You are on page 1of 106
BAUER atl a aruliil Minerals in Thin Section W. S. MACKENZIE ¢, GUILFORD Atlas of Rock-Forming Minerals in Thin Section W.S. MACKENZ Profes C. GUILFORD res Superintendent of the Department of Geology University of Manchester 2 PhD FRSE FGS of Manchester ELBS English Lan Book Society/Longman Department of Geology, Faculty of Sci Tee oda COMORIAN Longman Group Ltd Longman House, Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE, England Associated companies throughout the world © Longman Group Ltd 1980 All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission‘of the Publishers. First published 1986 Reprinted 1981, 1982, 1984, 1986 ELBS edition first published 1986 ISBN 0 582 40738 9 Set in 9/10pt Monophoto New Roman Printed and bound in Great Britain by William Clowes Limited, Beccles and London era Contents Olivine 1 Monticellite Zircon Sphe Silimanite 10 Mallite 12 Andalusite 1 Andalusite & Sillimanite intergrowt Kyanite Tourmalin Axia) 4 A\ 6 mi Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Chi lite 42 yllite — Gedrite Tremolite~ Fertos Glaucophane 49 Arfved so Astrophyllite 52 Mu Biotite Pyrophyllite $8 Tale $9 Perthite & Microperthite Anorth Pl Myrmekite Granoph Leutite c 43 a 4s Ho Zussmanite 96 Yoderite 9 longkorn University Corea Preface together with 1 of producing a series of photographs of minerals in thin section came from two sources, The son of one of the Kenzie, then in hi ld be a useful a iably that they found those ompanying the text. part University, why they preferred tained illustrations. in 1914, has b slementar It seemed to us U increased enore phs were made from thin sections of ‘caching collections of the Ge rt atefl t s with thin sections. We are particularly rocks int Manchester Unive in Manchester for providin; ment to u ork and 10 Dr, 8,0. Agrell of the Depa Mineralogy and Petrology of Cambridge University und, fom the Harker Collection in Cambridge, a sor We A. graphs we Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Chi their consideration sled and longkorn University Coracy Introduction The minerals represented here are artanged in the same order in which they appear in Deer, Howie and Zussman’s Introduction to Rock vrming. Minerals (relevant page entry in square brackets), except for a few min described by these authors, viz. deerite, howieite, zussmanite, yoderite and lamprophyllite, The decision as to which minerals to include bas been bused mainly on two considerations, firstly, how frequently they occur and secondly whether a photogr als which cea be a useful aid in In the headings for each mineral we have listed the chemical formula (simplified in some cases) crystal system, optic sign, the values ofthe B refiactive index for biaxial minerals and the w and € ray refractive indices for uniaxial minerals together with the birefringence These figures have been quoted from Deer, Howie and Zussman’s book with cr permission. The rock type and locality of the specimens are quoted, where these are Known, and the magnifications used in taking the photographsare given, Each photograph is accompanied by a brief description of the field of view illustrated but, in_genertl, only properties which can be seen in the photographs are discussed. Thus wwe have omitted reference to optic axial angle, sign of elongation and dispersion, In most cases at least two photographs have been made for cach mineral, one in plane-polarized light and the other the same view under erossed polars. Ifthe mineral is pleachroie we have reproduced ‘so photographs in plane-polarized light with th orthogonal positions. In the case of isotropic min to-omit the view taken under crossed polars With few exceptions the polarizer has been set parallel to the edges of the photograph but we have not made much use of this fact since discussion of extinction angles is omitted except in the case of the polarizer in two Is we have tended plagioclase feldspars, because this would mece number of photogr: pleochroism, we have used rotation of the polarizer rather than rotation of the stage of the microscope for two reasons. Firstly, this, makes it easier to compare the photographs and observe the change in colour shown by any one crystal and secondly it has been doe to encourage the use of this method for detecting weak pleochroism. Although we have adopted the procedure of retaining the thin section in the same orientation forall three photographs, this has one disadvantage. If there are only a few crystals in the ficld of view, or the crystals havea strong preferred orientation in the rock section used, we have been unable to show the maximum change in absorption colour ‘on rotation of the polarizer through 90° since the extreme absorption soloursare shown by acrystal when its vibration direetionsare parallel to and perpendicular to the polarizer. In these positions the erystal would be at extinetion when viewed under erossed polars and ideally we wish to show the characteristic interfer te reproducin hs taken under crossed polars. In order to show ace colours near to their maximum intensity. We have not specified in which of the two Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn U! gonal positions the pa plane-polarized light As mentioned above we birefring er is set in the photographs taken in ave quoted the numerical value of the nce for each mineral, but in the description of the photograph we have generally referred to the order of the interference colour. To enable the reader to translate birefringence to a particu colour we have included on p. via photograph of a quartz wedge with 1 birefringence scale along its length. This should nor be used ax a Michel-Lévy chart since the thickness of the section is not taken into ‘account, i being assumed that the section is of standard thickness, viz. (003mm, Thus the mineral names are reproduced against the highest order colour whieh they show in a thin section of standard thickness rather than opposite radial lines which show the variation in colour ‘with thickness and birefringence of the mineral as in a Michel-Levy shart The faithful reproduction of the interference colours of minerals in thin section or in a quartz wedgeas seen under crossed polars, depends to a large extent on the type of film used und also on the printing process, Some of the Michel-Lévy charts that have been published depart slight from the true colours and one fault which is fairly ‘common concerns the middle of the second-order colours where a broad band of bright green is sometimes shown between blue and. yellow. Observation of a quartz wedge under crossed polars reveals, that the second-order ¢olour between blue and yellow is a rather pale green in contrast to the fairly deep green in the third order. Only in minerals which are colourless and have negligible dispersion, is it possible to distinguish these two greens and even then only after ‘considerable experience. In some of the photographs of minerals of moderate birefringence the edge of the erystals ean be seen to be wedge-shaped and thus the order of the interference colour can be determined fairly readily Some of the common minerals which are usually considered difficult to identify (c.g. cordierite) are represented by more than one rock section if we considered that additional photographs would give better idea of the variations in appearance which may be expected in different racks or if it was impossible, in one field of view, to illustrate the different properties which we wished to show Ina few cases the photographs taken in plane-polarized light show pale pink and green colours duc to stray polarization produced in the photographic equipment: when such colours are present wehave noted this in the description of the photograph, ersity ores z 0.000 F 0.005 F 0.010 F oois F 0.020 + 0.025 F 0.030 + 0.035 b 0.040 b 0.045 + 0.050 + 0.085 y Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Chi Birefringence chart Nepheting Apatite -MicroctingSanidine Sapphirine Asorihoclass — Vesuvianite Zoitiee ‘Conundum — Quartz Chlorite Eudialyte Andalusice Axinite Topaz Artvedsonite Jadeite Malte Sea Plagioet ase Serpentine Cordierite Brucite Lawsenite Manticetite Orthopyroxene — Zussmanite Chioritoid Glaucophane Pumpellyite _Sillimanite ancrinite Hornblande Voderite Anthophyllite-Gedei Mattie Deerite Augite — Howieite Chondrodite Fors LamprophyllitePrehnite Tourmaline Allanite Poctolite Scapolite ‘Cummingtonite-Grumerite Epidote Museovite longkorn University eras Olivine Olivine Mg, SiO,—Fe,SiO, Spmmetry Onthorhombie (+)(—) ROB 1651-18 Birefringence 0035-0052 ines form a complete solid solution between the nvend:member, forsterite, and the iron end: nber fayalite These photographs show two olivine Aneruned groundmass of plaglocas feldspar. pyr foxene and iron ore. The upper photo Blane plaize Light, shows the ypc lar eracks and sli u ‘sare characteristic of this mineral: there are signs of cleavage along the length of one of the crystal. photograph, taken under erossed polars, toan itis the optic a nel-order blue on the Fim whereas the main part of the erystal shows a slightly lower colour. The higher bi ice on the rim of the crystal is an indication of a higher irom content. The viz. lowering of the birefringence colour pe of the erystal boundary. ean be tom ed the olivine erystals and yst part of which just clinopyroxene phen: atthe bottom of the fick Specimen from ankaramite, Mauna Kea, Hawaii, magni cation 43. Department of Geology, Faculty of Scienc LED edate ooo OU LETLNA for Olivine Department of Geology, Mg, SiO, Fe, SiO, Symmetry Orthorhombie (+) (—) RIB 1651-1860 Birefringence = 0-035-0052 {nes form a complete solid solution between the nember, forsterite, and the iron end hotograph, taken in plane-polarized light shows olivine (brownish: the field) intergrown with a ealeie pl relief of the olivine a pale colour in olivine seen in plane-potarize« common but it does not show pleoehroism ~ the more iron-rich members of the series show a yellowish-browa colour. The cracks in the crystals as isthe slight alteration of the mineral ak In the lower photograph, taken under crossed p the interference colours are mostly second order; the een colour, occupying most of highest colour showing in this view is the yellow in the small erystal just above the centre of the field — thee colours indicate a mi zence eo rd order are only seen in ‘olivines with high iron contents, [1], Specimen from gabhro picrte, Border Group, Skaergaard intrusion, East Greenland; metgnification x 23 Monticellite Monticellite « CaMgsiO, Symmetry = Orthorhombie (—) RB 1646-1-664 Birefringence 0-012-0-020 In the upper photograph, taken in plane=potarized light, In the lower photograph, taken under crossed polars, the interference colours are seen to be low first ard in rocks without quartz or 2 mes difficult to judge the F ym monticellite-spinel- phil ard, Fire: magnificatio te rook, Bar- eer TC medmel ro ex: med Ae errs edge Cfo) Ghondrodite Chondrodite Mg(OH, F),-2Mg, SiO, Symmetry Department of Geolog ‘aculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University oreo) Chondrodite Chondrodite Mg(OH, F).-2Mg,$iO, RIB Birefringence inthis rock hy birettin k al of chondrodite, they can only be distin wished by the fact that the elinohumite has a higher wtiveindes, [13]. lchrise, Skye, Seatlanel, magnif Zircon Zircon ZrSiO, Symmetry Tet REow 1928-1.960 t 1968-2015 0042-0065 Zircon commonly occurs in rather small erystals but & easily th relief. The upper aph, taken in plane-polarized hs, Laken under crossed polars, als show high interference colours the left of centre which ‘at right to the optic axis and henee the low interference rs. The sphene crystals can perhaps be mor ph bec: enite-pegmatite, Kola Sphene Sphene CaTiSiO,(OH, F) Symmetry Monoclinie (+) RB bsT0-2 0100-0, Sphene is a relatively easy mit are very high without the ceful for identi Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, group Al, Fe, Ti, Cr), andradite group Symmetry = Cubic RIon = 1714-1887 A considerable range of compositions is possible in of refractive indices quoted. ery commonly euhedral or subhedral in shape umber of subbhedral stands out quite cle ofits high relief and of the groundmass mir feature, The middle photograph shows the same view under crossed polars and the garnets are seen to be als and this is a very common arnets are birefrin s revealed in the low bire lower photogr The lower p shows a melanite igneous rock. Its deep brown c distributed but it shows zonin; is the euhedral shape is very characteristic, The other ‘mineral in this section is altered alkali feldspar. [21 Upper and middle specimen from garnet-mica Pitlochry, Scotland; mas from segregation in nephelin ‘magnification x 20. LET odate CoM OU LETLNd os er TC medmel oer: mal Ne Rr (rales e (Idocrase) Vesuvianite (Idocrase) Cajo(Mg, Fe): ALSigQ,,(OH, Fy Symmetry = 2 ) RE = 1700 w = 1103 Birefringence 0-001-0-008 In the upper photograph, taken in plane-polarized light, al of idocrase occupies most of the field of view zh yellowish-brown colour ean be seen in contrast toafew holesin the section, Its very high relief ean also be seen against the mounting medium, The lower photograph under crossed polars shows the ‘vague signs of banc fairly common feature of large indication of zoning in thiserystal. The to strong dispersion a I: it commonly occurs. with srossular gamet which may also show low birefri identifying this mine 1e lower edge of the field of view lusions in the vesuvianite are Specimen from unknown locality: magnification » 25 Department of Geology, Sillimanite Sillimanite AL SiO, Symmetry Oxthorhombic (+) RL 8 1658-16 Birefringence 0-020-0022 taken in plane-polarized light ly against the eordier left-hand ‘Sillimanite Sillimanite AlSiOs Symmetry = Orthorhombie (+) RIB 1658-11662 Birefringence 0020-0022 These photographs show lath- which stand outin high relief whieh itisintergrown, Within the |s of silimanite cardierite with insufficient to justify the use ofthis term here. In the lower photograph, taken under erossed polars, Specimen from cordierite-sillimanite gneiss 1] km soutof Thosy, Madagascar. tion » 68. lalongkorn Universi os Department of Geology, Faculty of Scienc wa y Multite a 4 Mullite Al,SizO,5 Symmetry Orthorhombic (+) RIB 1642-1-675 = 0013-0028 iL needle-like crystals, plune-polarized light, rystal of anorthite sion used fr this photograph). colour in this section id is probably due to buchite and the two very the field of view are of glass raph, taken under crossed pol parallel to the vertical photograph are plagioclase twin lamellae in the extine position and in this photograph these could easi confused with mullite needles. ‘The interference eo shown by these ery © expected! and this is caused by thinner than the total thie interference colours af mullite in a seetion 0.03 mm thick should be about the same as those of sillimanite, [37] Specimen from buchite, Rudh” a” Chromain sill, Ross of Mull, Scotland; magnification » 68 Andalusite Andalusite AL,SiOs Symmetry Orthorhombie (—) RB = 1633-1-653 Birefringence 0-009-0-011 graphs, taken in plane-polarized light, porphyroblast of centre of the erystal there is a rectangular area full of inclusions and radiating towards the comers of the crystal there are concentrations of inclusions. This variety of Specimen from ehiastolite slate, Lake Disariet, England, ‘magnification x 4 Department of Geology, Faculty of Scienc lalongkorn Universi Andalusite Andalusite ALSiOg Symmetry Orthorhombie (—) RI 8 16633-1653 Birefringence = 0009-0-011 In thin section andalusite sometimes shows a pale pink pleochroism and if scen is fairly diagnostic. A. pale brownish-pink colour ean be seen in the upper photo- The high relief against ietothe right of centre of the photograph where the relief of the andalusite is also obvious ~ this is a hole in Ul section, The absorption colour affects 1 visible under crossed polars (lower phot lusite has two good cleavages, (1 ections show at least one rence colours in this pho als of muscovite Specimen from rock, Ardara pluton, Donegal Ireland; magnifica orn University ce Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Chulalo: Andalusite & Sillimanite intergrowth In the upper photograph, taken in plane-polarized light, most of the field is occupied of andalusit With a few inclusions of biotite cleavages of the andalusite: angles to each other photograph. Intergrown with the andalusi us diamond-shaped crystals of silimani Cleavage bisecting the angle between the The two minerals were probably formed at the cand the coincidence of the 2axes of the crystals fhe similarity of theie structures. The difference tive indices of the two minerals isnot sufficiently ‘great to show much difference in relieFin this photograph. Under crossed polars (lower photograph) both the andalusite and sillimanite show low interference hut the colour of the sillimanite is lower andalusite despite the fact that sillimanite ha birefringence than jon directions of both minerals are at 45° to the edges of the photograph). In this orientation both minerals show centred acute bisextrix interferences figures. [34]|38] h the (O10) idalusite Spee Mull, Scotland; magnification fram contact rock, Bendoran Cotdage, Ross of Department of Geology, Kyanite Kyanite AL,SiO, Symmetry Trielinic (—) RIB 1721-1923 In these photographs kyanite occu i Int Urquhart, Inve Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University for Topaz Topaz Al,SiO,(OH, F), ‘Symmetry = Onthorhombic (+) RB = 1-60-1631 Birefringence 0008-0011 The upper photograph, taken in plane-polarized light, is of topaz-quartz rock. The qu many tiny inclusions wh © tops in relief against the ons. The perfect (001) cle az is visible in one of the crystals the lower photograph, taken undererossed polars, it is difficult guish the topaz from th accompanied by mus- covite. [45] Specimen from topa:-tourmaline-quartz rock, Blackpool Clay Pit, Cornwall, England: magnification x 32. Department of Geology, Faculty of Scienc lalongkorn University Gera) Staurolite Staurolite (Fe, Mg),(Al, Fe),SisO,(0, OH), Symmetry Mor (pseudo-orthorhombic) (+) RIB 1-745-1.783. Birefringence 0012-0014 The upper and middle photog: of staurolite with biotite in a and feldspar, Pleochroism of the staurolite from yellow to hs show porphyroblasts ined mass of quartz pale yellow is shown in a few of the crystals. The lozenge the aurolite erystals is typi groundmass is well illust In the lower photograph, taken under crossed polars, the low interference colours can be scen, the large brown coloured erystal may owe its colour to 4 combination of the absorption colour and a first-order red, Inclusions as staurolite. [49] seen here are very comn Specimen from stawrolite schist, Waddy Lake, Saskar ‘chewvar, Canada; magnifeation ¥ 20, Chloritoid (Fe, Symmetry RE Og Birefringence AL,SisOio(OH), Chloritoid Department of Geolog Sapphirine Sapphirine (Mg, Fe),AlSiO, Symmetry Monoclinic (—) or (+) RIB 1-703-1-738 Birefringence 0.005-0.007 In the upper and middle photographs the sapphirine crystals are recognized by their colour, which in this case is pleochroic from an indigo-blue to a brownish-yellow colour. In this rock its high relief shows up quite there are other high relief minerals in the field, vz. arge erystal at top left-hand corner of the fie orthopyroxene (pinkish crystals at bottom right). The part of the field of view is a symplectite rowth of cordierite and orthopyroxene. Biotite and Under crossed pola nce coloursscem in the sepphirine: and the low birefrin fluenced by the sapphirine crystal in the lower left part of the field of view is surrounded by multiply-twinned eordierite(q.v.). [57] sm schist, Val Codera, Halys magnif Eudialyte Eudialyte (Na, Fe, Ca),Zr$i,O,,(OH, Cl) Row € e 6.000 to 0.010 In the upper phot a number of cubed! ph, taken in plane-polarized light crystals of eudialyte show up in inst analcite-with which itis surrounded. In this ph the subst 2gm has if ad been more fully closed th ld show more steonaly The lower photograph, taken under crossed shows two characteristic features of eudialyte which are (a) the uneven distribution oflow-interference colours, a distribution which is not always clearly related to a roth structure and (6) the da alteration product. Eudialyte is nd specimen colour but in ection the colour, if present, is generally pale. ‘The erystal at the top left-hand corner of the fcid is alkali feldspar which ere shows a patchy extinction not sissimilar to that of the eudialyte: the three greenish crystals in the field of view are of an alkali mphibole. (39) ily noticed in Specimen fromred kaker Kite, Mimaussag intrusion, West Greenland: magnification x 42. 21 LMU NG Ceres) Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Chulalon Zoisite Zoisite Ca,Al,Si,O,.(OH) Symmetry Orthorhombie (+) RIB 1688-1710 Birefringence 0.004-0-008 The upper photograph, taken in plane-polarized light. number of short prismatic crystals of zoisite own with quartz and nant of feldspar the quartzis parallel tothe! crystals show an’ ano somewhat unevenly di of both zoisite and the they are distinguished by the fact tl straight extinetion in all althou Specimen from zoisite schist, Glew Roy, Invemess-shire Seosland: magnification x60. Epidote Epidote Ca, Fe? Al SiyO,,(OH) Symmetry Monociinie(—) RIB 1725-1784 Birefringence 0015-0049 The colour of ¢ yellow) isa fea readily sinee th yellow in thin sec diaphragm was rather wide were taken hows the same view taken the bright interference col uted, ure very charuet idotized basalt, Michigar, USA. magnifi Piemontite Piemontite Ca,(Mn, Fe, Al), AISi,O,,(OH) Symmetry Monoclinic (+) REoB 1750-1807 0025-0088 Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University fer Allanite (Orthito) Allanite (Orthite) (Ca, Ce), FeAl,Si;0,2(OH) Symmetry Monoclinic (—) or (+) RIB 1-700-1-815 Birefringence 0-013-0.036 The upper phot shows the bro ph, taken in plane-polarized light, colour of the ni characteristic as a ark cracks. -ontained in this mineral cause a brown halo in rock ducto radiation damage but thercis thin section, Allanite is generally commonly found, The other (wo minerals visible in this section are microcline (tartan twinning) and quartz. (68 Specimen from granive, near Mandalahy, Maelo Lawsonite Lawsonite CaAl,Si,0,(OH),-H,O ‘Symmetry = Orthorhombic (4.) RIB 1674 Birefringence = 0-020 The upper and middle photographs are of the same field F view, one in plane-polarizé 1. The field is almost entirely oceupied by lavwsonite and the feint pleoshroism is shown by the slight difference in colour of the crystals in different orientations with many of the crystals show one of the two good s. The birefringence is moderate so od polars to show multiple twinning ae crystal in the centre of the field). The at the top right corner af this photograph is glaucophane and itis shown here since the occurrence of Tawsonite is restricied to glaucophane-schist facies rocks. [70] Specimen from glaucophane schist, Valtey Ford, Califor nla, USA. Upper and middle sp «20 Lower specimen with twinning