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What is a Preposition? A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in asentence.

The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples: The book is on the table. The book is beneath the table. The book is leaning against the table. The book is beside the table. She held the book over the table. She read the book during class.

What is an Interjection?
An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence. You usually follow an interjection with an exclamation mark. Interjections are uncommon in formal academic prose, except in direct quotations. The highlighted words in the following sentences are interjections: Ouch, that hurt! Oh no, I forgot that the exam was today. Hey! Put that down! I heard one guy say to another guy, "He has a new car, eh?" I don't know about you but, good lord, I think taxes are too high!

T he Coor dinating Conjunction

Recognize a coordinating conjunction when you see one.

And, but, for, nor, or, so, and yetthese are the seven coordinating conjunctions. To remember all seven, you might want to learn one of these acronyms: FANBOYS, YAFNOBS, orFONYBAS.

F = for A = and N = nor B = but O = or Y = yet S = so

Y = yet A = and F = for N = nor O = or B = but S = so

F = for O = or N = nor Y = yet B = but A = and S = so

T he Subor dinate Conjunction

Recognize a subordinate conjunction when you see one.
Some sentences are complex. Such sentences have two clauses, one main [or independent] and one subordinate [or dependent]. These are the patterns for a complex sentence:






The essential ingredient in a complex sentence is the subordinate conjunction:

after although as because before even if even though if in order that

once provided that rather than since so that than that though unless

until when whenever where whereas wherever whether while why

The subordinate conjunction has two jobs. First, it provides a necessary transition between the two ideas in the sentence. This transition will indicate a time, place, or cause and effectrelationship. Here are some examples:
Louisa will wash the sink full of her dirty dishesonce her roommate Shane cleans his stubble and globs of shaving cream from the bathroom sink. We looked on top of the refrigerator, where Jenny will often hide a bag of chocolate chip cookies. Because her teeth were chattering in fear, Lynda clenched her jaw muscle while waiting for her turn to audition.

The second job of the subordinate conjunction is to reduce the importance of one clause so that a reader understands which of the two ideas is more important. The more important idea belongs in the main clause, the less important in the clause introduced by a subordinate conjunction. Read these examples:
As Samson blew out the birthday candles atop the cake , he burned the tip of his nose on a stubborn flame.

Burning his nose > blowing out candles.

Ronnie begins to sneeze violently whenever he opens the door to greet a fresh spring day.

Sneezing violently > opening the door.

Even though Dana persevered at the calculus exam , she was only adding another F beside her name in Dr. Armour's grade book.

What are correlative conjunctions?

In general, a conjunction is a word that is used to link, or put together, other words. Conjunctions can link words, phrases, and clauses. Correlative conjunctions are pairs of words that are used to link words together. The most important thing to remember when using correlative conjunctions is that the words, phrases, or clauses that are put together must be the same type. That means that nouns must be put together with other nouns, verbs with other verbs, adjectives with other adjectives, and so on. This point will be more fully explained following the list of frequently used correlative conjunctions.

List of frequently used correlative conjunctions

both ... and either ... or neither ... nor whether ... or not only ... but also as ... as

Examples of correlative conjunctions Good Examples

Both my sister and my brother work with computers.

The correlative conjunction in this sentence is "both ... and." This

correlative conjunction links together two words of the same type. In this case, the types of words are the nouns, sister and brother.

For dessert, you may have either cake or ice cream.

The correlative conjunction in this sentence is "either ... or." This conjunction also links two nouns, cake and ice cream.

She wanted neither cake nor ice cream.

The correlative conjunction in this sentence is "neither ... nor." This conjunction links two nouns.

He did not know whether to exit the freeway at Orange Avenue or to exit the freeway at Cherry Avenue. The correlative conjunction in this sentence is "whether ... or." This conjunction links twophrases.

The ESL teachers are not only intelligent but also friendly.

The correlative conjunction in this sentence is "not only ... but." This conjunction links two phrases.

My dog doesn't smell as bad as your dog smells.

The correlative conjunction in this sentence is "as ... as." This conjunction links two clauses.

What is sentences?
Sentences means a group of words, usually including a subject and a verb, that express a statement, question, or instruction.

What is a phrase?
a phrase is a group of closely related words without a subject and predicate A phrase is a group of words that does not contains both a subject and a verb (aka predicate). Therefore, it is not a complete sentence.

One common type of phrase is a prepositional phrase. Some examples are: in the house at the museum into the water

adjective phrase
Definition: A word group with an adjective as its head. This adjective may be accompanied by modifiers, determiners, and/or qualifiers. Adjective phrases modify nouns. They may be attributive(appearing before the noun) or predicative (appearing after alinking verb), but not all adjectives can be used in both positions. Examples and Observations:

Merdine opened a sweet young coconut. "Humans can be fairly ridiculous animals." (Barbara Kingsolver, Animal, Vegetable, Miracle: A Year of Food Life, 2007) Buddy thinks the shampoo tastes awfully funny. Tony lost his dark brown briefcase.

adverb phrase Definition: A word group with an adverb as its head. This adverb may be accompanied by modifiers or qualifiers. An adverb phrase can modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb, and it can appear in a number of different positions in a sentence. Examples and Observations:

The Cheshire Cat vanished quite slowly, beginning with the end of its tail.

The players responded surprisingly well to all the pressures of the playoffs. The best way to preserve the flavor and texture of fresh vegetables is to cook them as quickly as possible. As quickly as possible we cleaned the fish and placed them in coolers. The air was warm, stirred only occasionally by a breeze. Only occasionally is there a rumble in the sky or a hint of rain.


The subject is the part of a sentence or clause that commonly indicates (a) what it is about, or (b) who or what performs the action. Examples and Observations:

Hurricanes Katrina and Rita devastated the lives of many people who lived in the Gulf Coast region. "A life of leisure and a life of laziness are two things. There will be sleeping enough in the grave." (Benjamin Franklin) Gus and Merdine drive a 1979 AMC Pacer. Bacon and eggs are a classic combo--one of our favorite meals. Bacon and eggs is a popular breakfast meal in many countries. Neither the director nor her assistant has replied to our invitation.

Predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence or clause, modifying the subject and including the verb, objects, or phrases governed by the verb. Examples and Observations:

"The subject of the sentence, as its name suggests, is generally what the sentence is about--its topic. The predicate is what is said about the subject. The two parts can be thought of as the topic and the comment." (Martha Kolln and Robert Funk, Understanding English Grammar, 5th ed., 1998) ""We rob banks." (Warren Beatty as Clyde Barrow in Bonnie and Clyde, 1967) "Great minds discuss ideas; average minds discuss events; small minds discuss people. (Eleanor Roosevelt) ""If you build it, he will come."

Dependent and Independent Clauses

Dependent Clauses is a group of words that has both a subject and a verb but (unlike an independent clause) cannot stand alone as a sentence. Examples and Observations:

"A dependent clause (also called a subordinate clause) is a clause that cannot stand alone, because something about it implies that there is more to come. On its own, a dependent clause is left hanging, its meaning incomplete. It must be combined with an independent clause in order to form a complete sentence. "One type of dependent clause is essentially an independent clause with a subordinating word tacked on. Specifically, it opens with a conjunction that indicates a dependent relationship with information elsewhere in the sentence."

"Be kind, for everyone you meet is fighting a hard battle."

A group of words made up of a subject and a predicate. An independent clause (unlike a dependent clause) can stand alone as a sentence. Examples and Observations:

A clause is a group of words that [contains] a subject and a verb. There are two major types:independent clauses and dependent clauses. An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence, beginning with a capital letter and ending with terminal punctuation such as a period. A dependent clause cannot stand alone as a sentence; instead it must be attached to an independent clause." "When liberty is taken away by force, it can be restored by force. When it is relinquished voluntarily by default, it can never be recovered." "The average man does not want to be free. He simply wants to be safe.

Kinds of Sentences Declarative - A declarative sentence makes a statement. A declarative sentence ends with a period. Example: The house will be built on a hill.

Interrogative - An interrogative sentence asks a question. An interrogative sentence ends with a question mark. Example: How did you find the card? Exclamatory - An exclamatory sentence shows strong feeling. An exclamatory sentence ends with an exclamation mark. Example: The monster is attacking! Imperative - An imperative sentence gives a command. Example: Cheryl, try the other door. Sometimes the subject of an imperative sentence (you) is understood. Example: Look in the closet. (You, look in the closet.)
SIMPLE SENTENCE A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought. In the following simple sentences, subjects are in yellow, and verbs are in green.

A. Some students like to study in the mornings. B. Juan and Arturo play football every afternoon. C. Alicia goes to the library and studies every day. COMPOUND SENTENCE A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (Helpful hint: The first letter of each of the coordinators spellsFANBOYS.) Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma. In the following compound sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and the coordinators and the commas that precede them are in red.

A. I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English. B. Alejandro played football, so Maria went shopping. C. Alejandro played football, for Maria went shopping.