otherwise. in d*y dx 1 _ ~ j> El ' the Whirling Speeds of Loaded Shafts.e. End Thrust and Twist on Rotating Shaft. and in which it turns with an angular velocity at.— 462 — — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.P l ? « d*y dx* by William Kerr. i. and / or. Vf  <o 2 (5) have seen in the previous article that the whirling speed is attained when u =/. and 17. 1916. 77. 10. 204). it will reduce the collapsing load of the shaft considered as a strut.
o. unless x B= o o (in which case and no bending) m l= (4) i.e. and therefore the frequency. equation (6) reduces If o> the shaft with no end thrust.* (3) since ^= o ^ (»«. etc. which gives the whirling speed of (6) reduces to the form (5)." tor * = °— C= o A= And putting _)> = o = ^ d*y a for # 2 = /— #// + *»2 )B sin sin =o y= o.. under the unstable conditions mj = . o and — m& = tfiy a o .. . it. 163. or gives the critical value of o. 1 66] VIBRATIONS this with AND CRITICAL SPEEDS. If P is reduced by P. m = j— x t 1 _ M / F _L_^ V^EI)2+ jfEI + 2EI /* P » . the value <o.. d*y P <Py wa? . since there m? + is #* a s is not zero. 377. • . for end thrust and centrifugal force due to rotation ^ + Ei^jEI .ART. (2) The solution of this equation is the sum of the solutions of the equations  d*y S m *y = 1 + . Art. to Euler's limiting value = = . 164. for this shaft considered as a stationary strut. (6) Kf rotation at a This gives the limiting value of P for stability with o> under a given thrust P. 463 Combining equation (1) of Art. ' =0 ' ' • . /~Y* W P P /~P* W P m£ and — m? being the two roots of the quadratic equation m +EI™ iEI = hence the complete solunon of equation (2) is WO) 2 ° y=A And cos ««!* +B = sin mx+ C x cosh /»a# +D sinh »/. 164. 2ir. given speed <o. (5) Taking the lowest speed. Art.
463. 1915. a See a paper by Prof. the de crease due to the end thrust being about 2J per cent. Weight of steel. the fixed end forms a node or stationary section . E =30 X 10" pounds per square inch. XIV. Mech. 104 and 105. etc. but it is usually negligible in comparison with the effect of a moderate end thrust. Mech. The angular amplitude of vibration of any point distant x from — — 1 The full solution is given in "Struts and Tierods in Motion. p. the critical or whirling speed will be raised instead of being lowered The in this case a> may be found by reversing the sign of P in (6).000 3600 X 200 x 64 ~\ X 30 X io X ir/ 6 = 136 radians per second is which equal to —x 136 = 1300 revolutions per minute.. Ait. Greenhill in Proc. or transverse loads. Inst. The various cases of torsional vibration are closely analogous to those of longitudinal vibration (Art. 161). Unloaded Shaft. [CH. 167.* might be taken into account as in Arts. . Torsional Vibrations. or with that of centrifugal forces. the remainder of the rod has a vibratory movement. 1883. gravitational and other transIf the sign of P were reversed it is quite evident that verse loads. 464 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. H. The torsional rigidity varies with the form of crosssection (see Art. fixed so as to prevent twisting strain at one end and free at the other. 1. 028 there is an axial thrust of 200 pounds. 1 1 2).. Mawson. Inst. the weight per inch length = 028 x 07854 = 022 pound From (6)— wm 2 gSA (t? \J* _ _P_\ ! _ ]*_ 2 a 2E1J 4E I V _ * AEI/^^X w \l* 7r/ / 2 EI/ 987 /322 X 12 X 30 X io 6 X 97*4 C22 X 64 *?o \I2. — w. Eng. The formula is evidently only a limiting value subject to limitations in actual shafts due to want of straightness. if pound Find the critical speed of the shaft in Ex. t. per cubic inch." by Proc. effect of eccentric end thrust. The condition of instability in a shaft freely supported at each end is given by the elation 2 — P EI T 2 2 _ 8 7T 4EH I' Example 164. A twisting moment T also has a small effect in producing instability. In actual shafts the effect of end thrust in producing instability is usually very small in comparison with that of centrifugal forces. In the case of a uniform shaft of diameter d and length / (Fig.. and we shall consider only the case of shafts of circular section. 960. Eng. 201). in which every part at a given instant moves in a circle about the axis in the same sense.
the moment of inertia of the area of section about the hence (5). or twisting moment per radian of twist of a circular shaft ( (3). 465 end sin (. 322 the weight per unit length. If we use pound and inch per square inch for steel. As in the case of longitudinal vibration the natural frequency of unloaded shafts is so high that cases of resonance in machinery are improbable. Art. vol. since is proportional to A. acceleration of gravity. 159 J or Barton's 2 a . A = <P is the area of crosssection of the shaft. if both ends are free the node is at the centre. is (3) The approximate correction to be made in moment of inertia of the shaft is not quite negligible. g \s 32^2 io" X 12 when inch units are used. 1 if the (mass) analogous to that "Sound. hence the frequency is given by (1) if / is the halflength . i. this and take N= 12 X pounds reduces to n = 3400^/^/ yyjg." and 174. (2).ART. 1 becomes d* » = »VT7 /NT or /N~ or ™VI7 SVw/ W and 1 /NjT" " k\/w¥~/ per second where k is (2 > the radius of gyration of the load units.. Art. When the shaft with one end fixed carries at its free end. and g is the 12 inches per second per second. the \ / h") of which is so great that the (mass) moment of inertia I I or x w — W — W of inertia of the shaft is negligible. is ' The frequency of the slowest or fundamental natural vibration a where T w is W~ S (I) N is the modulus of transverse elasticity. J times that at the free end." Arts. 109) (mass) moment and frequency of where axis. Art 159. Art. the time of vibration free or natural torsional vibrations are given by the If C is the "torsional rigidity" general formulae (4) and (5).. 159. and (1) again gives the frequency if / is the halflength of the shaft. or section of maximum angular amplitude. 173 See Rayleigh'a "Theory of Sound. The frequency is independent of the diameter (d) of the bar. If both ends of the shaft are fixed the nodes are at the ends. 202).. T = —d 32 4 . per second . Single Load. a load (Fig. 167] the fixed VIBRATIONS is AND CRITICAL SPEEDS.
(Fig. etc. „_ hence * / N J_ ^ r /NJ /. being altered in the ratios (4). of inertia STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. say. which may be used in From (3) the natural frequency cases of shafts of varying diameter. i which / " or i / "N may be written 7 per second . (6) The formulae (4) and (5) are equivalent to using formula (2) with a diameter. The method of using such an "equivalent length" is useful in all torsionalstiffhess problems where the diameter of a shaft is different in different parts. 203). or 4 a is method of all calculating the torsional stiffness C.— 466 — — — [CH. respective distances of the node from the loads of I] and I a moments of inertia... . . XIV. (5) or for steel. ww G?) __ . viz. Two Loads. in inch and pound " units = 34oo / v such as 4. and If the shaft consists of two or more parts of lengths £. dlt and lengths made up of the several parts.. moment for the case of longitudinal vibration. the twist caused by unit twisting moment is evidently the sum of that caused in each section. Let h and 4 be the 205). the node will be somewhere between them. If there are two loads on a free shaft of length / (Fig. etc. hence from (2) — . diameters d\. a\. etc. each part. etc. Then the natural frequency of vibration of the system is the same as that of either load on a shaft fixed at the node and free at the corresponding load ..v = j. \ of the of the shaft is to be added to I.
» + ». n i. D Fig. 13T * D Fig. ?. moments of 467 inertia of and the node divides the length the loads. the frequencies would from (8) be w ' = i\/¥(i + i) free For the righthand portion alone and ends For the lefthand portion alone if fixed at the outer end."v 77 °^ ^e shaft fixed at and Ia respectively at the free end. tJ an<* ^. / inversely as the (8) which might be put may also be written in a formula similar to (3). 206). from (4} . 206. Three Loads (Fig.ART.* when «i (9) and « a are the frequencies one end and carrying — \J I. taking —The lengths and diameters between the NJ. 205. loads being unequal.• A. The equation (8) „ = «.\ i. = TAW _ NJ _ rfj£ 3 for the lefthand portion alone and free at the ends. 167] VIBRATIONS Also AND CRITICAL SPEEDS.
in which the end load nearest to that node turns in one direction. placed 28 inches apart and equidistant from the crank on a shaft 3 inches Estimate the natural frequency of torsional oscillations. vol. the other is a singlenode vibration. in Has. XIV..x 1)X 2irV 27T V Lv y l3 y ' The inner load Ia vibrates in the same period and as an antinode between the two nodes. The two roots indicate two possible modes of vibration one is a twonode vibration. — rigidity of the shaft is of the torsional rigidities of the shaft between the Vi hence n * It — yj = x 27tV — /®( J + J» iX^x^/ty) 1 V ' . ( K I2 } } the equations (12) and (n) and reducing. I2 and I3 vibrations will The equation (10) may be derived as follows : If nodes in the sections lx and /3 fall at distances x and y respectively from Ii and I s> the end loads have a time of vibration given by (2). while the inner load I a and the other end load turn in the opposite direction. and n 3 have the values given above. vol. and a very simple method of obtaining frequency equations such as (10). Engineering. and the torsional evidently the sum two nodes. December 1910. Inst. p. Take The moment of inertia of the crank and attached masses would —A N= 1 See an article by the Author on "Critical Speeds for Torsional Vibrations" in 9. Journal of the Jnst. in Also in a paper by Frith and Lamb the Proc. Example i. . xxxi. viz. Eng. CM. .. Sankey. 646. diameter. xc. gas engine has two flywheels. and the inner Eliminating x and_y from we arrive at the . . Ii. For the righthand portion alone "3 fixed at the outer end ~ zttV  NIT /8 i 2 The equation frequencies » of the whole (« 2 system are then given by the  n?){n> « 32 ) = {ninlf . 1 Other cases. (10) the roots of which are both real. as 27rV \. . form (10). vary with the relations of the values The nature of the C„ Q. clxii.— 468 — — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. together with some numerical examples. load I 3 in the opposite direction . in which the end loads i! and I 3 are always turning in the same direction as each other. of Eke. where n u n3 »/. each weighing 800 pounds and having a radius of gyration of 30 inches. and Millington. will be found worked out in a paper by Chree. if : [CH. vol. 12 x io 6 pounds per square inch.
etc.. 5. 7. (N = 12 x io6 pounds per square 1. If the load in problem No. (i) when it carries at its centre a load of 24 pounds (() when the central load is equal to its own weight. (E = 30 x io6 pounds per square inch. and is f of 28. Hence. or 12 inches from the flywheel. Find the frequency of the natural torsional oscillations of the cylinder. find the frequency. steel bar 1 inch wide and 2 inches deep is freely supported at two 3. neglecting the weight of the bar. from (7) or (3). 6.) 8. assuming the bearings at its ends do not fix its direction there. find the frequency of natural transverse vibrations. 5. a closely wound helical spring made of wire J inch diameter has 10 coils. find the frequency of natural transverse vibrations. If inch. . From (3) this frequency is n = 3400 X 9\/ 800 V 5 x 900 x = 965 14 per second or 579 P er minute. Take 12 x io" pounds per square inch. Example 2. 167— n = V 3400 x 16  = 2 5' 2 per second 1200 x r8 2 x 12 or 15 10 per minute. fixed at the unloaded end. In this case.) 4. XIV. with its axis.EX. steel wire 3 feet long and carries at the other a short castiron cylinder 8 inches diameter. points 3 feet apart. the distance between the flywheel and armature being 28 inches. or ±. If the bar in problem No. Examples XIV. find A ^ N A the frequency. since the node occurs at the crank. If the load in problem No. the weight of cast iron for steel being 12 x io 6 pounds per being o'26 pound per cubic inch. shaft 4 inches diameter carries a flywheel weighing 1200 pounds. (a) unloaded . find the frequency of the free vibrations when it carries a load of 15 pounds. Find the whirling speed of an unloaded steel shaft £ inch diameter and 4 feet long. 469 be so small compared with that of the flywheels as to be nearly negligible. The node divides the length of 28 inches in the ratio 4 to 3. and a dynamo armature. each 4 inches mean diameter. 3. of the above frequency might give undesirably large torsional oscillations. 3 is placed 9 inches from one support. 3 carries 400 pounds midway between the supports and 400 pounds uniformly distributed. Estimate the critical speeds of a shaft £ inch diameter and 1 5 inches long. which is 1 inch long. the moment of inertia of which is f that of the flywheel.) inch diameter is fixed at one end and 2.] usually VIBRATIONS AND CRITICAL SPEEDS. and carries a load of 400 pounds midway between them . —A N= Art. the radius of gyration of which is 18 inches. The frequency is evidently the same as that of a single wheel on a shaft 14 inches long. assuming in each case . (E = 30 x ioa pounds per square inch. Estimate the frequency of natural torsional oscillations. in line with the axis of the wire. 3 is uniformly spread over the span. Speeds in the neighbourhood of £. it is entirely negligible. and square inch.
8 when A 340 >C 3 S * y <Mfo^CO^y^ = gas engine has two flywheels. 12. Find the frequency of natural torsional vibration. sixcylinder oil engine has a crank shaft 3J inches diameter. Find the natural frequency of transverse vibrations of the shaft in problem No. end bearings do not cubic inch.47° that the 9. stress in the (vertical) shaft in problem the speed is 0^95 of the critical speed. (Weight of steel. 10. 7 when rotating at 800 revolutions per minute. each weighing 1350 pounds and having a radius of gyration of 25 inches. the direction of the shaft.) fix [CH. . two flywheels. 028 pound per Find the (6). placed 26 inches apart on a shaft 3J inches diameter. XIV. If 11. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. vibration. A . the equivalent length between them being 6 feet 8 inches. each weighing 1100 pounds and having a radius of gyration of 17 inches. the load being o'ooi inch out of balance. were placed at opposite ends of the shaft. find thajfeecjuencxaf a free torsional maximum bending No.
In English machines of considerable size.. adaptable for various purposes. in American a machines the usual method of straining is by powerdriven screw gearing . piece by the machine is usually measured or " weighed " by a movable counterpoise and a lever. or for Continental machines see Marten's For descriptions of American machines see Johnson's " Materials of Con struction. and one compound lever machine. ing is accomplished by admitting high pressure water through a controlling valve to a steel hydraulic cylinder H. When there is no pull on the test piece T. details being omitted. a paper on an older type in Proe. For further information the reader is referred to works on Testing. Fig. Testing Machines." or Popplewell's "Materials of Construc" Handbook of Testing." . are diagrams showing the principle and most important parts of a Wicksteed 50ton vertical singlelever testing machine. but sometimes the force is measured by fluid pressure on a metallic diaphragm. Machines for testing pieces of material to destruction vary greatly in principle and in detail. or system of several levers. Mcch. and latterly for The load or force exerted on the test larger powerdriven machines. this. the ram of which is rigidly — — — • tion " 8 See Unwin's "Testing of Materials. 169. Vertical SingleLever Testing Machine? Figs. Mech. 1907 .CHAPTER XV. on an electrically controlled machine in the Proe. Typical General Testing. and the technical press. will now be described and illustrated.Machines. 207 shows a side elevation of the machine in use for a tension test. Tension. 208. and a description in . TESTING MACHINES. Eng. 1896. 168. Inst. to"i. in this chapter a brief description of a few simple types for particular purposes will be given. Bug. Perhaps the commonest type of large testing machine in Great Britain is that having a single lever or steelyard for weighing the load . the same plan is used in this country for smaller machines worked by hand. APPARATUS. and 209. which rests on a hardened In this machine the strainseating on the top of the main standard S. and to do justice to their construction and use would require a separate volume . and 1891." 3 For descriptions see a paper Tnst. the beam is just balanced on its knifeedge fulcrum F. the travelling counterpoise or jockey weight P being at zero of the scale. the straining is often accomplished by means of hydraulic pressure acting on a plunger . 1882 Engineering. 1 original papers.. AND METHODS.
to which the lower end of the test piece T is attached by various means described in Art. XV. pull is transmitted through the two long screws to the crosshead C (which travels on guides G). 170.472 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. The upper end of . When the crosshead is driven down the attached to a crosshead A. A [CH.
but adjustment of the straining head C to suit the length of specimen is effected by means of the two in the long screws which are screwed into or out of their sockets crosspiece A. When these long bars are in use. graduated in tons and tenths of a ton. Fig. the power is transmitted to the short end of the beam through a shaft connected to a shaft in fixed bearings by a double Hooke's joint. For very rapid traversing of the poiseweight a hydraulic cylinder. and gearing with worm wheels (not shown) attached to the screws just below the crosshead C . 211. about its horizontal knife edge F. the balance of the main lever is maintained by running the poiseweight P to the right. The poiseweight P in the 50ton machine weighs 1 ton. which serves to replace the ram in the cylinder when the exhaust valve is opened to release the water. and applied to the test The lower end of the test piece rests on a flat piece by a flat plate. 210. The upper end of the test for compression. This method is shown in Fig. Fig. Bending. Fig. As the pull in the test piece is increased by the straining cylinder H. is sometimes fitted. The end of the long arm of the main lever B can move for a distance which is regulated by the upper and lower stops shown . hence P must be moved 3 inches for each ton increase of ^ K The method of moving the poiseweight is not shown in very frequently the traverse is effected by a long screw within the beam driven by belting. and read by a vernier on P to of a ton. the worm shaft is turned by a handle in front of the machine. which hangs from a knife edge fixed in the main lever or beam B. the distance apart of which on a very stiff castiron — . owing to the extra weight the beam does not balance when there is no force on the shackle exerted on the test piece. 169] TESTING MACHINES. The ram of the hydraulic cylinder during the straining of the test piece lifts a heavy balance weight W. the beam being omitted. ETC. 209 shows a front and a side elevation of the machine applied to a bending test The beam V to be tested rests on supports Q. 208 shows a side elevation of the machine in use Compression. Similar long bars are shown shackle attaching a platform to the top shackle of the handpower machine in Fig. 207 H N — T K K readings. the ram of which acts through a wire rope. the stops are provided with springs to prevent damage to the beam from shock when a test piece fractures. plate on a small platform L. The position of the travelling weight P is indicated by a scale D. in order that the two screws shall be turned the same amount they are driven by similar worms on the same shaft (which is carried in the crosshead C). is pressed down by the action of the hydraulic ram transmitted piece through the screws to the straining head C. and the poiseweight P is at the zero of the scale j this zero error must then be subtracted from all subsequent pull in T. . 473 the test piece is similarly attached to a shackle K. which allows the beam to move freely parallel to a vertical plane. and the knife edge from which the shackle is suspended is 3 inches from the fulcrum F. The ram has a sufficient length of stroke for straining purposes.ART. the load on the specimen is thus weighed as in an ordinary steelyard. which transmits the downward force to the by four long detachable bars E.
unless the greatest possible length of column is to be and C. 210 shows a 5ton Wicksteed testing machine adapted to tension. compression. and torsion The straining is in this case effected by a large central screw tests. the crossbeam compression tests. bending. M K M M M A bars E. Other SingleLever Machines. as well as the two front The front screw connecting tested. driven through gearing by hand power applied to the large handwheel. Fig. is carried on the platform L suspended from is adjustable . The load is T777777T77T Fig. 20S. 211 shows a 50ton Wicksteed testing machine intended for R Q — . [CH. are shown broken off to make the diagram clearer. applied through a Vnosed piece R on the lower side of the crosshead and the supports Alternative semicylindrical forms of the piece C. are shown in Fig.474 beam STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 210. is often left in position for must be allowed for . 207). XV. the load is thus weighed by the the shackle The zero error arising from the extra weight of steelyard B (Fig. Fig. by the four bars E .
see Proe. E. 212 shows a — 1 For description of changing mechanism. the same travel of the poiseweight may thus represent. 1 say.Testing Machine. C. 475 tests only. July. and smaller for stronger pieces . the distance between the two knife edges is £ 2 made large for use with small and weak specimens. typical American CompoundLeva. A convenient device introduced into the Wicksteed vertical machine is that of alternative fulcra .ART. 1891. 25 tons or 100 tons. Fig. Inst. The straining takes place by a screw driven through gearing by belting. ETC. 169] tension TESTING MACHINES. according to which fulcrum is used.. .
the power is transmitted to S through spur and bevel gearing. 210. machine of 100. .47° testing test piece is at STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. — 5ton handpower testing machine. one of which is shown at S . between the straining head C and the fixed head H .000 lbs. Fig. the crosshead C is driven down by two screws. The position of a tension T. XV. [CH. capacity.
169] TESTING MACHINES. ETC.ART. 477 a ta .
and is balanced through a system of levers by a comparatively light travelling . and machines of this type are made suitable for bending tests by placing a la I the beam supports on the table L and applying the load from the under In all cases the straining force exerted by C is transmitted side of C. which rests on knife edges. XV. through the test piece to the table L. by placing the test piece at T" between the crosshead C and the tableL.47* STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. [CH. Compression tests are made several different speeds being available.
which fit into recesses in a socket which rests on a spherical seating in the shackle (see Fig. point and the contraction of the crosssectional area (Art. tension test pieces are generally gripped by serrated wedges. 479 is poiseweight P. The proportion between the length and dimensions of crosssection The ends of ductile of test pieces has been dealt with in Art. 37. The poiseweight P moved outwards along the beam by a screw. 28) are Observations of the elastic extensions for the occasionally required. the long end of which is balanced by a counterweight . The downward pull at the small end of the main lever is transmitted to a knife edge in the intermediate lever I. or by power under electromagnetic control the position of P is indicated by graduations on the beam. and the downward pull at the far end of this lever is transmitted through a link to the beam B. 207. and (2) the elongation after In addition the stress at the yield fracture as a guide to ductility. which is moved along the beam B. In the Richie machine shown in Fig. Poisson's ratio. 31). each branching into a Yshape under the table to avoid one of the straining screws. and subdivisions are read either by a vernier on P. etc. which are knife edges resting in seatings on the main frame E. 27. the poiseweight can be quickly returned to zero by hand after a test. table L are to prevent the table jumping in the recoil after fracture of a test piece j the nuts on the top of these recoil bolts rest on spring washers. The serrated Vgroove wedges and end of test piece in Fig. 212 the serrated wedges shown lying on —  . these wedges and the spherical seating in the shackle are shown in Fig. the lines of these knife edges passing through the centre lines of the screws S to secure equal distribution of the pressure between the two sets of knife edges in the main levers. the zero reading of the scale can be adjusted by a movable weight shown The bolts shown passing from the main frame E to the above W. When required they are made by D M M W — extensometers (see Art 174). Tension Tests .ART. although of scientific interest. the driving nut consists of two parts being released from the screw. are practically never required in a commercial test. The main lever one within the other. ETC. usually of indiarubber. determination of the modulus of direct elasticity. 170. In a commercial test to ascertain whether a sample of material complies with a specification (see Art. The table is carried on knife edges in the main lever. The enlarged end for a flat ductile specimen. the results most usually required are (1) the maximum stress. Form of Test Pieces and Methods of Gripping. the difficulties in and objections to compression tests have been noted in Art. and to spread the points of support.. or more usually by a graduated dial rotating with the screw in the beam . and serrated wedges suitable for holding it. 214 show a suitable arrangement the enlargement of the for round or square pieces of ductile metals ends may often be dispensed with in iron and steel bars . 213. are shown in Fig. 207) so as to give a pull as nearly axial as possible. The tension test is most commonly adopted as an index of the properties of a ductile metal such as wrought iron and mild steel . driven either by hand from the upper handwheel. 170] TESTING MACHINES. the limit of elasticity.
the table L are rounded on the gripping face to bite most deeply at the middle of the face to secure the axial alignment of the test piece. XV.. different thicknesses of »?ife'. [CH..4«o STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. Each wedge has a handle and can be lifted into or out of its socket by a balanced lever worked from the handle A . . .
215. 216. 216 shows an arrangement by which shearing tests mav be made. it can be used flat test for a rectangular or piece.ART. 2 1 and . the testing machine being arranged as for compression tests. — A D A K C CC and KK'. Although tests in shackles. and. which shears the specimen at two crosssections. as well as shear stresses. Shearing test apparatus. ETC. such an apparatus may not approximate to a con dition of pure shear. As shown apparatus is in Fig. there being evidently bending and compression. The only method of obtaining " pure " shear is by torsion of a cylindrical test piece. 171] TESTING MACHINES. Shearing' Tests. Fig. it may represent the state of stress to which many important elements are in practice subjected. 171. 481 fit lengths at each end are screwed. An alternative form of shearing apparatus is that in which the relative movement of the two parts is obtained by pulling by means of tension instead of by thrust. and nuts taking the place of heads Fig. Fig. and the lower cutting blocks are fitted with hard B' and steel cutting edges. nearly sheared specimen is shown beside the The shearing block apparatus. The specimen is held firmly between pairs of blocks BB' and CC. into the recess in the split dies. pressure is applied through the cap to the upper cutting block K. By reversing all the blocks BB'. 216. the arranged for use on a round bar.
divided by the distance between the two knife edges. in such a case the intensity of shear stress is not uniform. The greatest weight which may be so hung without causing the beam to move upwards from its position midway between the stops is to be noted. 1906. the weight hung at a measured distance on the opposite side of the fulcrum.— 482 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. XV. Calibration of Testing Machine.. and preferably more). moments of these suspended weights about the fulcrum. to be found a paper by Mr. in the Proc. in 216 are. Izod. causing bluntness of the knife edges or grooves in the seatings on which the knife edges rest. together with an interesting discussion. gives the possible error in the reading due to want of sensitiveness. [CH. but proportionally to the pressure on the knife edge it will probably be less. The weight of the counterpoise is then equal to the suspended weight multiplied by the ratio of its distance from the fulcrum to the distance the counterpoise has been moved from the zero mark. and beyond the limit of proportionality of stress to strain. Any zero error may be corrected by moving the vernier on the travelling counterIn the Riehld compoundlever machine adjustment can be poise. It is necessary. Inst. travelling counterpoise or jockey weight may be placed in zero position and weights hung from the upper shackle. from the fulcrum to the knife edge from which the top shackle hangs. are as follows : To test whether there is any zero error it is only (1) Zero Error. The distance between the knife edges is then equal to the — — . The determination of the distance (4) Distance between Knife Edges. which just causes The sum of the the beam to move downwards. and then running the counterpoise a measured distance behind or in front of the zero of the scale. is to be determined. Eng. that in Fig. or at some other measured distance behind the fulcrum. made by the movable weight above To determine the sensitiveness of the machine the (2) Sensitiveness. after balancing the beam with the counterpoise at zero. The test might be performed with a single observation by hanging the greatest possible load on the beam at some point on the opposite side of the fulcrum to the shackles. and balancing again by hanging weights on the beam at a measured distance from the fulcrum. (Fig. 212). to ensure that it is in good working order. The error due to want of sensitiveness may be actually greater at heavy loads than at zero load at which the test is made. Similarly. is a troublesome operation. even its distribution is not Many results obtained from an apparatus similar to accurately known. Mech. 1 69. to hang from the shackle a heavy weight (at least half a ton. — — necessary to place the travelling counterpoise at the zero of the scale and see that the beam is midway between the stops. without causing the beam to move downwards. Want of sensitiveness arises from wear. The tests to be applied to 172. and then finding what load may be hung on the shackle without moving the beam upwards. January. a testing machine such as the vertical singlelever machine described in Art. balancing the beam with no extra load on the shackles. — W This may be found by (3) Weight of the Movable Counterpoise. other than by direct measurement. and then to run the counterpoise forward until a balance is again obtained.
Torsion Testing Machine. ETC. multiplied by the ratio of the weight of the counterpoise to that in the shackle. 217 shows a very simple form of torsion testing machine. The twisting — . 483 distance the counterpoise has been moved forward from zero. 173J TESTING MACHINES. 173. One end of the test piece T is keyed to a wormwheel W. balanced on knife edges resting on hard steel seatings on the frame. The other end is keyed to a bracket attached to a horizontal lever L. which is driven through a worm by a handwheel H. Fig. and in line with the axis of the test piece.ART.
wooden pointer P. XV. — Torsion A fractures. 174. are attached to the clips CC. although not hinged. 1905. the STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. which engage with two horizontal knife . . 218 shows a common form of torsion test ends being enlarged and having one or two keyways to secure k t — = . been spent on the design of such instruments. has sufficient flexibility for the clips to spring apart for about \ inch beyond the gauged distance without measurement is about £$ inch. Fig. the specimen to the wormwheel or other straining gear. in the Proc. steel (behind) are shown in Fig. and a large number of review of the various types. see. 1896 . 219. " Phil Mag. 218. . Two pillars. and for very sensitive instruments. Inst. The two clips CC. 1 by Mr. . Piece.. damage play as the extreme is sufficient. to edges firmly held at a fixed distance apart in a brass piece B. is to be found in a paper on the Measurement of Strains. [CH. with referdifferent kinds are in use. light. 219. Morrow. 220). Extensometers. When the test piece 1 For an experimental comparison of extensometers of different types. Beyond the elastic limit the larger strains of ductile material between — A may conveniently be measured by a pair of dividers. and special great amount of ingenuity has instruments are used for such work. the pairs of centres being generally 10 inches apart. April. and to the Fractured torsion test pieces of cast iron (in front) and mild lever. J. the upper one by a steel strip. Jan. 1904. see Report of the British Assoc. attached which is the long. and the other one rigidly. this amount of KK'.. the elastic extensions are too small for direct measurement. Except in the case of very long specimens. Goodman's Extensometer (Fig. —Torsion test piece. ences. Fig. and." An Interference Apparatus for Calibration of Extensometers. The remainder of the frame F is made of light brass centre dots — tubing. are attached to the test piece T by screws with hardened steel points. Fig. which enter the test pieces.E. M. The free ends of the pillars KK' have Vgrooves.48 4 Form of Test piece. In this instrument the movement apart of two points on the test piece is multiplied by a lever. which form part of the frame of the instrument.
the hanging bar B' is kept in position by a long. 220. travel of the pointer over a large part of the full stroke for a motion of the clip points. ETC. which forms part of the frame. in the upper On the side opposite to B a light bar B' hangs from the upper clip C. and its Fig. rigidly attached to the lower clip C. which engages with a conical hole in the end of a wellfitting screw S. the two pairs being usually 8 inches apart. light spring (behind B' in Fig. and point moves downward over the scale S. B. the points may be brought to zero or elsewhere by the adjusting screw A. 221). The instrument is calibrated by noting the stretches. clip C. gauge (not shown) which fits over the set screw shanks. which also allows of the instrument being used over a somewhat greater range than that given by the scale. which is clipped to the tube E. The motion of the end of the pointer P is 100 times that between the screw points. of which it forms a part.ART. the K P tilts. — Goodman's extensometer. its upper end resting in a conical hole. and A — A C . so that the length over which extension is measured is exactly the required amount. Ewing's Extensometer (Fig. 221) attached to C. and its lower end passing freely through a guide in the clip . C and C. facilitates the fixing of this handy instrument on the specimen. 174] TESTING MACHINES. usually in this instrument 10 inches. bar. Two clips. which is determined by a measuring machine. has a rounded point. The final adjustment may be made by fixing the length of the pointer P and the position of the scale S on the tube E. Vgrooves in 485 T consequently and K' recede from each other. After attachment of the instrument to the test piece. grip the test piece A by means of set screws with hardened steel points.
observations are made of one edge of the thick wire as it appears on the scale. each of which represent j^o inch extension between the pairs of gripping points when the microscope is C . about the rounded end of B as a pivot.486 by the guide parallel to in STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. XV. hence the movement of B' relative to twice the extension of A. This relative motion is measured by observing a wire stretched across a hole in the lower end of B' by means of a microscope M. [CH. of the rounded ends of B and B' are usually equidistant from the is equal to gripping points. and The centres the hanging bar B' is raised relatively to the clip C. the clip C turns. C When the test piece A stretches. The scale is divided into 140 parts. the eyepiece of which has a scale . a vertical plane.
and proportional to the strain of the specimen. instead of only twice as in the longer tensile specimens .ART. description of such an apparatus will be found in Unwin's " Testing of — Materials. would give such a record. Inst. which is turned until its point makes contact with a piece of metal attached to a spring piece or tongue. The necessary motion of the paper proportional to the strain is readily arranged by placing it on a cylindrical drum. 175. 1 Measurement of Elastic Compression. . Autographic Recorders. 1886. ETC. The distance of the hanging bar corresponding to B'. the length over which compressive strain — measured is \\ inch. where it acts on a ram and compresses a The compression of the spring is taken as a measure of helical spring." (2) Fully Autographic Recorders. The friction of the packing of the main ram of the testing machine is taken as proportional to the pressure. pencil is obtained by connection or gearing of some kind from the Such an apparatus merely records automatitravelling jockey weight. A the position of the jockey weight is no indication of the stress. Mech. no motion of the drum results from the slipping in the wedge grips or from stretching of the specimen outside of the length between the clips. which is caused to rotate about its axis by a cord or wire wrapped round the drum and passing at right angles to the specimen over a pulley clipped to the specimen at one end of the length over which extension is to be measured and gripped by a clip at the other end of the gauged length with such a driving apparatus. Eng. Wicksteeds Hydraulic Recorder? In this apparatus the water under pressure in the hydraulic cylinder which takes up the strain is also admitted to a small cylinder. and as therefore affecting only the scale of the ' — • See Engineer. An apparatus conis — sisting of a pencil having a movement proportional to the stress. In this class the motion of the (1) SemiAutographic Recorders. May 15.. cally as a curve the same results as would be obtained by isolated measurements. cylinder is almost entirely eliminated by rotating the ram. so that the strain is then multiplied 10 times. Also the motion can be multiplied by connecting the wire or cord to a pulley of small diameter attached to the drum. 487 by a micrometer screw. See Proc. Professor Ewing's extensometer in a modified form is used for the measurement of compressive elastic strains. when it rests on a stop. which vibrates perpendicular to the micrometer screw. Recorders may be divided into two classes according to the manner in which the motion proportional to the stress is obtained. from the axis is 9 times that of the rigid bar corresponding to B. Various attempts have been made to devise an apparatus for obtaining a continuous and accurate record of the stress and strain throughout a tension test. over a paper or other surface which has a movement at right angles to that of the pencil. The friction of the ram in the recorder the stress on the specimen. 175] TESTING MACHINES. 1908. and the record is only correct so long as the lever of the testing machine " floats " between its stops .
In using this apparatus the travelling jockey weight may be placed at a point on the scale beyond the maximum load of the specimen. Kennedfs Autographic Recorder} In this apparatus the diagram fs taken on a flat piece of smoked glass. [CH.. 222 connecting the clamps on the specimen to the smallerframed lever. the cylindrical rods which guide the pen carrier are rotated by means of a gut band from the driving shaft of the — — A testing machine. 222). XV. which STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. the fulcra of which are knife edges resting on seatings rigidly attached to the standard. the motion being multiplied by levers. fitted to the Riehle" testing machines. The instrument may be calibrated by finding the travel of the tracing point for a movement of the jockey weight between different points on the scale when the large spring piece is being pulled and the beam is floating between the stops. is provided at its top end with an adjustment permitting the high multiplication to be used for considerable strains. the movement proportional to the stress is obtained from the stretch of a calibrated vertical spring attached below the end of the long arm of the weighbeam so as to prevent the beam reaching the upper stop when the test piece is pulled. The motion of the tracing point is obtained from the strain of a larger tension piece which is pulled in series with the actual test piece. The motion so obtained is used to turn a roller of small diameter. Eng. In this apparatus the jockey weight remains " at the zero of the scale throughout the test. 1886. Dec 19. In Gray's autographic recorder (Fig. 488 diagram. attached to which is a long pointer having the tracing point at its end . from the end of this compound lever the multiplied motion is transmitted by a fine wire to a carriage fitted with a marking pen. Mech. see Engineering. some is is determined by marking on the autographic diagram points from the scalereading of the jockey weight while the lever floating between its stops. . vertical rod several feet long is rigidly attached at its lower end to the standard . Gray's and Wicksteed's Spring Autographic Recorders. which gives the higher multiplication. various amounts of magnification of the movement of the end of the beam being obtained by different sizes of pulleys on the drum the pencil movement is caused by the strain of the test piece. a much greater multiplication being used during the elastic extension than in the subsequent stages. but has so large a crosssection as not to reach its elastic limit j its strain is therefore proportional to the stress applied. the tracing point moves in an arc instead of a straight line. 1902. To avoid the effects of friction. Goodman's Autographic Recorder? The motion of the pencil proportional to the stress in the test piece is in this apparatus obtained from the change in the elastic strain in the main standard of the testing machine. Inst.. and the spring or " stress movement is employed to turn the drum to which the diagram paper is fastened. For a full description and illustrations. the pencil being repeatedly brought 1 — * See Proc. The rod shown in Fig. which receives a multiplied motion from the strain of the test piece between two clips. its upper end is connected by means of a knife edge with the short end of a compound lever.
.
while the drum is rotated by the motion derived from the strain of the test piece between a clip F 1 and a pulley at F2 at a fixed distance apart. the beam being brought to the same position again. giving magnifications of strain suitable for different materials and gauge lengths. 2223. D . In using the Wicksteed autographic spring recorder (Fig. The longerframed lever. is provided with three alternative fulcra. Similarly.. in tension. The spring can be calibrated and the diagram graduated by noting the movement of the pencil caused by a given movement of the jockey weight. and the helical spring shortens by a proportional amount. XV. As the tension is applied to the test piece by the straining apparatus. back to the zero to avoid passing off the cord. placed above the end of the long arm of the beam. [CH. The beam B is supported and prevented from reaching the lower stop by means of a helical spring. H. then running the jockey weight to zero on the scale. The spring can be calibrated by loading a steel specimen of so large a crosssection that the elastic limit is not reached. —Wicksteed's autographic spring recorder. 49Q STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.") the jockey weight is first placed at a point on the scale beyond the breaking load of the test piece F 3 . over the surface of the drum L parallel to its axis. and balancing its pull by the jockey weight in a definite position. attaching the spring and noting the revolution of the drum when the same pull is balanced by the spring. which gives the lower multiplication suitable for strains beyond the elastic limit. (.From " The Engineer. 222a) Fig. This movement of the spring and the end of the beam is employed to move a tracing point on a carrier. K. the spring is relieved from stress by an amount which is proportional to the tension in the test piece. five alternative positions of the detachable link in the other train of levers give five multiplications from ioo to 500 for the elastic portion of the curve.
apparatus devised by Prof. over a length of 8 inches is measured by observing the motion of a wire (as in Ewing's extensometer) through a microscope M. —Deflection measuring apparatus. Mag. in circumstances where ordinary measurements are difficult or impossible. . 1898. Tram. 176. By its use. 223. in the neighbourhood of a yield point and during the local extension which takes place just before fracture in a ductile metal. Fig. ETC. Fig. To eliminate any possible yielding of the supports of the beam. To record correctly the deflection of the neutral surface it may also be desirable to actuate the short end of the lever by a clip attached to points in the neutral surface. Roy. —The autographic diagram no advan tage over ordinary measurements for the determination of the ultimate strength. The elastic deflections of a long beam may often be measured directly by a pair of vernier calipers. December.g. deflections BEAM SECTION Fig. are carried on an extension — W 1 See Phil. Edinburgh. and cases where extension takes place discontinuously at intervals under a regularly increasing load. 220) from the beam. if a vernier is added to the pointer of such an instrument with a leverage of 10 to 1. e. or by multiplying the motion by a lever. and with fair accuracy quantitatively. and focussing screw K.ART. Coker for the measurement of 1 In this instrument the elastic twist of a specimen A torsional strain. the points gripped being preferably in the neutral plane. mirror F. it is possible to trace out the relations of stress and strain qualitatively at least. G. instead of by the lower surface of the beam as shown in Fig. 223 . or Phil. however. can easily be measured correctly to 3^5 inch. In the case of a stiffer beam the elastic deflections may be measured by attaching a finely divided glass scale or a crosswire to the beam and observing its movement through a reading microscope. 223. and this is generally sufficiently accurate. 491 offers Autographic Diagrams. It is also possible by the autographic diagram to investigate the effects of various speeds of tensile straining. Measurement of Beam Deflections. part p. Sac. 224 shows an 177. 263. xl ii. — or by clamping a vernier to the beam so as to move over a fixed scale. the eyepiece E of which has a glass scale illuminated by the mirror F. An arrangement for multiplying the motion by a simple lever is shown in Fig. elongation. Measurement of Torsional Strain. 177] TESTING MACHINES. E. The crosswire W.. vol. etc. the socket in which the knife edge of the multiplying lever rests may be suspended by clips (such as those shown in Goodman's extensometer.
224. The divided collars of the clamp and the arm D are hinged on one side of the division. The clamp consists of two divided collars. wedgeshaped in section and longitudinally connected. which serves to attach it to the chuck C after the plate and the chuck have been centred on the specimen by the help of a clamp (not shown).492 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. . — Coker's toisional strain measuring apparatus. by means of the tangent screw S.e. along with the vernier plate V. i. as the wire can be readjusted to zero. similarly attached by three screws to A. the angle being read with the help of the vernier V. of an arm B of the vernier plate V. The range of measurable strain is evidently not limited to the eyepiece scale. say. into the upper part of which the microscope fits. which grip and C so as to A D G C A G Fig. the limit of accuracy of readings is about one second of arc. The lower split end of the arm D then takes the place of one of the divided collars of the clamp on the chuck C. G [CH. carries an arm D. and the free ends can be clamped by screws and nuts. determination of the value of the divisions of the microscope scale. is effected by turning the arm B carrying the wire W. chuck. after any given angle of strain. by the tangent screw S. capable of being moved round a finely graduated circular plate attached by three steelpointed screws (behind the plate) to the specimen A. The lower part of the arm consists of a divided collar. assisted by the small magnifying glass shown. form one rigid piece to be centred by the six gripping screws. 10 minutes of arc over the graduated plate G. C. through a definite angle of. The calibration of the instrument. XV.
For — M limit. clamping a vernier to one and a scale to the other . and the breaking load in torsion for a ductile material. but the straining is accomplished by hand power through a screw driven through worm or spur gearing. For the purpose of finding the modulus of direct elasticity of thin wires. 225. to which one end of the wire is connected. would be of sufficient accuracy for the strains beyond the elastic to using a very long pointer. NonElastic Strain. moves through twice the angle turned through by the bar. a micrometer screw and level may be used as in Fig. Some are s : milar in action to the singlelever testing machine described in Art. correct to one degree. side by side from the same support. and minimises any trouble due to swinging. When stretches and lowers the weights are placed in the scalepan the wire righthand side of the spirit level L. and moving the point of observation to a great distance is equivalent the very large torsional strains which occur between the elastic limit. to avoid parallax errors. in others the load is measured by a spring balance. and taking the difference. It is often necessary to reject the observations from the lower loads. 169. For measuring only strains beyond the elastic stage the apparatus may be greatly simplified by substituting for G a circle graduated. 224) might be replaced by a pointer so bent as to travel over the graduated circle G. and for the microscope a pointer bent so that its point moves close to the graduated circle. and rests on the end of the screw S. and observe the movement of the crosshair over the scale. one wire carries a constant load to keep it taut. or of a crosswire on a fixed scale. which is pivoted at P to the frame attached to the idle wire B. 178. Instead of using a vernier and scale. 493 In the absence of such an instrument as that just described. Tension of Wires. to whole degrees. the microscope (Fig. and the other is given regular increments of load for which the extensions are measured. ETC. the measured extensions for which represent partly the stretch and partly the effects of straightening the wire. and in such a case readings. may often be twisted through over four complete rotations in a length of 8 inches before fracture. hanging weights in a scalepan forms a convenient method of applying a known load. Elastic Extension of Wires. f inch diameter. Wroughtiron specimens. which represents Searle's apparatus. which — made — A A . A convenient alternative is to fix a scale to the end of one pointer and a crosshair and sighting hole. Another alternative is to replace the long pointers by mirrors clamped to the specimen so as to reflect radially outwards. elastic torsional strains may be measured by observing the movements over fixed scales of two long straight pointers clamped to the specimen. or by fluid pressure behind a diaphragm. say.ART. The reflection of a fixed scale read by a telescope. If the wire is sufficiently long the extensions may be read by clamping to the wire a vernier usual arrangement is to hang two wires to move over a fixed scale. This plan eliminates any error due to yielding of the support or change of temperature. Testing machines of many varieties are for finding the ultimate strength of wires. to the other. 178] TESTING MACHINES.
large angles of twist are produced by small twisting couples. 179. The upper end of a wire is firmly clamped in a vertical position. which brings the bubble to the centre of L. for the torsional rigidity of a long piece of thin wire being very small. — Elastic torsion of wire or rod. the extension is measured by turning the micrometer screw S. the magnification of which is so great that wires only about 3 feet long are used. FlG. and noting the motion of S //m^u/^y^u^w^/ by means of its graduated head. having the wire as axis. The frames attached to the two wires are kept from separating by a link C. 225. A [CH. i  A A wi "jsjj" TTJJ Fig. to which a couple. into the frame attached to the wire . motion of two such wires may also be measured by a mirror. The twist of the lower end of the wire may be measured by the movement past a fixed pointer of a graduated dial attached to the drum. and to avoid any effects of possible slipping in the top clamp a horizontal pointer may be attached to the wire near the upper end.494 fits STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. The usual arrangement applicable to long thin rods is shown diagrammatically in Fig. and the lower end is clamped to a drum or pulley. Ewing has employed this optical method in an apparatus. the movement of this pointer over relative The causing it to tilt .— In order to determine the modulus of rigidity of a wire very simple apparatus may be used. is applied by horizontal cords passing over pulleys and carrying equal weights in scalepans. 226. XV.— Elastic extension of wire. which turns freely on pins in both frames. Prof. 226. Elastic Torsion of Wires.
74). A common shall 2 inches deep deflection Fig. and T. The deflection may rigidity. Numerous small singlelever machines are made for transverse tests of bars of small sections. often be determined with sufficient accuracy by direct measurement. another is that a bar having a section 1 inch square shall have a breaking load of at least 2000 pounds on a 12inch span. 176 may be used. — Transverse bartesting machine. 495 a fixed dial. subtracted from the angular movement of the lower end. or the methods given in Art. or calipers. ETC. Kinetic Method. or to find the modulus of rupture (Art. gives the twist in the length between the two points of observation. Occasionally some requirement as to the fication. is specified. 227 shows a small transverse bartesting machine made by Messrs. The bending of a beam of small section to determine the modulus of elasticity. The torsional stiffness. and are used particularly for small castiron bars made from the same metal as a larger casting in order to comply with a speci by requirement is that a test bar 1 inch wide and have a central breaking load on a span 36 inches between supports of not less than 26 cwts. Avery for castiron foundry bars of sections up to . W. 180. 181).ART. 227. . 1 80] TESTING MACHINES. may also oscillation of a — Fig. and hence the modulus of — be obtained by observing the period of torsional mass of known moment of inertia at the free end of a wire fixed at the upper end (see Art. Bending of Light Beams. may be accomplished by placing it on supports at each end and banging loads in the middle of the span.
" and if E has been previously found by method (1) it becomes a test of the validity of the theory for such a case. XV. used to calculate E. Fig. 176. Load is applied by hanging weights. by a screw turned by the handwheel. * » fractional extension ' Thin Wire. and an equal downward thrust on the lever near The deflection is measured by the movement of the to the fulcrum. a good experimental result may be obtained. or as in Art. _ uniform (2) (3) intensity of direct stress . testing machine and extensometer (Arts. Formula as above. rectangular coordinates. capacity of the machine illustrated is 40 cwts.Art 78)  is the average difference of deflection for a difference of the central load. which lifts the central socket and puts an upward pull on the beam midway between the two end sockets. zero errors in particular being avoided. Long Thin Bar. Deflections are measured as in Art. W Modulus of Rigidity (N). test piece of the extreme dimensions —In 181. 180. by taking the stress and strain by differences between corresponding ordinates of two points on a straight line so plotted. all statical experiments involving measurements of elastic strain for given loads. deep by [CH. (1) Bar of Metal. screw which is observed on the small graduated drum. correct values will lie on a straight line (according to Hooke's law).. The i inch broad. Cantilevers or other beams may be similarly loaded. 173 and 177) Cylindrical — moment and 2 T/ N = ~r (see » e (3) and (4).— 496 2 inches STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. and lengths up to 36inch span. and the formulae of Chapter VI. By series of observations of twisting angle of twist by torsion testing machine and torsional strain measuring apparatus (Arts. 178. 169 and 174). —See —By Art.. flexure due to a central load. which is an ample strain is applied allowance for breaking a castiron given above. The load is measured by balancing the lever by the travelling poise. 227. Youngs Modulus by Series of observations of tension and extension (1) Bar of Metal. E= where y 4^ (see(4). — (E). which is The driven along it by a screw worked by a handle and gearing. . Experimental Determination of Elastic Constants (Summary). in order to avoid experimental errors it is desirable to take a series of observations over as large an elastic range of stress as When the observed values of load and strain are plotted as possible. This method assumes the correctness of the theory of simple bending in a case where the bending is not " simple. Art 109) where is the average difference of twist in radians for a difference T of twisting moment.
. Art. Then known moment of inertia I lt and then find the of inertia I 3 are _ 4«W _ 4»V(Ii + i«y J ~ Ix 2 J and eliminating the unknown — «. ETC. oscillation of a mass of known (and comparatively great) moment — of inertia suspended at the free end of a wire hanging vertically.» _ n? d1 convenient form of carrier (which is used to overcome the of attaching various masses to the wire) is a metal tube into which a metal cylinder (I 2 ) fits. From (2).ART.» 47r 2 «2 J I 2/ \2%irn}\„l ' _ n * or „.Section Wire. (a) 1 8 1] TESTING MACHINES. CircularSection 497 Long Wire or Rod. —By series of observations of twisting Art. Closecoiled Helical Spring. Statical Method. ir7 large enough. its radius of gyration about a central axis perpendicular to its own axis being given by difficulty A ** = t3 + — 12 4 /3 where r (4) is the radius and / is the length. or a rather long bar of cylindrical or rectangular crosssection with its axis perpendicular to that of the wire and bisected by it. The moment of inertia Ia is determined by weighing and measurement. 178. 179 moment and (aSab0VC) angle of twist. as in N= ^ — Kinetic Method. and all linear dimensions are in inch units. 167 %T N= ——= 4irVI/ ^ J I28tt» 2 I/ ^ d* l28ir«»W£V or 12 X 322 X d* where n is the frequency of torsional vibrations per second.' _ N nf „. Statical Method. From (2). or by a 32WRV where S is the average difference of deflection for a difference 2 K W of axial load. By torsional (3) Long Circular. if —By axially load ing it. Art. and measuring deflections directly. Another plan is to first find the frequency nx of torsional oscillations of a carrier of unknown moment frequency « 2 when a mass or masses of placed in the carrier. The mass may conveniently be a hollow or a solid metal cylinder with its axis in line with that of the wire. vernier as in Art.
— (1) By measurement of E and N as above. Art. Coker. October. longitudinal strain Other methods depend upon the changes of shape in the crossand therefore depend upon the accuracy of the theory of flexure. Bulk Modulus. Art. Art. 452. . 13 N = 2(m + m 1) * E A1$P a paper by ' See a paper by Morrow in the PAH. (2) By measurement of Poisson's ratio by method measurement of E or N as above. (5) Closecoiled Helical Spring.9N3E (2) above. if the tion of a heavy axial load is not negligible \ of its weight must be added to W 1 —By W mass of the spring (see Art. generally optical. 13 a(m K _ 3(w« + It is also >N ' ' 2) ratio provides evident that the direct method (2) of measuring Poisson's a method of measuring N. Roy.—— — 498 — — [CH. 161). From 13— NE K. Then from Art. 117 — e XT IN = = oT>it hence i28ttW« 2 RV 322 X 12 X d* all where n is the frequency of the vibrations per second. — (1) By measurement of E and N as above.. Art. 13 L= m (2) 1 2N — By measurement lateral strain 74. XV. 159 (2) A g per/00/ of deflection and from Art. vertical vibra STRENGTH. 1903. OF MATERIALS. Edinburgh. 3 m m— 1) . Kinetic Method. xxv. and by 1 of longitudinal strain by extensometers. and linear dimensions are in inches. Art. on the spring . x special instruments of great magnification. Then _ lateral strain m section of bent beams. (4). vol. Soc. From (2). Art. p. 13 and K= From (1) I. Then from (1). Poisson's Ratio the (— ). Mag. Proc.E 2 and (2). for from (1).
marked a new development of repeated stress tests. a machine usually having two such parts. taking four specimens simultaneously has been used at the National Physical Laboratory by Dr. The Wohler test most frequently repeated now is that of a rotating spindle fixed at one end and carrying a load at the other. E. . bending. Probably the best machine employing inertia forces is Dr. In Dr. Stanton 3 (see Art. H. Simple direct stress is the only kind. and torsional stress were made on — — machines which will be found illustrated and described 1 in Unwin's "Testing of Materials. results from the horizontal component of the 1 — 8 8 For a full description. .. the distribution of stress over a crosssection is unknown. Combe. clxvj. the test piece being placed between the connecting rod and the A more elaborate machine of the same type reciprocating weights. made by Messrs. The celebrated experiments of Wohler (see Art." chap. It is important to notice that in all such bending tests. acting on the suggestion of Prof. 49). xiii. Smith's original machine 2 the simple direct stresses on the Dr. xi. Wohler's Machines and Tests. which has already furnished considerable information on the subject (see Arts. see Proc.. which represents one unit. Ltd This machine is diagrammatically shown by elevation and halfsectional plan in Fig. which remains stationary. vol. and the maximum intensity of stress is not calculable. see Phil. see Engineering. SPECIAL TESTS. Smith. the forces were applied and measured by the deflection of springs. 47) on the repetition of direct. SmitKs Machines. The alternating stress in the test piece T. if the elastic limit is exceeded initially or during a test. J. and promises more. Barbour. C. test piece were those resulting from the inertia forces of reciprocating masses driven from a rotating shaft by a crank and connecting rod. Trans. For description and illustration. Smith's Patent Reversal Testing Machine. Inst. Soe. the distribution of which can be accurately estimated if the limit of elasticity is exceeded. Repeated and Reversed Stresses. 228. of a new method of applying repeated and reversed direct stress. The introduction by Dr. 182. the stiffness of which was measured.CHAPTER XVI. For description. Roy. 48 and 49). vol. Osborne Reynolds. 190J.
and connected to the shoulders of larger diameter by wellrounded fillets. and carries such balance weights as will balance the forces on the frame of the machine and prevent vibration of the foundation. the machine is capable of giving stress intensities between practically any limits. and all the rotating journal bearings have forced lubrication. 228. centrifugal force of the rotating masses M.. which transmits initial stress T is locked first to A and then to B. XVI. the forces to the test piece is locked to the piece A. [CH. so that the inertia forces then A Fig. seated on split dies. provides a means of subjecting the test piece cause to any required initial stress. The driving shaft is placed between two such units as are shown in Fig. and frame . nut N. buffers are inserted at DD. The motion of a driving shaft rotating in fixed bearings and coaxial with C is communicated to the rotating piece C by means of a pin fitting easily into a radial slot in a plate attached to the driving shaft. to the piece B. One end of the test piece locked by a conical end. T is after" fracture S. The standard test piece is turned down to \ inch diameter for a length of \ inch. part vibration of which is of square section to prevent possible torsional B forms a bearing at right angles to its own length for the the piece The other end of the rotating piece C. stress between limits the mean value of which is not zero. with tightening spring of the test piece.— Dr. which carries the masses M. and • . to avoid To prevent damage to the machine finally A is locked to the frame. 228. Smith's patent reversal testing machine. 5oo STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. the position but not the magnitude of the range of stress being altered. by suitable changes of the revolving masses and the spring S. On such a specimen.
Haigh." by B. 1909. 228A. 1912. 1 Fig. and moving (slightly) with. Nov. Soc. TESTS.ART. Engineering. p. In Hopkinson's machine a very different principle is employed for See description in Engineering. 1 1 ." by B. "The WittonKramer Fatigue Tester. in order to leave only a known effective force in the specimen. 228a with letters of reference corresponding to those in Fig. Dec. In this case the inertia forces of all masses attached to. the test piece have to be compensated for. vol. 22. 13. in Proc. These machines are capable of high frequency of alternation. 86. 1912. July 23.. 182] SPECIAL. 131 (1912). and investigations as to the effects of speed of alternation at high — frequencies are in progress (1915)." Engineering. P. counteracts that of the moving masses. The compensation is effected by springs. 50I of any speed of reversal except very low ones. A. —Dr. Roy. within the limits of lubrication. Smith's patent reversal testing machine. Several testing machines have more recently Electrical Machines. been constructed in which the force of an electromagnet is used to 2 apply stress to the test piece. A view of the machine as actually made is shown in Fig. 228. the force of which. " A New Machine for Alternating Load Tests. produced by an alternating magnetic flux on a laminated iron armature. The electrical machines directly the alternating pull Haigh's machine applies differ widely. See "A Highspeed Fatigue Tester and the Endurance of Metals under Alternating Stress of High Frequency. when strained. Hopkinson. this being in some cases over 7000 per minute.
Inst. Naval Architects. the applied forces. and to the overhanging end a constant force was applied. the intensity of bending strees would be proportional to Young's modulus for different materials. Arnold's Testing Machine? In this machine a bar  inch diameter is firmly fixed or encastre at one end. if the elastic limit were not exceeded. Also Proc. Arnold has found that a reliable guide — — vol. are used to apply the stress. [CH. and is subjected to repeated bendings to and fro by a reciprocating plunger. After each successive fracture the shortened cantilever was gripped near its fractured end in a socket which the bar had previously been turned to fit. under such conditions evidently different for different materials. sufficient to cause plastic yielding or even elastic hysteresis (see Art. and Prof. 1908. and from this the stress is calculated. 1908 . then sets up relatively large forced oscillations of its own frequency. and secondly from the elastic strain of the test piece calibrated by known statically Due probably to defective elasticity (hysteresis). Roy. to economise time." Proc. XVI. and Proc. but the elastic limit is exceeded. The quantity measured is the number of alternations before fracture.502 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. Mech. it is. "Fatigue Limits under Alternating Stress Conditions. the inertia forces of relatively large masses attached to the test piece. Brit. In his tests Prof. and a distance of 3 inches between the striking line of the slotted plunger and the plane of maximum bending stress. which acts as a spring. firstly from the acceleration forces of the masses in simple harmonic motion. second method gives results systematically below those of the first. Prof. Report. A. 1904. Inst. Assoc. his specimens in a rubber jacket through which a stream of water passed. however. the deflection of the specimen at the striking line of the plunger is § inch on each side of the undeflected position. In bending tests. through a slot in which the specimen passes. the magnetic pull being but a small fraction of the total range of stress. and the intensity of stress is unknown .. With a fixed deflection. or Engineering Suui Engineer. p. .. Soc. and the fatigue limit was measured by detection by delicate thermometers of the increase in temperature of the circulating water. parts 3 and 4. where the specimen enters its clamp . 172. 1904. a StromIyer's Machines} rotating spindle was used on which a number of " waists " had been turned. Arnold has standardised a rate of alternations of 650 per minute. 1 2 April. There is no rise of temperature in a perfectly elastic piece of metal alternately subjected But as soon as the stress is to equal amounts of tension and thrust. April. 52) Stromeyer therefore enveloped energy is spent and heat developed. The masses are so adjusted that their natural period of oscillation under control of the elasticity of the test piece nearly coincides with that of the magnetic In accordance with wellknown principles of resonance the pull pull. The most striking feature of Stromeyer's apparatus was the calorimetric device for detecting the fatigue limit of stress. Eng. 90 (1914). The range of motion due to change of length of the test piece is measured. In torsion tests a torsional inertia load was applied by giving a rotatory oscillation to flywheels.
A correspondingly quick test could be made in any reversal testing ma chine by using a high range of stress. and the time taken is therefore under 3 minutes per specimen. F. or Stanton. in which the object is the determination of the range of stress which. . 182] SPECIAL TESTS. a the definite until fracture quality Captain Sankey has devised a small hand machine for carrying out this test and registering the number of bends and other information . steel spring B. Arnold's the test is difference in quality in different parts of a large forging . which also holds one end of the test piece D The other end of the being judged from the number of times the piece bends before fracture. 229 shows the arrangement of this machine. Smith. a measurement which. C.ART. mined very In Prof. their capability to resist fracture by shock from the reversal tests of Wohler. naturally cannot be deterquickly. test is quite distinct The limiting value. be in Sankey's Handbending Machine. — common workshop test of the quality of material is to bend a piece to and fro through angle occurs. the use of so small a test piece enables such differences to vestigated. Arnold's tests the number of alternations never reaches 2000. and 503 to the quality of different steels. which is made by Messrs. being a in use. One of the points shown clearly by Prof. At one corner of the bed plate there is a grip A for securing one end of a flat The other end of the spring is fitted with a grip C. under given conditions. a material will stand without fracture for an indefinitely large number of times. Fig. Casella & Co.
The pencil moves in one direction from the zero line in the centre of the paper when the bending is from right to left. which is kept taut by the spring box O. the ring of which is placed in a groove P. Fig. the free length of the spring B being suitably adjusted at the grip A. The record is made on a paper graduated in poundfeet (see G. The bending effort or moment necessary on the handle to bend the test piece D through the fixed angle is measured by the deflection produced in the spring B . by means of which it is bent backwards and forwards through the fixed angle shown by the indicator F. case the distance moved from the zero line is proportional to the resistance offered by the test piece to bending. the outer end of which has a reduced portion to fit into C. the pull at a distance of 3 feet from the point of bending of the test piece to bring the pencil to any The standard or fixed particular graduation line on the record paper. The motion of the free end of the spring is transmitted by a steel strip L to a multiplying pulley N. to the pencil H. and in the opposite direction it when and is from left to right. this deflection is recorded by the horizontal motion of the pencil H on the record paper placed on the drum G. and finding by a spring balance. and then by a steel strip M.5°4 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. The general appearance of the machine is shown in Fig. in either D K . The motion of the pencil carrier advances the drum through one tooth of a ratchet wheel at the end of each bend. 230. 229 is produced. 229). [CH. Calibration is effected by reversing the lever E. and so an autographic diagram of the character partially shown on the drum G in Fig. XVI. test piece is fixed into a long handle E.
184J SPECIAL TESTS. secondly. hence the energy in footpounds absorbed by a complete bend from left to right. is equal to the bending moment in poundfeet multiplied by 2. the bending moment necessary for the first bend which may be taken as a measure of the yield stress . also paper on Comparison of Tests . say. often specified to occur at different temperatures. Hardness Tests.ART. resistance to penetration by other bodies. December. and thirdly. 1910. The bend test may be made by pressure or by blows.E. in other cases the two parallel faces are distant from one another by twice some The requirement of specified internal radius of curvature of the bend. the number of bends which is a measure of the ductility. which may be called Indentation tests and Scoring — 1 in Free. 1 183. at ordinary atmoIt is sometimes spheric temperatures it is called the cold bending test. the material being nearly plastic. If the flat test pieces for bend tests are sheared from pieces of variously shaped section. wrought iron or steel which will fold completely through 180 with an internal radius of For material of curvature zero is unquestionably of high quality. specified for iron or steel at a red or at a blue heat. 1907 M. the angle through which it bends before fracture has : sometimes been used to indicate its quality. hence the test is a very common as well as a very good one . and by the latter method only common workshop appliances are required. Inst. this may be taken as some measure of the quality. Hardness is perhaps best defined as the 184. for The bend test is the outer surface undergoes considerable elongation. for a flat piece of metal to withstand such — treatment without fracture or cracking is evidence of its ductility. The principal indications of the machine are firstly. its precise significance and relation to quantities obtainable from a statical tension test still requiring examination. the area enclosed by a line joining the outer tips of all the lines of the diagram is proportional to the total energy absorbed in fracturing the piece on a scale dependent on the recording gear. the British Standards Committee for structural steel is that the test pieces must withstand without fracture being doubled over until the internal radius is not greater than \\ times the thickness of the test piece and the sides are parallel . The various tests which have been devised to determine hardness are of two classes. the total energy absorbed during the bends until fracture takes place . The practice in bending tests is not uniform with regard sometimes the piece is completely to the acuteness of the bending closed down so that the two parallel faces touch each other . See papers in Engineering. the test piece is to be not less than \\ inch wide. . poorer quality. A common test for structural steel is to bend it over through 180 . when a freshly filed surface takes a blue colour.. it is usual to machine or grind the sheared edges to cut away the material which may have been hardened by shearing. May. 505 angle of the indicator F is two radians. Single Bend Tests. and since the drum is advanced an equal distance after each bend. Under the name of the temper bend test it is also used for structural steel on pieces heated to a bloodred heat and then quenched in water below 80° F.
fixed to the frame. which indents the small flat test piece e. " Testing of Materials") In this a plunger b (Fig. and various methods of measurement lc have been adopted. the head c making spherical joint with the plunger b and. [CH. by a given weight falling through a given distance. A method of hardness testing adopted in the ^~ mpp a United States Ordnance Department was to give a blow. or the pressure or blow necessary to give some specific indentation may be measured. Indentation tests have been arranged with punches or indenting tools of various shapes. The apparatus is used between the compression plates of an ordinary testing machine. Inst. The depth. The comparative degree of hardness was then taken as inversely proportional to the volume of indentation. or volume of indentation by a given static pressure. may be measured. to a punch of pyramid shape. cxxix. 231). \+i*z i i n l iiil i iil ili li i il iii l i l ii i r SCALE {From Unluitt's Fig. the section being a rhombus having one very long and one very short diagonal. I 3 . The downward movement of the plunger b is measured by a sliding scale attached to b. or Scratching tests. This volume is proportional to the cube of the linear dimensions of the pyramidafter shaped cavity which can be calculated measuring the long diagonal of the rhombus indented. XVI. 231. superficial area. test on the plane surface 1° li 1 i I 2 . allowance being made for the compression of the apparatus as determined by a 1 Unwiris Hardness Test} — Proc. l . vol. consisting of a piece of hardened and ground finch square steel 2\ inches. which fits loosely in a guide block a. long. or by the impact of a given weight falling through a given height. read by a vernier f.5°6 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.. Civil Eng. One of the objections to all indentation methods of hardness testing is the difficulty of producing the same degree of hardness in all punches or indenting tools. transmits the pressure to an indenting tool d. .
taken by Unwin per inch of width. Brinell. being about i"2 for mild steel and not greatly different for other metals. — Benedicks' hardness number = curyed area total pressure of depression . 10 millimetres diameter (r = 5 mm. and the hardness number read to obtained from a table. under a definite pressure and measuring the diameter of the indentation. The diameter D of the indentation is usually mm. would give a constant hardness number for different pressures. Brinell takes the hardness as proportional to the area of the If is the diameter cavity made by a fixed pressure and size of ball.$ = curved area total pressure f and Brinell hardness number depression P The usual size if P and r are fixed. This is the shape used in the method of hardness testing elaborated by Mr.). and the pressure P = 3000 kilogrammes./. the scale readings give the depth of indentation. where n is a constant for a given material. ball and the pressure (P) of 3000 kilogrammes. Brinell Hardness Test. by means of a microscope. the area of the curved spherical surface of the cavity is — D 2717 . Benedicks of Upsala has found that balls of different sizes give the same hardness number if the Brinell hardness number is multiplied by a number which depends only on of ball is D ^ : the fifth root of the radius of the ball. of the depression and r the radius of the ball and P the total pressure.e. 5°7 separate test. Different values of P actually give different hardness numbers probably a hardness number based on P" instead of P. the indentation followed a law where * is the depth of indentation and C is a number representing the hardness. and subsequent tests may be much affected by the loss of the keen edge. All pointed indenting tools are likely to lose their sharpness. but the "standard" Brinell hardness number is that derived as above from the 10 mm. . The test consists of forcing a hardened steel ball of definite size into a flat surface of the material to be tested. found for any particular material by plotting logarithms of p and /.ART 184] SPECIAL TESTS. which is perhaps in wider use than any other. . i. For various pressures /.(. the index n. Probably a spherical ball offers the best form for the purpose of making the indentation.— X Jr To dicks' hardness convert the standard Brinell hardness numbers (r = s)_ to Benenumbers it is only necessary to multiply by y 5 or 138.
. 232. XVI. by plotting as ordinates the hardness numbers obtained with different working pressures on the ball against the pressures as abscissa.5o8 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. numbers of each metal are measured for the same pressure. has found for various working pressures a constant ratio between the hardness numbers of two substances when pairs of hardness Fig. He has also investigated the relation between the Brinell hardness numbers as obtained by different working pressures and the pressures. but this is of . Benedicks. [CH.
and is assured. friction is thereby eliminated . and further rise of pressure is therefore prevented and the correct pressure The piston is accurately fitted without any packing. static pressure on a very soft steel produced an increasingly — 1 See Engineering. Hardness Testing Machines. he finds a remarkable correspondence over wide ranges of hardness . Charpy has found a similar result for French steels. the pressure is given by a handlever. is then closed. The diameter of the impression made by the ball is measured by means of the microscope m. Ltd. Guillery ' has designed a machine for hardness testing on the Brinell system. October 28.ART. The valve v (Fig. 232). or o '2 2 5 when it is made in the direction of rolling. W. 184] little SPECIAL TESTS 509 importance since there is no disadvantage in working at the standard pressure of 3000 kilogrammes. 232 and 233 show the Brinell hardness testing machine made by the Aktiebolaget Alpha and Messrs. Brinell's experiments on ballhardness tests by a constant impact showed that an impact which produced the same impression as 3000 kgms. any leakage of oil past the piston goes by a pipe into the receptacle d. thus with a mean error of 3*3 per cent. the piston is drawn up to its original position by means of the helical spring shown above it. and is regulated by a definite deflection of a pile of Bellville springs (hollow circular dished plates). Jackman. the tenacity in tons per square inch of the steels having a hardness number below 175 (including all the structural steels) is found by multiplying the hardness number by 0*230 when the indentation is made transversely to the direction of rolling. After the test. The filed or ground sample to be tested is placed on the stand s. Brinell has designed a hardness testing apparatus in which the impression of the ball is given by the impact of a definite mass with a Guillery has designed an impact ball hardness tester in definite fall. and the pressure is produced by a small handpump. connecting the upper side of the piston to the oil reservoir. which a blow is transmitted to the ball through Bellville springs which can only deflect a specified amount. . 233). 1904. January 12. Such a test along with impact tests (Art. not only by the pressure gauge. (total) is reached. As soon as the requisite pressure of 3000 kgms. in some cases the actual materials instead of a severed sample can be tested. Figs. whence it is poured into the reservoir through the funnel/. above which the necessary oil pressure is applied. The hardness test thus offers a very handy way of getting an approximate estimate of the tenacity of steel from a very small sample without the cost of preparing an ordinary tensile test piece. and raised into contact with the ball by means of the handwheel r (Fig. 185) as a criterion of ductility have found a certain amount of favour as a practical workshop system of testing materials. 1906. J. but by the rise of the small upper piston carrying the crossbar e and the necessary (adjustable) dead loads/. The ball k is attached to the lower side of a piston. and the excess kinetic energy of the blow is then taken up elsewhere. it is indicated. Dillner of Stockholm has investigated the relation between the hardness numbers and the tenacity of Swedish steels over a wide range of carbon contents . the valve v having been opened. or Engineer.
5i° STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.e. XVI. for harder steels the ratio of the hardness numbers to those obtained by the static test diminished if the Roos of Stockholm has shown ratio was made unity for a soft steel. by experiment that the static hardness numbers for low carbon steels may be found approximately by taking them as proportional to the FT p  ' 1 1 1 f 8 . i. greater impression than that due to the same static pressure on steels of increasing carbon contents. [CH.
— — — — . He used two methods of comparison of materials (1) the loads which produce a scratch o'oi mm. wide. is employed for concave cylindrical surfaces. Inst. His sclerometer for use on the convex surface of cylindrical pieces consists of two files hinged together. L. p. Sclerometer." in ournal of the Iron and Steel Institute. 1.E. for in a softer one more of the energy of the hammer is spent in the work of deeper indentation. 3 who has sought to eliminate the variable element of the hand application by mechanical means. 185] SPECIAL TESTS. using a round file. Doubtless each class of instrument has its own particular field of usefulness. and the instrument is used for quickly verifying A modified within suitable limits the effectiveness of casehardening. The rebound is of course greatest from a hard surface. — J 1 See a paper. This instrument. and (2) the width of scratch under a given load. between which the specimen The grip of this "scissorlike" is placed with one file horizontal. the width of scratch in either case being determined by means of a microscope. There is an aspect of hardness which is not necessarily the same as resistance to penetration nor the same as resistance to scratching by a fine point or points. and with soft materials the smooth file makes an angle of say 70 with the horiThe zontal. The simplest and commonest rough test for case hardening is that of rubbing with a file by hand. Scoring or Scratch Test for Hardness. 1914. 1918. combination is much greater on soft material than on hard. and sliding within a graduated glass tube. That of the scleroscope is for hardened metal on which the ordinary ball test makes little impression. M. 3 See paper on " Some Recent Improvements in Casehardening Practice. such as cutting tools. F. It is understood that a machine to measure the wear on sliding surfaces has (19 16) been constructed at the National Physical Laboratory. American Soc. The ratio of the Brinell numbers to those of the Shore scale is higher for harder materials than for soft ones. . This abrasion test by a file has been developed by Mr. which is the desired end in many machine parts. Several very interesting papers on Hardness Tests 2 have just been published as this edition goes to press and. and for a particular class of material a conversion can be effected by multiplying the Shore number by a factor which ranges from about 66 for hardened tool steel to 4*6 for cast iron. 2 Proc. 5II Scleroscope.. form. Oct. The scale of hardness is taken such that a very hard and reproducible steel registers a hardness number of 100. and that is resistance to wear in the rubbing together of smooth bodies. Professor Martens of Berlin has standardized a scratch test in which a diamond point loaded by a movable poise on a lever scratches the test piece. Heathcote. including the discussions. Abrasion Tests." by A. which is read on a graduated quadrant. may with advantage be read. 1 measures the hardness by the rebound of a small cylindrical drop hammer carrying a blunt diamond intending piece. developed by Shore.AKT. H. while with a hard material the angle is reduced to say 20 hardness is determined by the angular position of the files. 191 1.for Testing Materials.. "The Property of Hardness in Metals and Materials. Shore. 342. No.
standardization of such a machine and test almost impossible. height of fall. 28. Inst. has led to many attempts to devise a shock or impact test which should discover the imperfection in a material likely to fracture by " shock. Repeated Transverse Blows. Seaton and Jude. Sometimes a test is made to determine how many transverse blows a rail will stand without fracture. inch thick. and f inch broad. chinery under repeated forces of an impulsive character. and T. also at Purdue University : see Engineering. even when such material has shown satisfactory strength and elongation in a static tensile test. is held in a vice with the axis of the 60 notch set by gauge in the plane of the vice jaws. 1904 . W. Mech. 889. 889. Eng. Mech. gives the — — A —A ^ V 1 At and May. machine for testing materials by repeated transverse blows on a small nicked or notched test piece has been described and discussed by Messrs. This makes the frame or anvil of the machine. p. [CH. The difference in height of the centre of gravity of the pendulum at the startingpoint and the end of its swing.5I2 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. pendulum type. Avery. evidently the size of test piece. Eng. and passes onward . Mech. it has been pointed out (Art. although instructive comparative results may be obtainable from one machine in which the conditions of the test can be exactly repeated. see also Proc. 1910 ' Proc. p.. Inst. The failure in materials used in highspeed ma185." Impact testing machines generally attempt to measure the energy absorbed by a test piece in fracture by a single blow or the number of Machines in blows of given energy necessary to produce fracture. . For general use. This evidently depends considerably upon the rigidity of the supports of the rail. having a striking edge at its centre of percussion. 1908. 3 The quantity measured is the number of blows of a definite weight falling through a fixed height on the test piece before fracture takes place. p. or sometimes the magnitude of the greatest blows is specified. Inst. November. 1902. is shown in Fig. objections to such a machine is the impossibilty of calculating the proportion of the energy absorbed in straining the test piece when part of the energy is necessarily spent in deformation of the falling weight. Single Transverse Blow. The pendulum. and the foundations. The nicked test piece. is released by a trigger from a definite height. which is 2 inches long. multiplied by the weight of the pendulum. 1908. singleblow impact machine of the. strikes and fractures the test piece. The most usual kind of impact test is the transverse or bending test on small pieces. Eng.. the National Physical Laboratory : see Proc. Impact Tests. made by Messrs. the height to which it reaches at the end of its swing is recorded by a pointer moved over a scale by the upper end of the pendulum rod. 234. 45) that with variable blows the magnitude of the blow necessary to cause fracture depends in no simple manner upon the number and magnitude of the previous blows. which the blow given by a falling weight fractures a test piece by simple One of the greatest tension 1 or compression have been constructed. for standardisation it would require a definite weight and kind of frame or anvil and foundations. either plane or with a standard form of notch or groove cut in them. July 4. XVI. and weight of tup or hammer would have to be standardised Like all impact machines. ..
234. 1 Another form of impact machine ' has a flywheel. 1 June 1 8 See Engineer. 1898.. The striker on the circumference of which fractures the test piece. 185] SPECIAL TESTS. or Engineer. also Engineering. a and by Russell.ART. Pendulum single blow impact testing machines have also been used by Charpy t fa Fro. and from these readings the energy absorbed is determined. January 12. and 2 L . October 28. 513 energy absorbed by the blow . Civil Eng.  1906. 1905 . 19. November 9. Soe. 1904. speed of the flywheel before and after impact is observed by a fluid tachometer. and would give tne energy absorbed in fracturing the test piece if the base and other parts were absolutely rigid. Am. March 10. I9° 8 See Trans. See Engineering. the scale is graduated to record this quantity directly in footpounds. 1906.
If the difference is found by optical means and the sum is «E times the measured lateral strain (see (3) Art. light will be transmitted according to the intensity of the principal stress difference. cases where the third principal stress is everywhere zero. Emptage's "Light. [CH. Considerable progress in optical stress estimations for cases which are difficult to analyse mathematically. Optical Determination of Stress Distribution." or Houston's " A Treatise on Light " (Longmans).514 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. International Assoc. Inst. * Buda Pesth Congress of suggested methods measurement of the . If the transparent plate be stressed parallel to its own plane. In conjunction with Coker's work. See " The Distribution of Stress due to a Kivet in a Plate." Trans.e." Watson's "Physics. that for plate glass. they split up plane polarised light into two rays. may perhaps be doubted. such as notches of various kinds. polarised light. It may be noted that Young's Modulus E for xylonite is only ~. i. freedom from initial stress and from hysteresis are important. which have been employed by Professor Coker. for Testing Materials. Scoble 2 has introduced measurements of lateral strain suggested by Mesnager 3 as a means of determining the sum of the two principal stresses in cases of plane stress distributions. a simply stretched tension piece subjected to a known and uniform In the case of plane stress in a flat plate and plane intensity of stress. light transmitted through the unstressed transparent plate will be entirely cut off. He has been able by means of loaded xylonite models to approxi — mately verify wellknown calculations on stress distribution such as those for hook sections and perforated tie bars. 185a. but the relative ease with which specimens may be prepared in various shapes renders it a useful material for experiments which are sufficiently accurate to be valuable. Various transparent materials under the action of stress possess double refract1 ing properties. of varying stress the stress difference at any place in the material may be approximately estimated by matching the colour produced in. steel may give determinations of stress = 1 Ganot's 2 See textbooks on Light. The interference obtained by the recombination of such rays of white light produces colour bands which may be viewed on a screen or photographed. Possibly optical determinations of stress differences on glass specimens combined with the determination of the sums by lateral strain measurements on. if p o). dark patches denoting regions of zero stress or of equal principal stresses. Mesnager lateral strain of glass plate optical interference Naval Architects. hence strains are relatively large. say. say. 19." or " Physics. e. has been made with models of transparent xylonite. Whether xylonite is the most reliable material in investigations where uniformity. besides very numerous cases of material having discontinuities. XVI. the two principal stresses are fully determined.g. The colour produced varies in different parts of the In cases material according to the difference of the principal stresses. 1913. where exact mathematical treatment is practically impossible. if the analyser be placed with its principal plane at right angles to that of the polariser. that is.
Mag. 1888. Mag. 191 2. ii. Comptes Rendus. Maxwell. Neumann. 1913. and March 28. Trans. March 8. 322. Akademie Wissenschaften zu Berlin. p. Dec. Oct. 117.." in Phil. Roy. Kerr. Coker. vol.ART. p. 25. " The Influence of Surface Loading on the Flexure of Beams. 1818. 1853." Phil. Soc. " Investigation of Stresses in a Rectangular Bar by Means of Polarised Light. Papers in Phil. 1912. 185a] SPECIAL TESTS.. 1891. pp. Filon. p. xx. Phil.. Mag.. 1913.. 13. Oct. Jan. 5061. Trans. Mag. : Further details regarding optical methods of determining stress distribution may be found in the following papers Brewster. vol. Edin. Phil. Carus Wilson. Dec. 1912." 1841. Jan.. 5 1 distribution with a considerable degree of accuracy. . " Abhandlungen der K. Mesnager. Nov.. 6. 1911. 1912.. or Science Abstracts.. 156. and in Engineering. 1910.
practice subjected to tension. Gypsum present with the limestone calcium forms sulphate or plaster of Paris . the form of the briquette and holding clips of the testing machine have a considerable influence on the distribution of stress on the breaking section of the briquette.. which have a small proporPortland cement. manufacture of which has undergone rapid expansion and alteration. up to 2 per cent. Cement. Tensile Cement Tests. Eng. SPECIAL MATERIALS. Inst. the tion and are capable of setting under water. Civ. vol. it is not usually employed alone or " neat. cvii. natural and other cements differ mainly in having a smaller proportion of clay. because under carefully specified conditions it is found to be a good index of quality. standard clips or jaws by which the briquette is held during the tension form of briquette used on the Continent is shown at i in test. is A 1 See three papers in Proc. cement used by the engineer is Portland cement. the tensile test of neat cement — the usual strength test employed. the effect of this substance in cement is to increase the time taken to set a number of distinct tests. is a product which can be made with remarkable regularity as shown by — with water it combines chemia solid mass impervious to This hydraulic property is due to the presence of a silicate of water. amounts of clay. which is often an advantage j beyond this amount it is injurious. various The most important the product being subsequently finely ground. 1 Cements are produced by roasting limestone with 186. the proportion of lime in Portland cement is about 2 \ to 3 times the combined weight of the silica and alumina. alumina . the briquette being 1 inch Fig. Portland cement is not usually in 187. When mixed and cally with a certain quantity sets in hard. broken stone or brick . 235 shows the standard form of briquette adopted by the Engineering Standards Committee. nevertheless. limes having little or none except hydraulic limes. but only to compression . Fig.CHAPTER XVII. which is made from a mixture of about 3 parts of limestone or chalk to 1 part clay. either as found in nature or artificially added. . and therefore have to be standardised." but in a mixture with inert material such as sand. forming a calcium silicate and a calcium aluminate . 236 shows the thick and 1 inch square at the minimum section. For tensile tests the neat cement is mixed with water and allowed to set in a mould to form briquettes .
and See a paper by Mr. Proe. vol. C. . J. Civ. SPECIAL MATERIALS. in and mould for forming the briquettes For neatcement tests the quantity of water used has a considerable influence on the strength of the briquette and should be such as to just form a smooth paste.. Faija. to be found by experiment (usually from 18 to 25 per cent. the increase of resistance to crushing is fortunately greater than the increase of tensile strength. increasing with increase of speed Fig. Inst. Grant. Cement increases considerably in resistance both to tension and crushing. byweight of the cement).. ' See papers by Mr. Proe. Inst. for any particular Portland cement there is a proportion of water. The tensile breaking load of is the rate at which the load a briquette is considerably affected by 2 applied. 1 consequently the age and treatment of briquettes after mixing must be specified. 187] Fig. with age from the time of setting. 239. 238. xxstt.ART. mixing or gauging Fig. 235. 236. Eng. which gives the highest possible tensile strength. lxxv. vols. xxv. is 517 shown in Fig.E.
The application of the load at a steady and definite rate is in some cases accomplished by running . [CH. Cement Testing Machines. and such part is used as passes through a sieve having 20 x 20 wires 0*0164 i ncn diameter per square inch. and becomes at great loads somewhat convex to it Fracture takes place in the manner characteristic of brittle materials byshearing at angles of about 45° to the direction of compression (see — Fig. generally starts from zero concave to the axis of stress. Compression Tests. frequently made. —As according in practice. obtained from Leighton Buzzard. single — and compound levers being used. in the interval. 37. should have a tensile strength of Sand Mixture Tests. The results are to be measured by the average of 6 briquettes for each period. the rate has therefore to be standardised. being mixed with so much water as to thoroughly wet the mixture and leave no superfluous water when the briquette is formed. or over 550 pounds per square inch respectively. The sand and cement. The ultimate strength of neat cement under pressure is from about 8 to The stress11 times its tensile strength. This is a test of the adhesion of the cement and sand. XVII. according as the 7 days' test gives a result of 400 to 450. 500 pounds per minute. 235 the Standards Committee specify a rate of 100 pounds in 12 seconds. and is of course affected by Different the particular size and shape of the grains of sand used. i. When compression tests are made an ordinary testing machine may be used on about 3 or 4inch cubes . kept for 24 hours in a damp cloth in the atmosphere.e. 500 to 550. unlike that for metals. tests are often made  120 pounds per square inch 7 days after gauging 225 »' »* » " with an increase of at least 20 per cent. and then placed in fresh water until tested 7 : 28 days from gauging. cement more nearly with the use of of briquettes moulded from a mixture of 3 parts by weight of sand to 1 part of cement. 20. the ratio increasing with age. Tension tests of cement briquettes 189. Specifications of ultimate tensile strength of course vary. the difficulty and influence of a satisfactory bedding for compression tests has been mentioned in Art. strain curve. made without mechanical ramming into the mould. but the " Standard " specification for the square inch section gives the following figures for a briquette. are generally made on special testing machines of various types. 400 pounds per square inch of section „ 500 „ „ „ „ „ the increase from 7 to 28 days to be not less than 25. Compression tests of cement are not very 188. and remains on a 30 X 30 sieve made of wire o oio8 inch diameter. of loading . r5. and on the briquette shown in Fig. or 10 per cent. the tension test being satisfactory and much simpler.— — 518 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 237). 450 to 500. The British standard sand is countries adopt their own standard sands.
in other cases a travelling poise is caused to move along a graduated lever at a steady speed.ART. 519 water or fine shot through a controllable opening into a vessel hanging from the end of the lever . 189] SPECIAL MATERIALS. .
238. through two levers against the weight of shot in the vessel e at the end of the lever a. which also carries an adjustable balance weight b . Fig. which shot runs into is regulated at . [CH. combined leverage of the two the vessel c from a reservoir levers is 50 to 1.520 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. The g through a channel. 239. XVII. the' h a l Fig.
The Standards Committee specification requires that the residue on a sieve with 76 X 76 wires. it shall not exceed 22^ per cent. of bottle Soundness Test. and the specific gravity is equal to the weight of cement. 190. or . On the other hand. divided by the displaced volume of turpentine in cubic centimetres. but perhaps briquette —  — a better practice is to specify a specific gravity of 3*10 after delivery. gives Another plan is to fill a narrownecked bottle the specific gravity.. narrow. a certain amount of aeration may be necessary to slake any free lime which would cause cracking or crumbling in the cement. Imperfectly burned cement is lighter than cement Specific Gravity. the "Standard" specification gives this ratio as 275. also the maximum proportion which the weight of lime shall bear to the combined weight of the silica and alumina . also cement which is left exposed to the atmosphere. shall not exceed 3 per cent. pour off some water and add a weighed quantity of cement. ^' ° * _ ~ weight of cement added 1st weight of bottle + wt. Considerable doubt has been cast on the value of the specific gravity 1 The specific gravity is test as an indication of proper calcination. It is sometimes specified that Portland cement shall weigh 112 to 115 pounds per bushel. Coarse grains in cement have a weakening effect similar to that of sand or other inert matter. 190] 9 for SPECIAL MATERIALS. this quantity being recorded by a spring balance at /. The Le Chatelier test of soundness is made in the apparatus shown in Fig. 240. minus the difference between the second and first weights of the bottle and contents. 521 any desired rate of loading by a lever n. Fineness Tests. 0*5 millimetre in thickness. when a weighed quantity of cement is dropped into the vessel the weight of the cement in grammes. which consists of a small split cylinder of brass C. and 50 times the weight of shot in c gives the breaking load. and on a sieve 180 X 180 wires. . vol. forming a mould 30 millimetres 1 — See a paper by D.ART. graduated neck of a glass vessel . Butler. with water to a given level and weigh it . a change which is accompanied by a loss of specific gravity. measured by the displacement of the level of turpentine in a long.C. of good quality . The breaking of the and consequent fall of the lever automatically shuts off the supply of shot. and fill up with water to the original The weight of water equal in volume to the level and weigh again. of cement — 2nd wt. and the proportional residue by weight on sieves of given dimensions is found. C002 inch diameter. divided by the weight of an equal volume of water as above calculated.. clxvi.— In addition to the tensile test of cement the allowable amounts of moisture and of calcium sulphate is often specified. by absorption of moisture and carbonic acid. and to test the fineness of grinding the cement is sieved. is then equal to the weight of cement used. Other Cement Tests. deteriorates and loses its capability of combining with water. o oo44 inch diameter per square inch.E. cement used. Any excess of this quantity of lime causes crumbling of the cement after setting. I. B. Proc. part iv.
and the to 6o° F." of the form shown in Fig. After cooling. the needle being lifted into position by means of the loose — . and and water. Time of Setting. distance between the pointers PP is measured on a millimetre scale. and left 24 hours. and the mould is placed in cold water. the split edges filled with the usual mixture of cement filling. 240. from the The mould is placed on a piece of glass to the centre of the cylinder. XVII.. The time of setting of a briquette or pat mixed in the usual way is tested by the indentation of a weighted " needle. After water at 58 covered by a glass plate and a small weight. and placed in The cement will then be set. the distance between the Expointers P P is again measured. Pointers PP are attached internal diameter. Fig. FrG.522 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 241. which is then heated to boiling point and kept boiling for 6 hours. tips on either side of the split and have a length of 165 mm. [CH. allows an expansion not exceeding 6 millimetres in cement which before mixing has been exposed to the air for seven days. The " Standard " specification apart of the pointers during the test. cessive cracking of the cement due to an excess of free lime or otherwise. the mould is being meanwhile gently held together. and 30 millimetres thick. The cement is considered to be "set" when the needle fails to make an impression when its point is gently applied to the surface. 241. is indicated by excessive movement /j S Square. which has a flat end jjg inch square and weighs 2 \ lbs.
191. the strength increases with age after the time of setting. and Brick. Stone. {From Umuin's " Testing of Materials of Construction") varies with the proportion and character of the inert materials used with the cement . generally chosen rather from considerations of durability and appearance than for its ultimate crushing strength. treatises on concrete should be consulted. — granite having often a strength of 1500 tons per square foot.. Concrete. except in very tall A 1 may be found Strength. and varies from between 10 and 30 minutes for quicksetting cements to between 2 and 5 hours for slowsetting cements. Fracture takes place as in other brittle solids by shearing at angles of about 45 to the direction of compression (see Art. while sandstone and the weaker varieties of limestone may often have only building stone is about a quarter or a fifth of this crushing strength. Stone? The strength of stone subjected to crushing stress. Proc. C. 242. Hudson Beare. 242). 523 hollow ring or washer H. the broken cube having somewhat the appearance of two pyramids with a common apex (see Fig. varies greatly with the character of the stone. The time of setting to be specified depends upon the requirement of the work for which the cement is intended. density. The strength of course Fig. as it usually is in buildings.ART. 37). 191] SPECIAL MATERIALS. and absorption tests of British stones from various quarries in a paper by Prof. Jnst. . for more detailed information on various mixtures. which. T. Concrete is sometimes tested by crushing of cubes of about 9inch sides . vol. cvii.E. and usual ages for comparative tests are 3 and 9 months.
37. and stood 80 tons. as well as millboard. XVII. and stood 56 tons. and broke in the manner shown at 36 tons . while the righthand * one was bedded on millboards. and Brick. average strength of a common brick may be taken as about 150 tons per square foot. and de pends partly on the nature of the mortar in which it is set . 243. Crushing Tests of Concrete. the method of manuThe facture. The great inStone. which shows the frac ture of three 4inch cubes of Yorkshire grit. the middle one had single plates of lead bedding. much more than sufficient for all requirements.524 structures. is often used in crushing tests. and it. Brick. and other causes. a soft mortar which flows under pressure will tend to cause a tensile stress perpendicular to the direc tion of compression. and is further illustrated in Fig. fluence of the kind of bedding of brittle material during crushing — tests has been mentioned in Art. often [CH. In crushing tests of these . The leftnand one had 3 plates of lead each ^ inch thick on each pressure face. The strength of bricks — varies greatly with the compo sition of the clay from which they are made. Setting in plaster of Paris often gives a result higher than with the card board bedding. and of blue Staffordshire bricks about 400 tons per square foot. The porosity of stone is tested by weighing the stone when dried and then after saturation by immersion in water. is STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. It is to be remembered that in actual structures the crushing strength of such materials is less than that of a single piece as tested.
that a large section has the same strength per square inch as a small one when both are of the same proportion and similarly — free from defects. the strength of a stick of wood depends upon the part sense. the inner and less dense portion being the spring growth. the result will be to give too high a value for the true average sample hence in important timber tests large sections are used. being much greater for tension and compression along the grain than across it. Tests of Timber. which contains a certain proportion of knots and other local defects. 193. Investigation shows. Generally speaking. material as timber it is necessary. 525 brittle materials the chief function of the distribute the is which would pressure result bedding should be to evenly from high local pressure from unevenness of the external faces to which the and prevent failure to obtain the highest strength the outer faces . will cause an extremely low strength to be recorded. the age of the tree. The crosssection of a tree trunk from the outer bark to the central pith consists of two parts. Closer inspection of an annual ring will reveal two kinds of growth in each ring. however. Timber. whether from the heartwood or sapwood. after of Moisture. unless the tree is so old that the process of deterioration of the heartwood has set in. happening to lie in a small test piece. the heavier woods are stronger than the lighter ones. and the outer portion the summer growth. the comparison being made between different woods in the same stage applied — — of dryness. which are called annual rings.ART. Number of Test Pieces. The strength of timber is also greatly affected by the amount and kind of seasoning it has undergone. and whether from the upper or lower part of the tree. an inner and darker core of heartwood and an outer portion of sapwood. Effects — . The strength of a piece of timber is greatly different in different directions. the place and soil in which it was grown. Slow growth of the tree is indicated by closeness of the rings. in which direction the fibres have not to be broken. and a spherical seating of the compression plate of the testing machine should be used. A piece of timber attains its maximum strength having dried out of it all but about 4 or 5 per cent. In mature trees the heartwood is stronger and more valuable than the sapwood. Strength of Timber. but merely torn from one another. and is associated with greater strength than is quick growth. and if. in order to draw reliable conclusions. should be carefully smoothed and made parallel. Small pieces are not satisfactory for a material Size of Test Pieces. the test piece is picked so as to be free from all defects. for such a defect. to test a large number of similar pieces. 192. the resistance being more a question of adhesion than strength in the usual Further. pressure. of its own Very wet (freshcut) timber has about half this weight of water. each representing one year's growth of the tree. on the other hand. of the tree from which the piece is cut. Both heartwood and sapwood may be seen to consist of a number of tubes showing in section rings. 194] SPECIAL MATERIALS. and to take the average results — of these tests. and the season at which it was cut down. In so variable a 194. like timber.
526 maximum to rise STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. who adopted a standard of 15 per cent. chiefly under the direction of the late Prof. Department of Agriculture under the Bureau of Forestry. This is conveniently accomplished by boring a hole through the test piece and weighing the shaving immediately. In tests made three months after felling. . water is rapidly absorbed when from the atmosphere. satisfactory for two reasons. strength. for timber in structures would rarely. of moisture Some account of these reckoned on the weight of dried timber. sometimes over 10 tons per square inch.S. Strength tests of timber in tension are not of much practical importance. in whose " Materials of Construction " a sufficient account The work has latterly been carried on of the work may be found." Many inquiries into the strength of timber have been made for the U. Unless the grain is very straight it is not — possible to cut a test piece wholly parallel to the grain . of moisture reckoned as a percentage of the weight of dry timber. Important Series of Timber Tests. is almost identical with that of the moisture originally in the timber. is usually chosen. and in the process of drying its strength begins the moisture present gets below 60 per cent. but by shearing or splitting. Government may be found in Lanza's " Applied Mechanics. B. with a moisture percentage below io. scientific tests of timber with records of the moisture are due to Bauschinger. J. experiments and their results is to be found in Unwin's " Testing of — — Materials. Tension Tests. [CH. Johnson. For comparison of different woods it is necessary to adopt a definite standard percentage of moisture . the failure being due to the small lateral adhesion of the longitudinal layers. An account of many tests on wooden beams and columns made for the U. Determination of Moisture. Hatt. and the desirability of breaking large sections has already been mentioned. K. The first thoroughly 195. from 12 to 15 per cent. and most of the important work on timber testing has been carried out there under Government departments.S. by Prof. The variation in modulus of direct elasticity in different timbers is very similar to the variation in ultimate tenacity. The weakening effect of moisture which has been reabsorbed by timber previously dried. if ever. this being the amount retained after good air drying." America is a great timbergrowing country. of Purdue University. Along the grain its resistance to fracture by tension is very great. Tension tests of timber have not been found 196. Very greatly enlarged ends have to be used for gripping the test pieces or failure takes place either by crushing the ends across the grain or by shearing of the ends along the grain . In Prof. Johnson's tests the standard dryness adopted was 12 per cent. XVII. and the limit of proportionality between strain and stress occurs practically at the ultimate strength limit. and rises steadily with decrease of moisture to the maximum strength. of the weight of dry timber. very large ends leave a correspondingly small section to fracture. and again after drying in an oven at about 21 2° F. fracture by simple tension. W. if the grain is inclined to the direction of tension fracture takes place by shearing.
ART. I98] SPECIAL MATERIALS. . Spruce . . decreased with seasoning. Elm Teak . timber to this difference quickly 527 Bauschinger found winterfelled stronger than summerfelled. The following figures give some rough idea of the tenacity and Young's modulus of different kinds of timber along the grain : Oak Ash. Yellow pine Red pine . . but be some 25 per cent. (British) .
b the breadth where and d the depth of the rectangular section. 74) or coefficient of bending strength. increases with the length. XVII. panied by shear stress at right angles to it. and supported at each end. Shearing Tests. the shear stress at the neutral axis of a by Art. Bauschinger considered this modulus of elasticity to be a good indication of the value of timber for structural The following figures give average values of the modulus of purposes. In the case of a beam carrying a central load W. this becomes W m • < 2> Direct shearing experiments along the grain generally show rathet greater strength than values calculated by (2) from beams which fail by shearing. section is. 63. shearing of timber always takes place along the grain. This is to be expected from the fact that in shearing . STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. all dimensions being in inches.—— 528 — [CH. of course. be by longitudinal shear. viz. and dimensions should be proportioned on this supposition. and determined by plotting loads and deflections within the limit of proportionality. 71 beam of rectangular F *W where to F is the shearing force on a section of breadth b and depth d. as already mentioned. agrees with the ultimate : J crushing strength as found by a direct crushing test along the grain. which. Red pine (American) . Art. This. and the same units of force being used in /and W. 66) is the central breaking load. separating but not rupturing the fibres. /= W/ §tj2 (see (6). and Art. 5 to 6 tons per square inch to S 5 to 6 to 5 4 3 to 4 4 Teak Spruce 6 to 8 4 to 5 Shear stress in any plane being always accom199. The strength factor most usually measured in bending tests of timber is the " modulus of rupture " (see Art. is a common method of failure in wooden — beams . . Above these lengths the failure may be from longitudinal direct bending stress. as determined by bending tests. increases and decreases with the crushing and the bending strength or modulus of rupture. For such beams the total load would be independent of the length. rupture or coefficient of bending strength for various kinds of timber : Ash Elm Oak Yellow pine (American) . . Young's modulus. / the length of span. The limit of proportionality of deflection to load in bending tests is W the found to occur at a considerable proportion of the total load / W/\ stress calculated as above (sJm at this load.
the socket. — Method of capping wire ropes. or fracture will occur at A very satisfactory method. and the wires turned over into hooks at the ends. 244. alloy of lead and antimony is then cast on the ends in the form of conical caps. which are received in split conical dies in the shackles The conical dies may conveniently be used of the testing machine. important to grip the ends recommended by Prof. while in bending take place in the weakest place in the neighbourhood of the neutral plane. continuously deforms. Strength of Wire Ropes. The rope is tightly bound with fine wire about 5 inches from each end. . 201.— The great tenacity of drawn wire is utilised for heavy loads in the form of wire ropes. and the length of rope between these bindings is tightly bound with tarred band to keep the strands in position j Fig. A 2 M . The results of tests at the Watertown Arsenal on the shearing strength along the grain give the following strengths : Ash Oak Yellow pine Spruce . rupture occurs increases as the load diminishes. where there is the greatest intensity of shear stress. 458 to 700 pounds per square inch 726 to 999 286 to 415 „ .. In addition to their flexibility.. hard cleaned. Goodman. — For tensile tests of wire ropes it is without damaging them. {From Goodman' s " Mechanics applied to Engineering. Prolonged Loading of Timber. and loads in excess of about half those required to produce failure when quickly applied will be sufficient to cause The time elapsing before fracture if applied for a length of time. steelwire ropes have generally a much greater strength than bars of steel of the same crosssectional area and weight. the rope does not develop the full strength of all the wires.") the ends are then frayed out. which allows ropes to bend round pulleys. As shown by tension tests of separate wires and whole ropes.ART. and consequently take an undue proportion of the load. This probably arises mainly from the fact that in the rope some wires are initially lighter than others.... is shown in Fig. as moulds for casting on the metal caps. 20I] SPECIAL MATERIALS. permanent resistance being offered to about half the breaking load of an ordinary test. 529 experiments the plane of shear tests the failure will is arbitrarily selected. 244. 253 to 374 „ „ „ Under heavy loads timber 200.
.
the author is indebted to Mr. y. R. I. Oy. . and z. with a slur or bracket over them. C. or a margin of safety. Naval Arch. It is sufficiently explained by saying that if three mutually perpendicular axes. 245). Inglis. and the second the direction in which it acts. has been published 2 by Mr.component . The notation for stresses is one in common use in cases of stress of the most general kind. the more general case of a plate with an elliptical hole.APPENDIX Tension in a Plate Perforated by a Single Circular Hole. yz = zy. . Suyehiro. Thus xx denotes a stress acting on a plane perpendicular to Ox (i. it is not infrequently assumed that the stress in particular machines or structural members is uniformly distributed. We See "The Distribution of Stress in Plates having Discontinuities. tie bar or a plate in simple tension is a case in point. The stresses in a thin wide plate containing a single cylindrical hole with its axis perpendicular to the plate has been investigated. in the use of a certain working intensity of stress. Ox. which is subjected to a hole. be chosen. K. which in the extreme limit reaches something approaching a long crack. to calculate with exactness. 1 and further. Ox that is to say. then any stresscomponent is represented by two of the letters x. a direct normal stress. Sept." by Dr." io 1 free. » See " Stresses in a Plate due to the Presence of Cracks and Sharp Corners. 8 of this book. For the following simplified investigation of the easier problem of a plate perforated by a single circular hole and subject to uniform tension. Southwell. Engineering. that is to say. and indeed often impossible. Inst. 1911. and some Problems connected with it. and zx = xz The investigation has for its object the explanation of the way in which tension stresses in a plate are intensified in the neighbourhood of a drilled consider a plate of rectangular shape.e. 1913. theys plane) and in the direction acts. xy = yx. And again xy denotes a stress acting on the yz plane and in the direction Oy . The first letter gives the direction of the normal to the planes on which the stress. and yet the exact distribution of — A tension near any abrupt change of section is difficult. V. In referring to a factor of safety. The relative complexity of the distribution of stress will be realized from the following calculation of that in the greatly simplified case of a single small round hole in a plate subjected to otherwise uniform tension. and Oz (Fig. The "working" intensities of stress in even the most carefully made riveted joints are at best conventional estimates or average stresses. in which several components of stress do not necessarily disappear with a particular choice of the directions of three mutually perpendicular axes its use in this problem will serve as an introduction to more general reading in problems of stress distribution. a shearing From the notation and Art. it is obvious that stress..
fixed direction in the plane of the middle surface of the plate. we may assume that the stress zz (Fig. (Fig. u and v are the displacements of any point. Considering the problem in general terms. 19 — —= dr * radial extension =— E[ rr m 00 \ . 246. The I and for the perpendicular direction d + :4ee = o (1) W + dr[ r if  re \ +re = (2) We have also the following stressstrain relations (explained below). yy. and xy an element to write it to consider. For convenience. Then since there is no reason why the laminae should exert any action on each other. . the direction of Art. at distances from the sides which are to be regarded as large compared with the dimensions of the hole itself. and let be Ox any Fig. . as shown in Fig. all stressed in exactly the same way. and in which a single circular hole is drilled. the axis Let O being the axis of the circular hole. 245. using (1). .consider the equilibrium of the shaded element.—— — 532 APPENDIX. uniformly distributed tension along one pair of parallel sides. respectively. 246) denote in plan the axis of the hole. By writing down the different forces on the element we obtain for the radial direction stresses are rr. we observe that it should be possible to treat the plate as an aggregate of thin laminae. and the condition for equilibrium of Oz is identically satisfied. in the radial direction. which faces. xx. 245) is zero throughout the plate. Ox and r0. we shall take in the direction of the resultant pull on the plate. in order to introduce every possible simplification into our subsequent analysis. Fig. and in increasing. For the present purpose will be better to work in cylindrical coordinates. may proceed in the direction We down the other equations of equilibrium. 246 we. as well as the shearing its stresses act on planes parallel to This leaves only the stresses zx and yz. M (4) + ~ff="h°°P ^tension' = i[00J^] • • . 60.
(i. v is not the same if R and P. thus the hoop extension u r + rW idv The expression for the shear strain is obtained by writing down the change due to strain in the originally right angle QPR. and or « not . 247. 247. Art. 126). the angle is ! decreased by the amount =. " hoop " extension (see is (4). The expression — for the radial extension is familiar (see (5). and the angle if RPQ is would be increased by this amount. and E is Young's Modulus (see (1). obtained from the greatly exaggerated) in Fig. 126). dv =£ 533 rO rr v or du + z— = r^rdO i shear strain . The complete expression as given in (4) is expression for P'Q' (see Fig. Art. = N <+$) where N is the Modulus of Rigidity. and R (Fig. we have— PQ = P'Q' r80 = V(Q'L . Q.APPENDIX. in which 86 terms of PQ. in the expression for the and also the term Art. 13).MP)2 + (OK . If each of the points P. the line PQ would be rotated through an angle v .e Regarding u and v as very small. 248. 248) underwent a uniform displacement v only.OL)2 neglecting terms of the second order . for On the other hand. Fig. and 88 as ultimately infinitesimal sin 89 = 86 and cos §0 = 1).
and (7). rdd~°' ' ^ ' and «« + im have d 2« drdd 3?« 1 1 du 3« m 1 2in r dd 2m \ dri r 3V 3w w\ 1 + dr~r) + 3Jz. substituting for rr. + (I4) ) . and rQ in (1) and (2) from (5). on eliminating BO and rr in turn + m{? + ?dd) = V~m*jE idv 1 1 /« 1 dv\ ( 1 . integral. Then. we have r d2 u oV + oV ~ 1 du u r +  m2. it is decreased by the amount ^r.. dr~r ^^ \rr From (3) and (4) we du dr have.._. and U* and V* are functions Substituting in (8) and (9). solution if is an arbitrary quantity.— — — — — — 534 the APPENDIX.« 1 1 SPu m+ / 1 Eh/ rdd 2 ~2/«~ oVd0 ~ Z m— 2t» 1 1 dv _ . {9 > These are the fundamental differential equations of our problem. for same is P and Q.dv v rdd as stated above. we find that (11) gives a possible dHh dt* + ^_f I+ ^i^Ui + /^±i^_3^iVA = 2m im rJ \ 2m dr ar ) r \ dr (I2) x ' and \2m 2m r ) 2m \ dr2 dr ) \ 2m )r v J/ and that the boundary conditions (10) are satisfied identically if dV x dr </v. 68. a* of r only. (6) . u du fr I\dd . . while in addition at the edge of the hole (represented by r = a. rda The net decrease.v. _ rdd 2 ~° .We to find expressions for u and v such that (8) and (9) are satisfied at every point. where a is the radius of the hole) rr = o and rd —o (10) We proceed by assuming a solution of the form u = U* cos (id sin (id v = where k is V4 + a*) + a*) \ • J • (u. (6). which the shearing strain. is therefore i du . U* + mr r *V* _ p ° ) [ "* *u» .
putting k U„_ r ° > A . andfor( I3 > rS + ^ . (18) V„=C„. . solution Take now a « = v= U 2 cos (20 + a ) V2 sin (20 + a ) 2 2 \ . where v= U and V are functions of r only. and (14) give the relations D are arbitrary constants.8*^1) = «« »» 2»i 2m I / V I . ** + dVi r m dr 2 dr ~ 3 mm 2m ' Y? ~ r ' and ^ (20) 1 m+ m d\J 2 3m  1 ' Uj _ r ..Z^Ll) = * o ) Af^+i^ + l^LZLi) _ M (?lr_y .1 / <£% \ dr solve. \ o /aH 2 U dV dr . (17) U = where A. Consider first 535 a solution of the form u = U„. V We have for (12). j V W = 1. . B. C.* = aH dr r is The solution of these equations U„ = A»r +h T (16) V = C„r + 2s where A.1 1 ' a2 \ j T)\ r)\. (We have since obviously not at present any interest in terms found by putting k we want a solution symmetrical about a diameter?) Equations (12) and (13) take the form •£lH? dr* 1 ^u a _ dr 3 m~ m m 2 U r . m im rfVA dr J o»g i V _ 2 r ~ / To assume that v = ^j 2 (2I > where A and ft are constants. .APPENDIX.(r m+ 1 + m.. We obtain A(> and ^^) + Jl±± p .r A and C are arbitrary constants. The boundary conditions i+ ( and so that the final solution is hh(!~kh D„ = o I .
A. ^ = o (25) i\B . to choose our arbitrary constants so as to realize the required conditions. are.(1 + cos 20) (27) Similarly we may obtain 00* = Xsin 2 = (i cos 2 20) (28) x ' for all infinitely large values of r.9) = o / = + i or + 3 general solution is (23) j The therefore given by r U  2 A. in cylindrical coordinates. we have ) ' {? ~ i){P2 . by giving an infinite number of solutions which can be found different integral values to k . eliminating A and or fi. assume that the plate is of infinite extent. 0). . We rr = X cos 2 = . —— — 536 whence.2 a* (26) There as above.2 + m)F + a 2 (»* + i)C 2 a2 4D + '.— — — — APPENDIX. xx=X have Then be large. without considering further terms. by addition A2 + and by subtraction1 (»* + i)C 2 o2 + D. + and 2A2 + ( 1+ £) ?f + 3(»* + aa#" 6D i)C 2 a 2 + whence. and simplifying.r + ?• r + C r> + 2$ 3 s V. but we shall now show that it is possible. and D 2 being arbitrary constants.(. if we compound u the solutions found and write = U + U2 cos (20 sin (20 v= we rr find that V + V2 + a2) + aj) I . of course. The boundary conditions (14) now give the relations A. 249. 249. and that at an We infinite distance from the solely of hole the stresses consist a uniform pull— Fig. will obtainable from the conditions for equilibrium of the shaded element if is r shown in Fig. = . Now.r J • • B_ 2 r ~ 3« +i 2 ^ 2 + D (24) 2 7» A2 B 2 C 2 . the stresses at (r.
(33) and Finally. (32). Fig. in which the circumferential tensile . At the circumference of the hole (A and r = a. It remains to remark that the undetermined constant C„ in (18) corresponds only to a rigidbody rotation of the plate about the axis of the hole. 250. Fig. i. EOABCD *\ *2&(**\ r9 1 (3 4 *) = E).e. 250 for 8 = 90 . we have D. we have— *H[(S)+— («?+*)] so that (1) gives r0 =  . together er o Putting C2 = o in (25) (26). the circumferential tension is three times the uniform tension in the plate at points remote from the hole. 250. we find that ^ = E [^. The condition (27) therefore gives 537 X 2 02 Em tn — 1 •\ ) = »? (30) 2 + 1 V Again. and then &U3X i. tension X. substituting in (29) a^m^nand (31) from (30). The most interesting values are those of 89 and rr for a section of the plate through the axis of the hole and perpendicular to the direction of the From (34) these values in Fig. and (33).e.T sin 26(1 + 2^ 3 J 4 These are known results.Ao( I 1 + ^) + ^ and COS ^+ a 4" A2 ~ 3(W+l)C ^ + ?] (3l) with(32) and the condition (28) gives (30) again. A.APPENDIX.
at say r rr is shows that the tension 60 diminishes rapidly outwards from A.. and Art. Thus we may safely argue from the plate of great or 10 _20 30 Intensity of Stress in terms of X as Unit. reaches a maximum value r = v' 2 • a m tne ideal plate of infinite width. Fig. Experimental verification of this result has been found by optical means . 1913 . 250. Inst. in Trans. stressintensities at various points in the principal crosssection ABCD are plotted. Naval Arch. while then very small. and = 4« it has become nearly uniform and not greatly above X. — Radial and circumferential tension in a perforated plate subjected to a uniform tension X. .. 185a. for the section at = o." by Coker and Scoble. infinite width that a similar result holds good for a moderately wide plate or a plate with several widely spaced holes. see " The Distribution of Stress due to a Rivet in a Plate.538 APPENDIX. the maximum tension being rather less than three times the average over the section. 1 The o"375X ' radial tension rr.
.
54Q
LOGARITHMS.
LOGARITHMS.
541
542
A NTILOGA RITHMS.
543
ANSWERS TO EXAMPLES
Examples
I.
(i) 3*96 tons per square inch ; 13,700 tons per square inch ; 1*98 ton per square inch. (2) 20 54J' ; 2*62 tons per square inch ; 2*80 tons per square inch. (3) 3* 2 7 ' ons P" square inch ; 3*60 tons per square inch. (4) 0*031 8 inch. (5) 23,200,000 lbs. per square inch ; 3*385. 3*60 tons per (6) 3*5 tons per square inch ; o*866 ton per square inch square inch inclined 76 5' to the plane. '5° an d 3*54 tons per square inch, or 72° and 227 tons per square (7) 3 2
:
inch.
(8) 4*58 tons per
(9)
8" 1 2
square inch 4o"9° to plane ; 4 tons per square inch. tons per square inch ; normal of plane inclined 38 to axis of
5ton stress. (10) 6*65 tons per square inch ; normal of plane inclined 22^° to axis of 5ton stress. (1 1) 4*828 tons per square inch tensile on plane inclined 22J to crosssection. 0*828 ton per square inch compressive on plane inclined 67J to crosssection. (12) 4*16 and 3*16 tons per square inch. (13) 4*375 tons per square inch.
< I4>
,
.
m
%
„>,) 10,222 lbs. per square
—
m—
3
(16) Wro increase. (17) '9,556 lbs. per square inch (steel) (brass) ; 48*89 per cent.
;
inch
Examples
(1) 32*4
II.
and
21*6 tons per square inch
;
23*5 per cent,
j
13,120 tons per
square inch.
(fl) 1577 tons; (6) 6*91 tons. (3) 10*26 tons per square inch. (4) (a) 4000 lbs. per square inch in (steel), 448 lbs. per square inch (brass)
(2)
each
;
1 1,080 lbs. per square inch ; (d) 92*3 per cent.
(5) 2*i tons
per square inch.
N
546
ANSWERS TO EXAMPLES.
Examples
III.
(0
(2)
7"°3 inchtons.
620 inchpounds.
(3) 2760 and 1626 inchpounds. (4) 8 tons per square inch ; 00738 inch ; 4*06 tons. 1 '85 (5) tf) 55 tons > 4"°7 square inches ; (b) 25 tons :
(
square inches.
(6) 5*46 tons

per square inch.
,
(7) 350 inches. (8) i2 68 tons per square inch
40 per cent. more.
IV.
Examples
(1) 158 tonsfeet ; 20 tons ; 50 tonsfeet ; 14 tons. (2) 2650 tonsfeet. (3) 8 tonsfeet ; 6 feet from left end ; 975 tonsfeet. 881 tonsfeet ; 87 tonsfeet. (4) 10958 feet from left support ;
(?) (6)
7W feet tonsfeet V3 9V3
;
1
—
wl?
7=
;
104 feet
;
41*5 tonsfeet.
from A. from A. 305 feet from supports. (8) 32 and 40 tonsfeet (9) 0*207/ a nd 0293/ from ends. 49 feet from left support ; 474 feet (10) 46 tonsfeet ; 05 tonsfeet from right support. (n) 13 tonsfeet; 289 feet from ^eft support; 146 feet from right
1
176
feet
(7) I3'i feet
;
;
support. (12) 4'8 tons per square inch. (13) 2175 tonsinches. (14) 15625 tons ; 7812 tons. (15) 9375 feet ; 2532 tonsinches.
Examples V.
(1) 1470
(2)
lbs.
per square inch
;
6095 feet
3J inches.
131 inches.
(3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
1414.
12 feet.
327 to
1.
7 tons per square inch.
21,750 lb.inches. 4 (9) 596 (inches) . 4 (10) 457 inches ; 930 (inches)
;
136 ton
;
1*95 ton per
square inch,
6930 lbs. per square inch. (12) 063 square inch ; 386 lbs.
(n) 1437
lbs.
;
(13) 467 square inches. (14) 0565 square inch ; 14,580 lbs. per square inch. (15) 3 square inches ; 18,000 lbs. per square inch. (16) 958O lbs. per square inch ; 1,040,000 lb.inches.
(17) 351,900 lb.inches ; 18,000 lbs. per square inch. (18) 1867. (19) 580 tons per square inch ; 393. (21) 4'68 tons per square inch tension inclined 53 44' to section tons per square inch inclined 36 46' to section. (22) 1534 toninches.
;
2'6o
ANSWERS TO EXAMPLES.
Examples
(i) 0*073 inch.
(2) 4*96 tons
;
54?
VI.
;
474
tons per square inch
794 tons
;
379 tons
pei square
inch.
W
'F EI'
W/3
U)
4W
from centre of span
;
(4) 3 inches (nearly)
0*262 inch.
(S)W; Agf(6)
(7) (8)
AW
H.
;
AW/ AW/
;
;
^
from
free
end
;
~^ g£
;
;
02038
W.
*§
ch ; 0*148 inch ; 9*25 inches from centre 'I34 g*i8 tons ; 3*3 tons. 8*8 inches from centre ; 0*342 inch. 12*083 tons (centre) ; 3*958 tons (ends).
0*414 ; o*68. 0*29 ; 0*337 ; 0*644.
:
(9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14)
m
0*148 inch
OS)
I ; H* 9*87 feet. (16) 0*0180 inch ; 0*224 inch ; 0*0181 inch (upward) (17) 0*0988 0*073 inch (upward) ; 0*409 inch ; 4*63 feet to left of D.
;
W/3
(18) o544ei;
*
(19) 2*98 inches.
(20) 00241grp
W/3
(2i)o*oiS3eT
o
;
;

(22) 4 0*4096 inch ; 176 inches. 16*92 tons per square inch. (23) 2*35 tons
Examples
(1) 6*55 (2)
VII.
aW/2 irf;
*
tons per square inch ; 0*152 inch. fowl; fowl; 0*025/ from centre.
(3)
fW/; JW/; yhgi
iVW/;
W/3
;
ifcrEp f/ from
f ?W
W/3
;
ends.
(4)
sVW/j^W;
;
W/3
iftjgj
;
WP ^^
;
f/ from light
end
W/3
;
*\%t £I
*/ and £/ from light end.
(5) (6)
22*025 tonsfeet
JfowP and
^wP
fj
(left)
;
;
19*475 tonsfeet (right). 0*182/ and \%l from heavy end
;
0*443 from
heavy end; 0*00134
(7)
o*no8W/;
0*1392 W/;
0007
W/3
p»
548
(8)
ANSWERS TO EXAMPLES.
oo759W/; 00491 W/; 00037 pr
•
(9) o. (10) o,
iW
2
>
iW*i
°
;
tW>
\l wl
>
\l wl
>
tWC
;
175 tonsfeet, 125 tonsfeet, o; 2416 tons, 57*083 tons, 55 tons,
in order A, B, C,
2375
tons.
(11) 7429 tonsfeet at B, 4913 tonsfeet at 7 '34. 639, 382 tons. (12) (0) From fixed end, jfawP,
D,
345,
^wP,
•fowl,
(13)
(b) ^tt/P at
each
;
— at ends, tul
;
^
wP, o
;
fifrwl, ffa>/,
IM
at inner supports.
In order A, B, C, D, 6193, 5661, 5486, o tonsfeet; 4*44«i 6 '°3»
tons.
6843,
3703
(14) 294
and 865
tonsfeet
401, 560, 832, 307 tons.
Examples
(1) 15,625 pounds per square inch (2) 543 and 0*15 inchpounds.
(3)
;
VIII.
9*815 inchpounds.
Af
1
(4) 3*2 to 1,
to 3.
;
(5) 780 cubic inches (6) 7*4 per cent.
10
;
0854 ton
;
234 inches
;
27 feet
I
inch.
Examples IX.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(6)
(7) (8)
1936 and 0844 tons P er square inch. 56 and 2*4 tons per square inch. 7'4I7 and 6583 tons per square inch. 1485 feet.
(5) 72*8 tons.
4 feet 66 inches.
(9)
989 tons. 354 tons. 324 tons.
(10) 366 tons. (11) 121*3 tons. (12) 0*48 inch. (13) 9*5 inches. (14) 2*441 and 0*339 tons per (15) 0*309 inch. (16) 46*3 inches (17) 77° tons. (18) 19*06 tons
;
square inch.
0*34 ton per square inch,
5*42 tons per square incn. ; (19) 2*275 inches. (20) 13*2 tons ; 406 tons per square inch. (21) 4571 and 521 pounds per square inch compression.
(22) 00308 inch (23) 6*8 1 tons.
•
3173 pounds per square inch.
Examples X,
(1) 2*27 tons per square inch. (2) 47,750 poundinches ; 3*43° (3) 4*il inches ; 2*23°.
ANSWERS TO EXAMPLES.
(4)
(5)
549
9910 pounds per square inch. 2*386 tons per square inch ro5°.
;
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
and 1*67. 0776 and 0984. 6370 pounds per square inch
1 "443
j
;
26°34'.
1463 inches (10) 254 H.P.
(11)
15*34 inches.
(12)
4423 pounds per square inch. 6060 pounds per square inch. 6 8 (13) 30 x io and 1 1*8 x io pounds per square inch ; 0*27 1. (14) 1*31 inch ; 7820 pounds per square inch ; no pounds. (15) 8 feet 6 inches.
(16)
162*5
pounds; 1*546 inch.
(17) 13*96 pounds. (18) 47*8 inches; 1*15 inch. (19) 23*9 poundinches. (20) 48 feet ; 0*3684 inch. (21) 1*438 inch ; 3*61 inches (22) 3*76°
;
0*97 inch
;
2*286 inches.
winding up; 20*14° unwinding; 4*23° winding up; Q'2$° un477°
winding.
(23) 231°; 19l"i 143°;
EXAMPLES XI.
(1)
(2) (3)
^j inch.
_
173 pounds per square inch. pounds 1000 pounds per square inch; 3120 pounds per square inch. square inch. (4) 3*09 inches ; 500 pounds per per square inch. (5) 1539 pounds
m
per square
inch;
218 inches. 2*04 inches. tension, and 10,400 (8) 14,400 compression ; 10,286 tension ; 14,286 pression at common surface ; all in pounds per square inch. 0*00368 inch. (9) (10) 16,953 ; 2267 ; 23,545 pounds per square inch, (11) 2950 revs, per minute ; 0*0269 inch. (12) 1*535: 156: 1. (13) 1070 pounds per square inch.
(6) (7)
.
com
Examples XII.
(1) 6*67
tons per square inch tension
;
3*94 tons per square inch
com
pression.
square inch tension ; 22,660 pounds per square inch (2) 7922 pounds per compression.
(3)
(4)
4 l i3 tons.
8 83 and 3*7 tons per square inch. 13,733 an d 18,620 pounds per square inch. 0*002469 inch. (6) 0*003557 inch ; pounds per square inch. (7) 6830 and 12,930 poundinches ; 6*36 turns ; 66*6 inchpounds
(5)
(8)
3i
;
1*91
pounds.
(9) 31*25
tons; 8*4 tonsfeet.
;
(10) 20*83 tons \u) 3oS tons.
6*51 tonsfeet
;
25*1 tons
;
0*57 ton.
^
2
550
ANSWERS TO EXAMPLES.
#
(12) 976 tons, 2i 9 tonsfeet. (13) o"43 tons per square inch. (14)
Ends, o'osssW/;
W —
;
o"459W.
Crown, 0^07 57 YV7 ; o"459iW
j
zero.
(15) 1992 pounds per square inch ; 5o'5°. (16) 8280 pounds per square inch. (17) 121 feet. (18) i'2 inch.
(19) 4167 pounds per square inch ; 39"4° ; 8333 pounds per square inch. (20) 4"46 inches ; 11,200 pounds per square inch. (21) 7974 feet j 22*950/ pounds ; 102*69 pounds
Examples XIII.
(1) 45*5 (2) 64*9
(3)
(4)
pounds per square inch. pounds per square inch. 7; pounds per square inch. 82*4 pounds per square inch.
per square inch.
(5) 9'S 2 inches. (6) 192 pounds
Examples XIV.
(1)
2*45 per second.
33"24 per minute. per second. (4) 32 per second. (5) i8'4 per second. (6) 29*9 per second.
(2)
(3) 22*44
(7) (8)
1042 revs, per minute.
10,667, 1373, 6270 revs, per minute. 3704 pounds per square inch. (10) 667 per minute.
(9)
(11) 701 per minute.
(12) 651 per minute.
Dr. 320 238 . 150.. 510 Chain links. Dr.. 524 Brinell hardness Bronzes. 99 unsymmetrical. 385. 341. 297. 400 of Carriage spring.. 326 Combined bending and direct stress. 190 . L. 135. {The numbers refer to pages. deflection of. 252 Benedicks.INDEX. 4 346 14 Compression. 4 . 214. 218 Coefficient of elasticity.. 105.. 473. 128 Continuous beams. 76. 44 in. 246 torsion. 523 . . 297 473. 128.. 128 steel. 507 . 487 Autopunch. J. 414 Chree. 230 Complex stress. . G. deflection of. . 498. builtin. 528 Beams. on hardness. and 232. 482 Cantilever. 297 stresses. 30. Beare. elastic limit. 51 Calibration of testing machines. 260 Collapsing pressure of tubes. table. C. Chaps. VI. 335. Sir B. 46 Anchor ring. 148 Catenary. 239 Arched Arnold. 359. 332 Copper. 228 .. hardening at. 523 Bending. 527 • of curved bars. relation to shearing force. 40 beams. Chap. G. 31 Chap. Buckton testing machine... 357 Assumptions in theory of bending. VIII. 524 Concrete. reinforced.) Alternative fulcra for testing machines. E. 213 advantages and disadvantages. 1 11 beyond elastic limit. 301.. 108 Autographic recorders. 5 Brass. Chap. tension tests. theory of. 507 Blue heat. torsion. 320 Component stresses. experiments reversals of stress. . 44 stresses. 5 1 Centrifugal tension. 73. 45 test. 33. 227 of varying section. combined with tests. . 49s. resilience of. VIII.. 297. 46 Aluminium bronze. 10. 165. 468 Clapeyron's theorem of three moments. 37 Contrary flexure. 502 Cement. 233 Cast iron. 33 and footnote. V. 83 Baker. 98 . 514 Collapse of columns. T. H. ribs. 77. 475 Aluminium. 61 Coker. Commercial stresses in. 460. B Bairstow. 176. 83. V. 98 Cook. 479 of uniform strength. 90 from funicular polygon. 248. 418 Prof. 44 Brick.. O. 148 • Compound cylinders. 325. 395 Chains. 393 Andrews. alloys of. 471 Cores. stress 286 . 376 moments. 73 Bauschinger. VII. 224 Contraction of section. hanging. 52. 192. IV. 90. 248 Couplingrod. points of. 59 Annealing. VI. . 516 testing machines. Prof. T. 94 bridge. 491.
184. L. 87. 267 Graphical determination of area moments. 459 Diagrams of bending moment.. from 174. 121 Graphical methods for due determination of. 66. 238 bendingmoment diagrams. 414 Hardening. 364 . compound. 271 Elastic constants.. 83 raising. 107. 33 Elasticity. J. 71 Fatigue. 58 footnote Hancock. 128 Fixingcouples on beams. 47 Guest. 496 modified. 372 Ductile metals. H Hadfield. 186 of carriage spring. beam deflections. 531 29 of. 269. preface Gerber's parabola. 98 Fluctuating stresses.. 29 Fractures. 305 Hole in plate. thick. 82 Flywheel rim. 505 to 511 Hatt. theories of. 341 stress in. 10 beam deflections to shearing. 206. 526 Helical seams in cylindrical shell. Prof. J. 234. 44. and preface 234 Gordon's rule for struts. Prof. 79. 7 . . 121 of Dynamic effect of live load. rotating. commercial. 431. 70 Ferroconcrete. 3. 81 29 importance Dunkerley. VI. Sir R. 429. 25 Elongation percentage! 34 Encastre beams.. 86. 32. 294 . 357 439 of helical spring. 265 Ewing. 39. Elastic hysteresis. A. Chap. 88 D —— due to shearing beams. 34 460 65. . rotating. 50. of. . 383. W. 437. 246 on long columns. 374 of varying thickness. 64. 3. 518 Hollow shafts.552 Critical frequency. 242 for builtin beams. 30 . 236 Curved beams. 37. 302. 84. 225 464 Greenhill. T. J. 485 Experiments on struts. . 86. Equation of three moments. explanation of failure under. . Cylinders. modulus 4 theory of. . 305 of rotating shaft. S. table. 84 Elastic limits. 217. Force fits. 43. 302. 214. 434. 218 Euler's theory of long pillars.. points of contrary. 126 of stress. 335. Prof. 447 Deflection of beams. 31 natural. 301 Funicular polygon. 341. Fairbairn. 488. of flat plates. 484 Curvature of beams. 192 Dangerous speeds. I Ellipse of inertia. Prof. 61 INDEX. 98. 185 Eccentric loads. 51 Hardness tests. 299 Engineering Standards Committee. 230. 176. Goodman. 17 Ellipsoid of strain. I. Ductility. table. 447 Crushing strength. 237 strength. 5i6. 71 to 88 . 25 relations between. E. J. 121 of moments of inertia. 33 Guillery hardness tests. 115 Elastic strain energy. 484. 186 Gardner. 158 transverse. 317 thin. 54. 32. 87 . 301 footnote Hanging wires and chains. 509 Gyration. K„ timber tests. Prof. 313 F Factor of safety.. 33 footnote. 316 springs. 376 . Prof. 212 for continuous beams. 200 Flexure. 197 End thrust with torsion. 183. radius of. 346 ... . 359 of uniform strength. 269 Extensometers. 91 Disc. . of centroids. 49.
527. 44S Luder's lines. 65. 81 footnote Kernel. on beam strains. 33 260 Pipes. 38 K Kennedy.. J. Karl. Prof. 61 Moment 512 of inertia of sections. J. 49 footnote. 4 Hooks. 107 surface. and preface Perry.. 125 of rigidity. 4 Optical determination of stress. 84 footnote 38 N Johnson. 126 Morrow. J. bulk. Hooke's law. 511 Mason. Dr. on round shafts. 296 Oak. points of. 514 Oval cylinders. 260 under ecentric loads. 24 . 3?. formula for struts. Muir. B. 77 test. effect of. 149. table Moisture in timber. 58. no. 10. 86 Masonry seating for beam ends. 32 footnote Mellor. 440 Overstrain. 422 M Malleability. J. Live loads. 280 Launhardt. 115 . 29 Plate with hole. 4 figures. 39s Phosphorbronze. 14 strains. flat. 173. J. 484 . 7. 31. 52 footnote. 109. 525 . 234 tests. 498 Press fits. W. table of section. of. 67. 106. 66 producing flexure.. Sir Alex. 84. 87 Modulus. A. 118 of rupture. 19 Proof resilience. 317 Lateral loads on struts and tie rods. 250 Points of contrary flexure. 30. 498 C. 61 Impact of falling weight. stresses in. 276. 76 footnote. 315 plate.INDEX. 177 . 512 Inertia. 144 stresses. 121 Momental ellipse. 65 Long columns. 341 Principal planes. 109 testing machines. 142.. and preface . 50 footnote. 29 Manganesebronze. 106 Nominal stress. 49S actual and nominal. 526 Joints riveted. 163. J.. 83 vibrations. 313 Pitch of rivets in girders. 271 Longitudinal vibrations. 529 Oblique stresses. B. in beams. Dr. Prof. 31 Microscopic observations. 52 Limiting range of stress. 526. W. 84 of elasticity. 149 . Prof. Humphrey. 531 Plates. Youngs.. 78 Link polygon. 315 Natural elastic limits. 45 Martens. graphical determination. 98 Le Chatelier cement Pearson... 230 Propped beams. 282 footnote Links. on extensometers. 45 Pillars. strength of. hardness test. Prof. 248 Keyways. 98 Intensity of stress. 9.. 91. moment of. 496 . 14. 115 of resistance. I . 383 Hopkinson. 30. 87 Hysteresis. 528. 528 of. 445 Neutral axis. Prof. 98 Poisson's ratio. 383 footnote. 142 Plasticity. timber tests.. S°l 553 W. on Poisson's ratio. Dr. 167. 33. 269 . Metallography. 8. Infection. 496 . 47 Lame's theory of thick cylinders.
230 . 237 strength table. O. 302. 471. 64 of beams. 398 helical. 442 Reduction in area. 68 Resolution of stresses. ellipse of. 45 to. 64 principal. 270. 503 . 4 . 85. 48. R. 316 Spring. 5 1 Second moment of areas. 527 . 6 Slip bands. 260 laterally loaded. 295 35S 40 nominal and actual. 481. 47 Rankine's formula for struts. 4. W. 357 Strength. elastic. factor of. 39 59 in arched . 158. 40. 142 Robertson. 442 shafts. 294 of noncircular section. 238 force. 37 Reinforced concrete. effect of shape of. W. 61. 412 Tenacity. 372 ring or wheel rim. 146 Shearing deflection of beams. 32 Rotating cylinder. 493 Test piece. 3 stress. table. ellipsoid of... experiments on reversals of Simple bending. 280. principal. 412 due to force fits. 2 Struts.. 526 of wire. 52 Rectangular plate. 32 Smith. 341 due to impact. effect on properties. . hand bending machine. 531 tests. 61. 105 shear. F. 14. . 393 Rivets in boilers. 511 Scoble. R. 32 Stress. 30. 503 . 6 in beams. 14 Reversals of stress. torsional. 499 . ultimate. 128 Relation between elastic constants. H. Prof. 303. resistance Siliconbronze. tables of. 99 resilience. 32 . 514 Scratch test for hardness. 281 Shear strain. bending moment. 74.. 333 thin. . 58. 2 simple. A. 19 shear.6 Stone. Sclerometer.. explanations of failure under. 3 . 32 Sankey. Prof. 38 oblique. 25 76 Rosenhain. 81 Reynolds. A. 479. 157 of springs. lines. Steel sections. 3»S. 1:9 Stiffness of beams. Capt. . 252 Spangenberg. . 295 Steel. 7188. Temperature. Safety. 2 simple. 1 due to change of temperature. 30. 523 Strain. 61. H. 275 Southwell on tubes. 325 Rogers. 330 struts. Shocks. 478 Rings. 68 Raising the elastic limit. 499 Smith. 24 disc. 33 footnote. 528 Shells. 270 Spolygon. 192. 17 in rotor bindings. energy. 43 footnote. 74 Riehle testing machine. flat spiral. 529 tests.. 359 of uniform strength. 315 girders. 32. 305 Square plates. experiments on reversals of stress. 511 Scleroscope. 408. 115 Shafts. 43 .. 468. .. 174 Resilience. 10 of curvature slope and deflection in beams. 237 . J. 66 . thick. 233 . 301 Resistance to shocks. Prof. 527 Tension in perforated plate. 374 of varying thickness. carriage.1 554 INDEX. 73 Spherical shell. stresses. 266 Rate of loading. 57 90 relation to . 327. 364 stress. 479 . shearing. J. 313 ribs. 136. 408.
320. 47 Young's modulus. 63 Working stress. 284 Timber. 248. 291 . 52 Tomlinson. forced. 42 . Prof. 528 Yield point. 474 Wilson's method for continuous beams. 505 Varying section in beams. 218 Theorem of three moments. 48. m columns. 346 Whirling speed of shafts. 496 . 32 tables of. 525 Time. C. Testing machines. U Ultimate strength. 461 Tubes. 471 . 316 transverse. Unit stress. BECCLES. 462 Tie rods laterally loaded. free or natural. 315 Weyraugh. 464 Transverse curvature of beams. 317 105. 462 with torsion. Thick cylinder. 448 . 494 Wbhler's experiments. .. 30 determination . tension of. 529 Wirewinding. 77 and and bending. effect of. 313 spherical shell. 457 Wicksteed's autographic recorders. 455.INDEX. 455. 494 Torsional resilience. 447 . A. 313. 295 of wires. 482 for hardness. G. 49 footnote. 333 cylinders. 529 Tin. 300 of noncircular shafts. 280. 35. T. 301 strain. 499 Work done in straining. 187. 7 THE END TRINTBD IN GREAT BRITAIN BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS. 450. 218 Wire ropes. I Unsymmetrical bending. 150. 464 W Weston. 287 Vibrations. 326 reinforced. 493 torsion of. 461 torsional. Theory of bending. 488 testing machine. preface Torsion. 527. 297 beyond elastic limit. 236 vibrations. 32 Wrought iron. hanging. 346 Wires. 506 of. Chap. 555 calibration of. LIMITED. 450. 491 vibrations. 71. IX. 90. 445 . raising. 414 . 471. 487. 52. 299. on rotating shaft. A. 445 . W.. 210 213. longitudinal. 61. Thrust on columns. Thin spherical shell. 252 Unwin.
.
.
.
.
filial tJIIlii .