LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE-ARFIEN DEPARTMENT CHAPTER III

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the research methodologies employed in the study. The research methodology includes the population and sampling techniques, the research instruments, validity of research instruments and its reliability, data collection methodology and the statistical treatment of data that is used in the study. These techniques were used to accomplish the main purpose of this study, which is to find the most appropriate and functional solution for the “Silay City Watersports and Recreation Park”

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

The method that will be used in this study is Descriptive method. According to Martyn Shuttleworth, “Descriptive research design is a valid method for researching specific subjects and as a precursor to more quantitative studies. Whilst there are some valid concerns about the statistical validity, as long as the limitations are understood by the researcher, this type of study is an invaluable scientific tool.”

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The descriptive research design is the most suitable method to be used in this study because it will be able to discuss provide answers to the different topics pertaining to architectural design as to the site, site development, building function, building aesthetics, building durability, and building utility systems. The investigation shall include survey questionnaires, library research, computer research, interviews, observation, site documentation in order to obtain a reliable data in order to complete the study. On the different aspects of this research, it should be able to identify the qualities, current status, stability and purposes of the site. The characteristics of the site need to be investigated in order for a well planned site development. Appropriate planning will be achieved in consideration of its function and space. Specification of all the requirements needed and planning rules and considerations shall be interpreted, while aesthetic concepts must be well presented. Structural concepts and building utility systems shall be exemplified.

3.2 POPULATION AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

In order to obtain a valid information, the study employs the population and sampling techniques. “Sampling is process used in statistical analysis in which a predetermined number of observations will be taken from a larger

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population. The methodology used to sample from a larger population will depend on the type of analysis being performed, but will include simple random sampling, systematic sampling and observational sampling.”

(http://www.investopedia.com) The researcher can gain information and data at a certain time from the given sample size through the use of sampling techniques in this study. Conducting the survey is bounded by time, money, effort, travel and weather concerns, therefore it is impossible to include the total number of population. The subject as the population for this said study will be selected residents of Silay City, visitors of resorts, youth organizations: FCCY and BLD youth, as well as random tourists with a total population of 500. Merriam-Webster defines population as “the total of individuals occupying an area or making up a whole”. This study will make use of a sampling technique. In order to determine the sample size, Slovin’s Formula will be used.

N n =
2

1+Ne

where:

LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE-ARFIEN DEPARTMENT n = a sample size N= population size e = the standard margin of error

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500 n= 1+500(.05) 2

500 n= 1+500(.0025)

n=

222

3.3 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS Warwick and Linninger (1975) point out that there are two basic goals in questionnaire design. 1. To obtain information relevant to the purposes of the survey. 2. To collect this information with maximal reliability and validity.

On the areas of this investigation on each aspect of architectural design study, different research instruments were utilized in for data gathering. The instruments used were Observation method, Interview method, Library method, and through Survey Questionnaire.

LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE-ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 3.4 METHODS OF COLLECTION AS RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS

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The research instruments were used in gathering data about the topics concerned under the different aspects of the architectural design study. The following instruments applied in this study are:

Observation Site visitation and observation is another appropriate method in this study used for data collection. The researcher conducted a non-participant observation on the site, and other similar projects of other architects who were able to design the same project.

Interview The researcher was able to conduct unstructured/ informal interviews with selected organizations, facilitators and individuals who are concerned in the field of tourism and recreation. They vary from students to administrators.

Questionnaire The researcher gave out survey questionnaires to randomly selected residents of Silay City, visitors of resorts, youth organizations: FCCY and BLD youth and selected tourists in order to collect some information that will be able to help in the design of the proposed project.

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Validation of the survey questionnaire was done primarily before it was distributed to the respondents. The survey is an organized method used to determine, evaluate, interpret, and state the current condition of an area. It is intended to get groups of categorized, common, and interpreted data that will be used as a basis in the future.

Library Research The most common instrument used by researchers to gather information and ideas is library research. The researcher also gathered ideas in thesis books of graduated architecture students, other relative books, magazines, pamphlets, articles and other related studies.

Computer Research Technology has become a helpful and reliable source of research because of its easy access to multiple information. The internet allows the researcher to browse and gather some data which is efficient for the study. Through the use of computer research, the researcher able to obtain data through websites and related e-books.

LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE-ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 3.5 VALIDITY OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

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“Validity can be defined as the degree to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure.” James P. Key (1997) Content Validity is an approach that measures the degree to which the test items represent the domain or universe of the trait or property being measured. In order to establish the content validity of a measuring instrument, the researcher must identify the overall content to be represented. Items must then be randomly chosen from this content that will accurately represent the information in all areas. By using this method the researcher should obtain a group of items which is representative of the content of the trait or property to be measured. Identifying the universe of content is not an easy task. It is, therefore, usually suggested that a panel of experts in the field to be studied be used to identify a content area. The survey questionnaire was presented to the jury of experts for face validation using the criteria develop by Carter V. Good and Douglas Scates. The jury of experts was composed of:

Arch’t. Moises Abellera Mrs. Margarita Infante

-

ARFIEN Faculty Director for Student Affairs

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Mrs. Melona Guitche Mr. Manuel J. Radislao Mr. Randdie P. Cuelo

-

LCC Faculty Acting DEAN, SLAE Department Head, Office for Instruction

The mean ranking of the jury of experts was calculated and interpreted to reveal the validity of the instrument. The computed mean rating was 4.77 which showed that the data gathering instrument was excellent. The scale used to validate the instrument is hereby shown:

Mean Score Range 4.21- 5.00 3.41- 4.20 2.61- 3.40 1.81- 2.60 1.00- 1.80

Interpretation Excellent Very good Good Fair Poor

LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE-ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 3.6 RELIABILITY OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

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The reliability of a research instrument concerns the extent to which the instrument yields the same results on repeated trials. Although unreliability is always present to a certain extent, there will generally be a good deal of consistency in the results of a quality instrument gathered at different times. The tendency toward consistency found in repeated measurements is referred to as reliability (Carmines & Zeller, 1979). In conducting research, accuracy in measurement is of great importance. The researcher should determine the reliability of the data gathering instrument to be used by measuring instrument’s accuracy or precision. After the validation of the survey questionnaire was completed, the researcher enhanced, modified, and finalized the survey questionnaire while considering the corrections and suggestions of the jury. The questionnaires was then distributed to the respondents of selected residents of Silay City, visitors of resorts, youth organizations: FCCY and BLD youth, as well as random tourists. Split-Halves Method. This method is more practical in that it does not require two administrations of the same or an alternative form test. In the splithalves method, the total number of items is divided into halves, and a correlation taken between the two halves. This correlation only estimates the reliability of each half of the test. It is necessary then to use a statistical

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correction to estimate the reliability of the whole test. This correction is known as the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula (Carmines & Zeller, 1979). To compute for the reliability of the research instrument, the researcher performed a preliminary evaluation of the validated survey by the use of the split- half method. The split half method treats the two halves of the measure as alternate forms. This “halves reliability” calculates using the Spearman rho with regards to the ranked data collected from the questionnaire. It is then followed by another computation using the Spearman- Brown prediction formula.

Spearman rho and Spearman- Brown Formulas: rht rwt = 1- (6 Σd2/ N (N2- 1) = 2rht/ 1+rht

where: rht rwt Σd2 N = reliability of the Half Test = Reliability of the Whole Test = Sum of the squared differences between ranks of scores = Total number of respondents

The interpretation of the reliability coefficient uses the following scale:

1.00

-

Perfect Correlation

LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE-ARFIEN DEPARTMENT 0.80- 0.99 0.60- 0.79 0.40- 0.59 0.20- 0.39 0.01- 0.19 Very High Correlation High Correlation/ High Reliable

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Moderate Correlation/ Moderately Reliable Low Correlation Very Low Correlation

The computed correlation coefficient or reliability of the test is 0.94 which indicates that the survey questionnaire is very high correlation/ reliability.

3.7 DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUE The researcher utilized a systematic gathering procedure of the important information for the research study. The research methodology included direct observation, computer and library study, survey questionnaire, and interview of which were treated with a different process prior to the form of the method used. Direct observation is a measuring instrument used to measure the current traits and characteristics of the site. In many cases, systematic direct observation is the most desirable measurement method. The researcher identified the character or status of the site and used photo and/or video

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documentation as a systematic procedure for identifying, categorizing, and recording the natural situation. An interview is a direct attempt to obtain reliable and valid measures in the form of verbal responses from one or more respondents. It is a conversation in which the roles of the interviewer and the respondent change continually. The researcher conducted an informal interview with architects who have done projects related to the study. Web based questionnaires. A new and inevitably growing methodology is the use of Internet based research. This would mean receiving an e-mail on which you would click on an address that would take you to a secure web-site to fill in a questionnaire. This type of research is often quicker and less detailed. Some disadvantages of this method include the exclusion of people who do not have a computer or are unable to access a computer. Also the validity of such surveys are in question as people might be in a hurry to complete it and so might not give accurate responses. (http://www.statcan.ca) The researcher was able to dispense the survey questionnaire through the internet by posting online generated survey which automatically retrieves the answers after being submitted by the selected respondents. Consecutively, the researcher also personally distributed and reclaims the survey

questionnaires to selected respondents. The researcher primarily gives

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background information, guidance and explanation before sending or posting the survey questionnaires.

3.8 STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA An analysis and interpretation of data and is called for a statistical treatment in order to solve the problems posed in the study. Hence, the researcher herein uses the formula:

1. SLOVIN’S FORMULA. This formula will be able to determine the number of respondents by computing for the sample size from the total population which will be the amount of respondents to be randomly surveyed. N n =
2

1+Ne

where: n = a sample size N= population size e = the standard margin of error, 0.05 %

2. FREQUENCY & PERCENTAGE. The percentage of the respondents
and their responses of each item will be determined by frequency method.

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The formula for computing the percentage is as follows:

f P = N x 100

Where:

P f n

= = =

percentage frequency number of respondents

This was used on questions 1-6 and 11 to determine the percentage of their responses.

3. MEAN. In the survey questionnaires, the respondents were able to answer the given items provided. This method will be used in order to interpret

the given answers of the respondents to each statement. At the same
time, the most common score, mean or average of the response of the entire group is to be determined through this formula:

Σx X = N

LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE-ARFIEN DEPARTMENT Where: Σ N X = = = summation of scores number of respondents mean

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This was used on questions 7-10 to determine the average of their responses.

Following the accomplishment of the methods of data collection is to analyze and determine the responses to the questions solicited. The researcher will verify the sought choice of preference of the respondents according to their responses and will evaluate the ranks using a pie graph and a bar graph, that will be shown in the next chapter, to illustrate the ranking process of the answers to the survey questionnaire.

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