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ATM NETWORKS

Concepts and Protocols

Sumit Kasera
Senior Technical Leader Flextronics Software Systems Guragon, India

Me Graw Hill
New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto

Contents

Preface Acknowledgements Abbreviations

vii xi xxiii

PARTI
BacKground and Introduction
Drivers of the Communication World
1.1 Introduction 5 1.2 Technological Drivers 5 1.3 Market Drivers 11 Conclusion 16 Review Questions 17 Further Reading 17 CHMPIEI 2 i

Transfer Modes
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Introduction 18 Circuit Switching 19 Routing 20 Virtual Circuit Switching 22 Comparison of Transfer Modes 24 Conclusion 26 Review Questions 26 Further Reading 27

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Contents
xiv

Overview of ATM
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 Introduction 28 Motivation for ATM 28 Definition of ATM 31 Genesis of ATM 33 Precursor Technologies 35 Basic Principles of ATM 40 ATM Protocol Reference Model 47 Core Aspects of ATM 51 ATM Network Architecture and Interfaces Interworking with ATM 56 Applications of ATM Networks 57 B-ISDNandATM 58 ATM Standardization 62 ATM Market Study 63 Conclusion 64 Review Questions 65 Further Reading 65

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ATM Protocol Reference Model


ATM Physical Layer
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 Introduction 69 Transmission Convergence (TC) Sub-layer 69 Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) Sub-layer 74 Physical Layer Standards for ATM 74 DS1 ATM Physical Layer Interface 76 , DS3 ATM Physical Layer Interface 77 El ATM Physical Layer Interface 80 E3 ATM Physical Layer Interface 81 Fractional Tl/El ATM Physical Layer Interface 82 SONET/SDH-based ATM Physical Layer Interface 82 Universal Test and Operations PHY Interface for ATM (UTOPIA) 88 Conclusion 90 Review Questions 90 Further Reading 91

Contents i fxv

ATM Layer
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Introduction 92 ATM Cell Header Structure at UNI 92 ATM Cell Header Structure at NNI 97 ATM Layer Functions 98 Conclusion 100 Review Questions 100 Further Reading 101

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ATM Adaptation Layer


6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Introduction 102 Service Classes and ATM Adaptation Layer 102 ATM Adaptation Layer 1 (AAL1) 105 ATM Adaptation Layer 2 (AAL2) 112 ATM Adaptation Layer 3/4 (AAL3/4) 118 ATM Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL5) 123 Conclusion 125 Review Questions 126 Further Reading 126

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PABT8
Core Concepts of ATM
IHMPTEI 1

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ATM Traffic and Service Parameterization


7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 Introduction 131 ATM Traffic Parameters 131 ATM Service Parameters 135 Factors Affecting QoS Parameters 136 ATM Service Categories 139 QoS and QoS Classes 142 Conclusion 142 Review Questions 142 Further Reading 143

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Contents
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ATM Traffic Management


8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 Introduction 144 ATM Traffic Contract Management 145 ATM Traffic Shaping 152 ATM Traffic Policing: Usage Parameter Control 152 ATM Priority Control 157 ATM Flow Control 158 ATM Congestion Control 162 Dynamics of TCP Traffic Over the ATM Networks 167 Conclusion 168 Review Questions 168 Further Reading 169

ATM Switching
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 Introduction 170 Components of a Typical Switch 172 Performance Measures in Switch Design 173 Switching Issues 174 Switching Architectures 184 Shared-Memory Architecture 184 Shared-Medium Architecture 186 Space-Division Architecture 187 Switching in ATM 192 ATM User Plane Functions 196 ATM Control Plane Functions 198 ATM Management Plane Functions 198 Case Study of ATM Switching Architectures 198 Prelude Switch 199 Packetized Automated Routing Integrated System (PARIS) Switch 201 9.16 Knockout Switch 202 9.17 Starlite Switch 207 9.18 Moonshine Switch 209 Conclusion 210 Review Questions 211 Further Reading 211 *

Contents

ATM Addressing
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Introduction 212 ATM End System Address (AESA) Format 212 ATM Group Address 214 Acquiring ATM Address 216 ATM Name System (ANS) 216 Conclusion 217 Review Questions 217 Further Reading 217

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ATM Signalling
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 Introduction 218 ATM Signalling Protocol Stack 220 Signalling ATM Adaptation Layer (SAAL) 220 UNI Signalling 223 ATM Point-to-Point Signalling 225 ATM Point-to-Multipoint Signalling 241 Conclusion 247 Review Questions 247 Further Reading 248

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ATM Routing
12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 12.10 Introduction 249 Interim Inter-switch Protocol (IISP) 252 PNNI Protocol 253 PNNI Routing Hierarchy 253 PNNI Topology Information 260 Routing Information Flows and Route Computation 262 PNNI State Machines 264 ' Summarization and Aggregation 269 Path Selection and Connection Admission Control 273 PNNI Signalling Protocol 274 Conclusion 279 Review Questions 279 f Further Reading 279 '

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Contents

xvm AAL2 Signalling


13.1 Introduction 280 13.2 Relation between ATM Signalling and AAL2 Signalling 281 13.3 AAL2 Signalling Features 282 13.4 AAL2 Signalling Architecture 283 13.5 AAL2 Signalling Functions 285 13.6 AAL2 Signalling Messages 285 13.7 AAL2 Signalling versus ATM Signalling 286 13.8 Issues and Challenges in AAL2 Signalling 290 Conclusion 290 Review Questions 291 Further Reading 291

ATM Network Management


14.1 Introduction 292 14.2 Standardization of ATM Network Management Procedures 294 14.3 ATM Network Management Reference Model 295 14.4 Operations and Maintenance (OAM) Procedures 296 14.5 Integrated Layer Management Interface (ILMI) 304 14.6 AToMMIB 310 Conclusion 311 Review Questions 311 Further Reading 312

ATM Security
15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 Introduction 313 Security Objectives for ATM Networks 313 Security Requirements for ATM Networks 316 ATM Security Model 316 User Plane Security 318 Control Plane Security 319 Conclusion 320 Review Questions 320 '' Further Reading 320

Contents

Interworking with ATM


ATM Network Interfaces and Architecture
16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 Introduction 323 ATM Inter-Network Interface (AINI) 325 B-ISDN Inter-Carrier Interface (B-ICI) 325 Data Exchange Interface (DXI) 329 Frame-based UNI (FUNI) 334 Frame-based ATM over SONET/SDH Transport (FAST) 337 Frame-based ATM Transport over Ethernet (FATE) 339 Conclusion 343 Review Questions 343 Further Reading 344

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ATM in LAN
17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 17.8 Introduction 345 Traditional LAN Technologies 345 ATM in LAN 347 LAN Emulation (LANE) 348 Issues and Requirements for LAN Emulation 349 LANE Components 355 LANE Connections 359 LANE Operations 361 Conclusion 364 Review Questions 364 Further Reading 365

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IP Over ATM
18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 Introduction 366 Classical IP over ATM 367 Logical IP Sub-network (LIS) 368 Address Resolution in Classical IP Environment 368 Multi-Protocol Encapsulation over AAL5 370^ Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) Size 373

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Contents 18.7 18.8 18.9 18.10 18.11 Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP) 373 Multi-Protocol Over ATM (MPOA) 378 MPOA Components 379 MPOA Connections 380 Establishing Shortcut Connection and Forwarding Data Packets 382 Conclusion 383 Review Questions 383 Further Reading 383

Application of ATM Network


ATM and MPLS Networks
19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 Introduction 389 Overview of Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) 389 ATM and MPLS 393 MPLS for IP Over ATM 393 ATM-MPLS Network Interworking 395 Conclusion 399 Review Questions 400 Further Reading 400

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Voice Over ATM


20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 20.8 Introduction 401 Technical Challenges 402 Carrying Voice over ATM 403 VTOA Standards 404 , Circuit Emulation Service (CES) 405 Dynamic Bandwidth Circuit Emulation Services (DBCES) 406 ATM Trunking Using AAL1 for Narrowband Services 408 ATM Trunking Using AAL2 for Narrowband Services 409 Conclusion 411 Review Questions 411 it Further Reading 411

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ATM and DSL Networks


21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 Introduction 412 Overview of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) 412 ATM and DSL 415 Voice over DSL (VoDSL) 418 Conclusion 420 Review Questions 421 Further Reading 421

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ATM and 3G Networks


22.1 Introduction 422 22.2 Overview of Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) 422 22.3 UTRANandATM 423 Conclusion 430 Review Questions 430 Further Reading 430

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Glossary References Index

431 449 459