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The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (typically abbreviated GATT) was negotiated during the UN Conference on Trade and Employment and was the outcome of the failure of negotiating governments to create the International Trade Organization (ITO). GATT was formed in 1949 and lasted until 1993, when it was replaced by the World Trade Organization in 1995. The original GATT text (GATT 1947) is still in effect under the WTO framework, subject to the modifications of GATT 1994.
GATT held a total of 8 rounds.
[hide]GATT and WTO trade rounds v • d • e Name Start Duration Countries Subjects covered Achievements Signing of GATT, 45,000 tariff concessions affecting $10 billion of trade Countries exchanged some 5,000 tariff concessions Countries exchanged some 8,700 tariff concessions, cutting the 1948 tariff levels by 25% $2.5 billion in tariff reductions
Torquay September 1950 8 months
Geneva II January 1956
Tariffs, admission of Japan
nontariff measures. services. an settlement. nonnegotiations. tariff leading to major measures. etc developing countries. . and an extension of intellectual property rights.9 billion of world trade Tariff concessions worth $40 billion of world trade Tariff reductions worth more than $300 billion dollars achieved Kennedy May 1964 37 months 62 Tariffs. agricultural dispute subsidies. and extended the range of trade Tariffs. allow full access agriculture. Tariffs. reductions in rules. "framework" agreements Uruguay September 1986 87 months 123 The round led to the creation of WTO. agreement to textiles. Doha November 2001 ? 141 The round is not yet concluded.Dillon September 1960 11 months 26 Tariffs Tariff concessions worth $4. agriculture. Antidumping Tokyo September 1973 74 months 102 Tariffs. tariffs (about intellectual 40%) and property. for textiles and creation of clothing from WTO. nontariff measures.
102 countries took part in the round. who first proposed the talks.  Geneva Round . investment.  Torquay Round .  Dillon Round . Douglas Dillon. Along with reducing over $4. $2. .9 billion in tariffs.  Kennedy Round . Treasury Secretary and former Under Secretary of State.1951 The third round occurred in Torquay.S.S. transparency. 13 countries took part in the round.1949 The second round took place in 1949 in Annecy. competition. The contemporaneous rejection by the U.1964-1967 Kennedy Round took place from 1964-1967. The talks were named after U. around 5000 in total.1960-1962 The fifth round occurred once more in Geneva and lasted from 1960-1962. Concessions were made on $190 billion worth. of the Havana Charter signified the establishment of the GATT as a governing world body.labor standards.  Tokyo Round . 8. it also yielded discussion relating to the creation of the European Economic Community (EEC). environment. Thirty-eight countries took part in the round.1955-1956 The fourth round returned to Geneva in 1955 and lasted until May 1956. The main focus of the talks was more tariff reductions.5 billion in tariffs were eliminated or reduced.1973-1979 Reduced tariffs and established new regulations aimed at controlling the proliferation of nontariff barriers and voluntary export restrictions.700 tariff concessions were made totaling the remaining amount of tariffs to ¾ of the tariffs which were in effect in 1948. patents etc Annecy Round . Twenty-six countries took part in the round. France. England in 1950. Twenty-six countries took part in the round.
during several rounds of GATT negotiations (particularly the Tokyo Round) plurilateral agreements created selective trading and caused fragmentation among members. The 75 existing GATT members and the European Communities became the founding members of the WTO on 1 January 1995. on 4 May 2010. and included mostly small and medium sized agricultural exporters such as Australia. Although it was designed to serve multilateral agreements. One of the most significant changes was the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The contracting parties who founded the WTO ended official agreement of the "GATT 1947" terms on 31 December 1995. The other 52 GATT members rejoined the WTO in the following two years (the last being Congo in 1997). many countries considered the exception of agriculture to be sufficiently glaring that they refused to sign a new deal without some movement on agricultural products. its application is considered a new (non-GATT) one. The Agreement on Agriculture of the Uruguay Round continues to be the most substantial trade liberalization agreement in agricultural products in the history of trade negotiations. Agriculture was essentially exempted from previous agreements as it was given special status in the areas of import quotas and export subsidies. Indonesia. hoping to expand the competence of the GATT to important new areas such as services. (renamed to Serbia and Montenegro and with membership negotiations later split in two). Since the founding of the WTO. therefore. intellectual property. and agriculture. eliminate over time export subsidies on agricultural products and to harmonize to the extent possible sanitary and phytosanitary measures between member countries. These fourteen countries came to be known as the "Cairns Group".  GATT and the World Trade Organization Main article: Uruguay Round In 1993. reduce domestic support of agriculture in the form of price-distorting subsidies and quotas. The WTO expanded its scope from traded goods to trade within the service sector and intellectual property rights. Canada. is not recognised as a direct SFRY successor state. Whereas GATT was a set of rules agreed upon by nations. Of the original GATT members. with only mild caveats. capital. WTO arrangements are generally a multilateral agreement settlement mechanism of GATT. The goals of the agreement were to improve market access for agricultural products. and New Zealand. 21 new non-GATT members have joined and 29 are currently negotiating membership. There are a total of 153 member countries in the WTO. by the time of the Uruguay round. the WTO is an institutional body. textiles. The General Council of WTO. It was the most ambitious round to date. .1986-1994 The Uruguay Round began in 1986. Uruguay Round . Brazil. Since FR Yugoslavia. agreed to establish a working party to examine the request of Syria for WTO membership. 123 countries took part in the round. Syria and the SFR Yugoslavia has not rejoined the WTO. However. the GATT was updated (GATT 1994) to include new obligations upon its signatories.
however. Tufts University: Article I General Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment. Until the recently concluded Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations.org/TG/PI/TRADE/gatt. a dispute between the United States and Mexico over limiting imports based on fishing practices." a report that offered . Explicit environmental concern related to GATT has grown in the last few years. Article XVI Subsidies. and in the GATT dispute panel report (1991) on the case. The complete Uruguay Round text is also available on-line. the word environment did not appear in the GATT text. in the U. In 1992.S. Also in 1991 a GATT disputeresolution panel made a ruling in the tuna-dolphin case. Consideration of GATT's relationship to environmental policy is an emerging concern in trade and environmental policy circles. and the Agreement Establishing the Multilateral Trade Organization. Article III National Treatment on Internal Taxation and Regulation. The following sections of GATT are often referenced in the examination of trade-environment issues. an Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures that permits some environmental subsidies in section 8. The excerpts are from GATT as amended through 1966. a GATT committee on environment met for the first time in 1991.http://www. Several provisions and sections of GATT may be relevant to environmental issues.html General Agreement on Tariffs And Trade The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was first signed in 1947. Article XIII Non-discriminatory Administration of Quantitative Restrictions. Article XI General Elimination of Quantitative Restrictions. Office of Technology Assessment (1992) report Trade and the Environment. GATT produced "Trade and the Environment. Issues in the tuna-dolphin dispute are described by Cough (1993) in "Trade-Environment Tensions". GATT membership now includes more than 110 countries.2. Article XX General Exceptions. The GATT Final Act Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round contains several other relevant items: the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. originally digitized by the Multilaterals Project of the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Although formally organized in 1971.ciesin. The agreement was designed to provide an international forum that encouraged free trade between member states by regulating and reducing tariffs on traded goods and by providing a common mechanism for resolving trade disputes.
In some ways. http://uspolitics.General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Definition: The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) provided global trade rules as well as a framework for trade disputes from 1948 to 1994.the Uruguay Round of 1986-94 -." Schoenbaum (1992) evaluates the impact of existing GATT provisions and discusses when trade restrictions may be appropriate within environmental agreements. Charnovitz (1992) examines the potential of GATT to limit trade-based implementations in environmental agreements in "GATT and the Environment. the 1992 report. Environmental. (The others were the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.com/od/politicaljunkies/g/GATT. specifically by reducing protective tariffs.GATT's recommendations on the relationship between international trade and environmental measures.) The goal of GATT founders was to liberalize world trade." suggesting that global consensus on sustainable development as a guiding policy principle has added weight and priority to environmental concerns in relation to trade policy. this tension sets up political conflict. It was one of three Bretton Woods organizations developed after World War II. The first round of negotiations impacted one fifth of world trade. GATT is seen as potentially limiting or barring trade provisions in environmental agreements. Because trade agreements must be approved by governments. Labor often argues for trade restrictions in order to protect domestic jobs.htm What Is GATT . Weiss (1992) comments on Schoenbaum's article in "Environment and Trade as Partners in Sustainable Development.about." In "Free International Trade and Protection of the Environment. legal. Corporations often argue for more open trade in order to have access to new markets. The recent cases. and other experts have also called for reform of GATT to accommodate international concern for environmental issues. there were 23 founding members.led to the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and a new set of trade agreements. and growing international consideration of the relationship between trade and environmental policy have focused attention on GATT's influence on international environmental agreements. The eighth and last round -. .
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