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Describe the marketing strategies of the companies involved in the case (distinguish the marketing methods used by the drug companies from those used by the food companies). Describe the strategies used by the critics of the infant formula companies. Explain the concerns of the critics of the formula companies. Ans. The companies included in the case study “Infant Formula In Developing Countries” are five in numbers out of which two companies are food companies and three companies mare Medical companies. Food Companies are Nestle- Swiss Company and Borden and the Medical Companies are American Home Product, Bristol Mayers and Abott Laboratories. Drug Companies conducted a dietary research and they distributed their products to the people through their distribution channels (Medical avenues/channel). Nestle and other Food Companies tended to rely primarily on intensive mass media advertising including sound trucks, newspaper, television, radio, popular magazines and magazines. The users of infant formula criticize the Nestle and other food companies. They boycott from their products. The strategy used by critics is: • Product should be labeled which shows the priority of breast milk over infant formula. • All the instructions will be provided to the customer about the product that how the infant formula should be used. • Breast milk provides more vitamins sand other nutrients to the babies than those introduced by Nestle and other food companies.

Q.2. "By selling our formulas in the Third World we give the Third World mother a
choice she did not have before; it is paternalistic to think we have a right to decide what is best for her. The Third World mother should be as free to decide whether to use the formula as her First World counterpart is." Comment. Ans. According to my point of view, yes it is better to sell infant formula in Third World in those regions where the educated people are not in abundant because well educated people know the benefits of infant formula, where pure water is not available for drinking because impure water causes different diseases in child and infant formula contains such nutrients which opposes these antibodies, awareness is necessary because nowadays most of the mothers are unable to fe their babies with their breast milk. Beside the infant formula include additional nutrients for the growth of a child other than breast milk.

Q.3. Identify the probable costs and benefits that would result if the companies were to
withdraw their products totally from Third World markets. In your judgment, would the benefits of such a withdrawal outweigh its costs? Suggest some practical alternatives to total withdrawal. Ans. If the companies were to withdraw their products totally from Third World markets then it would cost them more as compared to their benefits because some of the mother hasn’t breast milk or if they has but they are not in such amount to fed their child.

they are also responsible because they are influencing mothers to use infant formula instead of breast milk.Sometimes they do not consist of the necessary nutrients which are essential for a child growth. Yes. Cost of infant formula is that some of the mother does not consider it good for their child because they believe they have not so many nutrients as the mother contain naturally (Islamic point of view). Q. The codes adopted by the ICIFI and Abott Laboratories are heavily criticized. In your judgment. 2. 4. Totally withdrawal is not necessary. they should not do it. They should adopt that the marketing strategy from which common and illiterate people can easily understand and that how to use their product effectively. Yes. What explanation can you give for the fact that the food companies tend to adopt the ICIFI code whereas the drug companies tend to adhere to a code like Abbott's? Ans. Alternative for it is that the mother in this case should use infant formula in proper ways. So benefits of infant formula are overweight over costs and the infant formula should not be totally withdrawn.5. Compare and contrast the codes adopted by the ICIFI and by Abbott Laboratories. For some amount of money they are doing it which is unethical. The infant formula is to withdraw from those regions where it is used in proper ways. Benefits of using infant formula are • Helpful in the growth of child • Helpful for those mothers which do not contain so much breast milk to fed their child. . It is not their fault because some of them are illiterate and no proper guidance ius present for them. to some extent mothers are also responsible because they are using the product without understanding the instructions for using the product. We believe that direct promotion of infant feeding products to mothers can impel them to make decisions concerning the care and nutrition of their babies for which they may lack adequate medical or nutritional knowledge.4. they are responsible for the misuse of of their products. are the infant formula companies morally responsible for the misuse of their products and for whatever infant malnutrition results from the use of infant formula in Third World countries? Are Third World governments responsible? Are Third World mothers responsible? Is the medical profession in the Third World responsible? Ans. 1. The Abbott Laboratories' code stated in part: 1. Yes. in terms of their recognition of moral rights. Assess the codes in terms of utilitarian criteria. Q. Yes. if children are dying due to use of their products then government should ban their product 3. and in terms of their adherence to standards of justice.

and other public mass media. 5. Nurses' uniforms will be worn only by persons who are professionally entitled to their use. We will direct additional company resources to: (a) encourage breast-feeding. professional communications and educational materials will be provided to caution against misuse . Deception and other unethical practices are expressly forbidden. and midwives whenever possible to perform mother craft services. (c) improve infant and child care. 3. criticized the marketing code as too weak and subsequently withdrew from the ICIFI. (2) provided no way of ensuring that sales staffs . . billboards. .11 The codes of ICIFI stated in part: 1. nutritionists. 8. 7. we do not advertise our products through general circulation magazines. newspapers. We do not encourage use of our products where private purchase would impose a financial hardship on the family. Product claims will reflect scientific integrity without implication that any product is superior to breast-milk. The members of ICIFI accept responsibility for the diffusion of information that supports sound infant feeding practices. maternities. or where inadequate facilities for preparation constitute a hazard to infant health. 4. directories. Both Nestlé and American Home Products adopted the code.Therefore. television. Unless proscribed by law. (b) promote good overall nutritional practices. proper proportions in preparing the formula. 10. 2. Our product label and printed instruction. however. Members will employ nurses. ICIFI marketing code (1) implied that only "healthy" mothers should breast-feed their infants. Individual contacts by mother craft personnel and issuance of complimentary supplies of breast-milk substitutes will be in consultation with medical or nursing personnel. 4. The company has devised internal procedures and policy to maintain ongoing surveillance of our marketing practices. we will terminate any distributor who does not follow the code. . 6. Company representatives are thoroughly taught the preference and value of breast-feeding. Mother craft personnel will support doctors and will not discourage mothers from breast-feeding. and physician's offices and all contacts. 6. Abbott Laboratories. 9. Samples are supplied only to professional health care personnel at their request. . Members' personnel will observe professional ethics . (d) improve sanitation. . in addition to stressing the importance of breast-feeding. 5. If any contact with mothers is made it must be with the explicit agreement of a health care professional. will emphasize the need for accurate. . In cooperation with health authorities. radio. in medical/nursing centers. Product labeling will affirm breast-feeding as the first choice for the nutrition of infants. 3. . 2. Product information for the public will always recognize that breast-milk is the feeding of choice with the recommendation to seek professional advice when a supplement or alternative may be required.

inadequacy. (3) allowed marketing of formula among illiterate mothers who could not read the instructions for preparing the formula." ………………………………………………………………………… . and developing countries would communicate the superiority of breast milk. and (6) was subject to "several weaknesses. (4) allowed company sales staff to "be visible in medical wards and maternity institutions." (5) failed to regulate promotional material.