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A. Information Measure 𝐼𝑖 = 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑏 1 𝑃𝑖

Where: Pi = probability of the ith message

B. Average Information (Entropy) 𝑁 𝐻

=
𝑖

=0
𝑃𝑖

𝐼𝑖

Note: units could be in bits/symbol; bits/keys 𝐻

= 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑏 𝑁

Note: maximum entropy formula for symbols having same probabilities

C. Relative Entropy 𝐻𝑅 = 𝐻 𝐻𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑠

D. Redundancy 𝑟 = 1 − 𝐻𝑅

Code Word Length 𝑙 = 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑏 𝑀 G. A binary source sends binary 1 with a probability of 0.3. Evaluate the average information for the source.1.3. find the probability for sending a binary 1 and binary 0. Assume that the probability of sending any one digit is the same as that for sending any of the . and 9. A numeric keypad has the digits 0. such that the average source information will be maximized. Coding Redundancy 𝛾 = 1 − ή 𝐿𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑥100% 𝐿 Sample problems: 1.E. 2.5. Coding Efficiency ή= I. Average Code Word length 𝑁 𝐿 = 𝑖=1 𝑃𝑖 𝑙𝑖 H.2. For a binary source.4.6.7. Rate of Information 𝐻 𝑅 = 𝑇 𝑁 𝑇 = 𝑖=1 𝑡𝑖 𝑃𝑖 F.8.

describe by a channel matrix with only one non zero element in each row. The international Morse Code uses a sequence of dot and dashes to transmit letters of the English alphabet. A. 4. Lossless Channel . Deterministic Channel .A channel described by a channel matrix with only one non-zero element in each column. Calculate how often the buttons must be pressed in order to send out information at the rate of 2 bits per second. 3. Assume that the dot lasts 1 msec. The probability of occurrence of a dash is 1/3 of the probability of occurrence of the dot. Find the average rate (bps) of the information transmission. Lecture III. 1. Calculate the average information content in the English language assuming that each of the 26 characters in the alphabet occurs with equal probability. The dash is represented by a current pulse that has duration of 3 units and a dot has duration of 1 unit. Calculate the average information in the dot-dash code. Also compute for the coding efficiency in bits and dits. Calculate the information content of the dot. Channel Capacity The maximum rate at which information can be transmitted through a channel. C. B. which is the same interval as the pause between symbols.other digits. (source entropy) 𝐶 = 𝑙𝑜𝑔2 𝑁 2.(destination entropy) .

Find BW required for error free transmission if S/N is 25 dB. . A signal is transmitted down the line using a three level code.a channel that is both lossless and deterministic. d. a. Calculate the BER of source if it has BW= 10 kHz and S/N ratio of 20 dB. N= input symbols. transmitted over AWGN channel. Noiseless channel . Calculate the maximum data rate taking into account the presence of noise.2 kHz and a SNR of 36dB. Find S/N in dB required for error free transmission. Calculate the information rate of source. b. A telephone system has an input analog signal sampled at 1. A telephone line has a bandwidth of 3. c. 2.5x the Nyquist rate and each sample is quantized into one of 256 equally likely levels. BW=Hz Sample problems: 1. Shannon Limit for Information capacity 𝐶 = 𝐵𝑊𝑙𝑜𝑔2 (1+ ) 𝑁 𝑆 5.𝐶 = 𝑙𝑜𝑔2 𝑀 3. 𝐶3 = 𝑙𝑜𝑔2 𝑁 = 𝑙𝑜𝑔2 𝑀 4. C=bps. Shannon-Hartley theorem 𝐶 = 2𝐵𝑊𝑙𝑜𝑔2 𝑀 Note: M= output symbols. if BW = 10 kHz.

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