. 0.

1

THE PLAN OF THE BOO,!

detail in the follo\'1ing Thn plan of tbis his·hory appears in preliminary remarks may T ble of contents: but a few general and 0: useful to tne intending reader" Th<} fil<st section after the Tabl~ of GQnte~ts is a gene~:l introduction, a sJ.;.et.ch of' the whol: hJ.story of Hut _6, from t ' en of the Head of the Rut) P~fl. Ml.~nel'-Barry. ThlS ~ccotJnt ;houl r:ertainly be read before the rest of t?e boolC:LS tackle~. d as it gives a delightfully viifi~ bird's-eye v::ew of Hut 6 ~ :Lts life. It is t.rue that it contaJ.l1B some te~hIUcal te~ "vtl1ch may uzzle a reader who comes to the History mth no preV'lou~ knowledge the subject, but the general lines of the,a ~ory are cl.ea r , and any obsc:ul'e details are best left. to be cla::-J.f:ted by .~ second reading when the reader has delved further 1nto the h:Lstory.

;f

After this introduction the history proper begins. Most of the main aivisions or "Books" Gorreapond to the chief functional divisions of Hut 6 aM irideed are such as are alrttost inevitable . in any oTyptographic organisation. Traffic must be intercepted, then identified, then registered, then broken and then decoded; eaoh Of these operations VlaS perfol'Jlled by a separate se~tion of Hut 6 and to eaob a sepa~ate Book is devoted. The order given above (whi.ch is the normal chronological order) has been followed except-that for obvious reaSOl'l.s brealcing the traffic - the end of the whole process - has been placed f'irsto It now remains to discu,_qs the arrangement of thewQ:rk within the v"al'ious Baoks ~ Book 1t cm::eorOGRAPHY, deals >ri th the actu.al breaking of key3 and with the work of the cryptographic sections - i.ee Watch R~sear~h and }~achine ~oom. The treatment throu.ghout is primarily histor1cal; arter an 1ntroductory description of the machine five chapters follow on the main cryptographic periods of the war. T~en two shorter chapters deal with the closely related subjects Q,I. BombsControl and the Historyof' bhe Mar;:hine Room: and finally we have a 1~ chapter on the History of Special Groups of Keys and a short f~nal one of General Comments on Cipher seourityo

of th e processes inV'olTeclmical details and .full descriptions ah tb .. . v~ ave no een in.<:lerted in this history - these will be ~~\IDd J.n.th\separa~elY published IlRistol'Y of R/Breaking Part II" ere(we).re t ir ee ma~n reasons fox taking this courae, .~ 1 Evan as matters stand the Book 011Cr t " largest division of this wO!l:'k ;_'.a if f ogzaphy loS the been added the Book would h v' . hdU ~c m._al detal.ls had length. . a e reaor e too dJ.sproportiona te a

11; h~

0

rt

(2) It Was believed that th . . clarity of exposition if the teo~~~a~o~~ ~~~on~iderable gain to cryptography were firmly separated and d :t~t or~cal_ approaches works. To d eaL with them in the sam b k ea , vnth an separate confusing changes of st dnod e 00 would have meant that f:requently. an pOl.nt would have occurred rather

to

(3) Technically th ibl respects to those" ~f' e pro ems of Hut 6 were similar in ~ has been done) inH:tj:in/~e~~O~S~~l~ to bring this o~ Hut 8 could ·clearly find no la ~ 16 07Y but the problems p ce n.n the h1.8tOry of Hut 6
The result of th • crypt~graph 'in" e eourae tak~n is that the treatment Possible (with a~~:wpresent.work:L6 as little technical asaf history is, in shor"- eX~~~~l.onsf to be later mentioned).. Thi '" WXJ. lien or the la:yman who should consult a
Q

de a t v for further , 1 the Technical H~3 r" the other hand, the profe5~l.Ona ~6d hit. cur:!.Osl. y., on... t t read the Technical HJ.story aro U"'~ 11 prer er 0

c:

t

i1s on any point for

that

has
.(.>

typtographer roa'Y t work c, and cons u1 t "he presen f~rst, h' torica! background. out the l.S

w:

later.

the purpose

ot

""lling ri, .

to are Chapters 1 O and e excepti~~ previously referre of technical detail and Th . certain amount f -101 'These do contal.D at' con a).ns the "nQ~oidable minimum a 0 t which ..... in fact Chapter 1...). taken direct from the TechIUcal infaTffiation abol~ the maC~l.ne,t~Sthe early history of Hut 6 with History. G~apterf1~!c~q~e~re SO closely bound up as to make which quest~ons 'd tion that is later enforced. impossible the r'l,gl. separa
u
• 0

a

~y

-

?

~rhe on1y othe;commen

t worth lllaking an Book 1 is that the '. f the eneral cryptographiO

constal!'tly. increasl.r:!dc~;~~~ ~~~easing g length of the historica.l situat~on l.Tshref~eCge as indeed crowded for the Fifth Act. w chapters. e sa, ok 2 INTERCEPTION,is muoh simpler in s.tr':1ctur~., The Bo . .' 1 . d will be dealt with in other hl.stones and we more technica sa e . th H t 6 point have only striven to deal 'With the matter from eu . of view. After a general introduction and a chapter on.Statl.OIl8 and c-oJmll.unicationa" there follows a chapter on the routJ.ne~ and history of the Control Room, the Hut. 6 section concerned WJ..th interception. Tl'..is central chapter loS followed by ~ shorter one on the ra.ther special subject of ()v~rseas Interc~p,!,).on, ~ f'effI General Commentsand a brief Appendu on Hut. 6 Lia.l.son WJ. th W.OoY.G. For statistics of' sets the read'er J.S referred ~o the Statistical Appendix at the end of the Whole work. It ~11 be notieed that this Book i3 arranged by subject, and.not~ ~ the first instance, chronologically. Book 3, TRAFFIC IDENTIFIC'..ATION, is apart from Book 1, the longest. Its special peculiarity is that it deals almost wholly nth the period from Noveniber 194.3 onwards when Traffic Identification first became a problem and T.I.S~ Was set up. Again the Book is arzanged primarily by subject after a general introduction. The principle has been to resc:dbe in the first instance the normal routine of Iriitia.l Sorting and the work of the Duddezy; then to discuss the mote sp'ecialised work of' Sec1;o~ Investigation, first . on the Air and then on the Army, 'With illustrations from specific sectors, and then to deal with the two great Traf'fic Identi.f'icatian crises in some detail. There is thIS a steady progression from the silnple to the oomplex. The final chapter 3-9 is in the nature of an APpendix conta.ining a number of papers Gn special points some of which are mainly intended for purposes of ref'erence. ' The remaining Books are very much shorter and, for that reas~ a'Lone, have a clearer outline. In Registration and De~od~ngan attempt has been made to keep the basic routine qUl.te separate, from the refinements introduced to meet SPecial problems and Clrcumstances. The Statistical APPEmdixand Gl are natUrally mainly designed for ref'exence , OBsary It ahoufd perhaps be emphasised gl'eat extent independent and though :tt~ ~es~ there is no very cogent . c a. choose among the Books Chertalnly advisable to read through c OSel1o that the Books t the order adopte:r:ee:e~ to reason why the reader shOUld to suit his taste Bt . in order which-rex- 'BoUk 18 ... ,., o:us

7t

0-0 0'1

J<IDlTOllSFR~~'.:cCl'~ ELAN OF T.i:£': BOOIt TJ·.PL.I..; OF CCNTF.HTS

I

In v
1
2 }

0.2 0.3

HUT 6:

.. .~illV;;:l'lTUP.E m

0'30 General Retrospect 0'}1 1 9 4- 0

0·32 '1 9 4- 1 0"J3 1 9 "+ 2

'1
lJt. 20 22

6

0.34 1 94.:5 0·35 1 9 4 4. • o- 36 1 94 5: F:i..D81e 0"37 postscript 0 •.58 P. s. Ki.l.ner= :Barry

9

27

DOOr. C~~yr:TreruPlfi' 1

29 30 30
30

rOI preface. 1902 Description
1- 03

J.{etbod of Use

31

1°04

FO\lr...wbe,e1 maohine

1"05

.Appendix

32 33

1·10 1 aU

Introductory
Pre~ar:

35
Theory

EarlY

35
"

l·m~F~rlC~

r-an
1·U2

The Inaioating System and Its Vulner8'DUi ty loU' Depth and Turnover 1 "l..l4 Jiew Wheels and Indicatin& System:
The Goal-hl.I.rlt 1"115 News frQJL. Foland. 1·116 Foliah ldethods of Key-breakiDg The First Successes

Rods and '.'theel-breaking

36 39
42 4.3

4It.
4-5 47

1"12 War:
1°120

The Outbreak of Vlar 1-121 'Tbe BanDe and the Netz

1"123 ;tethod of Using the Uetz

1"122 The Jeffreys

4-7 48

Sheets

52

1°124Earl1' Failures 1·125 eUlus and .Jlttecpts at Depthreading
1·126 The First

53 53

Breaks of War-tilDe Keys

53
55

1" 20 Fl.'omJanUBlY to March 1.201 Red, Blue and G-reen . . 1 ~202 Success andfu';.rly OrganJ.sat].on

57 57 57
58

1 21 operational Breaking
0

Rise of l:ellow 'rhe NeTl Indicating System: First Great Crisis o£ H,ut 6 '1g Of Red 1'·212 overwhelnd ... Importance

58 59 60
60

1'213
1.22

Hana Bree.ks

Th<' ~ules of Xeye r220

63

1.221

,
1" 23 1.2!p

1. 222 Results of the Discoveries 1..223 Rules of Other Keys 1 ~22Le.;,:{ed Keys, June 1940 Daily Liaison Frocedure

General Considerations The Rules of Red

63

64 64 65 65 68
69
70

m

l;jaehine Room

'l'lit11 France

1"3

PERIOD III: l,'UG1JST940 - 1£J.Y1'41: BHITAI:f 1 :LOIlE: :qIS;;: CF ro.:E!';S iJ;D Tt!!<1 CRIB Roo.'i l',}O 1.31 1·32 I" 33 1·34 General Historical SUJ:IIllU'Y

71 it Did
72

ArTival of the Eomba: ':Ibat The Establishment
New Discoveries

of the Crib Room in Rules of Keys; Brown

74 75

The: Origins

of Research and Methods

n
77
17

1°}40 The Function of Researoh
1,,341 Early Orga;p.isation 1'342 ,Earlyll'riUt'lphs 1· 343 Sumnar:y

77 79

1"4 _P81lICD
W~.R:

Cr"!';SCLIDJTP'lr

~r': CR;?'.;~T l'ERIOD

IV:

J'JI-rn 1941 - DF"cEl,rnEn 1943: Wc:u,n Gr' EXT'ANSIOn .:'.!ID

80

1·40

General Historical 1°400 1·401 1~402 1·403
1·4~

SlJDIIl\IU"Y

81 81 81
82

Peatures of the Feriod Increase of Keys

Increase of Personnel
Increase of l~achines

Crcming CQUplnity of Organisation 1·40" m hn1081 Develo,::ments ~ rae 1-'Of.06 General Course of Brealcing 1·4fT/ Liaison with Sixta 1·4,08 Lhison With Hut 3

,8, 83

82 82

sr..
85

1·409

Conclusion

az..


1'41
Detniled

Theorv of :Rules of Keys

87 87 87 87

1"410

l'4ll

1·412 1·413

1'414

of Information Air andAnny Divisions of the Subjeot . ~.' Whee10rdar Rules: ,"-'t1Tt!f and .:"~:tr '3etting up of Committee IOn ~l.ules
SOLU'ces

87 91 92
9lr

1°416 1°411
1°42

1'415

of Keys d .' Ring.stellung Rules: lJ:mY. an "iT Stecker R.ul.es: Air and llnrr:l BroWn R.ules

96
99

GoA.F. Key Repeats Institution of Key Reeords 1·421 Limitation of the Subjeot 1'422 Loea]. Keys 1'423 Keys Constructed by the Cipher Offioe; Repeats in 1941 1"424- 1942: QUndrilateral Repeats 1·425 Effc·ets on Our :Breaking Policy Policy 1·426 Effects on Our Intercept 1Q427 Repeats in 1943 and l~ 1,,428 stecker/D Repeats in 1945 1-429 Conclusion

1·420

99

99

99
100
101 101

99

102

loz,.
lOS

102

1°43 Generll.l Organis~t.iorl
Crib 1 "430 Rooms later The Fourfold

of Machine and Watch and Research Division

1·431 Location of Room.e 1~432 Suoo.rdination of Sub-secti0llS 1 433 The Differentiation of Function
0

lOS

105 106

10.5
106
108 llO

1&434 1·435

Dissati.si'action

in the

1'iachille

·Room

1~437

1·436
1 438
0

r439

The Problem Solved The FOl'lllationof Research The Farentage Sy-stem Sma Special Points Sur.unary Schemes in Hut

107

107

110

1"~

Training 1 ·440 1·44l 1~442 1·443 1 4440

6

U2

Early Training The Beginnings of the Schools The R.lt. School Syllabus "'atch and Research Training The Outline Course and Special.

112

ll.2

113

m
115
116

1·445 Other Educational. Systems
1·5 PSIUODV: J)Jnf:ny 1944 - Nb.Y 194.5: 'rH3 ~zn.·~·i'l'ICE (1i 'W:-{OFft:: R0T 6 FIGHTS D..l.CK ,:,C.i'_I!:'lT N,~!.1 G:~·_ilT S~"JC1JRIT! D"''''ICES
1

Talks

118 U9 U9 U9

1'50 General Historical

SIlbIDI8.ry

1~500 The Determining Factors 1·501 The Technique of Crn»togra"Pl\Y
1'502 lQ503 The Organisation of Cryptogra-phy Importa:noe of Other Sections to ~ryptograpby Contribution of Hut 6 to

ll9
U9 120

1aSQ4.

InteUigence

1.,1

1;easureSi: Refleotor D

-. ..r . evJ.o. "nd Our GeI'll!lln Seou!'i ~. D· . as .... .

counter-

..

121

1·;10 General Introduotion 1"SU Reflector D in General 1"512 Janua.ry to July 1944The first Menace Illusory Triumph
The no I:.l'stery Tile DSubetitutiGl1

121
121

122 122 124123

123

creensbank and D

125
127

1"513

Red D's: January to .ruly The Overha aging Slennce PreparQtions 'for .J_ua~t 1 Aqgtlst 1944 .. ];'lay 194." Extension of D
~;:rfect·s on Breaking

126 126 127
127

129

J)..oBreaks

1 "~)14 SUIBIlUlryof the German Usa ai' D 1,,515 Appe,ndices D.Statistics, Key by Key Chronological List of D's broken -

D-Qn.ptures D Rules

_

1,1 131
133

130
1,32

133

without a Prior Break on ~ef1ector B
G.raph of Progress

in Reoovering D's 13.5 . Enigma Uhr

134
136

1· 52

German

Seeun ty Devices:.

1"'520 The Problem 1<1521 Routine Ad.opted 1"522 lhteneion of Eniana Uhr 1"523 Effect on Breaking 1"524 Uhr I~otation 1".5 25 SI.llnDlI.I.!'y 1<>526 .. ppendi1:: Uhr Statistics 4

136
136

136

137
139

1J7
138

1,8

1"53 Gexmnn Secu.ri~ Devices:
1 .. 31 5

Zusatz Stecker

1"530 The May Sca:re

1 ".532

1"533

A n-amp Squib Extent of Obange

139
139

Tbe German Iaea

:u..o
]..4.0

1"'54 Geman Security Devices:

RotscbliJaael

141

1'"5U
0

l·~

Introduction

1 54,2 First

First System

1"543 The Saaa of Guernsey or the
Qi1atc;h and the Forty IlO'l'S

Appearance

or

the

luna

1-544 The Plague of ~ra.rs 1"545 NO'l'-keys ~ Hew Style 1"546 Oonclusions

.

1'55 other Garman Seourity
1-5,0

Devices

152 152
la:;~

1"551 1~552 1.553 1",5l+

CY

Random Indicators Y.'ahlworts The Masse Code
Double Encoding to

156

160 161

. 1 56
0

The Change from 'I7atch/Researoh llir/}ntY

16'
1.6;

14560 Introductory 1- 561 stages oftbe
1"562 Reasons for 'l'imingof
Unity of

1'56, Results of the Change
1" 564

the Change

Change

1.565

control

the Change

1~3 163 164165 166 167
167 167
167 168

1"57 The Organ~sation of the Watch 1°570 Intl'09uctiOn 1.571 The Fw:I¢tion of the Watch 1.573 Division of Keys between ',~Iatones 1"574 tlatah J~ (three shifts) 1 ~575 Watcb Q 1. 576 Wa.:teh}& (three shll'ta)flnd Watch R (one shift) loS"n BOVO(two shifts) 1"578 Administration 1~579 AppendU: Deta.Ued Distribution of M.em:bers 1·58 Filial Developmentsof, the Rules of Keys 1 580 Introduction 1•581 The Regular ~'\ir Keys 1 582 lkmm,. Yak and Llama
0
0

1.572

Basic Organisation

168 169
170
170

J.71 172

173

1'583
0

1·584. Rules of 1 565 Sll1IIDB.ry
1.6 BCbl.'BE CCH'l'RCL

Atmy Keys
DRs

173 173 174
175

176

In

17e
179

1·60 Introduction

1~61 The Problem
1.62 lIIntelligence Value"'

179
179 180 181 181
181

1~63 Hut 6 - Hut 8

1·64 Hut 6 Keys
. 1'64l Responsibility 1'642 Daily Keeting

1°643 Priority List

181
182
,182

1'65 Current bibs Control
1 651 1·652
6

1°653 Washington (Arlington)

El'lgland Washington (0p-20-G)

183

lBl. -

1·66 ConclUSion

l&..
,

1..70 Historical Outline 1 71
0

186
166 187

1'!xpnnsion of the Roan The Breaking of Duds

1'72

1"73 Final Set«up for Bombe control 1"7}0 1 °731 10732" l0733 oommunications Rou.tine Qrganis<ltional .Jobs Normal Testing of stops Speoial.Problems

168 188
188

190 190

192
1·800 1~801 General Introduction Red 108010 Red: f.. Major Gennan Blunder 1·8011 Ere~~, 1940 - 1945 1 8012 Supreme Il!lJlOrtanee of' Red 1°8013 Blue and Pink
4

195 194
194194

195
1%

1·80.2 Brown 1·8020
1·£<021

198
IntrodUGtion . "Ta.rget for Tonightll Phase I: September 1940 - May 1941 Fb~se II: Deoember 1941 - June 194J,: Brown II . The Lull: Brown I

199
201 201
204

198

1-8Q22 1 Bm~3 Attaok and Defence .. Brown IV Brown III 1·8024- Conclusion 1<>8025 <\ppendi.%: I~anmle of Depth on Brown I. 1·803 The r.:editcrranean 1· 8030 1 08031 1·8032 1"'8033 1 8034 1·8035
0

204206 208 209 209 210
210 204

_!\ir Keys

Genera1
The Triangle

The!Lf'rican Campaign The. Italian Cat;,:paign
The:salkans

The Last UOnths

213
215

212

1·804. The lI.triean .6Jmy Keys 1· 8040

217
217 217 218

i:~
~

C-enera1 The First

1·8OIt3

Ap~il 1942

The Re-entry

Breaks: 1941 - 2 into ChRff'itaeh

~

April - October: IDlPl'OVement n i Technique and I " 1.BClI,.4 Phoenix . IlCreasiDg 8000888 : too Difficulties of 1-aor..s Overseas Interception _The ~"'iablwort :!!!ra: The PhoenixFinch Canplex·

~19
220

.aprU 1943

D

ec

embe

r 1942 -

221 "

1.8046
10804.7 1"805

Thrush (SondeI' and other Keys

113 Rom- 14nl@li'l\"

Appendix ,\rmy Keys
J

223 225 226 226

The ltalbn

1·8050 Genenl
1,,8051

L\ay .. September

1·8052
1"8053
1,,8055
14806

Defore the surrender of' Italy 1943 . Surrend,er of' ItaJ..y Rnd Rise ,of Shrike and :aulfinoh: September August 194-4 Hevival of 1l.lbDtroSS: October 1944 - :May 1945
N"a..V -

1943 - Februa.ry 1944Kingfisher:

227

228
228

1~8054
1..056 8

The puffins

229
231

Sparrow

229

Tbe Balkan M.11W Keys

1" 8060 General 1'"8061 :Before the Italinn SUI'render: ~'ebl'uary 1942 .. septembel' 19~3 1 D8062 suZ'render of ItalYl Appearnnce of' Wryneck~ ~ptember 1943 Rovernber 19441.8063 ,Arrival of Russians and Nc=w Balkan $et-up, lfovember 191+-4

2.31 2.31 233 235 236

1·8070 General l-a071 The Breaking or Snowdrop
1"8072 l 8074
Q

236

1·8073- The FUl~herGrQ\vth of the Re-.
D Day

The Pivotal anocdemcnt
,

Im-portanoe of Hed

236 237
2.37 238
238

Oompletr.

1·8075

1-8076 Chanses in i1:llrpMSis 1~8077 ~he Decline of the west
1· 80B The',"iestern 108081
~\l'lI\Y Keys

The Perioc

of Regular Breaking

240 243 243

240

1·8060 General 1"8082 1.8083 1-8085
1"8086
1'"809

Before D Day
D Day and the :Firat

1'"8081.,.

The Firut

TbeBreakthrougb
Tho Second Ll.lll: Ootober The Filla1 Battlos: Heavy Trai"f'io Onoe Again

Lull

Breaks

243

246

245

245

246 251 251
2.51

249

The German Air , KGys

1·0090

1·8091

General
Research

1·8092 Tho '-!atoh

1- 8094- The Second Phase

1-8093 The Pirst Phase
~e

1·8095

Third Phase

25'
2S4.

252 253

1"810

The Eastern 1 8101 I" 8102
ft

_'dr Keys

256
256 258
258

1~8100 General 1"0103
1" 8104

The German Advance Key Repea.ts .

Hedgehog

259

1 e 8105 The problem of the Luftflotten 1,,8106 The Enil
1" 811 The .?}astern
ll.rtJq

The Heyday of Researoh

259

261
262

Keys

264
264

108110 1 ..8111

General In! tial

1 "8112quiesoenoe, 1942 3 1"8113 Spread of Use of Loca.l Keys,
CO>

1~

Advances, Ju;ne - December

2~

264-

1" 8114

July 1943~ December 1944
The Final spurt Keys

265 266

1,,812 Greenshank ana Allied

267
268
270

1... 120 8

Insi.de Information 1"8124 The Mystery Solved ~l~812.5 TheLast Phase: Statistios and Sum~ry 1,,8126 The ;\ssociuted Keys: Falcon, '}annet II, l£allard 1,,8127 The Breaking of Nutb.-"ttch 1 812.8 Grouse and the ~,'lehrkrei8 Ctt Key 1"8129 The nZile of W.O.Y.G.
0

1 ..8].21 1.,8122 1,,8123

Breaks, 19.39 A Blank Wall

The Kain Featu+Cl's of Gree.nshank
-=

1942

267

269 269
271

~7q.

273 274

272

TA.:aLE OF CQNT'EtlTS TABill OF CONTENTS 1'8 HISTOPJES OF SPECIALG?OUPS
1 ·813 S .s ,

VOrm,'lE II I

0Jr KElS (continUed)

1
1

ana. Police
1942: The

Keys

1.81.31 History to the End of 1941 1-8133

1-8130 1.8132 1·8134

General Characteristics
orange Age

1 1 2 12

Sl.lllllllary

1943-5: The Quince Age

5

1-814

1fustard.
'1 - 8140

n
13 15
16

Int.rodllction , 1 -8141 Russian Mustard: MUstard I, IY 1.8142 Mediterranean Mustard: Mustard II, III 1.8143 Western 1fustard and Cress 1 '8"144 The End of the sto:ry

1416

1'815 The V-Keys 1·815°
1 ·8152

17 17 17
19

1 ·8151

1·8153

General Introduction Corncrake Ibis Jerboa

23
23

1'8154

Importance of the V-Keys

1 '816 First Breaks of Keys
1'9 SUlvTIWtYAND CONCUTSIQ:iS

26 32
33 33
343.4-

1 '90

General

1 .91 How Breaks are Secured
1 . 92 HowBreaks 1-920
1 ·921
I;l8.Il.

be Prevented

The Three Desiderata
The TWo Roads

1 ,922

The Principle Enigma

or

Over-protection

3.435
35

1 -93

The ~rmm

1 -930 Theoretical 1 ·931 The Failure

1,932

1 ·933

Air

The S:pecial Case of Greenshnnk

and·Armw

and PracticaJ. Security of Gerl"..a.n Efforts

Security

35 35

35

36

1'94 How to Achieve Security
1'95 BOOK 2 2·0 The Neoessity of Supervision

36
37

INTI..llRCEPrION

;9
1:.0 4.)

GBNEP.AL INTRODUCTION ::'.00 The l3E'g,inmngs

P1::u1 of' ]'111.8 Book

.

2 .1

nJTERCEPl'
2·10

SlfAXIONS

AlID cam.:lONICATIOHS

Introduction Development ~

2 .11. History of Station 2-110 2.111 2.112 2.113
2 '114

Homestations: Increas·eof Sets Homestations: communica tiona Overseas stations: General Histor;y Overseas Stations I Increase of sets Overseas stations: c()]llIJlUlti_catiollB
of Intercept

h.
4-7 4.9 50 50 50 51
~r

2.12

Description

Stations

2.120
2 '122 2.12}
2.2 2 -121

Bea.umanor apd Bishop'S WaltluuR
Forest Moor The Smaller Stations
Chicksan.da

51

CONTROL (HOME:mfmCEPI'IOH)

52 53
53

2'20
2'21

Introduction
General

Functiol'l and Theory

2 '210 General Outline 2 '211 'fask Allocation and Priorities 2' 212 control as Liaison Agent with the

53 53
54-

Stations

2 ·22

}4e-thods

and Records

55 55
55 55 56

2'220 2.-221
2-222 2·223

Introduction
control

InoOlllil'lg IntorMition

2 -2242'225 2·226 2'23 2'24

Routine Duties' in the Control Room Services Rendered Comnunications
Conclusion

Records

57

58

58
60 60

staff
Historical Account

2,240
2·241

2-242
2'243

The Early Days . 1942: .A Year of Development
German Security Measures

194;: A Year of Specialisation

.

and

60 62
63 64

2-245
2'3

2'244-

1944: .New Callsign Systems and Invas1on'Comm1tments 1945.: Callsign Encoding Retrospect

66
66 67

... ~ ~=
2-3-0
2'31

rn=c;-r:>A~

INTl!!RCEP:rION
lind Peculiar

FuIlction De ~y

Differences

68
68

rlPtiOIl 8lld Role of the Orerseas

70
2'

4-

PARTICULAE COMI,'iENTS 2' 41

71

Initial SiXta

Mis t..'"l.k.es

2.42

Controversy state)Deut of the Case R.eflectiOD stations

72

2.420 2 "421
2 '422

Introduction

72
72 72
73 73 a:t Inter73 73

2 -43

Liaison with Intercept

2'430

The Need for contact 2-431 Resident Liaison Officers cept stations 2'432 Interchange of' Visits 2'433 The Problem Reviewed

74

.2'5 HOT 6 LIAISON AT W.O.Y,G.
2 . 50

75
76 76 76.

Int:roOuctio;n Duties of the Hut 6 Party
K~eping the Cover watehing Direct List

2.51
2*52 2 '53 2 '.54

New Groups Help to Cryptographers

T7 77

2-55
2" 56

Assisting

the C.R.R.

78 78 79
79 78

Long-term Research

2'560
2'561 2-562

2 •563
2 '564

2 ',6.5

Classifie.ation of P.roblems Immediate Developments Problems Requiring Col,lection of Data . Rectu"Til'lg Proh1.ems cryptographic Problems FailU"reS policy

7'3

80

80
80 SO
81

2 '57
2' 58

General Intercept

Conclusion
II;iIllN'rIFICATION

BOOK 3.

TIlAFFlC

:5 '0 GENERAL HISTORICAL REiIEY( 3 '00
:; '01

82
83

Introduction: 1939 - NO'VEImber 1943
The Birth of T.!.S.

848lt.
85

3 '010 3'011 3 •012
:; '02

The Nwember 1943 Crisis The Problem The },feasures Taken

85
88
88 88

191¥!. to the End

3 '020
:;'021
.I

'2;'022

The April 1944- Crisis Changes in Organisation !llitial. Sol'tiDg

3'023 Sector Invest~tion

89
92

Establishment of T.l ,S.1 a:od T.1 ,8.2 " -025 From watdVRasearch to Ai:r/ Arnw 3 '026 The Heyday of T.1.S. 3 -027 T.I .S,2 from D Day . 3 r028 February 194-5: The Crisis 3 ~029 February 194-5: The Aftermath 3 '1 INITIAL SORT]]jG

"024

92 92
93
94 99

96
101 102 102 103 • 105

3 "10 Introduction

3'11 1939 - September 1943 3'12 Sept.ember'1~43 - April 19443'13
April 1944- - February conclusion 1945'

109
110 , Sorting Sys~e~ Januar,y,1944- 110 Sorting by Serial,

Diagrams: Initial
Initial

August,

1944-

111
112 113

3 '2

TEE DUDDERY

3 ·2.0 Introduction.
3·21 Per.sonnel

113

3 "22 Th,e System of Processing'Duds }'23
The Technique of Dedudding

114115 115

:5 • 230 Definition ; '231 Indicator Correcti!>ns 3'232 '1'.0,0. and T.O.I. Corrections ;'233 Wrong Periods 3 '234 Baok Days' Keys 3 '235 S]?ecial Codes and Enigne. Uhr 3"236 Special Information 3'24
D

115 115
115 115

116
116 116

Liaison with T.1.S.1 • ,

3 3 T .1 .S.1 :11 .A .• . SBJTOR AND DISGRJJnNAN1l' F
INVEST!GATI(W 3"30 ;'31

117
118

Introduction ·Th Sectors e
and their Keys

119 122

3 •32

Sources of Info:nna:tion 3 '320 3 "321 General. C~sifications Tra:ffic Source Evidence
Log Evidence

3 •322

123

122

3·323

129

127

3"33 Ai:rDiscrimi.rJ,ant Investigation 3',30 General
3'331 3':;33 3"334
'!'he DevelOpme'llt of the Discrilni.nant Identification

131

131
131 132

3'332

3'335
:; •4 T.1.S.2.AND
:;'40

system ~.[et.hOds Identification of Duties of Discri,minant lrotestigators General Observations on the G-.A.F, Use of Discriminants statistics J!IlJfiY TRAFFIC DI!!lNTIFICATION

133 133 134 135 136 136
136

lntroductien

:;•41 Nov-ember1943 - April 19443 '410 General Fea.tures :; "411 Organisation ·of' the Qu;i.et Room
:;-412 BlistiDg

:; '413

The s:pec.ial 'Case of West~rn Front Army Traf'ftc

of

136
140

l!:m:y

Traffic

140
141 141
.141

:; "42 ~y - oatober 1"944

3'420 Reorganisation of T.r.s. 3 '421 The.An!Ig secto.r P"ur.-stem
:;•43 Noveniber 1944 :- M"a.y 1945
3'1;.30 The Heyday of 2.I.S.2
:; 'l;.}1
. .J •

143 143 143 143 145 147

:; '432. The- Army Nota-l;).on.System . 3"":4.33 . T;b.e B'l:ckwash the February Air of
Crisis .

Tb.eLoss of'Seriali;sin:g Callsigns

:;'50
3 '51

IntI"OdllctioR! Sector Investi:ga.~ion

in

T.1.8.2
The Western Front : D D£l:Y to Autumn 19411-

148
150

:;: .51 ·0 :; •511

3'512 Sorting to Blists :; '513 Tbe Sector rn"stigator a:od RegisThe Sector Investigator and Dec~~~" ,.515 Al1alysia of Discriminants· ~ 3'516 Identif'ication of Broken ~ys ;'517 C~ptured ID:lys and Equi!DD3nt ;·S18 Staff and Organisation G-.H.Q. sector

The .P:robl-em ai'ter D Day The Ge:nnan Radio Network tration

150
150

151
152

)·514

151 153 153

1-53
1_54

3~52 The

155

;~520 Origin

of the Sector 3'521 ·Y'heWiT Problem of the GJi.Q. ;'522 The ~ Used 3 "523 Discrini nant So-rting
:; "521;. Action on Bl.'"e8ks

155
155 156

157
,

157

.3 ·6

THE GREATER GERMANY S:EI!TOR

15 '
16) 16·(1

3 -60 3 '61

Greater Ga:rm"IJ."ly Keys The Wehrkreis system

3 "610
3"61'1 3'613

wiT
Keys

set-up

3"612

:srea.k5

Seotor Investigator'a Duties

"16') 16 16 ~ 16 ~ 16, ' 16 I 16: 16. 16 .
I

3 •62

The Falcons

,'620

3 '621 :; '622 3 -623

3-624.

3 -625 3 '626

The Sort:ing Problem of Falcon wiT set-up The Twofold Invest:i,gation Problem .Analysis of .Broken Traffic: Outs .Analysis of' Broken Tra._f'f'ic: Duds Discr:im;ina~!;i.n,gFalcon

Fa.1con Redivivus

16, •
16·, 16;; 16"'

3- 70
3"71

The Pl.'o'blem

16, ~ 16 )
161 16')

Liaison
3"710

3"711
3'713

,"712

Printing
Sixta

G-eneral Control aM. Interception Direction Finding and. Radio Finger

. 3"714 Air Section
17i

The Function of the General S,taf'f 3 "721 BMd Sorting and Callsign. Conversion :; '722 The Function of the. Giant Foss 3 •723 The Function of I.C.x. 3 ~724 F1metion of the Identifica-liion party 3 '725 The Back-RoomOrganisation

3 '720

17 I

17'J. 17} 1T,_

17:''} 17()

3 '73

Conclusi9"n

171
179

:; •8 FElmUARY1, 1945 :;"80 The General 'Nature of the Crisis )"81 The Crisis in Detail

180
181

3·810 Definition o~ Terms 3"811 The G-.A.F. Discri.mina.nt

3·812 .Help from Intercept Operators "813 Evidence of Iow-gr.-MeCiphers 3'814 The Role of Sixta

Book

181 182

181

182
183

3'82 PreparatiOns for the crisis
:; ·820 Tlle Geman Fe;rewar:ning

183

18,
183

;~821 ~peration of the Plan :;'822 Divisions in the Sorling Process 3'823 The New Air Notation qyatem :;'83
"

184184164-

current R,R. Air sorting
3' 831 3 '832 3"833
3.834 :; '830 The:MeW: R.ecords . The MeM;. SO\.tl"ceof Information 'Personnel The plan in Action :Practical Snags: Duds, Clashes and

184
186
188 187

186

Tries :;'84 Baok-:Roam Sorting

189 189 190 190 190 191 191

3' 84-0 Redistribution
3·841 3'84.2

:;+843 Bleaners
; '8M-

of Staff Unidentifi-ed Traffic A:nalysis Key-break .Analysts Discriminant ADalyaia

3·S5Further

Developments Q·f the Crisis • 'l'RAFFIC, DISCRIMINANTS

:; '9

MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS AND :KEYS

193 194-

3 '90

Tra£.i'ic Characteristics 3' 900 :; '902

3+901 Time ofO~gin
leDgth. Qf'

~I

Air Differences

in General

194
194

:; '903 3 '904 ;'91

Priority Symbols Discr:iJninants Miscellaneous

3'905

lde.ssages

194 195 195
195

Gernan AiX' Force Disor~ts :; • 91 0 Introduation Book

196 196 196

:;"911 The Firat :;'9110 ;'9111 3'9112

:;. 9113 . Second H3ase:
August

Pen'ad of' Validity . For.mat and Contents First Phase~ Deoerriber 1939 to February 1943

196
197

194.3

:March

1943 to

197
200

:; •91Z

The Seconl Book Period of Validity

3'9120
;'9121 3'9122

..

204204-

Fornat and Contents

Cipher Office Procedure

2Cll,.

204 204-

"9123

3'9124

Recording of DiSCriminants Reconstruction

20lr

3 "913 !he' Third Book 3"9130 3'9131
}"9132

205
205

Its IntroductLon Fonnat and contents

3 "9134-

3'9133

3'9135 3"9136

Procedure Recording Recons-cruction . Defects of the Gennan SJIS tem

. of the Cipher Of'fJ.ce of Discriminants

.

205

206

209 209 212
214 214

How it Could have been Done

3 "914 Key Ntmib~rs :3 "915 List of Appendlles
Appendix 1
Appendix 2 AppendiX 3

214 215 216
21B

217

3'916 3'92

Postcript
Dis·cJ..~:iJninants

Ger.n'l1.m Army

220 220 220 220 221 221
~

3"92"0 Gellleral

3°923
11.

3 ~9'22 Book I
3 •924

3 ~'21 The Three Books Book II
Book III
l
d(

,.as

S-..c. i!E."tIRI..A\.!, I (j~

'j

2; rCl'I;""'i~-J. 4-»-9<-

3 093 English Key Names of Air and ..Army Keys 3- • 930 The Early Days . 3 • 93"1 Air Keys ; ·932 AIrrzy-Keys

225

225
225 221

3 •94 General Use
Keys

and Dis tributioll

fJf G.A.F.

229

Appendices Table A: List by German Categories of Table B: Alplwbetic.al List lIDder English Name of' all G:.A~F. Keys Table C: List of C0unty Ke:ys

235
..

G~~.~~

235 237
245

3"95

General Use and Distribution

of A:r.my Keys

247
250

Appel'ldice'S Table A: The Various categories .of German .A:rn!y Keys Operative in March 1945 Table B: List of all German AJ:my Keys . Identified Duxing the War . Table C: Key set-up in .Area of Heeresgru:ppe G (Western Front) in NO'l1eniber1944-'

250

253

1 ,..
T.ABLE OF GOHT'illJ'lTS: VOLillftE

I1I
1
2

Book 4-:
4-0

'l!R.Jl.FFIC REGISTRATION
•• t.

THy.; l;Cm" s::L

F"u"'TIOnS
Ul!\,.I

, C"- ROO[ OF Tli"; RJ':GIS'!'RJ,TI ". ••

4s00
4001

General outline of History Technical Processes
4-.010 4.011

3 3 3 4 5 5
6

G8neral

4'015 Ticking-off 4 016 sorting .. 40017 Operation of the Ha.'1ky~anky
0

4,,012. ]I'ossing 40013 Treatment of Horrera 4.014 Kisl3in.g

:Blisi;ing

;
7 9

6

Diagrams

,8

4,,1

SPOOLltJ. RECISTJ1ATIOU PROBLEM~ 4- 010 western Front 4.l01 40.102 49103 4.. (.14 1 4~l:Q5 4 106
0

Array

Traffic

10 10 10 10 10 U 11

4"100 History sorttngProoedure

4~l07,Disposition of Duds

Broken Keys Special Duties of the w/F Party C.omposite Blisting in Oeneral The W/F Composite Blist The Composite Tiok-off' System

Po

12

4U
0

The Work of R.R. 2 (Later R.R. Army) 4·UO Blistillg Procedure 4--111 Misoellane:OllB Functions
4.°112 The Change· to R.R. A:rmy

12

of R.R. 2

12 1.3 13
15

4"20 The R.R.
a

Libraries

16 16
18

Jt. 21 R.R. St8:f'f and Administration

5"0

liISTORY

lIT:})

ORG},NISATICI'f OP THE DBX::OnIlfG. ROm

19
20

5 OO
G

General HistorieaL summaroy
Basic Organiaation

5°01

21
2l. 21
22-

5-010 Peraonnel a:ad Shiite
So011 Techni,'.Qa1 Du_tiesof' .,the D.R. IIead ,5·012 A..... .:_-' tr . ""~.u..s atl.Ve Dutie's or thO D.R. Bead 5 013 Dutl.eS of Heads of Shifts 5·°14 Training or lJew ~rs
0

22
~

25
:':aintenance 5·11 Care an d -"

25
26

5.12

Routine of Breaks
d120 5. 5·121 5.122 5·123 124 t125 , Setting up the Ii:achines K ening of Recorda . " e ... , f Traffic into D.l" Raute:ng 0 The T:a.ck-off .. d Duds :from D.R. l10uteing of Decodes an. The Tally Sheets

26 26
27 27

27
28
28

5.13

Decodi1'lJ?, Priorities

5.14. The Teehnique of'Decoding

29 29 29

30 30 31 31
33 34
.5' 20 Qe:neral tnt "oduction 5·21 5.22 5·23 Whee10rders R, 5,. T
b' i;!.eesages

31
32

35 35 35

36 36

5·25

Enigma Ubr

37
Snags ,

5°26
5·27

Miscellaneous

38 39
4l.
~ 43

The Last Straw:

Encoded ballsigns

6-00 1941: Institution 6·01. 1942:
6~02 6 03
0

Of'

the Governing

J30d.y.

Regular

Routine of' the ~rn1.ng

Bod1'

43

194.3: 1945:

Rzpansion

ot the GOVern1ng Bod;r at the Governing Body

43
4ft.

Disaoll.ltion CiY HUT 6

6·1

.:ill.:naSTR.;1.TlOO

,.,5
l,.6

6·10 Duties ot the But 6 Office

6.U

The ',lork ·of the DUty offiCer

47 47

6.110 Brief History 6.111 General FunatiODs
60112 Book
Sumrn£l.ry

47

47 48

'.7'

('}1~1um.4L CCLiMENTS ·1""" (",-;:.HUT 6 ·11ID ITS
IV. ~...... ~ •

7.0

TflE EXPN.. 1IE
Tlm FLITJHE

RSLioN;;:l':CE

ro

49 50

7.00 Introduction

7.01
7.1

IRssential

Elements
rA!' HUT

of

the Hut 6 P ro"blem ..

50

Tffii) 1;J'ST.4..1ill:S

6

52 53
53
3

7.10 Introduction

rll
1.12 7.2

Liaison \'1ith Sbta Liaison. with. IIut

54

SOIilE GF.r~W.L FOTIl"TS OF CRYPTCGR.4."'HIC Ch"1GA!ITS.ATIOH

55
.56 56 56 58

1.20 Introduetio;a

1" 21 Spesial.isation

or 1Il1-rQUl1d Kn01'lledge
of General Interest

7.22

The Preservation

STfl.TlSTIC~\Y.AFl'EIIDIX: Comparative Plan o·f Rut Traffic

TAJLES AlID GRAPHS

Cb:roDG)logioaJ.TiJb19

60 68
69
70

6, kpril 1945
Hut
t

Lanes.

6;

SI..lmll1er 944 1

Ill;ternal Relations

Hut 6:

SUIlllIler 1944
Swnmer

External Relations,
Traffic, ,Graph: G-raph: Breaks

Hut 6:

1944Table

71
72

and Decoaes:

Statistioal

Total Tra:f'fic Intercepted, Total Number of Sets, -per Set

1941 - 5

ts
74 75
J

Ma.y 194.2

5

G-ra.-ph: Teile Graph:

per Day. 1943 for

5
G.J.....",' ", Il-.

Fractures:

S. 8. and RaUways, 19ltlt. - 5

Weekl.". Totals tT

76

Graph: Fractures:
Graph:

Monthly Coa8ined Totals

n
78
79 80

Decodes: Weekly Totals, May 1941t- 5 -

llcmbe Stt,tistics: Specimen

Introduot-ory Note
by J30Dbe

at Dally Time Sheet Issued

Outatat.1on

spaciBlen of Da.ily Reoorc Sheet Giving Monthly Totals
ltnaly.sia of Jl.a:o.hiJle Perf'ol:'l.Dllnces

81
82

standard 1iaDbinea: I

II III

(leaeral statistics Average Times Arlalysis of Delays

82

ar..
56 f57
90 92

Special Machines:

I II III

Statistics Average Times _>\nalysi.s of Delays
General

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