EQUATIONAL AND IDENTIFICATIONAL SENTENCES
ole, like other Chadic languages, does not have a copular verb. Copular sentences with nouns, adjectives, or other descriptive predicates simply juxtapose subject and predicate. Nouns or adjectives that have formal morphological plurals must agree in number with the subject. As in other sentence types, the normal way to question or focus a subject is to place it in sentence final position, with an obligatory “ clefting particle” , ye, preceding the subject. Questioned predicates remain in situ. Numbers and names, which are semantically distinct from descriptive predicates and which have distinct syntactic properties in many lanuages, use the same syntax in Bole as do copular sentences with nouns or other descriptive words as predicates. 1. Equational Sentences with Nominal Predicates 1.1. Affirmative equational statements. Equational sentences juxtapose the subject and the predicate with no additional marking. First and second person subjects require the general subject clitics (##), which condition Low Tone Raising (LTR—##).1 Pronominal third person subjects use the independent pronouns (##). Neither nominal nor pronominal third person subjects condition LTR on the predicate First and second persons optionally may use an independent pronoun together with the clitic, with no apparent difference in meaning from the sentence without the independent pronoun. Utterances with first or second person independent pronouns alone are interpreted as appositional phrases, e.g. ina AÆpìno ‘I, a Hausa person’. The examples in the paradigm below mean ‘X am/is/are a Hausa person ~ are Hausa people’ (AÆpìno, AÆpìna¥wi ‘Hausa person, people’) 1 2m 2f 3m 3f Singular (ina) næ AÆpìno (kai) ka Apino (shê) shi Apìno ishi AÆpìno ita AÆpìno Plural (mimmu) mu Apìna¥wi ma\" Apina¥wi maæte AÆpìna¥wi
Tìjja\ni AÆpìno Bamoi an Pikkaæ Lengì aæni Pikkaæ maæte aænìm Pìkkaæ aænìm Pìkkaæ mi&y&ya]n Na¥je\riyaæ
‘Tijjani is a Hausa person’ ‘Bamoi is a Bole man’ ‘Lengi is a Bole woman’ ‘they are Bole people’ ‘Boles are people of Nigeria’
Ka AÆp ìno ‘you (m) are a Hausa person’ (cf. table below) without LTR is acceptable, but the strongly preferred variant in the Fika dialect has LTR.
CPBamoi but Madu not
In verbal sentences with questioned or focused subjects. showing that what follows is the subject.. ‘BAMOI is the Youth Leader. it is obligatory since it serves as a cue that what follows is the subject.. (answer) “ Moi Abari. not Madu.e. Questioning the subject of an equational sentence can use the standard postposing strategy for questiong and focusing subjects (##).
‘Who is the current Moi Fika?’ ‘ MOI ABARI is the current Moi Fika. 3 The first ye is the clefting particle. sayaæ Maduæ sa. Questioning and focusing the subject of equational sentences.3.1. Equational questions and answers 1.e. soælu]n pe¥tìlaæ. use of ye] is not obligatory.“The (ye = PRM) hospital is a white building.3.Bamoi Ma\}luæmmu teæmshi dabbaæ kuæshi reæwe la¥ gaæ aæmpa¥ni
‘Bamoi is our teacher’ ‘a sheep is an animal’ ‘a baobab is a useful tree’ (. the preferred answer type focuses the word answering the question with the postposing strategy. *an Moi Pìkkà ye lò? ‘who is the Emir of Fika?’ is not grammatical. showing definiteness of the subject.’
yaællaæ asìbitì ye]@ ‘Which building is the hospital?’ ‘THE WHITE BUILDING is the hospital. Tìjja\ni AÆpìno sa næ AÆpìno sa ka Apìno sa ‘Tijjani is not a Hausa person’ ‘I am not a Hausa person’ ‘you (m) are not a Hausa person’
1. a subject question may use the in situ strategy (##). but in equational sentences. A possible way to answer an equational sentence with a questioned subject is simply to state the word that answers the question.2 Alternatively.” If the answer is a full sentence. Q: Asìbitì ye soælu A: Asìbitì ye soælu]-n yaællaæ@ ≠ Soælu pe¥tìlaæ ye]. The second ye] is the Previous Reference Marker (##). not the predicate. Negative equational statements. the sentence would be interpreted as a neutral equational statement meaning . Without the overt PRM. as in English. i. “ Who is the Emir of Fika?” . Q: Moi Pìkkaæ næ conco¥ne\ ye loæ@ ≠ Loæ Moi Pìkkaæ næ conco¥ne\ ye]@
Emir Fika of today CP who who Emir Fika of today CP
A: Moi Pìkkaæ næ conco¥ne\ ye Moi AÆbarì.[is] a tree that has use)
1. The pseudo-cleft strategy (##) for questioning subjects is not available in equational sentences.”
hospital CP building which
building which hospital CP
hospital CP building-L white
Q: Moi Bunje ye loæ@ ≠ Loæ Moi Bunje ye]@ Bamoi ﬁo\ Maduæ@
leader youth CP who who leader youth CP Bamoi or Madu
‘Who is Youth Leader? Bamoi or Madu?’ Bunje yeBamoi. with the subject in initial position but still with the clefting particle at the end. the subject comes at the end of the sentence preceded by the clefting particle ye] (‡ ye when not phrase final).2. i. Negative equational sentences add the general negative marker sa to the end of the sentence. placing the answering word at the end of the sentence after the clefting particle.
not him. ~ Bamoi.’
In English. ~ Ina Gimbaæ. a question like. 4 Eme\ loæ@ ≠ *Loæ eme¥@ Kuæﬁa ye leæ@ ≠ *Leæ kuæﬁa ye]@ ‘Who is this?’ ‘What is a pot?’
In questions that ask for simple identification of the questioned predicate.2. e. the most natural answer adds the particle jì “ it is” . though it is possible to answer simply with the identifying word (see more below on identficational sentences).’
Q: Kai ka loæ@ ‘Who are you (m)? 5 A: NÆ Gimbaæ (jì). ‘What is this?’ ‘This is paper. where subject-auxiliary inversion takes place when a non-subject is questioned. ~ Lengì. the syntax usually makes it clear what is being questioned. Q> Eme\ leæ@ A> Eme\ takaærda. Syntactically the two are identical in the present tense since English always places question words at the beginning of the sentence. Q> Oshe\ loæ@ A> Lengì jì. Questioning and focusing the predicate of equational sentences. “Who is this?” seems to be questioning the predicate—one is singling out an individual and presumably wants to know about a property that characterizes that individual. which puts some emphasis on the answer. “Who is leader of the youth?” must be questioning the subject—one is asking who a certain property is predicated of.’ ‘Who is this (m)?’ ‘It’s Bamoi. ‘I’m Gimba. It is possible to add jì after the predicate in such responses.g. a structure that we noted above is not acceptable as a simple equational declarative statement. The distinction in what is being questioned is clear in English in a sentence with an auxiliary. ‘*I* am the Youth Leader.
.’ 1.’ ‘Who (plural) are these [people]?’ ‘They’re school children.3.’ ‘What are these?’ ‘These are Lengi’s pots. whereas. 5 Note that an answer to a questioned predicate can directly juxtapose a first person independent pronoun and the predicate. On semantic grounds. It is ungrammatical to place the question word in sentence initial position. Q> Eme\ loæ@ A> Bamoi jì. one is sometimes not sure whether an equational question is asking about the subject or the predicate. “Who could be the leader of the youth?” (questioned subject).Q: Moi Bunje ye loæ@ ≠ Loæ Moi Bunje ye]@ Kai ﬁo\ ishì@ ‘Who is Youth Leader? You or him?’ A: Moi Bunje ye inaæ. the answer takes the normal Subject-Predicate order of equational sentences. Q> Maæine\ leæ@ A> Maæine\ kuæﬁìnshe Lengì. sayaæ ishi sa.’ ‘Who is this (f)?’ ‘It’s Lengi. ~ Ina næ Gimbaæ. Q> Maæine\ mìl loæ@ A> Da\nde]m makaranta jì. A question about the predicate of an equational sentence uses in situ Subject + Question Word order. In Bole. “Who could this be?” (questioned non-subject) vs. Where the answer contains both subject and predicate.
sayaæ næ zan sa. Q: Shê shi ani a]u@ A: Ina næ aæni Pikkaæ. The answer to an identificational sentence may end with the emphasis particle jì. Q> Loæ@ ~ Loæ waæ@ A> Ina jì.’ ‘Are you a Hausa or are you a Kanuri?’ ‘I’m a Hausa.’ ‘Who is Bamoi?’ ‘Bamoi is a teacher. Q: Tìjja\ni AÆpìno ﬁo\ (ishi) zan@ A: Ishi AÆpìno. Q: Ma\" mìl loæ@ A: Mimmu jì. ‘Who is it?’ ‘It’s me. ‘it’s me’ with a noun or independent pronoun alone with no overt subject.’ ‘It’s Bamoi.
‘Who are you (f)?’ ‘I’m Lengi. ~ Ina Lengì. it’s not the case that I’m a Kanuri. Q: Kai ka Apìno ﬁo\ ka zan@ A: Ina næ AÆpìno.’ ‘What kind of person are you (m)?’ ‘I am a Bole. it’s not the case that he’s a Kanuri.” ‘Who is she?’ ‘She is the Leader of the Female Youth. Identificational sentences Bole expresses identificational sentences such as ‘it’s a knife‘. sayaæ ishi zan sa. An identificational question comprising just a question word may consist of the question word with or without the question particle wà. Q: Màte mìl lò? A: Maæte puækaæra¥wa. ‘they’re students’.’ ‘Who is he?’ ‘He is Leader of the Youth.’ ‘We’re students. A: (Mimmu) mu pukaæra¥wa (jì).’ ‘Who are they?’ ‘They are students. A: Bamoi jì.’ ‘Who are you (pl. A question asking for identity of a noun generally ends in the question particle ﬁo\. Q: Ishi lò? A: Ishi Moi Bunje.’ ‘Is Tijjani a Hausa or a Kanuri?’ ‘He’s a Hausa.)?’ ‘It’s us.Q: Shê shi loæ@ A: Ina lÆ Lengì. The answers have the same structure as neutral identificational sentences. Q: Ita lò? A: Ita Moi Guæma\ya. Q: Bamoi lò? A: Bamoi ma\}luæm. 2.’ ‘What is your (f) origin?’ (‘You are a person-of where?’) ‘I’m a Bole woman.’
Alternative questions such as the following call for answers with focused predicates. Q: Kai ka areæ me¥muæ yaællaæ@ A: Ina næ am Pikkaæ.’ or ‘I’m a woman of Fika.
ishì. which condition Low Tone Raising (LTR) on the predicate adjective. Q: Ishi ﬁo\@ ~ Ishìn ﬁo\@6 A: OÁ&o\.e. ishi sa. itaæ. as well as singular masculine and feminine nouns (showing that there is no gender agreement) and a plural noun. ~ A|&a¥. it’s not Bamoi.
. Like equational sentences. ishì. 1 2m 2f 3m 3f Singular næ ﬁoæle (kai) ka ﬁole (shê) shi ﬁole ishi ﬁoæle ita ﬁoæle Plural (mimmu) mu ﬁolleæ ma\" ﬁolleæ ﬂ maæte ﬁolleæ
la¥woæ ﬁoæle la¥woæ moænduæ ﬁoæle da\nde ﬁolleæ kulaæ eme\ sokkitok
‘the boy is small’ ‘the girl is small’ ‘the children are small’ ‘this (eme\) calabash is light-weight’ (sòkkìtòk = ideophonic adjective)
The variants with i s hì n (final -n and invariable L tone).Q> Leæ@ ~ Leæ waæ@ A> ıa¥di (jì). ideophonic adjectives (##). ishi sa. Affirmative statements with adjectival predicates. a form indicating previous reference.’ ‘Is it her?’ ‘Yes. ﬁolleæ (plural) with all the pronoun subjects. Plural subjects require morphologically plural adjectives if they exist. A: A|&a¥. *ítàn ‘her’ or *inàn ‘me’ do not exist. it’s him. Third person pronominal subjects use the independent pronouns. which. Adjectival and other Descriptive Predicates 3. Q: Bamoi ﬁo\@ A: OÁ&o\. Q: Ita ﬁo\@ A: OÁ&o\. ishìn.’
3. Examples here will focus on adjectives.’ ‘Is it Bamoi?’ ‘Yes. and statives derived from verbs (##). it’s her.n. Several categories of descriptive words can be predicated of subjects. like nominal subjects.’ ‘Is it him?’ ‘Yes. These include at least adjectives (##). The paradigm shows the adjective ﬁoæle ‘small’. A: A|&a¥. are translated as Hausa shê ﬁôn. First and second person subjects use subject pronoun clitics (##).’ ‘No. Only the third masculine singular independent pronoun has a variant with final . it’s not him. ishìn sa. i.’ ‘No. it’s him. but they apply equally to these other categories.
‘What is it?’ ‘It’s a knife. do not condition LTR of the predicate adjective.1. ~ OÁ&o\. Some adjectives have plural forms (##). sentences with adjectival predicates simply juxtapose subject and predicate.
2. Bamoi gaæraΩ kala raænkataæ sa aætaæmpa daæi shit aætaæmpa daæi shit sa *aætaæmpa daæi sa shit teæmshi pe¥tìlaæ pok teæmshi pe¥tìlaæ pok sa ‘Bamoi is very tall’ ‘Bamoi is not very tall’ ‘Bamoi is tall. gam pe¥tìlaæ sa da\nde ﬁolle sa ‘the ram is not white’ ‘the children are not small’
Intensifying adverbs and ideophones may accompany adjectives in adjectival predicates. is not unambiguous—it could mean ‘all the caps are white’.g. the adjective can be the indicator of semantic plurality of the noun. but it could also mean ‘the cap is completely white’. Negative adjectival statements. but a sentence like this. if it yields any interpretation at all. the only way to know number is from context. ta¥jiyaæ cap pe¥tìlaæ. Negative adjectival predicates add the general negative marker sa to the end of the sentence. too. Bamoi gaærar raænkataæ Bamoi gaærar raænkataæ sa *@Bamoi gaæran sa raænkataæ cf. would have to mean something like “ ??Bamoi greatly fails at being tall”. e. If an adjectival predicate with an intensifier is negated. gam pe¥tìlaæ teæmshi pe¥tìlaæ temka pe¥tìlaæ ‘the ram is white’ ‘the ewe is white’ ‘the sheep are white’
In sentences where neither the subject nor the predicate have morphological plural forms. but not very much so’ ‘the cloth is bright red ‘the cloth is not bright red’ ‘the ewe is snow white’ ‘the ewe is not snow white’
. Placement of the intensifier after the negative in a sentence like “ Bamoi is very tall” . 3. the negative marker follows the entire predicate. ta¥jiyaæ pe¥tìlaæ ‘the cap is white’ or ‘the caps are white’
Speakers sometimes add cap ‘all’ to give a sense of plurality.sheæke¥nì keæwe¥nì
‘his foot is swollen’ (keæwe¥-nì = stative from kaæwa\ ‘swell’)
For nouns that have no morphological plural. the noun can show semantic plurality. za\wa gaæraΩ za\wa garreæ ‘the stick is long’ ‘the sticks are long’
For adjectives which have no morphological plural.
not the ram. ‘How’s the tiredness?’ ‘There’s no tiredness. Q: NÆgoæ ruæta@ ~ Taær ruæta@ A: Ruæta mu konnì. Q: Kai ka taæn@ A: Ina næ gaæraΩ. However. since the standard answers are not in the form Noun + Adjective.1.’ ‘What are you like?’ ‘I am TALL. Q: NÆgoæ gatto@ ~ Taæn gatto@ A: Gaæ gatto sa. Questioning and focusing the subject of adjectival sentences. ‘The EWE is white.’
The question word nægoæ must always be sentence initial.’
A special case of questioning adjectival predicates would appear to be standard greeting phrases meaning. cf. Q: Ruæta ye taæn@ A: Ruæta ye ja]u.3. *an gàran (ye) lò? ‘who is tall?’ (“the one who is tall [is] who?”) is ungrammatical: Q: Gaæran ye loæ@ ≠ Loæ gaæran ye]@ Bamoi ﬁo\ Maduæ@ ‘Who is tall? Bamoi or Madu?’ A: Gaæran ye Bamoi. *ruæta (ye) nægoæ@ *ruæta taæn@
. The clefting particle ye may precede tàn.3.’ 3. “ How’s …?” These have nægoæ or tàn invariably in sentence initial position. Questioning the subject of an adjectival sentence uses either the postposing strategy or the in situ strategy (##—cf. As is normal in non-subject questions.e. sayaæ gam sa. the clefting particle yê (‡ ye if not phrase final) follows the predicate.’ ‘What’s the work like?’ ‘The work is tough. One can question the predicate using tàn ‘how?’.3. Questioning and focusing the predicate of adjectival sentences. appearing to go against the normal in situ strategy for questioned non-subjects.3. not Madu.’ Q> Pe¥tìlaæ ye yaællaæ@ ≠ Yaællaæ pe¥tìlaæ ye]@ Gam ﬁo\ teæmshi@ ‘Which one is white? The ram or the ewe?’ A: Pe¥tìlaæ ye teæmshi. i.3. ‘What is your ram like?’ ‘My ram is WHITE. In either case. ‘Bamoi is tall. these may not actually be questions involving adjectival predicates. the questioned predicate is in situ at the end of the sentence.1). The pseudo-clefting strategy (##) is not available for adjectival predicates. Placing the question word tàn at the end of the sentence without the focus particle ye likewise results in an ungrammatical sentence.’ ‘How’s the work?’ ‘As for the work we are at [“on”] it. §1. Q: Gamko ye taæn@ A: Gamno (ye) pe¥tìlaæ. Questions and answers in adjectival sentences 3.2. sayaæ Maduæ sa.
For example. Q: Kossu monoæu@ A: Kossu ba\wulo. Sunnì Bamoi sa. If the semantic subject is a pronoun. “ My teacher is John.’ ‘His name is not Bamoi.4.’ ‘What is your teacher’s name?’ ‘His name is Madu. however. which is almost always present in normal copular sentences.’ ‘What is your (f) name?’ ‘My name is Lengi. “ How is your name?” . this semantic difference is reflected in different syntactic structures for true equational sentences as opposed to sentences with a name predicates. “ name” is a variable. ‘What is your (m) name?’ ‘My name is Bamoi.’
One can focus the name as follows:
. and name sentences in Hausa cannot use the stabilizer ne/ce.’ ‘How many of them are there?’ ‘There are seven of them. ?*sunko nà lè? would mean something like. would not be an inquiry or statement about someone’s name. the quotative conjunction ma introduces a name predicate whereas regular copular sentences simply juxtapose subject and predicate as in Bole. name sentences do have the form of equational sentences with sun ‘name’ as subject and lè ‘what?’ or the name itself as predicate. Q: Sun ma\}luæmku leæ@ A: Sunnì Maduæ.’ ‘How many children do you have?’ ‘How many school children are there?’ ‘There are fourteen children.” In the latter. Sentences with number predicates differ from the other types in that they do not take pronominal subjects. In some Chadic languages. Hausa asks the question. “ John” is not a property of “ name” . Name Predicates
Although a sentence like. Number predicates Number predicates juxtapose the subject and predicate just as with equational and adjectival predicates. Rather. i. Q: Kok-ku monoæu@ ‘How many of you are there?’ ‘There are four of us. In the former sentence. it is semantically distinct from.’
head-your(pl) how many
A: Kommu poæﬁﬁo. the subject noun phrase has ko. “ My name is John. a property is predicated of “ teacher” . that of being a person identified as “ John” . In Bole. in any case. Q: Sunshi leæ@ A: Sunno Lengì. In Ngizim. 5. literally.‘head’ as its head. viz.e. whose value in this case is filled by “ John” . “ What do they say your name is?” Q: Sunko leæ@ A: Sunno Bamoi. “ What is your name?” as yaya sunanka?. Adding the quotative conjunction nà (##) creates a sentence which is marginal and.” looks superficially like an equational sentence. Q: Da\nde¥ko monoæu@ Q> Da\nde]m makaranta monoæu@ A: Da\nde ye dìr po\rﬁo.
These sentences are interpreted as putting focus on the name. sunnì.’ ‘His name is not BAMOI. ##). e.e.g.7
There are structural parallels with Hausa. which is the grammatical predicate. That is. That is. Tanko ne sunansa ‘his name is TANKO’.
‘ BAMOI is his name. preceded by the focus particle ye (see §1.
.g. s unans a Tanko (*ne) ‘his name is Tanko’.3.1. Structurally. *Bamoi sunnì sa. these sentences have the form normally used for focus of the SUBJECT.’ ‘ LENGI is my name. e. i. however. However. the grammatical subject is sentence final. The sentence would be ungrammatical without the focus particle. it is sentence initial and the stabilizer must follow it. Hausa name sentences do not permit the stabilizer ne/ ce. Lengì ye sunnoæ. Bamoi ye sunnì sa. if the name is focused.Bamoi ye sunnì. it appears that the name. has been fronted for focus.