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au äu ei eu ie One consonant is used as a vowel: Y Long and Short vowels: Each vowels has along and short form depending on which consonant followes. As a rule, an “H”, a consonant, or another vowels will stretch the preceding vowel; two consonants will shorten it. SCHAL (shawl) and WIESE (meadow) have long vowels. SCHALL (echo) and HUND (dog) are short ones. Den = [den] Denn = [dɛn] In Deutsch, each vowel has an open/closed sound; the closed sound has a longer duration: Vowel closed/lonɡ open/short i i ɪ e e ɛ a ɑ a o o ɔ u u ʊ [x] achlaut -‐ feel breath ɡo over and on sides of tonɡue [ç] ichlaut
Dipthongs ai ay ei au mixed vowels
Mixed vowel 2/3 RULE: 2/3 Tongue + Jaw 1/3 Lip position [unt ʊnt ənt ɑnt] German Consonants: Condensed tips • A plosive at the end of a syllable is unvoiced • A double consonant spelling calls for a longer consonant sound • “ch” after a front vowel or a consonant is [ç] • “ch” after a back vowel is [χ] – ach-‐laut • “h” after a vowel on in the same syllable is silent • “j” is [j] • “qu” is [kv] • “r” is a one-‐flip [r], though in unstressed syllables spelled “er” this is typically reduced to [UPSIDE DOWN A] • iɡ as a suffix is [ɪç]
i y ɪ ʏ ə e ø ɛ œ
u ʊ o ɔ