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RIDER UNIVERSITY | COLLEGE OF CONTINUING STUDIES

T I O D O T W O H & S I T I T A H W

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Faculty Guidelines
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FOR ONLINE TEACHING

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Written by Marie A. Cini, Ph.D. & Boris Vilic, MBA © 1999 Cini & Vilic August 2004: 2 Edition
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PLANNING AND DEVELOPING YOUR ONLINE COURSE................... 19
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TO THE READER If you have picked up this manual, chances are that you are thinking about teaching a course online. You are probably feeling as though the task is monumental, and you may not know where to begin. That’s exactly why we wrote this manual—to show you where to begin. When the first author began teaching online in 1996 there were few models available from which to learn. Very few faculty taught entirely online courses - nationwide. Some faculty added listservs to their face-to-face classes, but entire online courses were few. By the time the second author began teaching online in 1999—just three short years later—things had changed considerably. Many faculty members were teaching online, but the models were as varied as the curricula. And although many more books and articles about online teaching were available, a “how to” manual with actual examples of what to say online was nonexistent. So we decided to remedy that situation by drafting this instructor’s manual filled with real examples of how to plan for the online experience and then how to actually “behave” as an instructor online. Examples included are from both undergraduate and graduate level courses. We offer this manual not as THE model that you should use, but as an example of a model that is working for us. We have found that our students are learning and enjoying their experience online. Therefore, we invite you to borrow our model and build upon it for your own purposes in teaching. One of the lessons we learned very early in this venture is that online learning is a team sport…you can’t do it alone. And so we would like to thank all those individuals who make it possible for us to teach online. We especially thank our online students, who teach us as much as we teach them.

Marie Cini & Boris Vilic

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FORWARD Marie Cini and Boris Vilic have created a thoughtful and helpful guide for faculty teaching online. Faculty Guidelines for Online Teaching provides a wonderful meld of ideas for effective teaching online, suggestions based on personal experience, and specific examples from online courses. As Director of the Center for Teaching Excellence, I believe that this guide would be indispensable to a faculty member teaching online for the first time; however, the richness of its ideas and examples would undoubtedly make it useful even to veteran online teachers. The authors have been generous in devoting their talents and time to creating this guide for other faculty. They view it as a “work in progress” and invite other faculty to share their own experiences and successes in teaching online, so that subsequent editions of the guide can incorporate an even wider range of ideas and examples. Teaching online is a relatively new frontier. We invite faculty to explore ways of teaching that capitalize on the strengths of this medium so that our online students reap the benefits of a true Duquesne University education.

Dr. Dorothy A. Frayer Associate Academic Vice President Director, Center for Teaching Excellence

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In our experience, we have found that the live classroom and the online environment are qualitatively different experiences both for the instructor and the students. However, you should keep in mind that translating your course to the online environment is merely changing the delivery mechanism; you can certainly set and meet high quality educational standards in both formats. Moving from the live classroom to the online environment takes some restructuring of your course, and it requires you to view your role as an instructor a bit differently. In this guide we will take you step by step through the process of translating your live course to an online version.

Just as you would with any course you teach, ask yourself “What are the goals or objectives I would like my students to reach in this course?” For example, you might want your students to a) become better critical thinkers, b) master the course content and c) learn to work productively in a small group. Now, take the time to think through five to eight goals you would like your students to meet in a course you are currently teaching or planning to teach. List them here: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________

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These goals can be achieved in both the face-to-face and online classroom. The next section will show you how.
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First, think about how you teach in a live classroom. Like most instructors, you probably use a variety of teaching methods to achieve the goals you listed earlier. For example, you might lecture and hold large and small group discussions. Other instructors might lecture, show films, hold debates, and sponsor a field trip. Take a moment now and list the methods you use to teach the “live” version of your course: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 6. ________________________ 7. ________________________ 8. ________________________ 9. ________________________ 10. _______________________

Before we move to the online version of your course, take a moment to match up your overall course goals and your teaching methods. For example: Course Goals
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Now, take a few minutes and list your course goals and the live teaching methods you use to achieve these goals: Course Goals ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ Live Teaching Methods ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

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We have found that it is a good idea to make sure that your course goals and teaching methods “match up.” That is, have you built in teaching methods that will help your students meet the course goals? If not, could you try new or different methods? For example, if you want your students to enhance their critical thinking, have you built in at least one method to help them do this? Then ask yourself if each teaching method that you use is necessary. For example, if you ask students to hold a debate because you happen to like debates, but they don’t seem to learn anything new from the experience, you might drop that activity in favor of a method they do learn from. When you are satisfied that you have clear course goals and teaching methods that will help students achieve those goals, you can more easily translate your “live” class to the online environment.

We have found that teaching online has to be approached differently than teaching in a “live” classroom. In a live classroom, students have learned the norms of sitting quietly, listening to a lecture, taking notes, and generally not participating very much. Even in the most interactive classroom the instructor still does most of the talking. However, in an online class, the instructor plays a less active role. Notice we did not say “inactive” role! The instructor has an important role to play in the online classroom, but it is different than he or she is used to in a live class. We’ll discuss that later in this guide. In the online environment, students must take a great deal of responsibility for their learning. There is no classroom per se where they come to sit for a period of time, listen, and take notes. The instructor is less a “sage on the stage” and more a “guide on the side” (to steal an overused, but very accurate phrase). So, instead of asking yourself “how do I lecture online?” you should rephrase the question and ask “how do I ensure that students learn and understand the course content?” For example, instead of lecturing on the

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culture of Athens during the time of Plato, you might direct your students to read a text-based article with that information (and some interesting academic web sites can also be used as reference material). Not all material needs to be on the web, however! You will still assign a textbook or materials, and the students will still read them the “oldfashioned way,” in most cases. Your role becomes that of a mentor, helping students to understand the nuances of the material and guiding them to a more in-depth and inclusive discussion online.

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At this point it is a good idea to think through your course goals and develop online teaching methods to meet them. However, you must first understand what is possible in an online environment. Most web-based course software will offer you the following features that you can use (or not) in your online class: Web Pages. Web pages are used to post syllabus information, short written “lectures,” or reference material. Remember, though, that in an online environment short, lively pieces of text work best. Page after page of academic discourse is not useful; reading long texts while sitting at a computer screen is not comfortable or easy. Save dense material for a “hard” copy or an attachment that students can download and print on their end. Useful for (a) covering course content, (b) providing course structure. Calendar. A calendar enables instructors (and students) to post important dates and deadlines. Useful for providing course structure. Forums Discussion Forums. A discussion forum is an online course feature where messages that are posted are visible to the entire class. This feature is akin to a whole-class discussion, but it occurs asynchronously (not at the same time). Every class member can read every message and can reply publicly at times that are convenient for them. Useful for (a) covering course content, (b) enhancing critical thinking, (c) building community online. Forums. Private Discussion Forums Private forums are forums where only members of a small project group can go to discuss their work in private. This feature is similar to sending a small group of students off to another room to work privately. Again, this forum is asynchronous; students add to the ongoing discussion at times that are convenient for them. The instructor may or may not have access to their dialogue (this would be the instructor’s choice). Useful for (a) discussing content in small groups, (b) forming small communities online, (c) fostering creative thinking, (d) enhancing critical thinking, (e) improving team skills.

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Areas Group Presentation Areas. Presentation areas allow for a group project to be posted. Although student groups cannot present in a live fashion, they can work on a collective project and post it in a public area where others can read and comment on their work. Useful for (a) covering course content, (b) enhancing critical thinking, (c) modeling high quality work. Email. Email Private mail, or email, enables the instructor and an individual student to communicate “privately.” Also, two students can communicate privately. That is, the message will only be visible to the individual it is sent to, not the entire class. Useful for (a) communicating between individual student and faculty member, (b) providing formative evaluation. Classroom. Chat Room or Virtual Classroom A chat room is a feature that allows you to talk with one or more members of the class in “real” time (i.e., synchronously). We have found this not to be a pedagogically sound feature for group or class discussions; it tends to turn into a “tower of Babel” (or is it the “tower of babble”) as various thoughts come streaming in simultaneously. However, some faculty find the chat feature is useful for facilitating small group activities such as brainstorming or decision making when two or three students need to resolve an issue quickly (in real time). Useful for (a) building community online, (b) allowing students to communicate in real-time, and (c) explaining content and answering questions to a small number of students. Let's take one goal all instructors presumably share: enhancing students' learning of course content. Below we have listed traditional face-to-face teaching methods and their online counterparts. Course Goal Increase student learning of course content. Face-to-Face Methods 1. Assign book 2. Lecture Online Teaching Methods 1. Provide written materials offline 2. Explore and link to academic websites on the topic 3. Post short summaries

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with commentaries of the book chapters online It is a good idea to make use of the many features of the technology you will use. You can and should use active teaching methods, interactive discussion groups, and hyperlinks to Web resources. The new, interactive features of technology and the ability to access complete and updated information online can actually enhance the learning experience of students over and above the static face-to-face classroom.

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Take a few minutes now and list the online teaching methods you will use to reach your course goals: Course Goals Online Teaching Methods

Most of the “action” in an online course occurs in the Discussion Forum(s). Generally, the instructor should view his or her role as that of a facilitator, ensuring that the task and interpersonal needs of the group are monitored and tended to. This entails: 1. Welcome Messages. Posting a welcome message at the start of the Messages course. We recommend a public welcome in the public discussion forum AND a private welcome to each student through the private mail function in your software. 2. Introductions. Asking students to post an introduction about Introductions. themselves. The instructor should set the tone by posting his or hers first. 3. Positive Reinforcement. Thanking students for posting messages (at first this reinforcement is key to students feeling welcome to participate online). The instructor should do this both in public messages and private email. 4. Formative Feedback. Providing private, formative feedback to students about their progress online. Students like to know how they are doing, and it helps to shape a better discussion.

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5. Higher Levels of Thought. Encouraging students not just to function at the lowest levels of cognitive functioning (recall or recognition), but to encourage higher levels of thought: application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (as in Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives). For example, if a student posts that she likes a certain theoretical model, you might ask her (online) how she could apply that to a particular situation (e.g., “Sarah, how might Maslow’s need theory apply to college students?”) (Application). If a student posts a message that shows that he misunderstands an idea, you might ask the class to help analyze the idea (break it down to its component parts) so that everyone understands it better (“What are Machiavelli's main points in The Prince about good leadership?”) (Analysis). If students are discussing ideas separately and not seeing the similarities between them, you might challenge them to come up with a way to incorporate both ideas (e.g., “Folks, how can these two ideas about decision making be pulled together into a single model of decision making?”) (Synthesis). To help students understand how to judge the quality of an argument or idea, you might ask them “Using the criteria for credible and useful websites that I posted last week, how would you evaluate the information found on the 'We Never Walked on the Moon' web site hosted by 'Citizens to Overthrow the Government'?” (Evaluation). Dialogue. 6. Dialogue. Pointing the students toward dialogue with one another. For example, you might read a message by Sue that argues for stricter gun control laws and one by Jane for fewer restrictions on guns. You could ask each person to think through and hold a dialogue concerning their underlying assumptions about the rights of citizens in a democracy to own guns. In this way, you help individuals examine their own and others' assumptions behind their arguments. You also model good interpersonal discussion skills online. As you provide examples of appropriate behaviors online you will notice the students begin to model those behaviors.

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7. Course Feedback. Soliciting feedback fro students halfway through the Feedback. course. Ask them to send you private messages regarding (a) what you should continue doing, (b) what you need to do more of, and (c) what you should not do. They will provide you with excellent insights to improve your teaching online. You can also use the survey tool available in many web-based course software products to administer a mid-course feedback survey.

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In our experience with effective online instructors, 15-20% of the postings 15instructor. in a course should be from the instructor Students want to know that they are “heard.” They also want to “hear” from the instructor. The only way to be visible is to post messages as we described above, making you an important presence in the course. Merely allowing students to post messages without facilitating in a thoughtful and focused way is NOT teaching online. If you carefully shape the discussion, ask thoughtful questions, and monitor the ongoing dialogue, you should find: a high level of participation from all students, not just a few (as is common in a live classroom); a high standard of critical thinking; the public nature of the medium causes students to reflect and post deeper comments than is possible in a live classroom where being glib is often rewarded; and an enthusiastic and committed group of students who take more responsibility for their learning.

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PLANNING AND DEVELOPING YOUR ONLINE COURSE Now that you understand some of the strategies for translating your faceto-face course to its online version, you may ask yourself what to do next. Before you can proceed to teach online, you will need to develop online course materials and decide how you will organize your online course.

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BlackBoard, an Internet-based application used to deliver online courses (or any similar application such as WebCT or eCollege), houses a plethora of features or tools that you can use in your online course. In an earlier section, we explained some of the tools that you can use in your online course (see section “Know your available online features”). We will now attempt to explain the online course in its entirety. What you see below is what an online course looks like:

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This online course features some of the tools available in BlackBoard. The following section will briefly explain each tool as we specifically designed it for our online course template:

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Start Here. Start Here is a brief introduction to the features of the online course. It serves as a way of familiarizing students with different features of their online course and provides them with an introduction to online learning. Announcements. The announcements area is where you can post important reminders for students. The system administrators may also post announcements (such as planned outages). Faculty. This course area provides students with quick access to your contact information. Syllabus. The course syllabus can consist of information such course objectives, course description, but it can also consist of mini-lectures used in the course or academic integrity guidelines. In a later section, we will explain it in depth. Class Calendar. Class Calendar is just what it says: a calendar. It outlines all important dates and deadlines throughout the course. Discussion Forums. Discussion Forums are the core of the online course. Here, students can post their introductions, answer the questions posted by the instructor, dialogue with one another, work in small groups, etc. Assignments. The Assignments feature of your online course allows students to electronically submit any assignments to you. You can specify the due date for assignment completion, provide instructions, etc. Once you grade the assignment, the grade will automatically be transferred to the Grade Book feature (available in the Course Tools section of your course). Quizzes. This course area allows you to post quizzes or surveys. The grade received on a quiz will also show up in the Grade Book feature of the course. Communications. The communications area houses course roster, email, chat rooms, etc.

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Tools. Course Tools In this area of the course, students can check their grades, access a file exchange area, calendar, and the like. Resource Center. This is a link to the School of Leadership & Center. Professional Advancement’s Student Resource Center. This center is a useful resource as it provides students with many writing resources such as how to write a research paper, how to avoid grammatical mistakes, how to use the MLA writing style, just to name a few. Gumberg Library is a link to the electronic databases at the Moore Library that students can access from their home via the Internet. Technical Support enables students to contact trained technicians at the help desk who can assist students with various technical issues. As you can see, most of these features have already been developed for your use. The two things that you will have to develop are a) Syllabus and b) Discussion Forums. Before we can take you through the development process for both, it is important to discuss the timeline for online course development.

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Unlike its face-to-face counterpart, an online course typically involves a team of people working toward a common goal. For example, once you develop your course materials, the IT department (i.e. OIT) has to create a course “shell,” multimedia technicians many need to convert your materials to web pages and upload them to BlackBoard, coordinator of distance education has to make TEQs and Technical Support available for your course, etc. Furthermore, all of the course materials for online courses have to be developed prior to the course beginning. It usually takes about three months from the time a faculty member starts working on course materials to the time when the course is available to students. You should use the following timeline as a general guide for online course development: 3 months prior to course beginning: you should go through this manual and start developing strategies for translating your face-to-face course to its online version. 2 months prior to course beginning: you should start developing your online course materials; and month 1 month prior to course beginning: you should upload your materials to your online course As you start the process of developing your online course materials, you first have to think about the structure of the virtual syllabus and the organization of discussion areas (or forums). The following sections will take you through the process of developing both the virtual syllabus and the discussion areas.

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G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

TNEMPOLEVED ESRUOC ENILNO ROF ENILEMIT

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

42

The Syllabus section of your online course is what its name implies – the course syllabus. However, merely posting a multiple page syllabus is not a very efficient use of the web-based software. It is much easier for both instructor and students to “chunk” the syllabus into separate sections, each addressing one main topic. For example, you might organize your syllabus in this way:

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

Each line is a hyperlink to that section of your virtual syllabus. We will exhibit each section here and explain its most important aspects.
seniillediiuG noiissucsiiD eniillnO sen ed uG no ssucs D en nO seniillediiuG noiissucsiiD eniillnO sen ed uG no ssucs D en nO setaD euD seniillediiuG gniitiirW sen ed uG gn t rW seniillediiuG gniitiirW sen ed uG gn t rW stnemngissA sdohteM noiitaullavE gniinraeL sdohteM no tau avE gn nraeL sdohteM noiitaullavE gniinraeL sdohteM no tau avE gn nraeL ytlucaF ruoY tuobA skoobtxeT skoobtxeT skoobtxeT skoobtxeT sevitcejbO esruoC esruoC eht ot noiitcudortnI esruoC eht ot no tcudortnI esruoC eht ot noiitcudortnI esruoC eht ot no tcudortnI LAUTRI LAUTRI LAUTRI LAUTRI SUBALLY SUBALLY SUBALLY EHT GNIPOLEVED DNA GNINNAL EHT GNIPOLEVED DNA GNINNAL EHT GNIPOLEVED DNA GNINNAL EHT GNIPOLEVED DNA GNINNAL
E N I L N O E N I L N O R O F R O F S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

P S

V

52
enohp gnidulcni noitamrofni tcatnoc egnahcxe ,enilno rehtona eno wonk ot teg dluohs uoY .tcejorp puorg a no retsemes eritne eht revo rehtegot krow lliw maet-rebyc ruoY .stneduts ruof yletamixorppa fo gnitsisnoc ”maet-rebyc“ a ot dengissa eb lliw uoy dne taht oT .spuorg lautriv dna ecaf-ot-ecaf htob ni ylevitceffe krow ot nrael lla ew taht tnatropmi ylgnisaercni gnimoceb si tI

.lairetam esruoc eht euqitirc dna ylppa ot stneduts wolla ot dengised seitivitca puorg enilno dna ,sgnidaer edistuo fo snoissucsid puorg llams dna egral ”,serutcel -e“ fo tsisnoc lliw sessalc ,esruoc eht fo slaog llarevo evoba eht teem oT

.secneirepxe pihsredael nwo rieht nopu tcelfer ot degaruocne osla era stnedutS .secruos fo yteirav a morf noitamrofni gnizisehtnys dna ,yllacitirc gnikniht ,gninaem tcartxe ot gnidaer ,ylraelc gnitirw ,ylevitceffe noitamrofni gnisu dna gnissecca edulcni slliks esehT .pihsredael ni yduts level-etaudarg rof yrassecen slliks eht poleved ot stneduts pleh osla lliw esruoc sihT

.noitazinagro na ni level rieht rettam on ,pihsredael esicrexe ohw slaudividni gnicaf segnellahc dna ,sammelid ,seussi eht enimaxe lliw esruoc sihT .selor lanoisseforp rieht ni srewollof dna sredael evitceffe htob eb ot nopu dellac era slaudividni ,snoitazinagro renael s'yadot nI .efil ytinummoc dna lanoitazinagro yraropmetnoc ni cipot tnatropmi ylgnisaercni na si pihsredaeL

setaD euD setaD euD setaD euD setaD euD senilediuG gnitirW senilediuG gnitirW senilediuG gnitirW senilediuG gnitirW stnemngissA sdohteM noitaulavE gninraeL ytlucaF ruoY tuobA skoobtxeT sevitcejbO esruoC esruoC eht ot noitcudortnI

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

Here are two examples of course introductions:

This section is merely a short introduction to the main themes in the course. Some instructors place this on their syllabus; others discuss it in class. In the online environment it is crucial to post all these explanations in written form because you won’t have the luxury of face-to-face discussions. Be clear and concise in your explanations online; it will save you and your students from much confusion.

Introduction Example 1: Introduction to the Course

ESRUOC EHT OT NOITCUDORTNI

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

62

.sliated erom rof tcejorP puorG llamS eeS .troffe maet eht ot dnel nac puorg eht ni nosrep hcae slliks tahw enimreted dna ,sesserdda liame dna ,srebmun xaf ,srebmun

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

72
teg t’nod ,revewoH .tsom ti deen ew nehw liaf seod dna nac ygolonhcet -yaw drah eht denrael evah su fo tsom sa -- taht si eton ot gniht tnatropmi nA

...sliaf ygolonhceT nehW
.os

ot od uoy pleh yllufepoh lliw ssalc sihT .ecapsrebyc retsam ot evah uoy ,are wen siht ni yltneiciffe gnikrow rof eraperp oT .noitulos tseb eht eb ot smees syawla tsomla tenretnI eht ,noitcafsitas remotsuc evorpmi dna ,yltneiciffe erom dna retsaf secivres dna stcudorp rieht reviled ,stsoc no nwod tuc ot syaw rof gnikool era seinapmoc sA .sevil ruo fo noitrop egral a gnimoceb ylgnisaercni si ecapsrebyC …)06 tsedom erom fo daetsni( keew a sruoh 001 emos gnikrow pu dne ylbaborp dluow uoY ?sseccA ro ,lecxE ,droW SM esu ot woh wonk t’ndid uoy fi seitilibisnopser boj ruoy llifluf ot uoy ekat dluow ti gnol woh enigamI ?retupmoc a gnisu elbatrofmocnu tlef uoy fi ekil kool dluow eludehcs ruoy tahw enigami tsuJ .ygolonhcet fo sresu trepxe gnimoceb yb egA noitamrofnI eht ot detaler smelborp eht fo emos emocrevo nac ew taht kniht I ,flesym lanoisseforp TI na sA .sserts detaler dna ,emit eraps fo kcal a ,sdaolkrow yvaeh htiw su deflugne evah s09 ysub ylgnimlehwrevo eht dna ,tsap eht fo gniht a era s06 ”kcab dial“ ehT .esnopser a fo hguone doog eb ot mees t’nseod tsuj keew txeN …ti tcepxe seilimaf ruo ;ti tcepxe srekrowoc ruo ;ti stcepxe ssob ruO .llew sa ylkciuq dnopser ot detcepxe era ew ,nekot emas eht yB .ylkciuq noitamrofni gnitteg ot demotsucca emoceb evah eW .egA noitamrofnI eht fo egatnavda ekat ot su elbane taht seigolonhcet eht fo emos tsuj era sCP dna sregap ,gnicnerefnoc oediv ,beW ediW dlroW ehT .ecapsrebyc eht ni etarepo ot woh nrael ot deen uoy – slanoisseforp TI sa – taht eveileb ylmrif I dna ,yltrohs gnitaudarg eb lliw uoy fo tsoM .ti gniod remmus eht dneps ot tnaw uoy rehtehw dna yrassecen yllaer si ti rehtehw flesruoy ksa yam uoY .retsam ot metsys rehtona tsuj si esruoc enilno sihT

egA no tamroffnI ehT egA no tamro nI ehT egA noiiiitamroffnI ehT egA no tamro nI ehT

.ranimes enotspac siht dna raey roines ruoy ot ti edam evah t’ndluow uoy esiwrehto ;deganam ev’uoy tub ,ot desu gnitteg emit emos koot tI .esiar a nrae ro ,noitomorp a teg ,ecalpkrow eht ni tca ot woh denrael ev’uoy ,srovaedne lanoisseforp ruoy hguorht ,esiwekiL .setisiuqererp eht gnikat tuohtiw ssalc a ekat uoy tel ot srosivda elganif ot woh ro ,rebmem ytlucaf a htiw tcaretni ot woh ,tcejorp puorg a hcaorppa ot woh yltcaxe wonk ylbaborp uoY .metsys eht ”etagivan“ ot woh denrael evah uoy ,egelloC yadrutaS hguorht yenruoj cimedaca ruoy fo dne yrev eht ta tsomlA

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

Example 2: Introduction to the Course
S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

82

…ssalc eht htiw no evom s’tel dna gniklat em htiw hguone …KO

.ekil eht dna senildaed ot semoc ti nehw gnivigrof eb ot em rof elbissopmi yllautriv si ti ,smelborp ruoy tuoba wonk t’nod I fI .em htiw smelborp ruoy etacinummoc syawla uoy erus ekaM .noitapicitrap ruoy htiw eunitnoc llits ot uoy elbane ot woh yaw a tuo erugif lliw ew dna em tcatnoc ,)yldlim ti tup ot( gnivahebsim strats retupmoc ruoy dna murof noissucsid eht ot tsop ot gniyrt era uoy fI .daetsni ti liam )lians( ro repap eht xaf ,nwod si PSI ruoy dna repap a timbus ot gniyrt era uoy fI .daetsni sevitcejbo ruoy tuoba knihT .hguoht ygolonhcet eht no pu gnuh

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

92

.noitazinagro na rof mgidarap ygolonhcet regral a otni snoitcnuf ssenisub fo egdelwonk roirp etargetni dna ;egatnavda evititepmoc rof degarevel eb nac stnempoleved lacigolonhcet erutuf dna gnitsixe woh dnatsrednu ;ygolonhcet noitamrofni fo esu eht ni secitcarp tseb yfitnedi ;noitatnemelpmi ygolonhcet rof krowemarf lanoitazinagro na hsilbatse ;ygolonhcet noitamrofni fo noitacilppa cigetarts dnatsrednu

:ot elba eb lliw tneduts eht ,esruoc eht fo noitelpmoc eht nopU

lanoitazinagro cificeps ot slliks dna egdelwonk pihsredael ylppa dna ;slliks pihsredael nwo rieht ssessa ;noitcnuf tsum sredael hcihw ni txetnoc lanoitazinagro eht ezylana ;noitauqe pihsredael eht ot laicurc sa srewollof evitceffe fo tnempoleved eht sweiv taht pihsredael fo mgidarap wen a etalucitra ;pihsredael fo sledom yraropmetnoc dna lacissalc tsartnoc dna erapmoc ;tpecnoc gnivlove na sa pihsredael fo gninaem eht ssucsid

:ot elba eb lliw stneduts ,esruoc siht fo noisulcnoc eht tA

setaD euD senilediuG gnitirW senilediuG gnitirW senilediuG gnitirW stnemngissA stnemngissA stnemngissA stnemngissA s noitaulavE gninraeL sdohteM noitaulavE gninraeL ytlucaF ruoY tuobA skoobtxeT sevitcejbO esruoC esruoC eht ot noitcudortnI

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

As with the introduction to the course, you should clearly list the objectives of the course for the online students. Here are two examples:

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Example 2: Course Objectives
.segnellahc

Example 1: Course Objectives

SEVITCEJBO ESRUOC

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

03
.D.hP ,INIC .A EIRAM

setaD euD setaD euD setaD euD setaD euD s gnitirW senilediuG gnitirW stnemngissA sdohteM noitaulavE gninraeL ytlucaF ruoY tuobA skoobtxeT sevitcejbO esruoC esruoC eht ot noitcudortnI

.margorp eritne eht tuohguorht ot refer ot koob siht niater ot lufesu ti dnif lliw uoY .pihsredael lanoitazinagro ni saedi tsetal yrev eht fo emos ssucsid taht selcitra htiw dellif txet detide ,desaeler-yltnecer a si sihT

.are wen a rof sevitcepsreP :snoitazinagro gnidaeL .)8991( .R .G ,namkciH

hguorht enilno elbaliava si dna esruoc eht rof deriuqer si txet enO

setaD euD setaD euD setaD euD setaD euD s gnitirW senilediuG gnitirW stnemngissA sdohteM noitaulavE gninraeL ytlucaF ruoY tuobA skoobtxeT sevitcejbO esruoC esruoC eht ot noitcudortnI

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

Since your students won’t be meeting you face-to-face, this is a good section to add so that they can get to know you. You should give your students information about your background and why you are teaching this course. Here are two examples:

Most times you will tell your students to procure their books from MBSDirect, the online version of the Barnes and Noble bookstore on the Duquesne Campus. We can even provide a hyperlink to their site. Here is an example:

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Example 1: About Your Faculty

YTLUCAF RUOY TUOBA YTLUCAF RUOY TUOBA YTLUCAF RUOY TUOBA YTLUCAF RUOY TUOBA

.egaS :AC ,skaO dnasuohT

:tceriDSBM

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

Example: Textbooks

SKOOBTXET

13
Example 2: About Your Faculty
.gnihcaet gnidnatstuo rof snoitadnemmoc deviecer sah dna seiteicos yraronoh suoremun ot detcele neeb osla sah ehS .hgrubsttiP fo ytisrevinU eht morf pihswolleF etaudarG naolS eht dna etarotceriD ecneicS noitaicossA lacigolohcysP naciremA eht morf drawA hcraeseR noitatressiD 3991 eht edulcni sdrawa reH .ygolodohtem hcraeser dna sessecorp puorg ni sesahpme htiw ,4991 ni hgrubsttiP fo ytisrevinU eht morf ygolohcysp laicos ni .D.hP reh denrae iniC .rD .knaB evreseR laredeF eht dna ,tnempoleveD nabrU dna gnisuoH fo tnemtrapeD eht ,T&TA gnidulcni snoitazinagro fo yteirav a ot maet a fo trap sa alucirruc tnempoleved pihsredael dereviled dna depoleved osla sah iniC .rD .noisiV eht gnirahS-pihsredaeL ni nemoW :lanruoJ pihsredaeL A dna ,seidutS pihsredaeL fo lanruoJ ehT ,yciloP laicoS dna tnemeganaM cilbuP fo lanruoJ ehT ,ygolohcysP laicoS dna ytilanosreP fo lanruoJ ehT ,ylretrauQ tnempoleveD reeraC ni dehsilbup neeb sah krow reH .stamrof ecnatsid ni gninrael dna noitcafsitas tneduts no dna ;stamrof detarelecca ni dna lanoitidart ni gnihcaet secneirepxe rieht fo snoitpecrep ytlucaf no ;spuorg ot sremocwen no ;snoitazinagro dna spuorg ot slaudividni ward taht srotcaf lacigolohcysp eht no hcraeser detcudnoc osla sah ehS .stluda ni tnempoleved pihsredael no sucof stseretni hcraeser tnerruc s'iniC .rD .enseuquD ta tamrof yadrutaS a ni dereffo osla ,seidutS larebiL dna pihsredaeL ni margorp eerged strA fo retsaM eht ni sesruoc pihsredael sehcaet iniC .rD ,noitidda nI .enilno hcaet ot seunitnoc dna 6991 fo gnirps eht ni ytisrevinU enseuquD ta )erawtfos gnicnerefnoc gnisu( enilno yleritne thguat esruoc tsrif eht detolip iniC .rD ,mulucirruc siht fo trap sA .eerged s'rolehcaB a eusrup ot hsiw ohw stneduts tluda rof dengised margorp cimedaca evitavonni na ,egelloC yadrutaS s'ytisrevinU enseuquD ni mulucirruc pihsredaeL lanoitazinagrO eht seesrevo iniC .rD ude.qud@iniC liaM-E ,1174-693 )214( xaF ;9385-693 )214( enohP 28251 AP ,hgrubsttiP ytisrevinU enseuquD ,llaH llewkcoR 402 noitacudE gniunitnoC fo noisiviD seidutS pihsredaeL fo rosseforP tnatsissA
G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T E N I L N O E N I L N O R O F R O F S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

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Here is an example posted by online faculty:
setaD euD senilediuG gnitirW stnemngissA sdohteM noitaulavE gninraeL sdohteM noitaulavE gninraeL sdohteM noitaulavE gninraeL ytlucaF ruoY tuobA ytlucaF ruoY tuobA ytlucaF ruoY tuobA ytlucaF ruoY tuobA skoobtxeT skoobtxeT skoobtxeT skoobtxeT sevitcejbO esruoC esruoC eht ot noitcudortnI

.aera hgrubsttiP retaerg eht ni stneilc ssenisub gnivres ,tnempoleveD pihsredaeL rof retneC ,noitacudE gniunitnoC fo noisiviD eht htiw tnatlusnoc lapicnirp sa gnikrow yltneserp si eh ,ytisrevinU enseuquD tA

etaudargrednu dna etaudarg egelloC yadrutaS eht ni gnihcaet neeb sah eH .krow emit lluf hsiuqniler ot dediced eh 6991 nI .lanoitanretnI snoisnemiD tnempoleveD htiw tnatlusnoC roineS a sa hgrubsttiP ot gnimoc erofeb ,amabalA ,eliboM ni smetsyS lacideM lanoitanretnI naciremA fo OOC dna tnediserP eciV saw eh ecroF riA eht morf tnemeriter retfA .lenoloc fo knar eht htiw ecroF riA eht morf deriter eh 5891 nI

.S.U roines rof egelloC raW riA suoigitserp eht ta ,seidutS tnemeganaM dna pihsredaeL ,feihC dna ,rebmem ytlucaf sa mulucirruc pihsredael evitucexe demialcca ylhgih a detnemelpmi dna dengised eH .snoitacilbup rehto dna slanruoj lanoisseforp rof selcitra nettirw sah dna smargorp tnempoleved pihsredael suoremun dereviled dna detaerc sah egroeG

.snoitan 32 ot mih nekat sah krow sih ,tnempoleved lanoitazinagro dna pihsredael ni esitrepxe htiW .ytisrevinU ekuD dna saxeT fo ytisrevinU eht ta yduts laroivaheb etaudarg-tsop ygolonhceT fo etutitsnI ecroF riA dehsilpmocca eH .ygoloicos dna ygolohcysp ni seerged s'retsam dna s'rolehcab sih denrae egroeG .snoitazinagro lanoitanretni dna citsemod 001 revo ot secivres noitatlusnoc tcerid dedivorp sah eH .ecneirepxe fo sraey 03 htiw tnatlusnoc dna rotacude na si egroeG

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

As in a face-to-face class, your learning evaluation methods (i.e. grading criteria) should be very clear. We have found that assigning at least a portion of the class grade to the online discussion is a key part of motivating students to discuss frequently and with interest.

SDOHTEM NOITAULAVE GNINRAEL SDOHTEM NOITAULAVE GNINRAEL SDOHTEM NOITAULAVE GNINRAEL SDOHTEM NOITAULAVE GNINRAEL

.4991 ecnis smargorp

.sreciffo yratilim lanoitanretni dna

evorgedpU .H egroeG

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

33
98-78 +B 29-09 001-39 -A A

:elacs gniwollof eht yb denimreted eb lliw edarg lanif ruoY

.sliated cificeps rof ”tcejorP puorG llamS“ eeS .txet namkciH eht morf saedi gnisu noitazinagro na ngised ot retsemes eht tuohguorht rehtegot krow lliw puorg ruoY .elpoep 4 tuoba fo puorg-rebyc a ot dengissa eb lliw uoY )%02(

tce orP puorG amS tce orP puorG amS tcejjjjorP puorG llllllllamS tce orP puorG amS

.4

.snoitcurtsni cificeps rof ”weivretnI rof snoitcurtsnI“ eeS .gninrael derahs siht morf tifeneb dna seirammus s'rehtona eno daer lla nac ew taht os yrammus weivretni hcae tsop lliw I .redael tnellecxe na si ,noitamitse rieht ni ,ohw tuoba daer ro draeh evah ro wonk rehtie yeht nosrep a htiw weivretni na tcudnoc dna tceles lliw srebmem ssalC )%01(

we vretn redaeL we vretn redaeL weiiiivretnIIII redaeL we vretn redaeL

.3

.snoitcurtsni rehtruf rof ”senilediuG noissucsiD enilnO“ eeS

.tcejorp puorg

;)keew a eciwt tsael ta tsop dluohs uoy( muroF noissucsiD eht ni noissucsid ”ssalc“ gniogno eht ni gnitapicitrap ylevitcA ;muroF noissucsiD eht ni sgnitsop 'srehto gnidaeR

enilno na ni sgniht rojam eerht snaem noitapicitraP )%04(

no tap c traP no tap c traP noiiitapiiiciiitraP

”.srepaP gnitirW rof senilediuG“ rednu dnuof eb nac em rof repap yna gnitirw rof senilediug lareveS ”.srepaP noitargetnI tpecnoC“ rednu dnuof eb nac scipot eseht rof senilediug cificepS .srepap eseht ni )s(ecneirepxe pihsredael 'srehto ro ruoy htiw sgnidaer ssalc ruoy etargetni ot deksa eb lliw uoY ].edarg esruoc ruoy fo %03 fo latot a rof %51 htrow si eno hcaE .deriuqer era )3( EERHT fo )2( OWT[

srepaP no targetn tpecnoC srepaP no targetn tpecnoC srepaP noiiitargetnIII tpecnoC

:stnenopmoc eseht no desab eb lliw edarg ruoY

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

Example: Learning Evaluation Methods

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

o o o
:esruoc .2 .1

llams ruoy ot gnitubirtnoc dna ni gnitapicitrap ylevitcA

43
era uoy noitazinagro na esoohC .muinnellim wen eht rof yrassecen pihsredael eht dna yrutnec ts12 eht fo tnemnorivne gnignahc eht ssucsid lla srohtua retpahc eht ,txet ruoy fo X dna I strap nI noon ta 9991 ,9 rebotcO euD - 1# repaP

.cod.2PICiniC dellac eb dluow elif eht repap dnoces ym uoy gnidnes ma I fi ,eroferehT

.cod.#PICemantsalruoY

:selif ruoy eman esaelP .TCbeW nihtiw egassem liame etavirp a ot tnemhcatta droW a fo mrof eht ni srepap ruoy em dnes esaelP

.edarg lanif ruoy gnitaluclac ni desu eb lliw sedarg OWT pot ruoy YLNO-eerht lla ni nrut YAM uoY .srepap eerht gniwollof eht fo OWT ni nrut esaelP

setaD euD

senilediuG gnitirW stnemngissA stnemngissA stnemngissA

sdohteM noitaulavE gninraeL sdohteM noitaulavE gninraeL sdohteM noitaulavE gninraeL sdohteM noitaulavE gninraeL y ruoY tuobA ytlucaF ruoY tuobA skoobtxeT

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

The papers or projects you assign should be sent to you as Word attachments in your private email in the software package you are using. We recommend that you provide clear instructions about how to label their attachments so that you are not bombarded by a number of files whose labels are not sufficiently explanatory. When you have 15 papers to receive and grade, correct labeling becomes very important so that you can find them quickly. Here is an example:

sevitcejbO esruoC

esruoC eht ot noitcudortnI

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Example: Assignments (Papers)

STNEMNGISSA STNEMNGISSA STNEMNGISSA STNEMNGISSA
woleb dna 95 96-06 67-07 F D C

97-77 +C 28-08 68-38 -B B

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

53
esoht ees lliw srebmem maet ruoy dna uoy ylno ,murof s'maet ruoy ot segassem tsop uoy nehW .eman s'maet ruoy ot eltit murof ruoy egnahc ll'I dna eman eht em llet ,tnaw uoy fI .gnisoohc ruoy fo eman maet a tpoda ot eerf leeF .srebmem maet ruoy htiw detniauqca teg yletaidemmi dluohs uoY

.ssalc eht rof muroF noissucsiD eht ni murof ”rotcurtsnI eht ksA“ eht ni egassem a ni maet hcae fo srebmem eht tsop osla lliw I .tcejorp puorg llams eht rof maet ruoy si tahT ”.4 maeT“ ro ”,3 maeT“ ”,2 maeT“ ”,1 maeT“ ees dluohs uoy ,tsil taht nI .ssecca evah uoy hcihw ot smurof eht weiv ot elba eb lliw uoy ,muroF noissucsiD eht ni nottub muroF eht no kcilc uoy fI .)ssalc eht fo ezis llarevo eht no gnidneped( elpoep 4 yletamixorppa fo tsisnoc lliw maet hcaE .)maet( puorg llams a ot dengissa eb lliw uoy fo hcaE

Just as in face to face classes, students can work in small groups in the online classroom. Here is an example of how one group project is designed:

?ssenevitceffe llarevo sti morf tcarted yeht od woH ?stneutitsnoc sti dna noitazinagro eht tifeneb erutluc dna erutcurts tnerruc eht seod woH .erutluc )b( dna ,ngised dna erutcurts )a( sti fo smret ni )htiw railimaf era uoy taht rehtona ro( noitazinagro gniyolpme ruoy ssucsid dna ebircsed ,IIV dna ,IV ,II straP morf saedi gnisU noon ta 9991 ,31 rebmevoN euD - 3# repaP

pihsredael eht rof nalp a )b( dna ,noitazinagro ruoy rof pihsredael fo noitinifed a )a( reh rof poleved ,koob ruoy ni IIIV dna VI ,III straP morf saedi ot gnirrefeR .noitazinagro eht tuohguorht tnempoleved pihsredael no sesucof taht ”ytisrevinu etaroproc“ a trats ot uoy stnaw ehS .pihsredael ni esitrepxe ruoy pat ot uoy ot semoc noitazinagro gniyolpme ruoy fo OEC eht taht esoppuS noon ta 9991 ,03 rebotcO euD - 2# repaP

.segnellahc lanretxe eseht teem ot eraperp nac noitazinagro eht fo sredael eht woh gnidrager snoitadnemmocer )b( dna ,erutuf raen eht ni noitazinagro eht tcapmi lliw taht tnemnorivne lanretxe eht ni srotcaf eht )a( no pihsredael s'noitazinagro siht feirb ot repap a etirw ,X dna I strap ni saedi eht ot gnirrefer ,dna ,htiw railimaf

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

Example: Assignments (Group Project)
.margorp tnempoleved
S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

63
dna dessecorp-drow :eb dluohs )stnemngissa nettirw yna dna( srepap ruoY

.noitamrofni hguoroht erom rof stnemngissA s'iniC rof pleH dna retneC pleH gnitirW enilnO eht ees esaelP .srepap doog gnitirw tuoba spit wef a tsuj era gniwollof ehT

setaD euD setaD euD setaD euD setaD euD senilediuG gnitirW senilediuG gnitirW senilediuG gnitirW senilediuG gnitirW stnemngissA sdohteM noitaulavE gninraeL ytlucaF ruoY tuobA skoobtxeT sevitcejbO esruoC esruoC eht ot noitcudortnI

.cod.jorpsrelaetS dellac elif a em dnes dluohs uoy ”srelaetS“ eht maet ruoy emaner ot em llet uoy fi ,eroferehT ”.cod.jorpemanmaetruoY“ dellac eb dluohs elif ehT .rebmem puorg ENO morf tnemhcatta liame na fo mrof eht ni em otni denrut eb dluohs tcejorp sihT

.)maet eht rof repap egap 7-5 eno( repap egap 7-5 a ni noitazinagro ruoy ebircseD ?krow ruoy otni ytilibisnopser laicos dliub uoy lliw woh ,os fI ?noitazinagro siht ni uoy rof nrecnoc a ti si -ytilibisnopser laicos fo tpecnoc eht ssucsid ot erus eB ?nalp lanoitazinagro ruoy otni evaew ot laicurc era leef uoy od koob eht fo stcepsa rehto tahW ?seeyolpme poleved dna erih uoy lliw woH ?yhposolihp pihsredael ruoy si tahW ?od noitazinagro ruoy lliw tahW .seulav dna ,noissim ,noisiv a htiw gnitrats ,noitazinagro ruoy ebircsed ,txet namkciH eht morf saedi gnisU .noitazinagro nwo ruoy trats dna sboj tneserp ruoy evael ot ediced seugaelloc detsurt lareves dna uoY .0102 raey eht si tI

segassem eht ees ylno lliw yeht ;segassem s'maet ruoy ees t'now ssalc eht fo tser eht ,revewoH .oot ,meht ees lliw I ,rotcurtsni eht sA .segassem

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

We have found that the more clear and comprehensive the guidelines you provide for papers, the more students can concentrate on content and clear writing, rather than on guessing your expectations. Here is an example of the types of information you might choose to provide:

--gniwollof eht si noissim ruoY

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Example: Writing Guidelines

SENILEDIUG GNITIRW SENILEDIUG GNITIRW

.smaet evitcepser rieht morf

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

73

setaD euD senilediuG gnitirW stnemngissA sdohteM noitaulavE gninraeL ytlucaF ruoY tuobA ytlucaF ruoY tuobA ytlucaF ruoY tuobA ytlucaF ruoY tuobA skoobtxeT skoobtxeT skoobtxeT skoobtxeT s esruoC sevitcejbO esruoC esruoC eht ot noitcudortnI

.sdohteM noitaulavE gninraeL rednu airetirc eseht detsil evah I .airetirc eseht ot gnidrocca dedarg eb lliw srepap ruoY

skroW a edulcni dna )saedi fo noitatic txet-ni( elyts ALM ot erehda esaelP

gnilleps dna ,noitautcnup ,lacitammarg morf eerf eb osla dluohs yehT .saedi neewteb snoitisnart htooms htiw ,wolf lacigol a evah dluohs srepap ruoY

.)snoitcurtsni ym ni htgnel egap tnereffid a yficeps I sselnu( yletauqeda saedi ruoy poleved ot uoy rof redro ni gnol segap 7-5

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

Even though you will post important dates in the class calendar, some students are used to having dates listed on the syllabus. It is a good idea to list important dates in both places so that students are likely to find the dates in one or the other location:

.dne eht ta egap detiC

)a :evah dluohs srepap ruoY

:yletamixorppa eb dluohs srepaP

.ezis tnof tniop-21 ro 01 a dna snigram hcni-eno htiw ,decaps-elbuod

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

Example: Due Dates

SETAD EUD SETAD EUD SETAD EUD SETAD EUD

.srorre

an introduction, b) paragraphs that develop and support your ideas, and c) a conclusion that summarizes the paper.

83

eud tcejorP puorG enilno )noitaulave esruoc( QET ETELPMOC ESAELP DNA enilno namkciH morf XI noitceS ssucsiD sweivretnI redaeL no tnemmoc dna daeR

noon ta 11 .ceD

11 .ceD-4 .ceD 3 .ceD-82 .voN !!!gnivigsknahT

yppaH-noissucsiD enilnO oN eud yrammuS weivretnI redaeL enilno namkciH morf V noitceS ssucsiD eud 3# repaP noitargetnI tpecnoC enilno namkciH morf IIV noitceS ssucsiD

72 .voN-02 .voN noon ta 02 .voN 91 .voN-31 .voN noon ta 31 .voN 21 .voN-6 .voN enilno

namkciH morf IV noitceS ssucsiD eud 2# repaP noitargetnI tpecnoC

5 .voN-03 .tcO noon ta 03 .tcO enilno

namkciH morf II noitceS ssucsiD enilno namkciH morf IIIV noitceS ssucsiD enilno namkciH morf VI noitceS ssucsiD eud 1# repaP noitargetnI tpecnoC

92 .tcO-32 .tcO 22 .tcO-61 .tcO 51 .tcO-9 .tcO noon ta 9 .tcO enilno

namkciH morf III noitceS ssucsiD

8 .tcO-2 .tcO enilno

namkciH morf X noitceS ssucsiD

1 .tcO-52 .tpeS enilno

namkciH morf I noitceS ssucsiD

42 .tpeS-91 .tpeS murof ”snoitcudortnI“

ni snoitcudortni tsoP

71 .tpeS-11 .tpeS

.EMIT NO KROW RIEHT NI DNAH OD OHW STNEDUTS OT RIAF EB OT REDRO NI ECALP NI SI YCILOP SIHT .EUDREVO ERA YEHT TAHT )SYADILOH DNA SYADNUS GNIDULCNI( YAD HCAE ROF EDARG FLAH-ENO DEDARGNWOD EB LLIW STNEMNGISSA ETAL .DETSIL SETAD EHT NO EUD ERA STNEMNGISSA LLA :ETON ESAELP

.radnelaC esruoC ruoy no detsil osla era setad eud rieht dna stnemngissa esehT

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

93

airetirc eseht wollof taht sgnitsop doog fo selpmaxe emos dedulcni ev'I ,reraelc neve siht ekam oT

.draoBkcalB otni gnitsop eht ”etsap“ dna ”tuc“ nac uoy ,nehT .gnitsop ruoy kcehc rammarg dna lleps ot uoy selbane hcihw )droW SM sa hcus( rossecorp drow a ni sgnitsop regnol esopmoc ot lufesu ti dnuof evah I .ammoc decalpsim ro opyt lanoisacco eht tuoba denrecnoc ton ma I .esnopser ruoy fo cigol dna tnetnoc eht no etartnecnoc ,sgnitsop noissucsid enilno ruoy gnitfard nehW

.lairetam s'koob eht ro ,sgnidaer rehto ,secneirepxe ,selpmaxe htiw saedi dna snoinipo ruoy troppuS .txet eht fo trap tcaxe eht daer dna kcab og ot evah t'nod ew os--ezirammus ro esarhparap ,etouq ot erus eb tub ,srebmun egap su evig--ot gnirrefer era uoy koob eht ni lairetam ralucitrap tahw wonk su tel syawlA

.ekil eht dna ,selpmaxe ro secneirepxe ralimis evah yeht fi srehto gniksa )d ,noitacifiralc rof lairetam eht tuoba snoitseuq gniksa )c ,tnaveler era taht ecneirepxe nwo ruoy morf selpmaxe gnitaler )b ,gnieergasid ro gnieerga )a edulcni nac sihT .gnidaer s'keew eht sserdda dluohs stnemmoc ruoY

)-: !edarg noitapicitrap ruoy ni tol a rof tnuoc t'now ”sreleetS meht tuob' woH“ .aera noissucsid eht ni segassem ruoy fo tnetnoc eht eb ton dluohs ti ,lufesu semitemos si )strops ,rehtaew ,.g.e( klat llams hguohtlA

.ereh sretniop emos gnidivorp m'I oS .snoissucsid rieht ni yas yllautca ot tahw si tnemnorivne enilno eht ot wen stneduts emos rof elggurts a si taht saera eht fo enO

setaD euD senilediuG gnitirW senilediuG gnitirW senilediuG gnitirW stnemngissA stnemngissA stnemngissA stnemngissA s noitaulavE gninraeL sdohteM noitaulavE gninraeL ytlucaF ruoY tuobA skoobtxeT sevitcejbO esruoC esruoC eht ot noitcudortnI

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

Students new to the online environment have no clue what to “say” online. We have found it helpful to provide them models. Here are two examples. Feel free to develop your own examples:

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Example 1: Online Discussion Guidelines

SENILEDIUG NOISSUCSID ENILNO

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

04
e h t o t s t a e r h t l ai t n e t o p g ni n e s s el d n a s ei ti n u t r o p p o g ni t a e r c r o g ni yfi t n e di f o e s o p r u p e h t r of t n e m n o r i v n e l a n r e t x e e h t s e s s e s s a yl s u o u ni t n o c t a h t pi h s r e d a el s e ri u q e r t n e m n o ri v n e s i h t “ , s e ti r w n a m k ci H sA . ni h t o o t d e h c t e r t s r e d a el e h t s e v a el n e tf o t c a g ni c n al a b t a h t d n a

e c r of k r o w e h t f o s e ri s e d e h t h ti w n oi t a zi n a g r o e h t f o s d e e n e h t e c n al a b t s u m s r e d a e L . w o n t h g i r e r a y e h t s a s e c r of k r o w e s r e vi d d n a s t n e m n o ri v n e k r o w g ni g n a h c e kil s el c a t s b o f o d ai r y m a h c u s h ti w d e c af n e e b s r e g a n a m d n a s r e d a el e v a h r e v e N . ” yll a ci t a m a r d d n a yl k ci u q g ni g n a h c si pi h s r e d a el

f o t n e m n o ri v n e e h t “ t a h t n oi t p m u s s a s ’ n a m k ci H h ti w e e r g a yl e t el p m o c I

2 e pmaxE 2 e pmaxE 2 ellllpmaxE 2 e pmaxE

. s d o h t e m n oi t a ci n u m m o c d n a n oi t c u d o r p d e c n a h n e d n a , s ei g ol o n h c e t w e n f o t n e m p ol e v e d e ht d et p m or p os l a r a w e h T .s er ut n e v r e ht o ot st e kr a m p u n e p o d n a

n oi ti s o p ri e h t h si u q nil e r o t d e c r of e r e w a o c l A s a h c u s s e t a r e m ol g n o c d n a , d oi r e p si h t g ni r u d s t h gi r s ' n e m o w r of t h g u of t l e v e s o o R r o n a e l E , y r a tili m e h t ni s e ti h w h ti w e di s - y b - e di s e v r e s o t el b a e r e w yll a ni f s n a ci r e m A - n a ci r f A . y ti c a p a c t p e ni e m a s e h t ni d e n r u t e r r e v e n e m o s , t c af ni , k r o w o t s e m o h ri e h t tf el n e m o W . s s e ni s u b ni pi h s r e d a el g ni d ul c ni , y t ei c o s r u o

ni e g n a h c s u o m r o n e r of t s yl a t a c r oj a m a s a d e v r e s II W W r e t n e o t n oi si c e d s' R D F .) y til a u q d n a y ti t n a u q( e g n a h c ci m a n y r of t n e n o p o r p r oj a m a

s a d e v r e s t a h t s t n e v e f o s el p m a x e y n a m d ni f n a c e w , y r o t si h ni k c a b k o ol e w fI si h T . y t ei c o s r of t o n yl ni a t r e c t u b l a u di vi d ni n a s a fl e s y m r of o s e b y a m . pi h s r e d a e l ni s e g n a h c ci t a m a r d h c u s d e c n ei r e p x e e r of e b r e v e n s a h

y t ei c o s r u o t a h t n oi t a cil p mi y n a s t r o p p u s n a m k ci H t a h t e v eil e b t ' n o d I

. r e t r a m s t o g t s uj d n a s t h gi r e r o m d e ri u q c a kl of n o m m o c e h T . s e s s al c r e w ol d n a el d di m e h t r of s ei ti n u t r o p p o l a n oi t a c u d e d e v o r p m i f o t l u s e r a yli r a m i r p s a w ti t a h t k ni h t o t e v a h I , n oi ti s n a r t si h t ni t r a p a d e y al p e v a h y a m y g ol o n h c e t eli h W . hca or p pa s ecr u oser na m u h

e r o m a t p o d a d n a n oi t a zi n a g r o f o el y t s l a ci s s al c e r o m a m o r f e v o m o t d e c r of e r e w s r e d a el , el b a e g d el w o n k e r o m e m a c e b s r e k r o w s A . n oi t ul o v e R

l ai r t s u d nI e h t e c ni s g ni vl o v e d n a g ni p ol e v e d n e e b s a h t a h t e n o s i l e d o m pi h s r e d a el e h T . y g ol o n h c e t r e t u p m o c o t e u d yl el o s d e p ol e v e d

t o n s a h ) 7 e g a p( pi h s r e d a e L y r u t n e C t s 1 2 f o d e nil t u o l e d o m e h T

.pihsredael ni egnahc fo ytilauq dna ytitnauq a hcus decneirepxe e r of e b r e v e n s a h y t ei c o s t a h t f o o r p e t a u q e d a s e di v o r p e h s t a h t e v ei l e b t' n o d I , t n e m n o ri v n e n o i t a zi n a g r o / s s e ni s u b e h t g ni n r e c n o c e g n a h c r of s n oi t a cil p mi r e h str o p p us n a m k ci H eli h W .ll e w s a s n oi t a zi n a g r o f o e di s t u o e g n a h c f o t n u o m a . y g ol o n h c e t f o t n e m p ol e v e d e h t

s u o d n e m e r t a g nill e p o r p si y g ol o n h c e T

h ti w d e g n a h c yll a ci t a m a r d s a h l a r e n e g ni t n e m n o ri v n e r u o t a h t e v eil e b I

1 elpmaxE

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

14
uoy ,mret eht fo esruoc eht gniruD .)keew a semit ruof tsop TSUM uoY( gnitsop noissucsid hcae no elbissop stniop 3 fo tuo 2 fo egareva na s’tahT .stniop 8 ylno etalumucca uoy keew hcae taht enigami s’tel ,elpmaxe roF

.)tnemnorivne siht ni elbatrofmoc erom teg ot ytinutroppo na su fo lla evig dluohs siht( skeew )neves fo tuo( evif rof ylno dedarg eb lliw uoy tey ,snoissucsid gniogno eht ni etapicitrap lliw uoy hcihw gnirud skeew neves era erehT ;stniop 3 ot pu htrow eb lliw gnitsop hcaE ;sgnitsop 4 evah lliw uoy keew hcaE

:krow lliw ti woh s’ereH .edarg lanif ruoy rewol ot dengised t’nsi yllaer metsys sihT !!!CINAP T’NOD .gnitsop draob nitellub hcae rof dedarg eb lliw uoy ,nekot emas eht yB .edarg ruoy fo noitrop noitapicitrap eht gninimreted nehw noitaredisnoc otni ti sekat dna esnopser ruoy fo ytilauq eht tuoba eton latem a sekam rotcurtsni ruoy ,rettam niatrec a fo noinipo ruoy eciov dna moorssalc eht ni dnah ruoy esiar uoy nehw ,elpmaxe roF .dedarg eb lliw stnemmoc ruoy fo eno hcae ,moorssalc raluger a ni ekil tsuJ .noissucsid gniogno eht ot etubirtnoc dna keew a semit )4( ruof tsael ta esruoc eht otni gol ot deriuqer era uoy ,wonk ydaerla uoy sA .dedarg eb lliw )noitapicitrap ro( noissucsid enilno ruoy woh rednow ylbaborp uoy fo tsoM

. ” t c e p s e r l a u t u m d n a , s e ul a v d e r a h s , n oi t a r o b all o c y b n a h t y ti r o h t u a pi h s r e d a e l y b s s e l r af d e p a h s e r a s n oi si c e d “ , e t a t s s u n a N d n a si n n e B sA . e c r of k r o w l a r e n e g e h t f o s t n el a t d n a , s e r i s e d , s d e e n , s a e di e h t

e t a r o p r o c ni o t d n a n o d a e h s e u s si t n o rf n o c o t d e c r of g ni e b e r a s r e d a el t n e m n o ri v n e s s e ni s u b g ni g n a h c s ’ y a d o t ni , r e v e w o H . s r e g a n a m el d di m y b

s e u s s i g ni tl u s e r e h t d n a e c r of k r o w yli a d e h t m o rf d e t al u s ni e r e w s r e d a el s a r e s u oi v e r p nI . t n e m e g a n a m el d di m f o l a v o m e r e h t t o n fi e g a k ni r h s

e h t s e d ul c ni h ti w d e c af e r a s r e d a el t a h t e g n a h c f o t c e p s a t n a t r o p mi e n O

”. s a w r e v e n ti , n e h t t u b , s p mi w r of b oj a t o n si y r u t n e c t s rif - y t n e w t e h t ni pi h s r e d a e L “ , e t o r w y e h t n e h w yl t c ni c c u s ti t u p s u n a N d n a si n n e B . n oi t a zi n a g r o e h t r e h t r uf o t r e d r o ni s a e di d n a , s n oi t p e c n o c e r p

, sl a o g ’ s e n o g ni cif i r c a s ni s tl u s e r n e t f o pi h s r e d a el d o o g t a h t g ni e b t ni o p e h T ”. e n o e h t r o , w ef e h t f o s d e e n e h t h gi e w t u o y n a m e h t f o s d e e n . ” n oi t a zi n a g r o

e h T “ , ei v o m k e r T r a t S r al u p o p a ni d e t a t s k c o p S . r M s A

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Example 2: Online Discussion Guidelines
? k ni h t s r e h t o o d t a h W
Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

24
eht morf DNA em morf noitamrofni teg ot sreferp reganam ym taht ,revewoh ,dnuof evah I .eviecer sreganam taht noitamrofni terpretni dna txetnoc dda nac snamuh taht noitpmussa eht no dednuof si tnemugra siH .)221( ”sretupmoc naht rehtar elpoep morf noitamrofni teg ot referp sreganam“ taht seugra tropnevaD

stn op 2 stn op 2 stniiiiop 2 stn op 2

.)noitautis efil laer eht htiw yduts esac eht morf noitamrofni eht gnizisehtnys ni gnikniht lacitirc fo ecnedive reffo t’nseod tub yduts esac eht morf noitamrofni sesu gnitsop siht :tnemmoC( .noitamrofni siht htiw laed ot maet a demrof yehT .yzarc tnemeganam roines eht gnivird s’ti dna laog nommoc a drawot gnikrow lla era ew ecnis esnes hcum oot ekam t’nseod tI .stnemtraped lanoitcnuf neewteb noititepmoc lanretni fo esuaceb ti esu ot tnatculer era elpoep dna ynapmoc ym ni metsys wen siht detnemelpmi eW .noitamrofni reetnulov t’nod elpoep taht tnemetats eht htiw eerga I :sklof iH

tniop 1

)noissucsid eht ot noitubirtnoc tnacifingis on dna ,gnikniht lacitirc on ,tnetnoc on :tnemmoC( ?eergasid esle enoyna seoD .cificeps ynapmoc si sihT .noitamrofni erahs t’nod elpoep taht tnemetats eht htiw eergasid I :olleH

stn op 0 stn op 0 stniiiiop 0 stn op 0

:krow stniop woh s’ereH .stniop 3 ot pu htrow eb nac gnitsop hcaE .ssergorp ruoy no etad ot pu uoy gnipeek liame na uoy dnes yllanoisacco lliw dna sgnitsop ruoy gnidarg eb lliw AT ehT

.edarg lanif eht fo noitaluclac eht fo sesoprup eht rof gnitsop tseb 4 ruoy noitaredisnoc otni ekat ylno lliw I .2 keew gnirud semit 01 tsop uoy yas s’tel ,oS .keew hcae gnirud sgnitsop tseb 4 ylno noitaredisnoc otni ekat lliw I ,noissucsid egaruocne ylgnorts I elihW .keew hcae segassem 02 sa ynam sa tsop sesruoc enilno ni stneduts emoS .keew a semit ruof naht yltneuqerf erom tsop lliw uoy taht dnif lliw uoy fo tsoM

.ti rof pu ekam llits nac uoy ,ssalc eht ot etoved ot emit fo tol a evah t’nod dna keew eno gnirud sruoh gnol gnikrow kcuts teg uoy fi ,esiwekiL .edarg noitapicitrap ruoy fo %33.39 gninrae llits suht ,)5x21( stniop latot 06 fo tuo stniop )7x8( 65 etalumucca lliw

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

34

).sopyt wef a etipsed slliks gnitirw doog swohs tI .eussi eht fo noissucsid rehtruf setatilicaf dna gnikniht lacitirc fo ecnedive swohs tI .noitautis efil laer a ot ti seilppa dna ,ti snialpxe ,lairetam yduts esac eht sezisehtnys gnitsop siht :tnemmoC( ?edivorp nac sretupmoc ecneinevnoc eht etipsed stroper retupmoc teg ot tnaw t’nseod ohw reganam a ot troper enoyna seoD .cificeps reganam si muidem yreviled niatrec a rof ecnereferp eht taht ,revwoh ,eb yam tI .ecneinevnoc edivorp nac retupmoc eht ,stroper esoht ot txetnoc edivorp nac I elihw ,suhT .ddo skool troper eht ni noitamrofni eht nehw ro )htnom a ecno tuoba( yllanoisacco stroper esoht terpretni ot em sksa ylno eH .enilno elbaliava ylidaer stroper lla gnivah fo noitpo eht setaicerppa dna etal skrow ohw reganam detoved a si eH .retupmoc eht morf dna em morf noitamrofni eht teg ot sreferp reganam ym taht dnif I ,revewoH .emoh gnisrun lacol eht ni kaerbtuo illoc .E tnecer eht ot noitcaer ’sremotsuc eht sa reganam tcirtsid eht ot ti nialpxe ot yrassecen ti dnif thgim reganam erots ehT .tcirtsid eht ni erots eno ni ylno nwod yltnacifingis si feeb fo elas eht yhw dnatsrednu yletaidemmi ton thgim reganam tcirtsid s’elgaE tnaiG ,elpmaxe roF .ti gniterpretni dna txetnoc gnidda yb troper a ot eulav dda nac snamuh taht noitpmussa eht si tnemetats siht dniheb gninosaer ehT .)221 ,tropnevaD( ”sretupmoc naht rehtar elpoep morf noitamrfoni teg ot referp sreganam“ taht setats yduts esac sihT

stn op 3 stn op 3 stniiiiop 3 stn op 3

).ecalpkrow eht ot yroeht TI eht seilppa dna gnikniht lacitirc fo ecnedive sedivorp tI .snoitpmussa nommoc emos egnellahc ot lairetam yduts esac eht sesu gnitsop sihT :tnemmoC( .erutcurts troper dna secnereferp s’reganam eht no yltaerg sdneped tub tnemetats elgnis a yb dezilareneg eb tonnac ,erofereht ,yreviled troper rof muidem eht taht kniht I .)ddo skool troper eht ni noitamrofni eht fi yltneuqerf erom ro( htnom yreve ecno stroper esoht terpretni dna txetnoc dda ylno I .emit yna ta meht weiv nac eh taht os enilno elbaliava ylidaer era stroper ym fo lla taht tcaf eht setaicerppa yllaer eh ,stroper ym terpretni ot em sksa eh yllanoisacco elihW .retupmoc

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

This completes the virtual syllabus development. Many faculty have found it useful to “borrow” from the examples listed above. Some have also found it useful to rename, reorganize, or even add new sections to the virtual syllabus depicted in this section. Again, the examples provided are not meant to be prescriptive but to merely guide you in the development of your online class syllabus.

44

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

P

D

A

Aside from developing the Virtual Syllabus, you will also need to define the discussion areas prior to the beginning of the class. Think of discussion areas, or forums, as different rooms in a building on campus. You might have one room designed to serve as a classroom, another room to be your office, several rooms allocated to students to work in teams, etc. While this scenario would be difficult to implement on campus (due to a shortage of space), it is possible to implement it in the “virtual” classroom.

You can define separate discussion areas for all of your online activities. For example, you can have one discussion area designated for student introductions; one designated for important announcements; one designated for student questions to you; one designated for a topic, week, or any other class component; etc. We have found that the inclusion of the following discussion areas in your online course can make the online discussion more organized and easier for students (and you) to navigate through. Introductions - use this discussion area to post your introduction, but also ask students to post their introductions in this area; Ask Your Professor - instruct your students to use this discussion area to post their questions to you; since these questions are posted in a “public” discussion area, all students can benefit from your answers (unlike with private mail which should be used for “confidential” questions and answers); Important Announcements - reserve this discussion area for important announcements, such as deadlines, additional instructions, and the like; Week 1 … Week 15 - you might want to organize the online discussions into different areas by weeks, specific dates (e.g. 09/01/99 - 09/07/99), or topics (Machiavelli's Prince, Plato's Republic, etc.). These separate areas will make the discussion more manageable; Team 1, Team 2… - you can also allocate separate discussion areas for each small group of students where only the members of the group can meet and work on group projects; and

54

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

?NOISSUCSID ENILNO EHT EZINAGRO I OD WOH

SAER SAER SAER SAER

R O F R O F

NOISSUCSI NOISSUCSI NOISSUCSI NOISSUCSI

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

EHT GNINNAL EHT GNINNAL EHT GNINNAL EHT GNINNAL

Student Union or Cyber Café – you can provide students with a discussion area (that the instructor does not have access to) where they can post birthday announcements, seek help from their peers, and the like; this fosters the sense of community online. TEACHING ONLINE As you can see, a good online course requires a great deal of pre-planning. To this point, you have developed course materials and planned your discussion forums (the virtual syllabus and the discussion areas). However, you still need to think about how to actually “teach” online. In this section, we will outline some strategies that can assist you with facilitating online learning.

O

W

C

S

Generally, your students will receive their login identifiers and passwords for your online course about one week prior to the class start. Before students start logging into the course, make sure you post a message in the discussion forum area, which a) introduces you more informally than the virtual syllabus, and b) welcomes them to the course.

Example: Welcome Message
:sklof iH

64

erom emoceb uoy sa taht kniht I dna ,6991 ecnis enilno gnihcaet neeb ev'I

emoc ot taerg s'ti skniht enoyreve ecnis taht dda ot evah I .AP ,yehsreH

a eb nac ti taht gnieerga ni em nioj lliw uoy gninrael fo edom siht ta tpeda

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

llaf rof pihsredael fo yduts etaudarg eht ot noitcudortni eht ot emocleW

.margorp enilno siht ot uoy gnimoclew tuoba deticxe yllaer ma I .9991

ni pu werg I .em tuoba erom uoy llet ll'I ,noitcudortni na si siht ecniS

AERA MUROF NOISSUCSID EHT NI EGASSEM ”EMOCLEW“ LARENEG A TSOP

STRAT STRAT STRAT STRAT

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

SSAL SSAL SSAL SSAL

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

EHT EROFEB KEE EHT EROFEB KEE EHT EROFEB KEE EHT EROFEB KEE

.nrael ot yaw lufrewop yrev

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

EN EN EN EN

74

siroB

.murof noissucsid eht ni flesruoy fo noitcudortni hpargarap-eno a gnitsop dna esruoc ruoy otni gniggol sevlovni tnemngissa tsrif sihT .9991 ,1 enuJ naht retal on eud si tnemngissa tsrif eht ecnis yltpmorp stnemngissa eht revo og uoy erus ekaM .esruoc enilno ruoy fo noitces ”stnemngissA“ eht ni detsil era stnemngissa llA

:skloF

erac htlaeh ,noitartsinimda ,hcraeser gnitekram ni ecneirepxe evah I .4991 ecnis scipot detaler dna pihsredael gnihcaet enseuquD ta neeb evah dna ,6891 ecnis thguat ev'I .snoitazinagro dna spuorg no gnisucof ,hgrubsttiP fo ytisrevinU eht morf 4991 ni ygolohcysp laicos ni .D.hP ym denrae I

We have found that an assignment which asks students to post a paragraph or two about themselves works great in the online environment (you could ask them to state their name, where they work, what they do, what their interests are, what they expect from the course, etc.). This assignment serves several purposes: a) students get to know each other, b) it “breaks the ice,” c) students learn how to use some of the features of WebCT prior to the course beginning, and d) students have enough time to contact technical support before the course starts should they experience any technical difficulties.

eht otni pmuj dna elbatrofmoc teg ot uoy tnaw I .gnihtyna tuoba ro rof em ksa ot etatiseh t'noD .enilno SLLM eht ot uoy gnicudortni ot dna uoy fo hcae wonk ot gnitteg ot drawrof gnikool m'I .gninrael peek ot esucxe taerg a em sevig ti esuaceb hcaet ot evol I .gnilesnuoc dna ,hcraeser

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

Example: A “public” message asking students to post their introductions

SEVLESMEHT ECUDORTNI OT STNEDUTS KSA
eiraM ,sdrager tseB

.ecneirepxe gninrael

.maertsdoolb ym ni s'ti sseug I...etalocohc evol llits I...ffuts eht fo kcis ton m'I ,on ,dnA .etalocohc ekil sllems taht nwot a morf

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

84
esac eht daer uoy erus ekam dna dnekeew eht fo tser eht yojnE .gnikrow trats ot evah ew dna revo si sessalc morf kaerb keew-2 siht ,yletanutrofnU

.sgnitsop ruoy rof senildaed eht tuo dnif ot suballys lautriv ruoy ot refer nac uoY .yadnoM yb detsop dna em yb enod eb lliw )luoS s’TI gnivaS( yduts esac a fo sisylana tsrif ehT .)radnelac eht ni deniltuo sa( eludehcs yduts esac raluger eht wollof lliw eW …won morf og ew erehw ot sa sevlesruoy gniksa ylbaborp era uoy fo tsoM

Because students are not required to “physically” show up in class (which marks the class beginning), some of them might feel confused as to what to do after they post their introduction. To alleviate any confusion, post a message in the bulletin board that announces the official start of the class and outlines the plan of action for the next week or so.

SSAL SSAL SSAL

FO FO FO

YA YA YA

TSRI TSRI TSRI

EH EH EH

eiraM .murof noissucsid eht ni pu gnirb ton rehtar d'uoy smeti ssucsid ro snoitseuq em ksa ot noitcnuf liame etavirp eht esu ot eerf leeF .esruoc eht ot uoy gnimoclew egassem etavirp a uoy dnes ot tnaw tsuj I :iH

As students post their introductions, send them a private mail message within WebCT welcoming them to your class. Remember that for most of them, this is the first time they are taking an online class and they can experience high levels of anxiety. It will also provide an opportunity for them to respond to you privately with any comments or questions they might have.

YLLAUDIVIDNI STNEDUTS EMOCLEW

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

T

Example: Class beginning announcement

GNINNIGEB SSALC ECNUONNA GNINNIGEB SSALC ECNUONNA GNINNIGEB SSALC ECNUONNA GNINNIGEB SSALC ECNUONNA

Example: A private “welcome” message

F

“D

C

94

siroB

!enilno uoy ”eeS“

.yletaidemmi wonk em tel esaelp ,)os gniod morf uoy tneverp seitluciffid lacinhcet fi ro( ni gol t’nac dna eludehcs ruoy htiw smelborp yna ecneirepxe uoy fi ,syawla sA .yadnoM yb yduts

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

05
taht seugra tropnevaD ,revewoH .ti erongi ot nrael ew os noitamrofni htiw dedrabmob teg ot dnet ew :wolfrevo noitamrofni fo esuaceb eb dluoc siht rof nosaer rehtonA .retupmoc a morf niatbo ot tluciffid netfo si hcihw ,txetnoc deen sreganam taht eugra dluoc enO .sessecorp gnikam noisiced ni desu noitamrofni :ot desoppus era yeht tahw reviled ot liaf smetsys TI evisnepxe rehtar dna ,detacitsihpos ,xelpmoc taht ylpmi dluow sihT .dekoolrevo netfo osla si snoitasrevnoc enohpelet dna ecaf-ot-ecaf morf noitamrofni rieht fo sdriht-owt teg sreganam taht tcaf taht ,eromrehtruF

.noitamrofni elbaulav gnisol sksir ynapmoc eht ,sdeen s'enoyreve teem ot noitinifed eht gniyfilpmis nehW .noitinifed s'tnemtraped rehtona morf reffid yam ”remotsuc“ a fo noitinifed s'tnemtraped eno ,elpmaxe roF .reviled ot sliaf netfo rotanimoned nommoc tsewol siht taht gnizilaer tuohtiw mrofinu ti ekam ot tpmetta na ni noitamrofni fo snoisrev deifilpmis ecrofne ot yrt netfo seinapmoc ,suhT .erutluc noitamrofni s'ynapmoc a egnahc t'now metsys TI na gnignahc )c dna ,ylisae noitamrofni erahs t'nod elpoep )b ,sgninaem ynam gnikat ,snoitcerid ynam ni sevlove noitamrofni )a :taht ezilaer ot liaf yeht esuaceb snoitpmussa tcerrocni ekam netfo seinapmoc ,metsys TI na gnipoleved elihW

.ycneiciffe dna ytivitcudorp desaercni reviled ot liaf tey ,esimorp taht smetsys retupmoc detacitsihpos gnipoleved fo ueil ni dekoolrevo netfo si noitazinagro na nihtiw seeyolpme ot noitamrofni gnireviled fo esoprup eht taht seugra tropnevaD ,)4991( ”luoS s'TI gnivaS“ nI

tnemeganaM noitamrofnI deretneC-namuH :luoS s'TI gnivaS

It is important to “model” effective online behaviors for students to follow. While most students know exactly what do to in the traditional classroom, they still don’t know what to do online. Therefore, if students are required to read the course textbook and summarize a chapter of it, you might consider “modeling” this behavior by summarizing the first chapter yourself. This will provide a framework for students to use as the basis of their assignments.

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

Example: Chapter summary posted by the instructor

SROIVAHEB ENILNO LEDOM

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

15
:skloF

semoc noitamrofni gnissecca fo eulav eurt eht taht dezilaer evah seinapmoc emos ,eromrehtruF .ylevitceffe seitilibisnopser boj rieht mrofrep tonnac noitamrofni ssecca ot smetsys esu ot woh wonk t'nod ohw seeyolpmE .ecnatropmi laicurc fo si gniniart eeyolpme taht tegrof t'nac ynapmoc a ,noitamrofni ot ssecca reisae evitcejbo na sa evah sehcaorppa eerht lla elihW .sediug noitamrofni ro ,spam noitamrofni ,)setoN sutoL sa hcus( eraWpuorG gnicudortni yb melborp siht htiw laed ot deirt seinapmoc emoS .stnemucod lanretxe dna lanretni fo snoitcelloc sseldne tsdima noitamrofni ”thgir“ taht etacol ot gniyrt ni secruoser etsaw osla seinapmoC

Post discussion questions in the discussion forum area. It is generally a good idea to keep the number of questions relatively low - e.g., one or two per week. Furthermore, students (and faculty) find it easier to “navigate” through the discussion if you post different discussion questions as separate messages in the discussion forum area.
tonnac metsys TI detacitsihpos tsom eht neve taht rebmemer tsum ew taht seugra tropnevaD ,reviled ot gniliaf rof ygolonhcet gnimalb naht rehtaR .sisab yliad a no ot desopxe era ew taht ).cte ,noitamrofni snalp tnemeriter ,stnemecnuonna yadhtrib sa hcus( noitamrofni sselhtrow fo tluser a ylerem si wolfrevo sihT .noitamrofni hcum oot ylirassecen t'nsi ereht

We have found that to facilitate learning in the online environment, it is crucial to engage students in an asynchronous discussion. Through this discussion, students can enhance their critical thinking skills by learning how to apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information (as in Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Goals).

.)t'nod ro( ti esu ohw elpoep eht s'ti ,noitamrofni eht seganam ohw retupmoc eht ton s'tI .elbatciderpnu dna gnidnapxe reve gnieb fo erutan yrev sti ot eud noitamrofni lortnoc ylirassecen

.)txetnoc edivorp nac ohw( ti detaerc ohw elpoep gnissecca morf

.noitamrofni sselhtrow fo seceip suoremun gnoma tsol netfo si ,seitud boj ruo gnimrofrep ni su pleh nac hcihw ,noitamrofni thgir ehT

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Example: Discussion Questions

SNOITSEUQ NOISSUCSID ESOP SNOITSEUQ NOISSUCSID ESOP SNOITSEUQ NOISSUCSID ESOP SNOITSEUQ NOISSUCSID ESOP

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

25

eiraM

.secneirepxe ruoy ro ,secruos edistuo morf noitamrofni ,I noitces morf noitamrofni htiw snoitressa ruoy troppus esaelP ?ton yhw ro yhW ?noitpmussa taht htiw eerga uoy oD

.egnahc fo ytitnauq dna ytilauq a hcus decneirepxe ew evah erofeb reven taht si noitacilpmi eht ,tcaf nI .yllacitamard dna ylkciuq gnignahc si pihsredael fo tnemnorivne eht taht noitnetnoc reh troppus taht selcitra serutaef namkciH ,enO noitceS nI

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

F

W

C

Most students in online classes do not know exactly what to do when they first experience the online learning environment. Your frequent facilitation of the online discussion is necessary to set the right tone for the rest of the class. Engage students in discussion by: providing formative feedback on their postings, asking them to apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information, summarizing the postings of several students and posing further discussion questions, and providing students with additional resources pertaining to the discussion resources (such as web sites, journal references, books, etc.). Your postings should be frequent so that students know that you are “there” to help them cope with the course. Typically, you should post after every five to six student postings. Here are some faculty postings from actual online courses:

Example 1: Faculty posting
:deT

Example 2: Faculty posting

35

naht yltnereffid su ot etaler yeht dluohS ?evah ew dluohs sredael fo sdnik

tahW .egnahc fo etar gnitarelecca eht fo esuaceb tnatropmi ylgnisaercni

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

si pihsredael ,uoy rof taht smees tI .tnemmoc gnitseretni na saw tahT

E N I L N O E N I L N O

YLTNEUQERF NOISSUCSID ENILNO ETATILICAF YLTNEUQERF NOISSUCSID ENILNO ETATILICAF

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

SSAL SSAL SSAL SSAL

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

FO KEE FO KEE FO KEE FO KEE

?erofeb

eiraM

TSRI TSRI TSRI TSRI

45
:lla raeD

eb thgim stniopweiv owT .troppus dna cigol dnuos no desab tniopweiv a gnitpoda tuoba si noitacude taht eveileb I...dnopser dna kniht ot uoy egnellahc LLIW I...desop I noitseuq eht rewsna reven lliw I .ereh eton A

reilrae sih morf( yas dluow derF ...neeb reve evah yeht naht won tnereffid yrev era sgniht...noitces tsrif siht ni tniop s'namkciH troppus uoy :enaJ

a dna etaerc ot dleif erom eno si ereht neht ,llew sa edoc sti erots ot tnaw ew fI .dleif txet a deen ew neht ,esabatad eht ni roloc erots ew fi ,lla retfA ...ti enifed rehtruf ecneh dna roloc eht ot edoc )?LMTH rebmemer ;eulb -neerg-der( BGR na ngissa ot liaf thgim I ...noitazinagro eht tuohguorht mrofinu era )foereht snoitatneserper eht fo lla dna( ”roloc“ drow eht taht emussa thgim I ,GPP rof esabatad a gnidliub saw I fi ,elpmaxe roF ?sresu htiw etacinummoc ot liaf ”skeeg retupmoc“ esuaceb reviled ot liaf yllaitrap smetsys TI taht kniht uoy od :hguoht noitseuq rehtona evah I .snoitseuq ym ot sesnopser dilos detsop htob uoY :nhoJ dna miJ

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

We have also found it useful to synthesize the week's discussion in a summary such as this one:

...eugolaid a evah ew os dna...dnuos yllauqe

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

Example: Summary of week’s postings

NOISSUCSID SSALC EZISEHTNYS NOISSUCSID SSALC EZISEHTNYS NOISSUCSID SSALC EZISEHTNYS NOISSUCSID SSALC EZISEHTNYS
eiraM

?kniht ssalc eht fo tser eht seod tahW

.taht yas ot erutamerp s'ti taht )gnitsop

...etsaw ot yromem erom tol

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Example 3: Faculty posting
siroB
Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

55
yllamrof ot tnemeganam roines ksa yam ew ,ytiruces boj ot semoc ti nehw ,elpmaxe roF .snrecnoc eseht emocrevo ot woh tuo erugif ot yrt ot rehtar tub ,latnemgduj eb ot TON ni ksat ruo ,snrecnoc eht fo emos htiw eergasid thgim ew elihW .deifitsuj ylisae eb nac dna laer era snrecnoc eseht fo llA

;elpoep ecalper lliw sretupmoc taht gnileef a :ytiruceS boJ ;meht htaeneb si srettel nwo s'eno gnipyt taht dna gnipyt eb dluohs lennosrep lairaterces ylno taht gnileef a :seussI edutittA .ytrap driht a yb derotinom dna dedrocer steg retupmoc a no od uoy gnihtyreve taht gnileef A :emordnyS rehtorB giB ehT ;emit elttil oot ni ,hcum oot :daolrevO noitamrofnI .ti htiw pu peek reven nac uoy taht gnileef a si ereht os tsaf oot segnahc ygolonhcet :tnemnorivnE gnignahC tsaF ;llew esu ot woh nrael dna elbatrofmoc emoceb ot gnol oot sekat ti :evruc gninraeL ;retsam ot tluciffid oot dna xelpmoc oot erawtfos ekam serutaef ynam oot :llikrevO erutaeF ;tsom ti deen uoy nehw elbaliava ton si ro elbaliava ton si pleh ;elbadnatsrednu ton si ti ,elbaliava si pleh nehw :pleh elbailernU ;elbaliava ton si gniniart ;gnitadimitni dna roop saw deviecer gniniart ;gniniart eviecer ot emit on si ereht :gniniart fo kcaL .od ot desoppus si ti tahw od syawla t'nseod retupmoc eht dna ,sezeerf retupmoc ,selif revocer ot elbanu :sehctilg ygolonhcet htiw secneirepxe daB :swollof sa era seussi rieht fo emos taht tuo dnuof dna sresu dne fo yevrus a did ew ,ssalc a sA

.resu dne eht fo snrecnoc dna sdeen eht ot etaredisnoc eb tsum osla eW .erutluc noitacinummoc s'ynapmoc eht tceffa lliw metsys TI wen siht woh redisnoc tsum eW .dnim ni resu-dne eht htiw TI fo noitatnemelpmi eht hcaorppa dna )ti esu lliw yeht ,ti dliub ew fi :sa hcus( snoitpmussa ruo noitseuq tsum ew taht tcaf eht sezisahpme yduts esac ehT .sresu-dne dna ygolonhcet fo kniht tsum ew ,metsys TI doog a tnemelpmi ot ,eroferehT .)ti esu ot esufer lliw ro( ti gnisu eb lliw ohw sresu fo stsisnoc osla tI .ti gnidliub ni desu ygolonhcet eht fo tsisnoc ylno ton seod metsys TI na taht dnim ni peek tsum ew ,metsys TI lufsseccus a tnemelpmi ot redro ni ,revewoH .resu-dne lacinhcet-non eht :nioc eht fo edis rehto eht dnatsrednu ot su rof tluciffid netfo si ti ,yvvas TI gnieB .snoitome fo tol a pu derrits yduts esac ralucitrap siht taht smees tI :stnemmoc gnisolc wef a evah I ,revewoH .eno txen eht otno evom dna yduts esac siht pu parw ot emit si tI

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

65

siroB .tcejorp puorg ruoy otni ledom siht dliub ot rebmemer ,oslA .seiduts esac rehto gnihcaorppa nehw dnim ni raf os dessucsid ew taht gniht yreve peek esaelp ,oS .yltnatsnoc sdnim ruo fo kcab eht ni eb dluohs taht seussi eht fo emos era eseht taht eveileb ylmrif I esuaceb tsrif yduts esac siht decudortni I .no os dnA .yb seog emit sa serutaef gnidda :segats ni metsys a dliub ot ediced yam ew ,serutaef ynam oot ot semoc ti nehW .snrecnoc hcus dnabsid

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

75

siroB .sknahT .od nac I gnihtyna si ereht fi wonk em tel esaelP ?gnineppah si tahW ...oga syad 01 tsomla saw gnitsop tsal ruoY .ssergorp ruoy tuoba denrecnoc ma I :nhoJ

.gnikniht lacitirc detibihxe dna ,ylesicnoc dna ylraelc etorw ,ecneirepxe nwo ruoy no werd ,koob eht ot derrefer uoY .tegrat no thgir saw esnopser dnoces ruoY .ylkciuq os deeps ot pu tog uoy dalg m'I

Online students can sometimes feel lost in the online environment. For many of them, your class will probably be the first educational experience online. To help them become better online learners, make sure you provide formative feedback on their progress. Private mail is particularly useful for this. The following messages were sent to students via private mail or email.

KCABDEEF EVITAMROF SUOUNITNOC EDIVORP KCABDEEF EVITAMROF SUOUNITNOC EDIVORP

ESRUO ESRUO ESRUO ESRUO

ENILN ENILN ENILN ENILN

RUO RUO RUO RUO

TUOHGUORH TUOHGUORH TUOHGUORH TUOHGUORH

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

T

Example 2: Feedback via private mail or email
eiraM .krow doog eht pu peeK :yllaS

Feedback Example 1: Feedback via private mail or email Y O C

85

eiraM

.sknahT

.tifeneb lla nac ew os aera noissucsid cilbup eht ot meht tsop ot yrt esaelP ?snoitseuQ

.lairetam siht fo yretsam ruoy gniwohs osla era uoY .naem yeht tahw swonk redaer eht emussa t'nod--repap ruoy ni koob niehcS eht morf esu uoy taht stpecnoc ssucsid dna nialpxe SYAWLA

.stfard ylrae weiver ot gnilliw ylniatrec ma I .repap ruoy etirw uoy sa srepap rof airetirc dna senilediug eht revo kool ESAELP

.ht31 eht .taS no noon yb retupmoc ym ta eud si repap tsrif ruoy taht rednimer a tsuJ

:skloF

Although you may have all deadlines listed in the calendar section of your online course, perhaps even in the virtual syllabus, you shouldn't assume that students will remember when something is due. Just like in a regular classroom, it is a good idea to “announce” upcoming deadlines and ask students if they need further clarification of the assignment.

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Example: Deadline announcement

SENILDAED GNIMOCPU ECNUONNA

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

95

eiraM

!sknahT

.QET EHT ETELPMOC UOY LITNU edarg ruoy teg tonnac uoy ,dengised si metsys eht yaw eht nevig ,oslA .ni era sedarg ruoy retfa litnu stluser eht ees ot elba eb TON lliw I .sQET eht ssecca ot elba eb lliw uoy syad YLNO eht era esehT .02-41 hcraM rof sradnelac ruoy kram esaelp oS .tamrof wen a hcus si siht ecnis ,od sQET lacipyt naht kcabdeef erom tib a rof gniksa eb lliw ew ,revewoH .enilno )snoitaulave gnihcaet fo noisrev s'enseuquD( sQET tuo llif ot uoy rof dohtem a depoleved evah eW

:sklof iH

Toward the end of your online course, you should remind your students to fill out the online TEQ form.

Although Duquesne University, in compliance with the decision of the Provost, does not take into consideration the Teacher Effectiveness Questionnaires (TEQs) of online courses for the first two years of a faculty's online teaching in consideration of tenure or promotion, we still administer the online version of TEQs to assist you in improving your online teaching methods. TEQs in online classes, unlike in the traditional classes, can be accessed at any time during the last week of the course. Just like with regular TEQs, students can only fill them out once.

SQET TUO LLIF OT STNEDUTS KSA SQET TUO LLIF OT STNEDUTS KSA

ESRUO ESRUO ESRUO ESRUO

ENILN ENILN ENILN ENILN

RUO RUO RUO RUO

FO DN FO DN FO DN FO DN

EHT T EHT T EHT T EHT T

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

A

Example: TEQ reminder E Y O C

06
:lla raeD

At the very end of your online class, post a message in the discussion forum area announcing the end of the class. You may also want to provide students with a mechanism for submitting any past due assignments (such as your regular email) or with information how to contact you should they have any questions about their final grades.

.noissucsid eht pu parw ot syad fo elpuoc tsal eseht esu dluohs eW

gniwollof eht no ni denrut eb lliw sedarg lanif ruoY .dednepsus eb lliw snigol esruoc ruoy )62 yluJ( yadnoM nO .os enod ydaerla t'nevah uoy fi sQET tuo llif ot tegrof t'nod esaelp ,oslA .noitcuded tniop 01 a htiw dezilanep eb lliw stcejorp eud tsap llA .noon ta 9991 ,42 yluJ ,yadrutaS naht retal on eud si tI .tcejorp lanif eht rof enildaed eht tuoba uoy dnimer ot detnaw tsuj I ,ssalc enilno ruo fo dne eht ta tsomlA

A few days before the official end of your online course, ask students to “wrap up” the discussion and submit any assignments due (or past due). You may also want to provide them with information about when they can expect their final grades, when their access privileges to your online course will be suspended, etc.

NOISSUCSID EHT ”PU PARW“ OT STNEDUTS KSA

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

Example: Class ending announcement

SSALC EHT FO DNE EHT ECNUONNA SSALC EHT FO DNE EHT ECNUONNA SSALC EHT FO DNE EHT ECNUONNA SSALC EHT FO DNE EHT ECNUONNA

siroB

.yadsendeW

:skloF

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Example: “Wrap up” message
Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

16

siroB

,erac ekaT

!noitaudarg ta uoy ees lliw I ,gnitaudarg era uoy fI .)sessalc erutuf ni – tey gnitaudarg ton era ohw uoy fo esoht rof dna( efil ni tseb eht lla uoy hsiw I dna ssalc ni uoy fo lla evah ot erusaelp a saw tI

.)keew txen emit emos ylbaborp ;wonk uoy tel lliw dna liame raluger ruoy evah llits I( eciffo egelloC yadrutaS eht ni elbaliava meht ekam dna stcejorp eht fo lla htiw sDC wef a nrub ot hguoht gninnalp ma I .aedi taht no pu evig ot dah I os )noitatneserp tnioPrewoP BM 3 a daolnwod ot tnaw dluow enoyna kniht t’nod I( raf yb semit daolnwod elbanosaer deecxe stcejorp eht fo tsom taht dezilaer I ,revewoH .TCbeW fo aera noitatneserP eht ni stcejorp ruoy fo lla tsop ot detnaw I ,yllanigirO

.moorssalc raluger a ni noissucsid fo level siht eveihca reven dluow ew taht eveileb ylurt I tub )llew sa em rof( tnemnorivne wen siht ot desu gnitteg tsrif ta gnitartsurf saw ti wonk I .evah I sa hcum sa ti deyojne uoy epoh I .ssalc siht fo dne eht ot emoc evah ew sseug I

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

SUMMARY

This booklet has taken you, the future online instructor, through three phases of translating a college-level course from your face-to-face to an online version: 1. pre-planning, 2. planning and developing the course, and, finally, 3. teaching online. When undertaking this process for the first time, you may feel a mixture of many emotions including anxiety, enthusiasm, trepidation, and excitement, among others. We felt the same way at first, but have discovered a renewed excitement and enthusiasm for teaching as we moved to the online environment. How do you get started? Like the Nike ad says, “Just do it.” Use this booklet to help you put your course online, open it up to students, and jump in. You will discover a teaching environment that is interactive, flexible, and far more “human” than you ever imagined. We wish you great success, and we hope you will contact us if you have any questions about teaching online. We’d love to talk with you and share what we’ve learned. Also, as we continue to improve this manual, we welcome your suggestions, ideas, and examples. We will add them as we try to make this manual as inclusive as we can.

26

G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

36
d n a yl e t a r e di s n o c y r e v d e d n o p s e r r o t c u r t s ni e h T . s oi r a n e c s e fil l a e r d n a t x e t e h t g ni d n u o r r u s s n oi s s u c s i d g ni t s e r e t ni y r e v d e t p m o r p si h T . s g ni t s o p s ’ k e e w h c a e t r a t s o t s n oi t s e u q t n ell e c x e d e s o p o r p r o t c u r t s ni e h T .l ai r e t a m l a u t x e t f o s t c e p s a l ai c o s e h t e vil a t h g u o r b yl r a e l c m u r of n oi s s u c s i d e h t ni s t n e v e t n e r r u c f o n oi t a cil p p A . e ci t s uj f o g ni d n a t s r e d n u r e t t e b a s u c of o t ni g ni r b o t e m d e pl e h d n a w al f o s r e t t a m g nil a e d n e h w y ll ai c e p s e , k s a t tl u ciffi d y r e v a s i s i h T . e u s si n a s e di s h t o b e e s o t e m d e s u a c t a h t s n oi t s e u q d e di v o r p e H l uf pl e h y r e v e r e w " s e r u t c el -i ni M " . y ti s oi r u c d e k a e p s y a wl a d n a g ni t s e r e t ni y r e v t c ej b u s e h t e d a m e h S . m u r of n oi s s u c si d e h t ni h ti w n oi t a ci n u m m o c r e h ni t n el a v e r p s a w si h T . g ni h c a e t s a w e h s t a h t t c ej b u s e h t r of e v ol r e h o sl a d n a e c n ei t a p r e h s a w g ni h c a e t s ’ r o t c u r t s ni si h t f o s t c e p s a t n a t r o p m i t s o m e h T . ti d e di u g t u b n oi s s u c si d e h t d a e l t o n di d r o t c u r t s ni e h T . A T e h t s a ll e w s a r o s s e f o r p e h t m o rf s e s n o p s e r d e n e t h g il n e e h t d n a s e s n o p s e r f o s s e n t p m o r p e h t e t ai c e r p p a I . k c a b d e e f s a d e di v o r p e r e w h ci h w s t n e m m o c d n a n oi t c a r e t ni e h T . s t p e c n o c t n a t r o p mi t s o m e h t d n a t s r e d n u o t t n e d u t s e h t d e pl e h h ci h w , t n e m n g i s s a g ni d a e r s k e e w h c a e d e ni al p x e d n a d e zi r a m m u s o s l a r o t c u r t s ni e h T . s n oi t a cil p p a l a ci t c a r p y a d y r e v e o t ni s t n e m n gi s s a g ni d a e r e h t g ni t a r g e t ni n a n oi s s u c si d p u o r g g ni r e e t S . k n i h t e m e d a m yl l a e r e H . h t p e d - ni d n a yl e t ai d e m mi d e d n o p s e r d n a s e m i t d e ri u q e r r u o g ni r u d t s o p o t s u d e w oll a r o t c u r t s ni e h T . s e t a m s s al c r u o f o sl li k s d n a e mi t e h t e zili t u o t el b a g ni e b eli h w , e c a p r u o t a g ni n r a el n o s u c of o t s u d e w oll a e s r u o c si h T

The following are some of the (unedited) comments provided by students who perceived their instructor as an excellent online teacher (i.e. they awarded the instructor “strongly agree” on the TEQ question “Overall, the instructor is an excellent teacher”).
DNUO STNEDUT GNIHCAE EVITCEFF TSO ENILN FO STCEPS
G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T

APPENDIX A: CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS

This section of the faculty guidelines for online teaching contains excerpts from our collection of over 1,600 student TEQ submissions. Through this information, we tried to present you with the student view of online learning. Through their comments, students expressed their opinions about those aspects of online teaching they found most effective and those aspects of online teaching that—in their opinion—could be improved.

E N I L N O E N I L N O

R O F R O F

S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G

Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

A M

E

O

T

S

F

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e l bi s s o p s a h c u m s a n r a e l o t ” e li m a r t x e e h t o g “ o t g nilli w n a h t e r o m si t n e d u t s a t a h t s n a e m h ci h w , s u oi g a t n o c si T I h ti w n oi t a ni c s af si H . r e n n a m e vi ti s o p a n i t n e m n o ri v n e e nil n o e h t f o e r e h p s o m t a e h t t c e ff a yl e ti nif e d s f ei l e b si h , n r u t nI . s f e il e b si h t u o b a e t a n oi s s a p y r e v s i e h t a h t s w o n k t n e d u t s a , t n e m n o ri v n e e nil n o e h t d n a TI g ni s s u c s i d s i e h r e v e n e h W . m si ci ti r c e vi t c u r t s n o c yl n o h ti w d e e c o r p o t s n oi s s u c si d e h t g ni t ti m r e P . 3 . k r o w t n e d u t s g ni zi ni t u r c s ni evitcejbo dna dednim-nepO .2 .rettam tcejbus eht fo egdelwonK !e n o D ll e W y r e V . n oi t a m r of ni y e k r e v o c n u o t r e d r o ni s n oi t s e u q g ni b o r p d e s o p r o t c u r t s ni e h t s e m i t y n a M . k c a r t ff o g ni t t e g s a w n oi s s u c s i d e h t e r e h w s a e r a yfi r a l c o t " ni p m uj " dl u o w d n a s e u s si s s u c si d yl e e r f o t s t n e d u t s d e w oll a r o t c u r t s ni e h T . e vi t c ef f e y r e v s a w s s al c si h t f o n oi t a tili c a F . d e zi n a g r o ll e w y r e v s a w e s r u o c si h T s ei r o e h t s k o o b t x e t o t s oi r a n e c s dl r o w l a e r g ni t al e R . y r e t s a M . g ni h c a e t f o y o J . t n e m e vl o v ni l a t o T . st n e d uts e ht d n a s s al c e h t ni t s e r e t ni E R E C N I S , t n e di v E . s s a l c e h t h t i w n oi t c a r e t ni e nil n O . yl k ci u q yl e m e r t x e s n oi t s e u q s r e w s n a o s l a e H . s s al c si h t m o rf n o t a d e n r a e l I . t n e t n o c e z yl a n a d n a k ni h t u o y e d a m yl l a e r t a h t s n oi t s e u q g ni g n ell a h c y r e v h ti w p u e m a c e H . s n r e t t a p d e t p e c c a d n a e ni t u o r o t g ni g n ell a h c e r e w s t p e c n o c g ni k o v o r p t h g u o h t e h T . s e u s si pi h s r e d a el n o g ni k ni h t r e p e e d o t t n a v e l e r d n a e vi t a c o v o r p e r e w d e s u s l ai r e t a m g ni d a e r e h T . e fil s s e ni s u b r u o o t t n a v el e r e r a h ci h w s e s a c e fil l a e r d e di v o r p e h S . d e s u c of d e ni a m e r e n o y r e v e e r u s e d a m e H . s n oi s s u c si d e h t h ti w d e vl o v ni s a w e H . s e u s si d n a s t c af e t a r a p e s r o n r e c si d o t y t ili b a si H . b oj t a e r g a di d e h k ni h t I . g ni k ni h t l a ci ti r c e t o m o r p o t d e pl e h h ci h w k c a b d e e f t a e r g e v a g r o t c u r t s ni e h T . k c a b d e ef s i h s a w g ni h c a e t s r o t c u r t s ni e h t f o t r a p e vi t c eff e t s o m e h T . s g ni t s o p r u o o t s e s n o p s e r r e h ni h g u o r o h t Y R E V . w o n k ot s u r of t n a t r o p m i si ti s k ni h t d n a g ni h c a e t si e h s t a h w t u o b a e t a n oi s s a p d n a el b a e g d el w o n k y r e v si r o t c u r t s ni e h T . y a w e vi t i s o p a ni s t n e d u t s y b e d a m s n oi s ul c n o c s u o e n o r r e t u o g ni t ni o p d n a t c ej b u s e h t f o s t c e p s a el t b u s e r o m e h t t u o g ni g ni r b f o b oj t n e ll e c x e n a s e o d r o t c u r t s ni e h t k ni h t I . d e s o p s n oi t s e u q o t s e s n o p s e r yl e m i t e h T . g ni t s e r e t ni t i g ni p e e k d n a e fil o t r e t t a m t c ej b u s si h t g ni g ni r b ni b oj e ci n y r e v a di d r o t c u r t s ni e h t t a h t t h g u o h t I . t h g u a t g ni e b r e t t a m t c ej b u s e h t n o el b a e g d el w o n k y r e v d n a d e r a p e r p ll e w o s l a s a w r o t c u r t s ni e h T . s n oi s s u c si d s k e e w h c a e g ni r u d s n o i t a s r e v n o c l a n oi ti d d a r u p s o t pl e h s e s n o p s e r d n a s n oi t s e u q s ’ r o t c u r t s ni e h T . s g ni t s o p ’ s t n e d u t s e h t o t y a w g ni k o v o r p t h g u o h t a ni

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si H . e r u t r u n d n a , e t a tili c af , e g a g n e o t r e d r o ni n e tf o e r o m h c u m e nil n o e b t s u m r o t c u r t s ni e h T . e s r u o c si h t ni g ni k c al y ll a t o t s a w t a h T . t n e m n o ri v n e e nil n o e h t ni k c a b d e ef d n a e c n a di u g t n a t s n o c r of e t u ti t s b u s o n si e r e h T . t c ej b u s e h t g ni ni al p x e s n oi s s u c si d yll a u t c a t u b , l ai r e t a m g ni d a e r h ti w yl n o t o n t n e d u t s e h t e d i v o r p o t s d e e n e H . s n oi t s e u q o t d n o p s e r o t e v a h s t n e d u t s e h t s a n oi s s u c si d e nil - n o h g u o r h t e s r u o c e h t s s u c s i D . el b ali a v a e r o m e B

a d e di v o r p t a h t s g ni t s o p n o t h g u o h t r e h t r uf e t a r e n e g o t y t ili b a n e e k a s a h e H .li a t e d f o l a e d t a e r g a h t i w g ni t s o p h c a e d a e r yl s u oi v b o r o t c u r t s ni e h T . t h g u o h t r e h gi h o t d el yl e t a mi tl u h ci h w s n oi t s e u q g ni k o v o r p t h g u o h t h ti w t n e d u t s e h t e g a g n e o t y t ili b a si H . s s al c d o o g y r e V . s s al c t u o h g u o r h t n oi t a m r of ni t n e r r u c d n a d a e r o t s e t i s s u oi r a v s u e v a g r o t c u r t s ni e h T . g ni g n ell a h c d n a g ni t s e r e t ni ci p o t g ni r o b y r e v a e d a m tI . s n oi t a t c e p x e ni d n a s n oi t s e u q ni e g a u g n al r a el C t x e t e h t o t s e c n e i r e p x e e fil si h f o n oi t al e R . e vil a s s al c e h t t p e k t c e p s a si h T . s t n e d u t s ll a o t k c a b d e ef e v a g yll a u ni t n o c e H . s s e n e vi s n o p s e r r u o y n o d e s u c of u o y p e e k o t d e p l e h yl ni a t r e c si h t - k c a b d e e F . e nil n o s s al c s i h t e k a t o t d e di c e d I d al g m a I . e s r u o c e nil n o r e h t o n a g ni y r t t u o b a y r a w e l t til a e m tf el e g ell o c r e h t o n a m o rf e s r u o c e nil n o n a h t i w e c n e i r e p x e s u oi v e r p A . g ni n r a el e nil n o ni h ti af y m d e r o t s e r s s al c e nil n o si h T . t n ell e c x e s i e t a gi v a n o t w o h d n a t s r e d n u o t d e di v o r p n oi t a t n e m u c o d e h T . t u o t h g u o h t ll e w s a w t a m r of s s al c e h T . s e e y ol p m e y m f o r e h c a e t e h t e m o c e b e v a h I , s g ni h c a e t r e h f o t n e d u t s a s a , n r u t nI . pi h s r e d a e L e vi t c eff E f o ci p o t e h t o t n oi t ci v n o c r e h e e s yl k ci u q lli w s s al c r e h s e k a t o h w t n e d u t s y n a t a h t f eil e b y m si tI . t s e b e h t e r a g ni h c a e t f o s d o h t e m r e h , e r of e r e h T . d e t n ei r o t n e d u t s d n a , ci t a m s i r a h c , e g d el w o n k , g ni r i p s ni si e h S ? r o t c u r t s ni d n a n o s r e p a s a r e b m e m y tl u c af e h t t u o b a y a s e n o n a c e s l e t a h W . el b a n o s r e p si e h d n a , g ni n r a el r of e vi c u d n o c e r a g ni h c a e t f o s d o h t e m si H . t c ej b u s e h t t u o b a

The following are some of the (unedited) comments provided by students who did not perceive their instructor as an excellent online teacher (i.e. they awarded the instructor “strongly disagree” or “disagree” on the TEQ question “Overall, the instructor is an excellent teacher”).
TLEF STNEDUT TLEF STNEDUT TLEF STNEDUT TLEF STNEDUT GNIHCAE GNIHCAE GNIHCAE GNIHCAE DEVORPMI EB DLUOC ENILN ENILN FO STCEPS FO STCEPS ENILN ENILN FO STCEPS FO STCEPS
. t n a v el e r d n a t c a r t n o t n e t n o c d n a e s r u o c e h t g ni p e e k ni e vi t c e ff e yll ai c e p s e s a w e H . e vi t c e p s r e p r o t h g i s ni w e n
G N I H C A E T G N I H C A E T E N I L N O E N I L N O R O F R O F S E N I L E D I U G S E N I L E D I U G Y T L U C A F Y T L U C A F

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s a w r e p a p d n o c e s e h t - s t n e m m o c n e t ti r w h ti w li a m e h t ni k c a b d e vi e c e r I e n o yl n o e h t s a w s s al c si h t ni e u d r e p a p t s r if e h t , o s l A . e d a r g r u o y e v o r p m i o t e m i t t x e n e h t e n o d e b o t d e d e e n t a h w g ni ni m r e t e d ni l uf pl e h t o n d n a e u g a v y r e v e r e w s t n e m m o c , d e n r u t e r e c n O . e u d e r e w y e h t r e tf a h t n o m a li t n u d e d a r g t o n e r e w e s r u o c si h t g ni r u d e u d e r e w t a h t s r e p a P . s t n e m m o c w ef a d d a d n a p u w o h S . s t n e m n g i s s a n o s k c a b d e ef r e k ci u Q . g ni t i r w d n a g ni k ni h t l a ci t i r c o d o t s t n e d u t s e s o b r e v s s el e g a r u o c n e d n a s t n e d u t s e vi s s e r g g a e h t f o e m o s ni ni e r o t el b a e b dl u o h s e H . s n oi s s u c si d e h t ni t r a p e vi t c a n a e k a t dl u o h s r o t c u r t s ni e h T . o ot d e d n o ps er r e v e n e r e w s n oi t s e u q e h t f o e m o S . s n oi t s e u q o t d n o p s e r o t g n ol o o t k o o t r o s s ef o r p e h t d n a w oll of o t tl u cif fi d s a w e t i s b e w e h T . n o g ni o g s a w t a h w w e n k yll a e r r e v e n I t a h t tl ef I . e nil n o n oi t a ci n u m m o c r e t t e B . t r a p s ’ r o t c u r t s ni e h t n o k c a b d e ef r o o p f o e s u a c e b s s al c si h t ni d n a t s e r e h w a e di o n e v a h I e c ni s e d a r g l a ni f e h t r of d e n g i s s a e r a s e d a r g w o h e e s o t g ni t s e r e t ni e b lli w tI . d e k s a n e h w n e v e e n o d g ni e b s a w t a h t g ni d a r g f o e p y t y n a n o e s r u o c e r i t n e e h t u r h t k c a b d e e f o n d e vi e c e r e W . ni al p m o c o t d e t r a t s e n o y r e v e n e h w s s al c f o k e e w h t 4 e h t r e tf a li t n u e m i t y n a t a t s o p r o s n oi t s e u q e nil n o o t d n o p s e r n e v e t o n di d r e h c a e t e h T d e s u c of m u r of n oi s s u c si d p e e k d n a s e t a d e u d e nil t u O . ci p o t l a ci ti r c si h t n o e s r u o c l a u t c a n a t c u r t s n o c d n a e c n e i r e p x e g ni n r a el e vi t c a r e t ni n a d a el o t w o h n r a e L s u b all y s e h t w oll o F . s e t o n e r u t c e l e vi s n e t x e e r o m e di v o r P . r o s s ef o r p e h t m o r f t n e m e vl o v ni o n - s k e e w 5 t s r if e h t r of s s al c e h t d el d n a h A T . s n oi s s u c si d e nil n o e h t h ti w d e vl o v ni e r o m e b dl u o C . c t e , s g ni t e e m r of e di c ni o c s el u d e h c s e v a h o t tl u ciffi d si ti , k e e w r e h t o y r e v e t u B . a e di d o o g a yl b a b o r p si t c ej o r p p u o r g e n O . s t ni a r t s n o c e mi t o t e u d t a m r of e h t n e s o h c e v a h y a m s t n a pi ci t r a p e s r u o c e nil - n o , o sl A . d e t n e s e r p s a e di l ai ti ni e h t f o s e h c n a r b r o , s n oi t s e u q , s n r e c n o c r e h t o h c a e h ti w s s u c s i d r o s a e di t n e r effi d p u g ni r b o t d e g a r u o c n e t' n e r e w e W . s g ni h t e m a s e h t t u o b a s n oi ni p o s ' r e h t o h c a e w a s d n a , e mi t e m a s e h t t a s g ni h t e m a s e h t d a e r ll a e w , y a w si h T . g n i n r a e l r e d a o r b e g a r u o c n e d n a s u c of r e di w h c u m e di v o r p t a h t s n oi s s u c si d e n il n o r e t s of , ll a r of t n e m n gi s s a e n o n a h t r e h t a r : t a m r of e nil n o e h t d r a w o t e r o m e s r u o c e h t s u c o F . m o or t a h c a ni s p a h r e p n oi s s u c si d e h t s d a el r o t c u r t s ni e h t e r e h w s t p e c n o c y e k cifi c e p s n o s n oi s s u c si d m o r f d e tif e n e b e v a h dl u o c I k ni h t I t u b , s r e t p a h c e h t f o d n e e h t t a s r e w s n a e h t h ti w g n ol a d e t s o p e r e w s ei r a m m u s r e t p a h C . n oi t p o t s e b e h t si t n e m e r i t e r s p a h r e p n e h t , m o o r s s al c e h t ni r e t t e b y n a t o n si s s e n e vi t c eff e s i h fI . t n e m n o ri v n e e nil n o e h t di o v a o t e b dl u o w s s e n e vi t c e ff e si h e v o r p mi o t y a w t s e b e h t s p a h r e P . e u s s i e h t d e di o v a e h , n oi t a cif i r al c r of d e k s a n e h W . r a el c n u d n a e u g a v e r e w s e t o n e s r u o c e h T . y ti r e c ni s d n a h t p e d d e k c al s t n e m m o c

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. e n o n d e vi e c e r I , k c a b d e ef g ni t s e u q e r s li a m e g ni d n e s r e tf a n e v E . c t e , h g u o n e g ni t u bi r t n o c s a w I t o n r o r e h t e h w , r e p a p t s r if y m m o rf k c a b d e ef o n , d e d a r g g ni e b s a w I w o h f o a e di o n d a h I . k c a b d e ef r of s t s e u q e r ' s t n e d u t s o t d n o p s e R . x o bli a m e t a vi r p e h t o t d e t s o p n e h w sli a m - e r e w s n a t o n di d e H . d e vi e c e r e r e w s r e p a p fi d n a s e d a r g s a r af s a mi h m o rf k c a b d e ef t e g o t tl u cif fi d y r e v s a w tI . dra o b n oi s s u c si d e h t n o ni ni oj yll a u t c a d n a , s n oi t s e u q r e w s n a d n a el b ali a v a e B .s e m it l ar e v es g ni k s a r e tf a e g a r e v a m r e t - di m y m n r a el di d r e v e n I t u b , t n e m e g a r u o c n e e m e vi g di d d n a , s e m i t f o el p u o c a e m o t k c a b di d r o t c u r t s ni e h T . s t o p e h t k c e h c e s n o p s e r y m f o y ti dil a v e h t t b u o d u o y fI . n oi t a s r e v n o c ni d e d ul c x e s a w I ,fi s a d e m e e s tI . d e di s - e n o s a w tI . n oi t a c o r pi c e r o n s a w e r e h T . s t s o p y m ni e s r u o c r e t ni n a m u h y n a d a h e s r u o c si h t ni e c n o t o n I . n oi t a s r e v n o c r e e p ni d e vl o v ni si t n e d u t s y r e v e t a h t g ni r u s n e y B ! g ni g a r u o c s i d y r e v s a w si h T .li a m e t a vi r p h g u o r h t e d a r g y m f o d eifi t o n yl n o s a w I ,li a m e h t h g u o r h t d e vi e c e r r e v e n

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