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ageru to give atte no thanks to, without whom we could not exist amari (1) too much, very,

a lot amari (2) due to an excess of, because aru to be, to exist (of inanimate things); to have da be (copula) dai dai interrogative particle dakara to itte just because, however, that said, be that as it may daga but, however, yet, nevertheless dake only, just dake de just by doing ~~ dake de naku not only - but also dar probably chinami ni incidentally, by the way (1) de (1) at, in, on (place) (2) de (2) by, with, using (3) de (3) and, because (4) de (4) at, on (5) de (5) for, in, per, over de aru be (formal, written Japanese copula) de arou probably dekiru can, be able to de gozaimasu be, (polite) copula desh probably desu to be (copula) (1) demo (1) even (2) demo (2) or something d how dshite why dse anyway, at any rate, might as well doumo I don't know why but; I tried but; for some reason doko where? dokoro ka not only, far from, much less dochira ga ii which is better donna ni ~~ koto ka how incredibly ~! ba if (~ba conditional) bakari about to, just did, just, only e to, towards beki should, ought to, must bun ~worth; an amount corresponding to doushi no katsuyou (masu form) Conjugation of verbs (masu form) doushi no katsuyou (jishokei) Conjugation of verbs (plain nonpast) doushi no katsuyou (kakokei) Conjugation of verbs (plain past)

baai in the case, if ato de after, later eru/uru possible; -able buri for the first time in... fukugou doushi compound verbs dare who aida (ni) during, while, between f manner; style ~darake covered in; full of ~dokoro ja nai doing something (or being in a certain state) is not possible at all because the situation is too bad to allow it --ba --ta Counter factual conditional ~ba, sumu "if you [verb], everything will be fine" ~ba yokatta one should have done something ~dasu to suddenly begin, to suddenly appear, ~out go/onasaru honorific ~h ga ~yori more than ii good ikanimo no matter how you slice it, indeed, quite ikan depending on, regardless of ippai full, many, a lot irassharu to come, to go, to be (1) iru (1) to exist (for animate, usually living, things) (2) iru (2) -ing (3) iru (3) need iwayuru so-called, what we call (1) ka (1) question particle (2) ka (2) or ka, ka d ka if, whether or not kai Informal question particle kaette on the contrary, rather, surprisingly kakaru take (time/money) kashira I wonder katagata at the same time, while you're at it ka to omottara one thing happens right after another kana I wonder kanenai might do something kamoshirenai might kara (1) from, since kara (2) after having done s.t.; since kara (3) so (1) ga (1) subject-marking particle (2) ga (2) but, however gatai hard to, can hardly, difficult to

gachi prone to, likely to gatera at the same time (1) garu (1) show signs of (2) ; garu (2); --ta garu a person other than the speaker wants to do something ga hayai ka as soon as, before I knew it ga saigo if, when kudasai please kurai approximately, about (1) kureru (1) to give (2) kureru (2) to do something for someone else's sake keredomo although, though, but koso the very --, It is -- that --. particularly kosoado kotoba ko-, so-, a- & do- demonstrative pronouns koto thing(s); stuff; that koto ga aru have done, sometimes occurs koto ga dekiru can, able to koto da "the important thing to do is..." koto nashi ni without doing koto ni suru decide to koto ni naru it has been decided that // go/o-- itasu/suru humble / go/o --itadaku receive some benefit from someone's action ja nai ka right? jan sentence ending expression kke particle indicating forgotten information hazu should be, ought to be hoshii (2) to want someone to do something hodo to the extent of/that, about hodo no --wa nai is not so -- as [something] ipp more and more ()() ipp de (wa)tahou de (wa) on the one hand, on the other hand ichiban most, -est j about, as relates to, because of, -wise kawari ni instead of, but ij since, now that, once, as long as igai outside of, other than, besides kari ni tentative supposition, "supposing that..." hajimete first time doing something josuushi Counters Kan-kei Potential Form hiteikei Negative form kirai unlikable

kirai ga aru to have the bad habit of hitsuyou need/necessary ishikei Volitional form gion/gitaigo Onomatopoeia & Mimesis keishou honorific pronouns & suffixes kazu number kata way of, manner, how to h ga ii had better, should (1) kuru (1) to come (2) kuru (2) come about, come to hoshii (1) to want something gimonbun interrogative sentences gimonshi Interrogative words jibun self, own jidshi tadshi Intransitive/Transitive Verb itashimasu to do (humble version) iku go on -ing, continue on iu made mo naku needless to say; not to mention kenjgo humble expressions gyaku ni contrary to one's expectation, conversely kakokei past tense kagiri da very itadaku humble polite form of morau - to recieve itadakemasen ka could I get koro / goro around, about hindo no fukushi Adverbs of frequency ~gai ga aru Worth it to do ~ ~kiri "since" ~ku suru Adverbial form of adjective + suru , -kute, -de adjective conjunction ~ku naru Adverbial form of adjective + naru ~kiru to finish doing something completely ~hajimeru begin to, start to ~kai ga aru Worth it to~ neko o tsukatta hygen expressions with the word "cat" mushi o tsukatta hygen Expressions with the word "bug" mi o tsukatta hygen Expressions with the word "body" + masu stem of verb + o + masu stem of verb + negaimasu please do something oni naru honorific okage de thanks to something, someone or an action or state , o--, go-honorific prefix

+[] o-- no + [noun] someone who does something(honorific) o~kudasai Polite request expression ppanashi continue, leave (1) na (1) don't do (2) na (2) for sure, for real nai de without doing something nai to ikenai must (1) nagara (1) while (2) nagara (2) but, while, although nakute is not - and -, do not do nakute mo ii don't have to naku naru become no more nakereba naranai have to, need to, must, should nasai command nado to name just one/a few; etc.; and so on (1) nara (1) if (nara conditional) (2) nara (2) speaking of ~ naru to become nanka thing like/something like nante things like / something like na-keiyoushi no katsuyou na-adjectives conjugation ni in; at; on; to nikui difficult/impossible to do ni shite wa considering that, for ni suru decide on, make it ni tsuki per ni mo hodo ga aru How could can [anyone] be as ~ as / ni yoru to/ ni yorimasu to according to - ni koshita koto wa nai -- is best ni suginai nothing more than, merely, just, only ni chigainai there is no mistaking that, certainly nie to (place, etc) ne tag question (isn't it? right? eh?) no sentence ending particle (1) no (1) possessive particle (2) no (2) one (3) no (3) to do, doing, that clause no da the reason is node because noni although mash ka Shall I/we mash/(yo)u let's ~~; probably; i plan to masen ka, nai ka Won't you.., Wouldn't you

mada still, not yet made until, up to, even made ni before, by, within mama as is, unchanged, remain maru de quite, as if, practically mitai da looks like; similar to (1) mo (1) also, in addition, too (2) mo even, as many/much/long mo~mo both 1 and 2, neither 1 nor 2 m already, anymore mono because, how, used to, should like (1) mono da (1) used to (2) mono da (2) norm mono nara if one can do something morau to receive, get, receive rashii seems like, looks like, I hear/heard, like something/someone rareru able to do something (potential) (1) rareru (1) passive voice o object-marking particle o ii koto ni ~suru to take advantage of --- to do something , n da kedo, no desu ga ---, but -- ninshou daimeishi referential noun (personal pronouns) nantoka somehow mae ni before, in front of meishi shshokusetsu Modifying Clause muki suitable for ~ muke exclusively for meireikei imperative (strongest) mai every; every + [noun] ga [adjective][noun] one whose --- is [adjective] ~ppoi -y, -ish ~ni iku purpose for going somewhere ~ni kagiru There's nothing like~ no ni taishite while one of them is ---, the other is -- ~mamire covered in ~naosu to redo/correct something verb + you ni so that verb + verb + ki feel like doing (verb) ue(ni) as well, in addition, besides, not onlybut also

uchi ni while, before, during sa nominalizer for adjectives sae even; if only; if just; as long as; the only thing need is sasuga as might be expected; after all; naturally (/) sasete moraitai(no desu ga/n desu ga) I would like you to let me do something sasete itadaku (humble) to let me do something saseru causative shi and, so, among others, etc., not only shika (nothing) but shikamo moreover; furthermore; besides; on top of that; what's more; sugu at once; soon; right away; immediately suru to do zutsu by; at a time zuni without doing something sei because of; due to sekkaku with effort, take the trouble to do, semete at the very least s ka to itte that said; yeah but (1) s da (1) I've heard that (2) s da (2) look like, appear, seem, like s ni naru almost; it appeared as if something was going to happen soko de therefore soko o but; in spite of that sono ue furthermore, in addition sore ga well, despite what you might think sorezore each; respectively sore demo but; nevertheless; in spite of that sore to and; also; in addition; as well sore dokoro ka on the contrary; far from that; as a matter of fact sore ni in addition; moreover; furthermore sore wa naturally; of course; for sure sore mo in addition sonna no way, come on zo i'm telling you; dammit tai want to do something / tai no da kedo/da ga I want to do something, and can you ask for some help or is it OK? tada only; just; simply; that's all tadashi however tada no usual; ordinary; common; plain tatte even if tamae please

(1) tame (1) therefore; in order to (2) tame (2) for the benefit of tara tara conditional (if, when, after) tara ii if someone does something, it would be alright. tara d desu ka how about; why don't you tari and tari shite Something might happen tte speaking of tsutsu -ing; while; although tsumari that is to say; namely; in other words; what I mean is tsumori plan to do something te ageru to do for te iru be doing something, be in a state created before te orimasu is doing or keep in a state (humble) te kara dewa osoi it is too late when something takes place te kudasai Please do something te wa if; when; because te wa ikaga desu ka would you like to do something / te wa ikemasen/te wa dame da you can't do te wa d desu ka How about if temo even if; although te mo ii may; it is alright te morau to receive an action te mo hajimaranai there is no point in doing something. te hajimete not until; only after; for the first time te-kei te-form - and, -ing (1) to (1) to conditional (2) to (2) and, with, as (3) to (3) quote-marker to iu called ~, that ~ to iu koto wa that; the fact that to iu no wa/to wakoto da mean; the mean of is; what means is to iu f ni in such a way that; in such a fashion to suggest to iedomo even if, although, in spite of tt in the end, never toka such as X and Y, something like toka de or something tokoro about to, in the midst of, just did, almost did tokoro ga and then; however, but tokoro de even if

to shita koto ga (I), of all people... (2) to suru (2) feel; look (1) to suru(1) assume that; regard as; let totemo --nai not -- possibly to naru to be; to become to naru to if ~~ is true; where ~~ is concerned to wa kagiranai not always; not necessarily tomo no matter may be; even if; totomoni as well as; with; at the same time to dji ni at the same time; at the time to omou I think ~ to iu noni but; although; in spite of to iu yori rather than; morethan to itte mo although; I say that, but... wa Topic maker, As for wa nan desu ka What is -- wa? inferred question ya and yasui easily yatto finally, at last, barely yappari as expected yaru send; give; do ya ina ya as soon as, before I knew it yo you know you ni/na like, resembling y da it seems that y to omou I think I will do something yori than wa weak emphatic particle used by female speakers (1) wake da (1) the reason is that, for that reason (2) wake da (2) In other words... (3) wake da (3) Explaining a situation wake da ga As you know... ue de upon; after zenzen (not) at all; absolutely not suki to like tabi ni every time; whenever shitagatte therefore; accordingly; consequently shiji daimeishi (basho) Adverbs of location shijikeiyshi demonstrative adjectives toki when; at the time shidai depending on; as soon as yokubou no arawashikata expressing desire ten (de) point; respect; regard; aspect tashikaniga indeedbut; certainlybut; i admit that wake ga nai there is no reason why

wake de wa nai doesn't mean that; not necessarily wake ni wa ikanai can't very well; have no choice but to totan (ni) the moment; as soon as; then tri (ni) the same way as; (in) the way; as sugiru too much sai when; if; on the occasion of --zaru o enai can't help doing,there is no option but to do te aru to exist in a state caused by someone or somethings actions -te oku do in advance, do in preparation -te orareru honorific ~te shimau completely; thoroughly; unfortunately --te miru try to do something te yokatta was good; glad ~to iu ten de in that, in terms of wa doudesu ka how is ~y ni suru to make an effort to do [verb] ~y ni naru It has come to be that~ ~y ni iu to tell (someone) to do