GSM Cellular Network

Threats and Security Measures 5 References and Links This BSI brochure provides an insight into how GSMstandard mobile communication systems work. It describes some possible threats to security against interception in the use of GSM mobile communication services and identifies appropriate protective measures. (brochure in PDF-Format)

1 Principles of GSM Mobile Communication Technology
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) is a member of the class of cellular mobile communication networks that use operating frequencies of around 900 MHz and 1800 MHz. The GSM network is hierarchically structured, as shown in the diagram below.

1.1 Technical Components of Mobile Communication

1.1.1 Mobile phones
A GSM mobile phone consists of two components, the mobile radio telephone itself and the SIM (Subscriber Identity Module). This enables a distinction to be made in

The subscriber-specific call number is also stored on the SIM card. This is assigned to the subscriber when he registers with the network provider and must be distinguished from the telephone number assigned to him. This data.3 Switching nodes The base station is controlled via the Mobile Switching Centre ( MSC). In addition. This switching node assumes all the technical functions of a landline network switching node. The mobile radio telephone is characterised by its internationally unique serial number or International Mobile Equipment Identity ( IMEI). This information is held in the Visitor Location Register ( VLR) and the HLR. This distinction enables a subscriber to use different mobile radio telephones with the same SIM card. which is stored on the SIM card. For example. . it must know which subscribers are using its network and which services they wish to use. signal path switching and processing of supplementary services. It constitutes the interface between the network provider and the mobile phone. In order that the network provider is in a position to provide all the services for which demand exists. If there is a requirement for a connection to a subscriber in the landline network. If a connection is to be established. The user is identified by his customer number (International Mobile Subscriber Identity or IMSI).1. 1. it must store various items of data. The Base Station Controller ( BSC) administers the transmit and receive resources of the connected base stations. for example.2 Base station A GSM Base Transceiving Station ( BTS) houses the transmit and receive equipment for one or more cells. which is the Mobile Station ISDN Number ( MSISDN). such as the name of the subscriber. path search.1. this is forwarded by the MSC to the landline network over a switching path. for example from a landline network connection to a mobile phone. his customer number and the services he requires. 1. the channels for signalling and for payload traffic are provided here and the data traffic between BTS and MSC is controlled here. is stored in the Home Location Register ( HLR). For example. short text messages. the network provider needs to know where the subscriber is and whether his mobile phone is switched on.the GSM network between user and mobile terminal. The cryptographic algorithms for authentication and encryption of user data are also implemented on the SIM card. call charge information and a personal telephone directory can be stored on the card too.

the dangers entailed in the use of landline networks also apply to the use of mobile telecommunication networks 1.3 Security Mechanisms The SIM card can be protected against unauthorised access with a four.4 Landline network The public telephone network with its connecting paths is referred to as the landline network. 1. The network provider can also maintain the Equipment Identity Register ( EIR). 1.1. irrespective of whether a connection is established or not. Authentication is effected with the aid of an authentication key which is known only to the network provider in . the network provider maintains an Authentication Centre ( AUC). broken down into three groups known as the white. The subscriber identifies himself to the network provider on registering by means of the SIM card and the cryptographic algorithms held on it. this event is stored. As landline networks are also used in every mobile phone connection. This holds algorithms and subscriber-related keys which amongst other things are required during authentication. which holds details of all the mobile transceivers permitted on the network. grey and black lists. After switching on the mobile phone. every time a number is dialled.e.To check whether a subscriber is entitled to use the mobile telecommunication network (i. Moreover. To prevent improper use of the SIM card. he has taken out a card contract). The white list is a register of all the mobile phones which are functioning reliably. If an unauthorised person gains possession of a SIM card. not all network providers maintain an equipment register. This is done even if no conversation takes place. At the network provider. the subscriber identifies himself to the card by entering this PIN. while the black list holds details of all the phones which either have a fault or have been reported stolen. data on the identity of the user. However. he cannot use it without also knowing the PIN. the serial number of the mobile phone and the identity of the base station over which registration has occurred is logged and stored. the grey list contains all the phones which may possibly be defective. the PIN should therefore be kept in safe place.to eight-digit Personal Identification Number ( PIN).2 Connection set-Up As soon as the owner switches on his mobile phone. it registers with the network provider via the nearest base station.

5. an enhanced version of the GSM standard. time and duration of the connection. in some countries encryption of transmissions can be completely disabled or individual security parameters can be weaker. in the case of mobile services. call numbers of the calling and called connection). the information and messages transmitted. 1.2 GPRS GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is a packet-oriented data service for data transmission in the GSM network that has been enhanced by including additional infra- . Call data provides information about the detailed instances of communication. For operational reasons. lines and other technical facilities. system services used. Depending on the statutory requirements. 1. Content data is the real "payload data". information about the type of mobile data device. even on the radio link it is possible for the encryption procedure not to be applied.4 Types of Data The data processed during telephone communication can be broken down into three groups (see [ BfD]): Inventory data (or master data) is data which is permanently held in a service or network and is kept available. Several GSM radio channels are used simultaneously for data transmission in order to achieve higher transmission rates (57 kbps).e. is a circuit switching data service.1 HSCSD HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data). connections used. the name and address of the subscriber. if necessary. services and.5 Enhancements to GSM Mobile Communication Technology 1.the AUC and the subscriber on the SIM card. i. in which case data will then be transmitted unencrypted. This includes the call number and. if appropriate any features and authorisations relevant to the connection as well as data about the assignment of subscriber groups.g. Encryption is not used on any of the other transmission paths.5. 1. either in the GSM network or in the landline domain. the location IDs of the mobile terminals. This includes data on communication partners (e. Normally the data is only transmitted encrypted on the radio link between the mobile phone and the base station.

videoconferencing) can be transmitted at a high transmission rate. Several radio channels can be bundled together. Through more powerful radio technology (including more bandwidth and CDMA transmission methods). UMTS data devices will from the outset be multi-mode capable.structural components. the user can be permanently online. The available RF channels are divided amongst all the subscribers. sounds (e. Unlike HSCSD which uses curcuit switching. i. GPRS is based on the relaying of individual data packets. SMS messages can also be sent as e-mails. The Internet Protocol ( IP) is used for this purpose. MMS (Multimedia Message Service) is an enhanced version of SMS and EMS. This opens the door to a variety of new services in the future. downloads from the internet. Messages can be up to 160 characters long. With MMS.3 UMTS . The data transmission rates specified in the UMTS system range from 144 kbps for the highly mobile user (maximum speed 500 km/h) through to 2 Mbps for quasi-stationary operation.g. 1. 1. Alternatively. thanks to increased mobile radio bandwidth it is possible to transmit colour pictures (digital photographs) and short sequences of film to appropriately equipped . An EMS (Enhanced Messaging Service) message consists of a sequence of several SMS messages.i-mode(tm)and e-mail. so that transmission rates of up to 171 kbps (in practice.e. Billing is not on the basis of time spent online but instead is based on the amount of data transmitted. ring tones) and formatted text.1 SMS services Text messages can be sent to mobile phone subscribers all over the world by SMS (Short Message Service). This data service is therefore especially suited to dialogue-oriented applications like WAP.5.6 Additional Services 1. any content (e.g. The outcome of this is that even messages containing far more than 160 characters can be sent. It is also possible to send animated graphics.Third Generation mobile communication The Third Generation mobile communication system UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) is the successor to GSM. and every mobile data device is given its own IP address. With GPRS. The message text is entered using the keypad and sent to the desired recipient. approx. they will also be able to use the GSM network for voice and data connections.6. multimedia applications. 50 kbps) are theoretically possible.

1. A special data device that incorporates a browser which can interpret iHTML is needed to use i-mode(tm) pages. and the OSI reference model. TCP/IP. like WAP. which can be used to display content on mobile phone displays. When the recipient retrieves the message. . The network operator automatically sends a notification to the recipient. Like the architecture of existing data networks. the SMS/EMS/MMS centre. appropriate content has to be processed in WML (Wireless Markup Language) format. e.mobile phones. It supports HTML formatted texts. This is a description language which is used for the device-independent presentation of information. Dynamic information can be presented using WMLScript similar to the use of JavaScript on the web. colour graphics and polyphonic MIDI sounds. In addition. When one sends an SMS. EMS or MMS message. and billing is based on the volume of data transmitted in contrast to the length of time that the subscriber is connected. shopping) to mobile phones.g. It depends on a layered system structure similar to other families of network protocols. this is stored on a server belonging to the appropriate network operator. an email icon appears on the display). banking. As images and complex graphics cannot be presented in WAP. This saves resources.6. The network operator then sends an instruction to delete the icon in the display of the mobile phone. handheld devices or PDAs equipped with the appropriate special browser. it is transmitted by the server to the mobile phone. the WAP architecture is client-server based. The WAP protocol specifies an architecture based on existing internet technologies and a family of protocols for the transmission of information to mobile data devices. information.g.2 WAP. enables mobile internet access.g. In Germany it is based on the packet-oriented GPRS. some providers also send "message waiting" indicators to the mobile phone of the recipient (e. the user does not occupy an entire radio channel (or time slot) but the data is split into packets and transmitted when capacity is free. i-mode(tm) is a data service that has been developed in Japan and. i-mode? WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) and i-mode(tm)are standards for the data transmission of internet content and services (e. Amongst other things it defines guidelines for microbrowsers. brokerage. With this technology.

2 Potential Threats Associated with the Use of GSM Mobile Communication Equipment The signals transmitted on the "radio link" during mobile communication cannot be physically protected against unauthorised monitoring and recording. in order to be reachable at all times. on which transmission is normally effected unencrypted. it is possible to intercept and tap these radio signals unnoticed using antennae and special receivers. However.to build up movement profiles. This applies to connections both in the mobile communication network and in the landline network. the transmission of radio signals between mobile phone and base station is encrypted in all mobile communication networks.and also by third parties .1 Interception of Phone Calls If an adversary can gain access to the network provider's technical facilities (lines. he will then be able to listen in to any telephone calls conducted over this equipment. This location information could be used by the network or service provider . 2. A second problem arises from the fact that for technical reasons mobile communication partners have to communicate information about their location at regular time intervals as well as whenever they move into a different location area. security in the mobile telecommunication network cannot be greater than on landlines. hence an attack can be carried out without the access problems that are customary in the case of landline communications. If the calls are connected over line-connected paths from the base station to the MSC. Since every GSM mobile communication connection also entails the use of landlines. there are special technical systems around which exploit the weakness of one-sided authentication in the GSM network (the only authentication which occurs is the authentication of the mo- . as is normally the case. can be intercepted with a moderate amount of technical effort. base stations). Again. The threat is all the greater if all phone calls for the connected base station are transmitted over these micro-wave links. If a base station is connected to the switching node over an unencrypted micro-wave link. switching exchanges. In Germany. location information is transmitted whenever they themselves establish a connection. Micro-wave links. a physical attack on the cable paths is necessary.

Some mobile phones indicate the absence of encryption by an appropriate icon on the display. as the phone has only a limited battery life and the microphone is not designed for room surveillance. Through skilful selection of features and combining these with hands-free operation. this can be achieved with a mobile phone which. without this being detectable from the phone itself. such an attempt at bugging is of only limited effect. . disabling the encryption and instituting plaintext operation. it is possible to have an external call put a mobile phone into talk mode without this being indicated by a ringing tone. for example.2. is placed unnoticed in the room and from which a connection is established to an interested eavesdropper. 2.2. In the simplest case.2 Bugging of Indoor Conversations 2. for example. Thus. and of additional control hardware. one type of device is known in which the display of the mobile phone is switched off in this way although a call is actually connected to the device. can be used to listen in on indoor conversations. these devices behave like normal GSM mobile data devices. Possible hardware manipulations include. whose use is banned in Germany. As far as the network is concerned. for example.2 Bugging using a manipulated mobile phone Specially manipulated mobile phones and phonecards. including in the batteries. Another way of using mobile phones for bugging purposes is to tamper with the control software (firmware) installed on the device. the installation of bugging transmitters. during a meeting. In the specialist literature on cryptography there are already descriptions of possible attacks on the GSM A5 encryption algorithm ([A5_1]). However.bile phone to the base station). 2. by pretending to mobile phones to be a base station. Other possible ways of disabling this encryption are tampering with the mobile phone or with the technical facilities of the network provider.1 Bugging using industry standard mobile phones Mobile phones can be used to record or listen to indoor conversations unnoticed. Here the mobile phone is used as a bugging device which can be activated from anywhere in the world over the telephone network.

4 Creation of Movement Profiles Every time a mobile phone is registered. the card provider can tailor the menu structure to meet the requirements of a particular customer.3. This has the effect of increasing the danger of tampering. 2. In this way. for example. card phones too can be tampered with. Moreover. in the form of a PC plug-in card (card phone) make it is possible to transmit data from the PC over the mobile telecommunication network and.though a call is actually connected to the device. Such a mobile phone can be programmed with new functions by the network provider over the cellular network. This means that a network provider is able to . over the internet to anywhere in the world. Mobile phones are becoming even more flexible as a result of extension of the mobile phone menu functions using SIM Toolkit and a new generation of SIM Toolkit capable SIM cards. for example.3. if necessary. Thus. In order for the adversary to carry out a manipulation. for technical reasons information on the base station used. 2. by circumventing the internal telephone system and any onsite security staff. This danger is especially critical. an insider could transmit large volumes of confidential data to the outside world unnoticed. as in such an attack not only the information that the user is currently working on but all the data files on the PC can flow out or be destroyed unnoticed.1 Unauthorised data transfer (by insider) GSM mobile data devices. in this case there is the additional danger that the PC software can easily be tampered with through viruses or Trojan horses which can find their way onto a computer unnoticed. the identity of the user and serial number of the mobile data device is transmitted to the network provider. using HSCSD or GPRS with correspondingly high transmission rates. 2.2 Inadvertent data transfer (due to external party) Like ordinary mobile phones. It is not always possible to check afterwards whether such data transmission has occurred. he needs physical possession of the device to be manipulated for a certain time. as the network provider's record of the call data may already have been deleted.3 Improper Data Transfer Using GSM Mobile Data Devices 2.

IMEI. the IMSI and IMEI can be ascertained directly on the radio link between mobile phone and base station. where and by whom a particular mobile call was activated or used.1 SMS services The statements made in Section 2. An insider.determine when. . he can then identify individual phone calls. for example. 2.5 Call Number Identification If an adversary knows certain information (IMSI. could identify the call number MSISDN by working out the relationship between IMSI. This information can once again be used to create movement profiles for particular persons or mobile data devices. With the aid of IMEI it is possible to selectively filter calls out from the datastream on the mobile network radio relay links. This position fixing can be used to the benefit of the customer to implement a "home zone" or offer him additional services (Location Based Services). IMEI and MSISDN in the relevant database. the creation of communication profiles and personal movement profiles is forbidden under German data protection legislation ([BfD]). 2. for which knowledge of the subscriber call number is necessary. Calls can also be identified in the public telephone landline network. MSISDN) about the subscriber or a mobile phone.6.1 apply equally to the interception of SMS messages. in a company that extracts work or private telephone numbers from telephone lists.6 Threats Associated with the Use of Additional Services 2. With the appropriate interception equipment. either at the network provider's or. It should also be mentioned that storage and processing of SMSs in the message centres is carried out unencrypted. Through analysis of the transmission protocols the network provider is also in a position to determine the distance of the subscriber from the base station and in this way to pinpoint the present location of a GSM subscriber. With special interception technology it is possible to identify both the SIM cards and also the device identities of all the mobile phones within the catchment area without any need for access to the connection data stored by the network provider. However. although this does require extensive technical effort.

Cases have come to light in which hackers exploited software errors in certain mobile phones so as to make them crash by inducing a buffer overflow ("freezing" of the mobile phone in its present operating state) through the transmission of SMSs. the security considerations that relate to home banking apply on top of all the threats already mentioned (see [BSIhomeb]). users have been warned that inputting certain key combinations or dialling certain call numbers on mobile phones could result in conversations being tapped or calls being charged to other persons.g. and possibly the time and money spent on forwarding the hoax. not only are the threats described in Section 2. 2.2 m-commerce and m-payment In m-commerce applications that entail the use of i-mode(tm) or WAP.6. 2. a number with a prefix which incurs a charge when called). nondeletable icons appeared on the display. following receipt of an SMS from a hacker.3 applicable. Where services used are paid for by mobile phone (m-payments). Such attempts to jam a mobile phone via SMS are generally harmless. but which is not based on actual technical facts. The only damage caused by a hoax is disquiet and irritation on the part of the recipients.3 Virus problems Due to the expanding possibilities of software-based applications on mobile data devices. there is also the nuisance of unwanted SMS messages. but additional threats described elsewhere in connection with e-commerce and the use of the internet also apply ([BSIecomm]).6.7 Hoax Messages A hoax is a message that contains a warning about a new IT problem. Cases are also known in which. For example. and usually any malfunctions that occur can be rectified simply and quickly. sometimes associated with the request to call back a particular number (e. 2. the danger of viruses and Trojan horses is also increasing. A whole range of such hoax messages have afflicted mobile phone users. In addition to the threats associated with SMS messages already described. Because such messages contain references to .

Because such messages contain references to mobile phone brands manufactured by well-known companies and a few technical terms. 3.1 Protection against the bugging of indoor conversations using industry standard mobile phones . As long as such encryption is not implemented. end-to-end encryption. security officers should check that existing measures aimed at creating staff awareness of the threats in the telecommunications area are adequate. The following measures are recommended as a means of reducing the threat: As a matter of principle. crypto mobile telephones cleared for classified use should be mentioned at this point. they give the impression of being serious messages. network-wide. confidential information should not be communicated on the telephone without taking special protective measures. It may be appropriate to remind staff at regular intervals about the dangers of having their calls intercepted so as to ensure that they are fully aware.calls being charged to other persons. the absence of charges for certain connections could be an indication of eavesdropping.2 Protection against Bugging of Indoor Conversations 3. For user groups within government agencies. whether over the landline network or the mobile communication network. 3. it is recommended using specially encrypting mobile phones for closed user groups. a check should be carried out as to whether all the telephone charges are billed to the subscriber. Itemised call breakdowns should be examined for unknown call numbers. ([BSIgshb]) 3 Protective Measures As a rule. the nature and scope of protective measures will depend on the threat situation.1 Protection against Bugging of Phone Calls One possible effective protection against bugging of phone calls is to employ interoperable. It is up to the individual to decide what safeguards to implement in a particular case. In addition. Only devices which indicate the absence of encryption on the display should be used. Because people often do not take seriously the danger of communications being intercepted. If required.2. every connection can potentially be intercepted.

If a mobile phone is suspected of having been tampered with. it should be withdrawn from circulation. The following additional points should be noted as well: Switching off the mobile phone does not ensure sufficient protection since in the case of specially modified mobile phones there is no way of eliminating with certainty the possibility of the phone being switched into transmit mode over the radio link unnoticed. Tampering with the hardware can be reliably detected by comparing the x-ray image of a normal mobile phone with that of a device suspected of having been manipulated.2. the order should be split between several suppliers. The risk of manipulation can be avoided if the following points are observed: To avoid the possibility of a device being tampered with in advance of acquisition.1 also apply in the case of specially modified mobile phones.The only way to be sure that indoor conversations are not being bugged using mobile phones is to prevent mobile phones from being taken into the rooms to be protected.2 Protection against the bugging of indoor conversations using specially modified mobile phones The protective measures mentioned in Section 3. However.2. Hardware manipulation. Passive warning devices (GSM mobile phone detectors) are available on the market which report any mobile phone that is in transmit mode or starts transmitting. . The range of the devices can be adjusted so that it is confined to the area to be monitored. mobile phones should only be purchased from trusted sources. There are active mobile phone detectors which order all mobile phones within range to go into transmit mode. It is recommended that such warning devices are installed and are activated during conversations about sensitive or confidential subjects. When purchasing relatively large numbers. these cannot be recommended as they are not allowed under German law. in which special eavesdropping features are added via additional circuit elements can also be identified visually after taking the device apart. The use of noise generators which cause radio interference in a physically defined area and thus prevent the reception of mobile radio signals is also prohibited in Germany. 3. The only way to prevent this would be to remove the battery.

arrangements should be made immediately for the network provider to block the card in order to exclude the possibility of the card being misused and also of any personal loss. Should the SIM card go missing. mobile phonecards should not be allowed in PCs on which sensitive data is handled or which are connected to a computer network. 3. the reader is referred to [ BSIvirFB].1 Protection against unauthorised data transfer It is impossible to achieve 100% protection against insiders. For further information on manipulation using Trojan horses. The secret personal PIN should remain activated and under no circumstances should it be kept in the same place as the SIM card for the mobile phone. It is recommended checking itemised call breakdowns at regular intervals for unexplained charges and called party numbers. It is therefore advisable to ban the taking of mobile phones into sensitive areas and to check that this ban is being adhered to. .At present there is no test tool around with which the firmware of mobile phones can be checked for manipulation. 3.3 Protection against Improper Data Transfer over GSM Mobile Data Devices 3.3.4 Protection against SIM Card Misuse The mobile phone and SIM card must always be kept safe. 3.2 Protection against inadvertent data transfer As cases of manipulated card phones cannot be excluded.3.

as it prevents a permanent association between user and call number or between mobile phone and user from being deduced.1 SMS services As there is no way of preventing SMSs from being received. the only way to ensure this is by switching off the mobile phone. as suggested in Section 3.7. 3. Other possibilities for protecting against call number identification include: not publishing call numbers in the public phonebook not publishing call numbers in the internal phone directory 3.7.7. for example.plained charges and called party numbers.7 Protective Measures for the Use of Additional Services 3. 3. 3. If it is desirable that the whereabouts of the user should be concealed at certain times. However.5 Protection against the Creation of Movement Profiles If the creation of movement profiles is viewed as a threat. the association with a company. 3. then if possible both mobile phones and SIM cards should be swapped around among staff more frequently.8 Hoax Messages .5. at this point the only recommendation that can be made is to only divulge one's own call number to trusted persons.3 Virus problems See [BSIvirFB]. In this way it is at least more difficult to associate specific phones and cards with particular users. will remain.2 m-commerce and m-payment See [BSIecomm]. this can provide a certain protection against the association of call numbers with particular persons. 3. the battery should be removed.6 Protection against Call Number Identification If mobile phones and SIM cards are swapped around between users. To be quite certain.

-J.A collection of hoax messages can be found on the BSI internet (no longer available). Bettstetter C. Cologne: Bundesanzeiger 2002. 4 List of Abbreviations Abbreviations Explanation AUC Authentication Centre BSC Base Station Controller BSS Base Station Subsystem BTS Base Transceiver Station CDMA Code Division Multiple Access EIR Equipment Identity Register EMS Enhanced Messaging Service GPRS General Packet Radio Service GSM Global System for Mobile Communication GMSC Gateway MSC. [EBEgsm] .: Mobilfunknetzte und Ihre Protokolle. Dienste und Protokolle in digitalen Mobilfunknetzen. Übergang zum Festnetz HLR Home Location Register HSCSD High Speed Circuit Switched Data HTML Hyper-Text Markup Language iHTML HTML-Variante für i-mode? IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identity IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity IP Internet Protocol ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network MIDI Musical Instruments Digital Interface MMS Multimedia Messaging Service MSC Mobile Switching Center MSISDN Mobile Station ISDN Number OSI Open Systems Interconnection PIN Personal Identify Number SIM Subscriber Identity Module SMS Short Message Service TCP Transmission Control Protocol UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System VLR Visitor Location Register WAP Wireless Application Protocol WML Wireless Markup Language 5 References and Links Eberspächer J. Bonn 2001.:GSM Global System für Mobile Communication Vermittlung. Stuttgart: Teubner 1998 Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik: IT-Baseline Protection [BSIgshb] Manual. Vögel H.. [BSIecomm] Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik: Electronic Commerce (leaflet). Stuttgart: Teubner 2000 (3. Auflage) [WALmobil] Walke B..

de [ETSI] European Telecommunications Standard Institute: www. In: Schneier B.org/a51bsw.): Fast Software [A5_1] Encryption. Also: Kurzinformationen zu Computer-Viren. (ed.heise. Bonn 2001 Real Time Cryptanalysis of A5/1 on a PC.org [BfD] The Federal Data Protection Commissioner: www.etsi. Bonn 2001.3ggp.[BSIecomm] (leaflet).de [BSI] Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik: www.bfd. [BSIhomeb] Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik: Homebanking. Heidelberg: Springer 2000 (see also http://cryptome.bund.org [heise] Heise Online news: www. Bonn 2001 [BSIvirFB] Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik: Trojanische Pferde.htm) [3gpp] 3rd Generation Partnership Project: www.bund.bsi.de .

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