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The principle of the cyclic extrusion compression (CEC) process developed by Korbel et al. is represented schematically in Fig. 21 [18,108–111].

In the CEC process, a sample is contained within a chamber and then extruded repeatedly backwards and forwards. This process was invented to allow arbitrarily large strain deformation of a sample with preservation of the original sample shape after n passes. The accumulated equivalent strain is approximately given by ε=4nln(D/d) (6) where D is the chamber diameter, d the channel diameter and n the number of deformation cycles. Since the billet in the CEC process is compressed from the both ends, a high hydrostatic pressure is imposed. The extrusion–compression load becomes high so that the special pre-stressed tools are required, otherwise the tool life will be short. This process is better suited for processing soft material such as aluminum alloys. However, the strain introduced in the forward extrusion may be cancelled by the strain introduced on the backward extrusion.

and fi nally compression again. The true strain produced in one cycle is calculated as = εΔ4 ln (do/dm .)In the second cycle.Thus. leading to the same sequence of deformation modes .CIRP Annals Cyclic Extrusion and Compression Cyclic extrusion and compression (also sometimes called “hourglass pressing” )is performed by pushing a sample from one cylindrical chamber of diameter do to another with equal dimensions through a die with diameter d m which is markedly smaller than do. during one cycle.The process can be repeated N times by pushing the sample back and forth to give an accumulated .23 the principle is illustrated in Figure 5 . the extrusion direction is reversed. the material is pushed to fi rst experience compression. the processing induces extrusion and the chambers provide compression so that. then extrusion.

2 mm/s in order to limit heating of the specimen to <5 K . the microstructure and/or mechanical properties are similar because of the extra annihilation of dislocations due to the cyclic character of the straining.Although the strains reached with this method are much higher than those with any unidirectional SPD technique.24 . the strain imposed on the material in one cycle is εΔ 0.true strain of (N .4 .The deformation speed is as low as ~0.9.)εΔWith a diameter ratio of typically dm/do  0.Accumulated true strains of up to 90 have been reported23 with sample dimensions of about 25 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter .

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Terence G . Zenji Horita. Michael J .Valiev.Zehetbauer. Yuri Estrin. and Yuntian T .Langdon.Producing Bulk Ultrafi ne-Grained Materials by Severe Plastic Deformation Ruslan Z .Zhu Schematic distribution of radial and axial stresses in reciprocical extrusion process PROCESSING OF METALS BY SEVERE PLASTIC DEFORMATION .

(SPD) – STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES RESPOND J. DOBATKIN. MAMUZI^ . S. V. ZRNIK. I.