F 436 - 93

Standard Specification
10 n,


Hardened Steel Washers ""'!lI

lb,~ S>30dlrd.h issued under the 1il;~cl""gnJI.iiln F 436: the number immooiolely ["Howing the designation iudicates the -YC.2T of n31 .dOPll?" or, '~ ,be Case of ~:L",:n. the year of last revision. A number II> parenih.".,. ;mj'catcs the year of (c"ppr~'·al.A s:up::rscnpI epsikm (4:) indic tes an editorial c:hange since the last revision or :re::lpp:rClr~L


1. SCO~

1 2' 3 4. 5

6 T
7 C

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1.1 This specification covers the chemical, mechanical, and dimensional requirements for hardened steel washers for lise. with fasteners having nominal thread diameters of 'I. through 4 in. These washers are intended for general-purpose mechanical and structural use with bolls, nuts. studs, and other internally and externally threaded fasteners. These wash~rs are suitable for use with fasteners coverectTr\ Specificati~.ns A 325, A 354, A 449 A 490_;aw~_]~"rrThe washers are designated by type denoting the material and by sly/e denoting the shape. 1.2.1 The types of washers covered are: Type J-Carbon steel. l.2.1.2 Type 3- Weathering steel Atmospheric corrosion resistance and weathering characteristics are comparable 10 that of steels covered in Specifications A 588/,\ 5881\,[ and A 7D9/A 709M. The atmospheric corrosion resistance of these steels is substantially better than that of carbon steel with or wi thou! copper addition. See 5.1 When properly exposed to the atmosphere, these steels can be used bure (uncoated) for many applications. 1.2.2 The styles of washers covered are: Cirm/ar-Circular washers in nominal bolt sizes i{., through 4 in. suitable for ap liea iOIlS where sufficient space exists and angularity permits . Beveled-Beveled washers are square or rectangular, in nominal sizes '12 through I 'h in .. with a beveled l to 6 rstie surface for use, with American standard beams and channels. l.2.2.3 Clfpped-Clipped washers are circular or beveled for use where space limitations necessitate that one side be dipped.

A 354 Specification for Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts. Studs. and Other Externally Threaded FastenersA 449 Specification for Quenched and Tempered Steel Bolts and StuW A490 Specification for Heat- Treated Steel Structural Bolts, 150 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength" A s8S/A S88M Specification for High-Strength LOw-Alloy Structural Steel with 50 ksi [345 MPu] Minimum Yield Point to 4 in. [lOO rnrn] Thick" A 687 Specification for High-Strength Nonheaded Steel

Bolts and StudsBridges"

A 709{A 709M A 751 Test



Structural and


for for




Chemical Analysis of Steel Products'
B 695 Specification for Comings of Zinc Mechanically Deposited On Iron and Steel" D 3951 Practice for Commercial Packaging' F 606 Test Methods for Determining the Mechanical Properties of Externallv and lutemallv Threaded Fasteners, Washers. and Rivets> • G 10 I Guide for Estimating the Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance of Low-Allov 511." ls~ 3. Drdering Information 3.1 Orders for hard .ned steel washers under this specificalion shall include the Iollowing: 3.1.1 ASTM designation and yea, ,.11issue. .11.2 Quantity (nu 111 ber of pieces b~ size), 3.1.3 Type and Style (s e 1.2.1 and 1.22), 3.1.4 Zinc Coalillg-Speci!\, the zinc coating process required, for example. -dip, mechanically deposited. or no preference (see 4.3), 3.1.5 Dimensions, nomi nal size, and other dimensions, if modified from those covered in this specification, 3.1.6 Specify if ins ection at point of manufacture is required, 3.1.7 Speci fy if manufacturer's certification or test repons, 01' both, are required, and 3.1.8 Special requirements.

aTE-A complete metric companion !O Specification F 436 has, _,' been devetcped-s-Speciflcauon F 436111;therefore DO metric equivalents . arc: presented in tills specification. •j



2. Referenced





A 153 Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) 00 Iron and Steel Hardware? A 325 Specification for Structural Bolts, Slee], Heat Treated. 120/105 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength)

4. !VLaterials and Manufacture 4.1 Steel used in the manufacture of washers shall be

I This 5pecifi.cation is under the junsdrcnon of ASfM Commiuee
Fasteners and is the direct respousibiliry of Subcomrninee Nuts, R;v~ and Washers. -UJRnI edition ilppm,~d Feb. 15. 1993. Published April published as F 436 - 76. Last previous edition F 436 - 'Ie. , A """"I Book oJ.HTM Standards, Vol 01.06. '.·j""u«i BMk c{.1STM Suuuiaras: Voll~.08.

'F-16 n f16.02 on Steel 6 11$. • Anaual Book: 19'13. Originally 'Ann"al

) Annlh1lllatJk {l(.1.ST.V Standards. Vol 01 0).


StandardS. Vol 01.04.

BO<lko/.~ST_~f Standards, Vel 02.0~. Book o[.1STM Standas ds, Vol. 15.09. I Anmwl Book o/.~ST.\f Standards. "'.11 03.U2.

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max O.3. .0~5 0.040 0. or 00 preference.34c 0."" 2'1.65 OA2-0 S8 0.177 0.34c 10/. 1'/. Class C or a mechanically deposited zinc coating ill accordance with Specification B 695. in. hot-dip.37 (lAS-0. Clipped • iV.r tlr1d Cllpp. 4 tv~ 1"/.060 Heal analysis Produel analysis SI:icon Heat analysts PrOO<JC1nalyst! a Chromium Heal a alysis 4.35 OJ 5-0.28' 0.34c 0. 4.-.24" O. :If. 4.136 0. or electricprocess. 'I..mover-Tihi~·.2"c Irom tne center ::''/Jl . In.5-0A5 0.45 0. Product . CIa s 50..051 0051 0.:-~ -. _______ - through hardened or carbnrized at the option of the manu- Type 3" O. 11}" 1~/.produced furnace lot.080 0.. '» ''Ir. 3'1.136 0. nominal.288 0. c V.48 4.122 0:136 0. 2 2'\'" 2'%: .178" O. 4 edge 7 7'1> Eshaillle not cI~r Ihan 'f$' 3'10 31/11 4'10 of 3".a)~-bc ~ithq.------ qffl1 TABLE ChemiCBI Requireme-nts CompoSition. 11n 9/3' '1'(:)i' 1·'l/:l2 1ill!i '1il~6 'I. TAS.---------_.l:n 0.177 0.my ol tne steels by the open-hearth. 2t. nominal.. I<--E-tl Clipped Circular Clipped Circula. Ill..050 0.080 0..' 3V18 3!/'6 3'1. bolt dlameier or the wastier. 100 .2'1'.4 If washers arc heat treated by a su bcontrartor.O~Q O..t·~ J'h 4'h 5 5'1> 6 61/.'/~ 2• 3 3'1. Nomiha\lnsid" Diameter (10).e !Io .177 0.177 0. in. 'f. max Heal analystS PrOduct analySIs Sulfur~ max J.136 0.080 0. '10 1 g~Ol' l't. Type i Pt1Qsphorus. the purchaser shall specify the zinc coaling process. 1'ih :2 1'1.34" 0.HBB O.~-}.177 Minimum Edge Dislance IE)".2~c 0.24c O.. the supplier may furnish either a hot-dip zinc coating in accordance with Specification A 153. 4. ?'t..22-0. i/l'~ 'I.34" O.OBO 0.177 0. 3'1. mechanically deposited.3 .097 0. for example. 2 211" 2. 1".1 When hot-dip is specified the washers shall be zinc coated by the hot-dip process in accordance with the is specifiedtbe washers shall be zinc coated by the mechanical-deposition process in accordance with the requirements of Class 50 of Specification B 695. [hey shall be returned 10 the manufacturer for testing prior to shipment to the purchaser. lh.4 When no preference is specified.: '3f."<l Circular Diameler lOO). Threaded components (boll and nuts) shall be coated by the same zinc-coating process and the supplier's option is limited to one process per item with no mixed rocesses in a requirements of Class C of Specification 4. In.1 When mechanically deposited A [53.055 0.25-0.050 0. I When zinc-coated washers are required.. basic-oxygen.24c O.136 0. 'f.24c Q_24c O.. "Ia '1/. F 436 facrure.~". WsatherillQ 51".3 Zinc Coalings.051 0.122 0. --I-t--UIt Circular 90It Size Nominal Outside tI.:1:2-0A8 0.177 0..34" 0.136 0. 2'1e 2'io 3'1..34c 0. '~3 1~8 11/8 2'1< 2'" 3 3"'"0..lf1JlIY$i$ Nickel H ee1 analysis Produ C:I aIlaJys Copper i$ Heal an&lysis Product a!"lalysis .3. 4.15-0. '''I.051 0. in bolt size 511all be through harde~aSi.Tolerances are as noted in table on washer dimenSion tolerances.~~ '0/.34<: O. manufactured from . 'h '&" 11f~tI 1:v'1-8 115/32 1 1 'I..ij Thlclmess min (T).1 waShers lisled III Table 2 of S~ilica!lo!1 may also ~ A 3:25.050 0.177 0. 117/u 1'/.177 0. .3.2 Washers up to and including Jljz in. Hot-Dip and Mechanically Deposited: 0. 2"'.2..24c O. 1M.LE 2 Hardened Circular and Clipped Circular Washers NOTE 1.! Ph2 11!. 0.

01 the bolt diameter Irom the..(1.D. 7. D.1 AI! square beveled and clipped square beveled washers shall conform to the dimensions shown in Tables 3 and 4. Dimensions and Tolerances 7..1 . 9. center 01 the washer. 7.1 The requirements of this specification shall be met ill continuous mass production for stock. in which case they shall have a hardness of 26 to 45 HRC. _§.':" ~'\a 1/. except when zinc-coated by the hot-dip process. Sampling and Number of Tests 6. Square Crtpped C11pped Slope 01 Taper Thickness f" Mifllmum Skle Dlmension (Aj. Hardened Beveled Washer. l::. In.1 Non-carburized ~l'ashers-A minimum of two 200 . Chemical Composition 5. washers shall be coaled as Jgreed upon between the manufacturer and the purchaser.15!r/16 1 :6 1:6 1:6 1:6 1:6 '1/. in. Workruanship.1. plain (uncoated) hardened steel circular washers shall be furnish d. Finish.r. 1. 'i.1 All circular and clipped circular washers shall conform the dimensions shown in Tables 2 and 4.3 From each 101 described in 9.1 PIG 11/2'_:V4 " slll!i 5Ao ~ Rectangular beveled washars Shall conform to Ihe dimenSIOnssh wn above. the number of specimens tested for each required property shall be as follows: Number of Pieces in LO! 800 and under SOI 108000 '001 \0 22 000 0. 1. except that one side may be longer 111<1n shown for the "A" dimension. 2'1. except when zinc-coated vashers shall have a hardness of38 by the hot-dip process.tJ 13h6 15115 P/6 ~'l~ S/'I!! 6/.2 Product anal 'sis may be made by the purchaser from finished material representing each lot of washers. Test Methods 10. 7. and shall have a surface hardness of 69 to 73 HRA or 791023 HRI5N. 1rlJ.2. in which case they shall have a hardness of 631073 liRA or 73 to 83 HR15N. ses shall be performed in aecordance with Test Methods.2.) Carburizedlll!d_ hardened washers s1:all have a_min· imum core hardness aDO HRC or 65 HRA.2 Same material grade. a Clipped ooq" E sllall not be clOS91lhilll'l.'.2.lj". and the manufacturer shan make sample inspections to ensure that the product conforms to the specified requirements.~@1 F 436 TABLE 3 N TEl-Tolerances 6HIas noted ir"l Table 4.2 When additional tests are specified in the inquiry or purchase order. Where corrosion-preventive treatment is required.3 Unless otherwise stated in the inquiry or purchase 10 6. a lot..1. Additional tests of individual shipments of material are not ordinarily conteruplated. 2'.1 Same nominal size. Mechanical Properties to 45 HRC. For Type) sec Guide G 101 for methods of estimating corrosion resistance of low alloy steels. Nom 001 InsJde Diameter iI.! Through hardened 9. . in. 1:6 1:6 1:6 1:6 'lei lVe 1'/.1 Washers shall be free of excess mill scale.j.2. Nomll1l11 Edge D"'lance (f). Arc and gas CU 1 washers shall be free of meta 1 spatter. 22 000 Number of Specimens I 2 ) 5 10. 5. H'.3 Same nominal post treatment (heat treatment Or coating or both).:! and CIJpped Square Beveled~ BOIl Size. 5.1 Hardness. for purposes of sclec ing test samples."! Mean ThiCk ness (T).! 1'¥~ H'... 6.' 10. Practices.0 15 in.4 Chemical anal.l-i 1'. 9. shall consist of all material offered for inspection at one time that has the following common characteristics: 9.1 Type I and Type 3 washers shall conform to the chemical composition specified in Table I. 9. except thai one sioe may be longer than tnat shown for me A dimension. order. 1 1'/. 5. and Terminology A 751. 5. 9. 9. 1 V. The chemical composition shall conform to he requirements of 4. TTl addition. 2'1".1 and 5. T Square Square Bevela. rectangular beveled and clipped rectangular beveled washers shall conform to the dimensions shown in Tables 3 and 4.2 Carburized washers shall be carburized to a minimum depth of 0. 8. 2'1.8 10 1/.. In. excess coatings and foreign material on bearing surfaces.3 Individual heats of steel are not identified in the finished product. and Appearance 8.

Surface Roughness SI. Ind I) 4 rn.090 FIR~ 0.6 11 is possible that during the clipping or circular washers the marking symbols may be remo -ed.010 15.032 0. a manufacturer's certification that the material was manufactured and tested in accordance with this specifi alion.1 is required by the purchaser.IR'I 0.1. it shall be specified in th inquiry and contract order. 16. Mill inspection by the purchaser shall not interfere unnecessarily with the manufacturer's operations. 12. l5.1. +'!" O. identifications shall preferably be in different locations and. 15.2 Hardness tests shall be performed in accordance with the Rockwell test method specified in Test Methods F 606.2 Data 3 contained in the certified test report shall To 11/.1 Unless otherwise specified. Fl. Rejection and Rehearing 12.n.1 ASTM designation and type. Responsibility 14.) Con""'n 'ry. 16..250 I. as appropriate. 10.0 I m . 16. may be used by the manufacturer..2 BUITS Dr on tile surface.mll F 436 TABLE 4 Washer Dimension Tolerances OVer 1 'It In. LO. In case of dissatisfaction with the results of the test.. Product Marking 15. in. shall be furnished at the time of shipment.2 When special packaging r quirements are required. of the Test Report J 3. or both.1 The party responsible for the fastener shall be the organization that supplies the fastener to the purchaser and certifies that the fastener was manufactured.1 Material that fails to conform to the requirements of this specification may be rejected. Type 3 weathering steel washers shall be identified with the symbol "3".6 Country of origin. 15. to identify the manufacturer or private label distributor.~. in.I -.4 All marking symbols shall be depressed on one face of the washer.1. The two when on the same level.1. Rejection should be reported to the producer or supplier promptly and in writing.e.----------_j ~. All tests and inspections shall be made at the place of manufacture. center of hole to outside dl<!mete.1.1 Each shipping unit shall include or be plainly marked with the following information: \6. In. Nornlnlll wtsJde diameter. the producer OT supplier may make claim for a rehearing.2.lness: mlll< c!ev. Keywords 17. in height including REQUIRl<:MENT any llaws in S 1. 14. 11.2 Additionally. l~cI 13. weathering steel SUPPLEMENTARY 81. NOllilna. Nominal Bolt Siz. or other distinguishing marks.2. L3 Name and brand or trademark turer. steel.030 FIR' 0.015 10. 15.2 Carburized .D15 '-0. Ihel -0. IIl1d 13. shall not exceed 0.5 Purchase order number.1. washers.010 1-0'+'(1. together with a report of the latest mechanical tests of each stock size in each shipment.1 Packagtng: 16.+'11 0. packaging shall be in accordance with Practice D 3951.r Burr soan no project abolle Im"1!'diat<lJy adjace[1t washer surface mo<e than (in.3 Additional identification or distinguishing marks.produced and furnished in accordance wi h this specification. 11. 4 Number of pieces..1 Package Marking: 16.1 Washers shall be marked with a symbol.1 Upon reque-St of the purchaser in the contract or order.025 0.) A. Nom"al dillmeter of hole. they shall be defined at the time of the inquiry and order.2. Packaging and Package Marking 16. - ~V~ 0.er include material grade and hardness test. Certification manufac- 16. Nominal Sol Size. 16. 201 . and 16.1 carbon steel. by at least two spaces.J Washers shall have a multidirectional lay with a surface roughness not exceeding 750 uin. Bolt Size. in height.:: Size. sampled tested and inspected ill accordance \1"1\11this specification and meets all of its requirements. 16.2 if other than the normal inspection for cominuous 'mass production of parts as stipulated in 9.Washers-A minimum of two readings shall be taken 180· apart on at least one face. Inspection 11. This is acceptable provided that the majority of washers in the lot still display the identification marks.1 T e manufacturer shall afford the purchaser's inspector all reasonable facilities necessary to satisfy him that the material is being. shall be separated 1= ull indt:ca leN'" J1JfiOut_ readings shall be taken 1SO· apart on at least one face at a minimum depth orO.atoon from slraigtlledge plB<:ed O<l out side shall rIOl exceea (.2. 15.015 in. 17. unless otherwise agreed to.1. 10. Type and manufacturer's or private label dist ibutor's identification shall be separate and distinct.2. 0. l±'" ±'f.

Yow commenlS are iMired ai(MI lor revision oil/liS SilJrldBra or lor addItional :.sen fhar lj'~alafmin'·~Hionf ~hjJ validIty o[ any such o such rJ~IlIS.s.'aIIOjity 01 any palenl rifihtS 6sSolTr1d in connecrioll ally (Uiilm n1'snn'onea in tJ~1S SUJ..IV fwe yG8I.tl 011 Sramiards.------ ~m~ whn p31~nt rfgnts.• ilhor reapproved or wilhdrawn.." no posilI(ln 'QSpSCiiniT/he ....oonsJtJla tech leal committoo and rnusr be tGvie-we eVi.. 202 .n SOClely ro.iveCf a 'afr /lMftMg you snould make 0'>1 views know" to the ASTM C mil!.isiot"l sr any fimf3 by (hI) r6s..& and il nOI rOIl>se<i .. ThiS srandard i.are Mllre/)' rheir own rdsponsibrlily. Tilsri"g and Malenai. wllich you rna)' allMd.chllfcal commri1oe.. PA 19U1J.. la"...---------------------.. Phlisdalpnta.ndlJrd_ Ut:MS Qf trus SrandiJfd t1tU f!)(pn':ssty ~d~. /f you leel Ihill your comments have nOi .s -subiect 10 te ..aeralion al a ml!8flng 01 rns rasponslble t.:eIve caralul cOf'. 1910 R~ Sr.----~--.rlJndarC/s and should 00 addressed 10 ASTM HuadqrtatTers Yo"" commellts will ... and Ihe (Isle vI m/flngemall! of F 436 Tne Amerlc.

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