AES GENERATING PLANT

- Best Practice Guidelines -

AES Asset Management Framework Global Engineering Group
Document Status Document Identifier Revision Date Distribution Version 2.0 AMF-AGPOG-0001 05 December 2010 Internal Use Only – Confidential and Proprietary Document of the AES Corporation

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DOCUMENT CHANGE CONTROL LOG ........................................................................................................ 4   1.0 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................ 5   2.0 OPERATIONS ................................................................................................................................................. 6   2.1 Control Room Conduct ...................................................................................................................................... 6   2.2 Metrics and Unit Expectations ........................................................................................................................... 7   2.3 Standard Operating Procedures .......................................................................................................................... 8   2.4 Temporary Operating Procedures (TOPs) ......................................................................................................... 9   2.5 Emergency Operating Procedures – Place holder ............................................................................................ 10   2.6 Equipment Inspection Guidelines (EIGs) ........................................................................................................ 11   2.7 DCS Alarm Management ................................................................................................................................. 12   2.8 Three-way Communication Process ................................................................................................................ 14   2.9 Operator Training and Qualifications .............................................................................................................. 15   2.10 Shift Reports, Logs and Operator Rounds ..................................................................................................... 16   2.11 Water Chemistry ............................................................................................................................................ 18   2.12 Solid Fuel Handling ....................................................................................................................................... 19   2.13 Heat Rate Program ......................................................................................................................................... 20   2.14 Protective Device Testing .............................................................................................................................. 21   2.15 Lubrication and Oil Condition Monitoring .................................................................................................... 22   2.16 Auxiliary Equipment – Vibration Monitoring ............................................................................................... 23   2.17 Operation of Transformers ............................................................................................................................. 24   3.0 MAINTENANCE ........................................................................................................................................... 27   3.1 Key Elements of Maintenance ......................................................................................................................... 27   3.2 Predictive Maintenance .................................................................................................................................... 29   3.3 Preventive Maintenance ................................................................................................................................... 30   3.4 Computerized Maintenance Management System ........................................................................................... 31   3.5 Backlog Management ...................................................................................................................................... 33   3.6 Key Performance Indicators & Scorekeeping .................................................................................................. 34   3.7 Event Reporting & Root Cause Analysis ......................................................................................................... 35   3.8 Management of Change ................................................................................................................................... 36   3.9 Boiler Mapping ................................................................................................................................................ 38   3.10 Management of Weld Quality ........................................................................................................................ 39   3.11 Welding Requirements for Repair and Maintenance Contracts..................................................................... 40   3.12 Non-Destructive Testing – CMV Weld Inspections ...................................................................................... 42   3.13 Care and Replacement of Threaded Fasteners ............................................................................................... 43   3.14 Injection Leak Sealing ................................................................................................................................... 45   3.15 Care & Maintenance of Induced Daft Fans ................................................................................................... 46   3.16 Care & Maintenance of Electric Motors ........................................................................................................ 47   3.17 Maintenance of Station Batteries ................................................................................................................... 49   3.18 Handling Electrostatically Sensitive Devices ................................................................................................ 52  

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3.19 Portable Electric Measuring Equipment ........................................................................................................ 53   3.20 Performing Electrical Testing on Live Apparatus ......................................................................................... 54   3.21 Insulated Hand Tools for Live Work (to 650V) ............................................................................................ 55   3.22 Asbestos-based Components in Air Break Switchgear.................................................................................. 56   4.0 LOSS PREVENTION BEST PRACTICES ................................................................................................ 57   4.1 Boilers and Heat Recovery Steam Generators ................................................................................................. 57   4.2 Steam Turbines ................................................................................................................................................ 58   4.3 Gas Turbines .................................................................................................................................................... 60   4.4 Hydro Turbines ................................................................................................................................................ 62   4.5 Wind Turbines – Suspended and under review ............................................................................................... 64   4.6 Internal Combustion Engines ........................................................................................................................... 65   4.7 Generators ........................................................................................................................................................ 67   4.8 High Energy Steam Piping ............................................................................................................................... 69   4.9 Pressure Vessels ............................................................................................................................................... 70   4.10 Boiler Feed Pumps ......................................................................................................................................... 71   4.11 Safety Valves ................................................................................................................................................. 72   4.12 Transformers .................................................................................................................................................. 74   4.13 Miscellaneous Electrical Equipment .............................................................................................................. 77   4.14 Fire Protection ................................................................................................................................................ 79  

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Key elements. Updated section numbering Proprietary & Confidential 4 . replaced with: expectations. Predictive.14 – Fire Protection Added place holder for a section on Emergency Operating Procedures Section updates include: DCS Alarm Management. Released to: Regional Performance Directors. Pressure Vessels. shall. Corporate Legal. Nature of Revision August 15. 2010 Oct 13. Gas Turbines. must.0 Initial Draft. Includes changes by Corporate Legal – Words such as: requirements. 2010 1 1. Maintenance . Preventive. Management of Change.1 2. standards. Wind Turbines – Suspended and under review Additional text added to the section on ‘Station Batteries’ Added Section 4. corrections and comments. Logs and Operator Rounds. 2010 Dec 05. need. AGIC and other subject matter experts for review. Protective Device Testing.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S Document Change Control Log Effective Date Version NO. Shift Reports. will.

Maintenance - focus primarily on physical assets such as facilities. Operations - address some of the key elements and processes used by high performing maintenance organizations in support of operations. The last section of each guideline is a hyperlink to additional information in a folder on Docushare. Our generating plants operate in many different business environments. Objective. provides insight into “Why” a guideline is defined for the topic. Loss Prevention Standards - Each guideline in this manual is also divided into three sections. How can one set of practices be considered “best” given so many different and unique situations?” he determination of what is “best” is. At AES. Proprietary & Confidential 5 . The Operation and Maintenance (O&M) practices have therefore been defined as guidelines to be applied to the extent reasonably possible at each AES generation businesses. systems and equipment and provide specific actions that will lower the risk of major failures or property damage. for any given plant.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 1. The information in the folder has been assembled to assist businesses with further information on “How” the practice might be implemented or has been applied at other businesses. this manual presents a collection of Operations and Maintenance (O&M) practices that have been evaluated as industry best practice for generating facilities. The first section. The second section. describe “What” is expected from generating businesses in a concise bulleted list format. of course. To assist plant management with this responsibility. that best suit the unique business environment. Minimum Expectations. T The O&M Guidelines in this manual have been divided into three sections: • • • focus on the conduct of operations and some of the key management processes and techniques used to operate AES generating facilities. the local management of each generating facility will always bear ultimate responsibility for the selection and implementation of practices. The practices have been recognized as having significant positive impact on the safe. a subjective evaluation and will vary with the situation.0 INTRODUCTION What is an AES “Best” Practice? “AES has always been about diversity and the unencumbered pursuit of business excellence. economical and reliable operating performance of generating plants.

loose tools or other possessions are removed or secured before approaching switches. communicated and followed. flashlights. logic diagrams. clean. both internal and external. safety glasses.0 OPERATIONS 2.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 2. Piping and Instrumentation Drawings (P&IDs). is easily accessible and maintained in working order. and other control system configuration documents are kept updated and available to operators and other personnel who need them. Emergency and safe shutdown policies and procedures are readily available • REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 6 . panels. personal use of computers and other potential distractions are established by local leadership. and have background sound levels below OSHA limits required for continuous occupation.1 Control Room Conduct OBJECTIVE To maintain a professional work environment in control rooms that is conducive to safe. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • • • • • • • • • Control rooms are well lighted. economic and reliable operation of generating units. Activities affecting the status of plant systems and equipment are authorized by appropriate operating personnel on each shift Instrumentation and controls in the control room are maintained in good working order Hard hats. background music. Access to original documents is controlled. meal locations. Access to control rooms is controlled and limited to authorized personnel and all control room activities are conducted in a professional business manner. Policies addressing non-work related reading material. computers or keyboards Well-maintained logs and operating procedures are readily available to operating personnel Communication equipment.

Effectiveness. processes and systems with the business’ targets and objectives. owned and under the control of the Operations teams helps to guide and drive continuous performance improvement. A set of leading and lagging operational indicators that are adopted. These indicators should be directly linked to plant. SCR. etc…) REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES:   Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 7 . ESP. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS Each Operations team will develop performance metrics for their area that consider impacts to Availability.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 2. operating performance. Efficiency. The KPIs help align performance improvements in people. Quality. and ultimately AES Corporate key performance indicators (KPIs).2 Metrics and Unit Expectations OBJECTIVE To provide focus on. and measurement of. Typical Operating teams include: • • • • • Control Room Power Block Water Treatment Material Handling Environmental (FGD. Cost. Utilization or Safety as applicable to the team.

insurance. warm and hot start scenarios as appropriate] Include black-start procedures. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 8 . control air system. if unit is designed for black start. o Major System start-ups and shut-downs [e.] o Emergency shutdown procedures for Operator actions during fire or explosion o Any operation that requires documentation (environmental. provide appropriate direction. etc) o Procedures for the Lock-out/Tag-out process o Procedures for monitoring and maintaining housekeeping • • • Operational activities are monitored to ensure compliance with procedures and good operating practices. water treatment system.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 2. boilers.including turbines.g. legal. Procedures are current to the actual methods being employed to accomplish the tasks and are comprehensive enough to ensure reliable generation. fuel system. there is a process in place to ensure the issue is corrected. FGD. economical and reliable operation of the facility. and be used to support the safe. etc. implemented and followed for critical operational activities including.3 Standard Operating Procedures OBJECTIVE To provide consistency in unit operating practices and to provide a platform for improving procedures and incorporating best practices. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • Procedures are defined. & HRSGs [address cold. Where issues are identified. cooling water system. but not limited to: o Unit start-ups/ shut-downs . Operating personnel have easy access to procedures and maintain awareness of recent procedure changes and plant modifications affecting procedures. Operation procedures and documents will be clear and technically accurate.

document and communicate operating procedures that are temporary in nature due to unusual conditions of plant. Fire Protection Impairment Procedures are developed and utilized. on its own. When the condition or constraint causing the unusual operation has been cleared the return to normal operations is communicated. capacity constraints on equipment awaiting repair. Examples might include special procedures needed due to the temporary loss of redundant equipment. readily available for review and kept separate from daily operating notes or logs. Temporary posting of notices or operating instructions on or near equipment does not. etc. equipment out-ofservice for temporary periods. The standard method for communicating Temporary Operating Procedures is understood by operating personnel and consistently followed.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 2. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • Whenever standard operating procedures or methods will be changed to accommodate temporary equipment conditions. constitute compliance with this standard. • • • • • REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 9 . (Exceptions are allowed if electronic logs are used and the logs carry forward special operating instructions automatically until they are manually removed). The requirements contained in the facility’s Management of Change process should be followed when making these changes.4 Temporary Operating Procedures (TOPs) OBJECTIVE To identify. the change in procedures is documented and communicated to other operating personnel responsible for operating the equipment. systems or equipment. TOPs are maintained current.

A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 2.5 Emergency Operating Procedures – Place holder OBJECTIVE MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 10 .

g. or taking other appropriate action. the major pieces of equipment to be inspected and the inspection method. These guidelines also seek to promote consistency and adequate thoroughness in these inspections. This standard recognizes the importance of qualified operators routinely performing physical inspections as a necessary supplement to control system monitoring of plant equipment. Where beneficial. equipment is operating normally and routine maintenance is being properly carried out.6 Equipment Inspection Guidelines (EIGs) OBJECTIVE To provide for the periodic inspection of plant equipment according to OEM recommended minimum frequencies by operating personnel. The inspection frequency and criteria is based on equipment type and criticality The EIG describes minimum expectations for physical inspection of equipment and fire protection systems in the area including the frequency of inspection. trended and analyzed.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 2.) Checksheets are completed during rounds to document observations and any critical readings. Instrumentation used for monitoring is routinely calibrated and has adequate sensitivity and accuracy to provide reliable results. Significant deviations from normal are addressed appropriately (e. collected. Performance data for key equipment and systems important to reliability and efficiency is monitored. reporting to the control room operator. Routine inspections carried out by plant personnel help to ensure all critical parameters and plant areas are being appropriately monitored. • • • • REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 11 . MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • • • EIGs exist for each major area of the plant and all major pieces of equipment or systems within a job area requiring periodic monitoring are listed on an EIG A logical inspection route(s) is developed as guidance for walkdowns. by correcting the problem. normal operating conditions are listed on the EIG for comparison with actual conditions. generating a work request.

Initiating Device. Corrective actions in response to alarms are taken based on the significance and impact of the problem on safety.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 2. Defective instruments. and Set-point o Possible Causes of the Alarm o Possible Consequences of the Alarm o Immediate Operator Responses o Follow-up Operator Responses • Alarm Response Procedures include proper step sequencing to ensure optimum effectiveness. For plants with Digital Control Systems (DCS).7 DCS Alarm Management OBJECTIVE To maintain functionality of operator warning alarms and to provide guidance on the proper response to critical alarms or alarms that can lead to high impact incidents. plant staff includes qualified and competent controls personnel. alarms and controls get identified and corrective measures are taken promptly. Management of Change procedures are followed prior to implementation. delays and smart alarm groupings. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • • • • • • • • • Alterations of the control logic and/or alarms require risk analysis and approval from the person responsible for the plant. Equipment is not normally allowed to continuously run in alarm condition. Exceptions will be authorized and documented. In addition to minimizing and/or mitigating damage from unusual events. Proprietary & Confidential 12 . Regularly use alarm summaries to review and report nuisance alarms to control systems personnel. Single-page Alarm Response Procedures that provide bullet summaries of the following topics are available to assist with proper response to critical alarms: o Alarm Title. the development and periodic review of Alarm Response Procedures is a proactive method to train and prepare operating personnel to deal with potentially catastrophic events. Maintenance notifications by the DCS should be directed straight to the CMMS via rules or to a separate maintenance notification system. False alarms and unnecessary alarming frequency are minimized through the use of dead bands. environment and operations.

set-points and priorities are reviewed at least every three years. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 13 . readily available and periodically reviewed.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S • • • Alarm Response Procedures will be controlled documents. fire alarms. Procedure to response to various emergencies. or verbal reports of emergencies. Alarms.

a phonetic alphabet appropriate for the language. • • REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 14 . “B” = Bravo. For example: 4:00 PM is expressed as 1600 hours.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 2. for English. phone. open valves. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • Whenever instructions are provided to operate field equipment remotely (e.g. The three steps in the process are: o Step 1 – Instructions stated by the operator including name of equipment and action to be taken. o Step 2 – Instructions repeated by the person performing the operation o Step 3 – Acknowledgement as correct by the operator who provided instructions • Whenever alphabetic characters are used in the labeling of equipment and provided as part of the instruction. personnel address systems and other similar communication technologies used to transmit verbal operating instructions. etc) a three-way communication process is used to communicate the name of the equipment/system and actions to be taken. Time is stated using a 24-hour clock. For example: Circuit 380 is stated as Circuit three-eight-zero. start motors. region or country is used.8 Three-way Communication Process OBJECTIVE To improve safety and reduce operating errors caused by miscommunication of instructions among operating personnel. “D” = Delta. etc). and character names sound similar.g. Numeric values are stated one digit at a time. This standard applies when using radio. (e.

including refresher training. and have access to resources to help assess and continuously improve their skills and knowledge. these expectations will be defined around: o Technical subjects and applied science o Energy plant basics o Plant systems & components o Operation and resetting of fire protection systems o Plant operating procedures & practices o Plant emergencies and emergency response • • • • Each operator is assessed by his/her leadership for knowledge and skills against expected levels. Leadership provides training materials and resources. have the skills and knowledge necessary to perform their roles. Developmental plans exist to cover any shortcomings in current positions People accept responsibility for their own development. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • The expectations for craft knowledge and skills are defined and documented for each operating position within the plant. In general.9 Operator Training and Qualifications OBJECTIVE To help ensure operating personnel have an understanding of the expectations associated with their roles. to facilitate improvement and maintenance of operator skills and knowledge.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 2. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 15 . Assessments are conducted at least every three years.

Operating logs are essential for facilitating good communications between operators and also maintenance personnel. Entries are clear and concise and have adequate detail to facilitate shift change and to allow operators returning from long absences to understand the history and current state of unit(s). Each major operating area within the plant needs to maintain an operating log Log entries are divided by shifts and the person responsible for making an entry is clearly identified. Additional entries include: o Major equipment/system start & stop times o Significant milestones related to unit startup or shutdown. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • • • • • Shift reports. pump trips/failures. such as: § § § § § § § § § § Fans On/Off Pumps On/Off Turning Gear On/Off Fire in Boiler In/Out Turbine Rolling Turbine On/Off Turning Gear Turbine at Sync Speed Generator on/off line Boiler at Rated Pressure Fire protection impairments or system outages o Any de-ratings/curtailments with description of the problem.10 Shift Reports. Examples might include loss of a feeder. o Detailed information concerning outside government or regulatory agencies that contact the control room or supervisor. Logs and Operator Rounds OBJECTIVE To provide records of key events and operator observations occurring on shift.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 2. A summary of unit/area status is the first entry in the log. logs and operator rounds are electronically recorded. They provide vital information to supplement data recorded by control and monitoring systems within the plant. etc. magnitude and time of the event o Unit and major equipment malfunctions with description of the problem. Proprietary & Confidential 16 . precipitator problems.

including collecting offline data used for equipment condition monitoring. or as dictated by regulatory requirements. etc. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 17 .A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S o Communications with dispatch or customers including complaints or switching requests o Equipment testing performed on shift such as turbine valve testing. DC oil pump tests. contractual obligations. Records of operating reports and logs are kept for durations in compliance with AES Record Retention Guidelines. • • Operator rounds use electronic handheld devices to record information. emergency generator starts.

A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 2. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • Each generating station equipped with a boiler will have a chemistry monitoring program. including system lay-up o Sample collection. including: o Unit start-up and shut-down. at a minimum. Consequently. chemical pumps & controls. analysis and reporting procedures • Training and qualification programs exist for water chemistry that include: o Annual training conducted by vendors o Management expectations and standards o Theory training o Practical job factors o Qualifications REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 18 . preparation. The program. is needed. will include: o Monitoring of control equipment – softeners. Key monitoring points should be included in the Equipment Inspection Guideline (EIG) for the area. a disciplined approach to water chemistry. injection points. demineralizer. Water chemistry is closely linked to reliability and maintenance costs.11 Water Chemistry OBJECTIVE To increase unit reliability by establishing minimum standards for boiler chemistry monitoring. trending and reporting of key parameters including the clear specification of limits and action levels • Procedures for water chemistry are documented. o Monitoring. including plant-specific measures and practices.

chutes. storage bunkers are emptied prior to major outages or extended shutdowns. such as the periodic wetting of roads in coal yards. Weighing and sampling procedures are implemented to ensure the quality and quantity of fuel meets contractual agreements. Coal pile run-off is routed to settling pond(s) and settled coal periodically is removed and placed back on the storage pile for use. To help prevent stagnant pockets of coal that could spontaneously ignite. Spilled coal is washed down daily. transportation expenses. Sizing of coal delivered to unit bunkers is monitored and adjusted as necessary by coal handling personnel. Coal sizing requirements/limits for proper combustion is defined by operating personnel.12 Solid Fuel Handling OBJECTIVE To improve plant economics and reliability of generating plants by proper management of Solid Fuels MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • • • • • • • AES Sourcing is consulted on all contracts for the purchase and transport of fuel Total cost of fuel transportation is actively managed considering production needs. hoppers and other handling equipment are maintained in good working condition. handling costs and overtime. demurrage. are used to minimize fugitive dust. Coal conveyors. Fuel storage procedures exist to provide guidance on the proper shape and management of coal storage piles to reduce conditions favorable to spontaneous combustion and to minimize run-off of rainwater.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 2. Management of Change procedures are followed for changes in types of coal burned. Protective devices such as conveyor trip wires and fire detection systems are kept operational and tested periodically. Skirts and other spill control equipment are adjusted periodically to maintain cleanliness. • • • • REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 19 . etc. Dust control procedures.

A Heat Rate Awareness program provides periodic training on topics such as theory. kJ/kg. faulty steam traps.g. Fuel costs are generally one of the largest cost factors at AES facilities.). Heat rate deviation should be calculated in both engineering units (e. Reports identify component losses and trends. controllable losses and corrective actions. reduce fuel cost and reduce the environmental impacts of combustion.). A disciplined heat rate program monitors component efficiency and identifies deviations from best achievable heat rate. etc.g. Formal heat rate tests are conducted before and after major outages. poor insulation. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • • Heat rate performance is monitored at the unit and major component level (e. Periodic system walkdowns ( ‘Cycle Isolations’) are conducted to identify sources of efficiency loss – e. £. $.g. • • • • • REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 20 . etc. plant-specific monitoring.g. etc. Plants use this report to prioritize opportunities to improve the Heat Rate.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 2. feedwater heaters. BTU/kWh. cooling tower. turbine. condenser. A formal calibration program is implemented for source instrumentation for heat rate measurement. and the commercial impact of heat rate. etc. boiler/HRSG.13 Heat Rate Program OBJECTIVE To ensure optimum efficiency. €. Steam path audits are conducted during steam turbine overhaul.) and commercial impact (e. This training is included as part of the qualification program for appropriate staff. leaking valves.

Functional testing of protective devices is performed following major overhauls. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 21 .A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 2. this list will include. foam based and gaseous based systems including alarm detection and systems operations in accordance with corresponding NFPA codes. Procedures specify documentation requirements where appropriate.. water based. Protective devices are often the last line of defense against catastrophic failures and exist for the protection of both people and equipment. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • A list is maintained of critical protective equipment and systems that require testing on a regular basis. sluice gates. At a minimum. repairs and/or replacement of protective systems and equipment.14 Protective Device Testing OBJECTIVE To demonstrate proper functionality of protective systems and equipment at each generating facility. Testing is only performed by qualified personnel. o Spillways. as applicable: o Fire protection systems. e.g. and other emergency gates and valves at hydro stations o Turbine valves and extraction non-return valves o DC back-up equipment such as DC turbine oil pumps and DC seal oil pumps o Diesel generators and other black start equipment o Turbine overspeed trips o Turbine Water Induction Protection (TWIP) system o Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) o Emergency lighting • • • Testing procedures are in place prior to testing.

unit and equipment ID. New oil should be tested to establish a “baseline” sample of the oil. Samples from a tank should be drawn from the middle to the bottom.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 2. whichever is longer. oil type (if known) and details of oil addition.15 Lubrication and Oil Condition Monitoring OBJECTIVE To provide guidance for the management and practices of oil condition monitoring and establish procedures to detect oil degradation and abnormal operation of machines MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • • • • • • • • Sample should be taken from a free flowing line or well mixed tank. Data should be kept for a minimum of 26 samples or 5 years. Samples should be taken before filters Sample containers should be clean (if possible the bottle should be flushed with the oil) and should be resistant to the oil sample. System should be in steady state operation or should be sampled within 30 minutes of shutdown. Analysis of in service oil should be carried out on intervals specified in the following table: Parameter Appearance Moisture Viscosity Total Acidity Number (TAN) Total Base Number (TBN) Flashpoint Oxidation Stability Demulsification Number (sec) Fuel Oil Contamination & Particulates Pumps/ Compressors 6 monthly 6 monthly 6 monthly 6 monthly Gearbox 6 monthly 6 monthly 6 monthly 6 monthly Application Engine Oils 6 monthly 6 monthly 6 monthly 6 monthly New Oil Only Annually Annually New Oil Only Annually Annually New Oil Only Annually Annually Critical Hydraulic 3 monthly 3 monthly 3 monthly 3 monthly Other Hydraulic 6 monthly 6 monthly 6 monthly 6 monthly Control Parameters 3 monthly 3 monthly 6 monthly Annually Annually REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 22 . date of sample. Samples for analysis by external laboratories should be labeled with customer and site name.

For example.16 Auxiliary Equipment – Vibration Monitoring OBJECTIVE To establish guidelines for performing periodic vibration monitoring on the equipment selected by a plant’s maintenance strategy. there should be two alarm levels of vibration established that define abnormal operation. except when a machine with rolling element bearings is maintained and the rolling element bearings are not touched. whichever is longer. if the time between detecting high vibration and failure of a bearing is typically 6 weeks then the frequency of vibration should be no greater than 6 weeks – preferably shorter. in that case. the following general guidelines should apply o o Data should be collected monthly on most machines. data should be collected weekly or monitored continuously. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • For equipment included in the scope of periodic vibration monitoring. the original readings should be kept as the baseline. When these failure times are difficult to predict. When a machine undergoes maintenance and is returned to service. For critical machines.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 2. o o Warning alarm level should designate a level at which investigation should be started. • • Data should be kept for a minimum of 26 samples or 3 years. Critical alarm level should designate a level at which action should be taken. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 23 . • Data should be collected on an interval determined by the ability to predict failure modes. the next reading should be put in the vibration database as the baseline reading.

while the unit is between 95% and 100% rated speed. o the generator is running at synchronous speed without load with terminal voltage higher than normal– such as during testing. If overspeed tests are performed with the rotor winding excited then precautions should be taken to ensure that the rated nominal voltage is not exceeded. the sudden disconnection of the load is not considered to be a serious cause of overfluxing. changes should be coordination with the grid operator.3kV and 400kV. The GSU will be overfluxed if: o a higher than normal voltage is applied to either the HV or LV winding at nominal frequency when the generator is at speed and carrying load. as this protection can initiate a reduction in generator excitation which could lead to instability.17 Operation of Transformers OBJECTIVE To provide guidance on the operation of transformers within the voltage range of 3. This document should be reviewed for more complete guidance on operation of critical transformers. Overfluxing protection should only be operative when the HV circuit breaker is open. If the unit is on-line and carrying load. Operators should not rely on the overfluxing relay to trip excitation during rundown. The OLTC should be operated over the entire range if possible.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 2. • Since automatic tripping of the generator circuit breaker normally trips the generator field switch. As a general rule during unit shutdown. if Automatic Voltage regulation is in the manual position excitation will be immediately reduced. the Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) and excitation system should be switched out of service after the voltage has been adjusted to nominal following the opening of the HV circuit breaker. As a partial summary of the requirements listed in this document: • Operating procedures should avoid conditions in which overfluxing of the generator step-up (GSU) transformer can occur. On-load tap-changer should only be operated from a remote control room when transformer is energized. However. o the generator excitation is in service at nominal volts and the generator is spinning at less than operating speed. Overfluxing protection should not be in-service when the unit is synchronized and on load. On-load tap-changers (OLTC) should be routinely exercised to remove pyrolytic carbon growth on switch contacts causing overheating due to high resistance. • • • • • Proprietary & Confidential 24 . MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS AES has developed an Engineering Standard for the Life-cycle Management of Power Transformers (see reference below).

if overloading is required. bushing.e. available outages. thermometer pockets and passing relief valves o Drainage: bases of transformer ensuring that there are no blockage o Temperature: Windings and oil and record the load o Desiccant/Breather/refrigerant: Inspect for any abnormality • • Thermographic surveys should be conducted every six (6) months for essential and every three (3) months for critical transformers. For generator. Critical transformers should be visually inspected daily by operators. the level of overload should not exceed the design limits of the transformer and all operational and safety precautions will be taken into consideration. All results will be maintained electronically and historical trend will be reviewed by well qualified persons. the interval between checks on protection devices should not exceed four years. The following should be considered when preparing inspection procedures: o Conservator: o Paintwork: o Leaks: Oil level at sight glass and topping up if necessary Signs of deterioration and corrosion Paying particular attention to: Joints/gaskets. Operational and Maintenance leadership should have the knowledge of operation of the transformer outside of nominal ratings. • The following maintenance and testing activities should be implemented when the transformer is in service: o Insulating oil should be routinely sampled and tested to monitor the condition of oil o Visual inspections should be carried out at least every month on generator. especially gasket areas on LV side of the transformer. OEM recommendations and plant history. tap-changer cable boxes. unit and station transformers. However.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S • Overloading of any transformer above nominal capacity is generally not advisable. For any question or clarification consult Electrical Knowledge Community. unit and station transformers and at least every 3 months on other transformers • When the transformer is off-line. All record sheets should be maintained for future reference. routine maintenance should be carried out depending on the planned outage frequency. blockage in cooling system Air bushing connections IPB bus-ducts Transformer tank. main tank. Locations should keep adequate records of their transformers including: o o o o o A register of assets Network diagrams Maintenance records Modification details Manufacturers factory test certificate • • Proprietary & Confidential 25 . Areas covered during these surveys should include: o o o o Cooling system to check for hotspots i.

A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S • Maintenance records should include: o o o o o o The date maintenance was carried out Details of maintenance performed Condition of the environment that the transformer is situated in Results of maintenance Oil replacement and condition after replacement Due date of next maintenance REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 26 .

and expected turnover. This approach establishes the proper balance of predictive. Good maintenance programs strive to perform the correct maintenance type at the most opportune time. Criticality determination is based on various combinations of failure modes and effects.Plant maintenance people conduct their activities in a manner that achieves safe. effects and the condition of assets. Capital Expense Planning – A planning program is in place that achieves the long term objectives of the business. Typical reasons for classifying equipment as critical are that the plant effects results in a unit trip or shutdown.1 Key Elements of Maintenance OBJECTIVE To ensure that the overall approach for plant maintenance is based on reliability principles including: equipment criticality. scheduled. use of outside resources. and supported with resources for safe. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS The following key elements exist as a part of each facility’s maintenance program. Work Management . significant (costly) damage.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. productive and cost effective manner. The capital investments process is managed to ensure that capital investments are identified. reduction in power output. and effective completion. analyzed.A process exists for overall outage planning to optimize plant run time while ensuring the successful completion of the identified work scope in a safe. environmental). including data from operator rounds is electronically trended and actioned according to predetermined rules. Conduct of Maintenance .0 MAINTENANCE 3. implemented and reviewed with a thorough understanding of opportunities and risks Performance Measures – Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are identified and tracked to measure maintenance program effectiveness. controlled.A process exists to identify and select highest priority work in support of operations. failure modes. preventive and corrective maintenance activities. Outage Management . • • Maintenance Strategy .g. Maintenance Training – Structured to addresses people’s needs to achieve the plant’s business objectives.A mix of preventive/predictive maintenance (PM) and corrective maintenance (CM) practices is used based on the criticality of equipment and components to achieve business objectives. • • • • • • • Proprietary & Confidential 27 . Work is planned. personal hazard. Condition Monitoring Data – The information collected via instrumentation either online or offline. or violation of some regulation (e. timely. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is the recommended approach to selecting the appropriate maintenance tasks to be performed on critical assets. growth opportunities. reliable and economical operations consistent with good operating practices and the AES values.

A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 28 .

PdM tasks and resources are managed by the work management process. the following considerations will be made: o There will be a measurable parameter that can detect the deterioration in the asset condition. Test equipment used for predictive monitoring of equipment is included in the plant’s calibration program. For critical assets. and performance data to assess machinery condition. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • • Plants maintain a list of plant assets and have defined criticality for each asset. the needed functionality and potential failure modes are defined.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. and each one of them should be selected depending on asset criticality. Thermography and UT Programs… Qualification and training programs are in place to assure people using PdM technologies maintain competency in the use of equipment and analysis of data. visual inspection. Failure modes are analyzed and PdM tasks applied for those assets where predictive technologies are justified as a means to prevent failures. For a PdM task to be considered applicable and effective. PdM and other types of maintenance (Preventive and Corrective) have their own advantages and disadvantages. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 29 . o The period of time between detection of a problem and failure of equipment (P-F interval) will be fairly predictable and allow adequate time to take corrective action o The PdM task will be carried out at an interval that reduces the probability of failure to an acceptable risk level.2 Predictive Maintenance OBJECTIVE To lower maintenance cost by replacing timed maintenance tasks with maintenance that is scheduled only when warranted by equipment condition. failure modes and the ability to monitor operational condition. o The cost of undertaking a PdM task over a period of time should be less than the total cost of the consequences of failure. Predictive maintenance (PdM) uses primarily non-intrusive testing techniques. • • • • • An asset condition reporting process is in place to communicate issues identified by PdM tasks including the urgency.

the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) provides this information but this should be optimized based on actual equipment history or the application of RCM. failure modes and the ability to monitor operational condition. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • Preventive Maintenance tasks are applied only if Predictive Maintenance methods are first considered and deemed not feasible. o Developed the task list that will be performed according to the defined intervals. PM tasks are only performed when they are economically justified (i. operating requirements. lubrication. the cost of performing PMs should not exceed the cost of repairing or replacing equipment). or cycles). PM is also referred to as time-driven or interval-based maintenance and performed without regard to equipment condition.g. time. tools. task list and resources are maintained in a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) and are auto-generated. and repair of components and equipment performed at pre-defined intervals (time. special services. To establish the Preventive Maintenance program. Preventive Maintenance (PM) is the inspection. • • • The scheduling.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. PM and other types of maintenance (Predictive and Corrective) have their own advantages and disadvantages.e.. The tasks may come from OEM or other information sources and may be improved with the utilization of any of the above tools.) Normally. RCA or other continuous improvement tools. In addition. PM tasks are periodically reviewed for scope and timing changes based on changes in OEM operating and maintenance notices. parts replacement. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 30 . months. manpower. equivalent operating hours. cleaning. etc. adjustment. etc. o Determined the resources needed for each maintenance scope: spare parts. operating hours. equipment condition. operating hours. the businesses has: o Selected the variables that will be used for scheduling preventive maintenance for assets included in the PM program (e. calibration. and each one of them should be selected depending on asset criticality.3 Preventive Maintenance OBJECTIVE To effectively reduce the frequency and seriousness of unplanned machine failures. age and other factors.

o recording equipment and maintenance history. model number. o A security system that restricts access based on user profiles. o tracking requested work activities. etc. Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS) is used for scheduling. o Includes or links to an inventory control system. The CMMS has the following capabilities. planning and processing maintenance activity. o Integrates with the procurement process o Facilitates prioritizing and classifying work orders with the ability to capture key information about the work such as manpower required. and inventory control.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. o generating maintenance reports o automatically generating predictive and preventive work orders o screening and approving work requests based on criticality and alignment with the businesses work priority process. equipment class and attributes. o The ability to classify preventive and corrective maintenance. collection of data. capture and tracking of work at various stages of the maintenance process. The status of all work orders is maintained and readily accessible. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • • The plant utilizes a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) for evaluating. o Stores useful equipment record data such as manufacturer. including modifications that occur per the Management of Change Procedure o Tracking and trending of insurer loss control recommendations Proprietary & Confidential 31 .4 Computerized Maintenance Management System OBJECTIVE To help in the management. reports preparation. resources used. o Contains pre-defined tables of failure catalogs to simplify use and reporting. Pending work activities are periodically reviewed for continued need. • The CMMS is used for. work performed. cost analysis.

REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 32 . appropriate data is being captured.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S • • An administrator is assigned over the CMMS program to control system changes by following procedures identified for making modifications. The work management system is periodically audited to verify the work management process is followed. and the work backlog is managed.

labor or other resources needed to perform work is available before performing backlogged work. tools.5 Backlog Management OBJECTIVE To assure work with the highest priority gets performed. Duplicates and work that will not be performed is removed. coordinate and prioritize the backlog. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 33 .A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • • • • • • • People who initiate work requests will review pending requests in order to avoid duplicate work requests. and requested work is not lost. Work Order backlog is monitored and trended in order to determine need for complete backlog review Periodic meetings are held with a multi-disciplinary team to review. duplicate work orders are eliminated. Part requirements for backlogged work is managed through strategic spares. inventory or procurement Required maintenance procedures. Work in the backlog that represents significant change is subjected to the plant’s “Management of Change” process. Operation personnel attend maintenance planning meetings and have input to work scheduling and priority.

performance metrics for each of the following categories: • • • • Planning and Scheduling Proactive vs. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS Each Maintenance team has. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 34 . A set of leading and lagging maintenance indicators are adopted. Corrective Maintenance Maintenance Cost (including inventory) Safety Teams may develop other metrics that provide leading or lagging indication of maintenance productivity or performance. owned and under the control of the Maintenance teams to guide and drive continuous performance improvement. processes and systems with the business targets and objectives. at a minimum.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3.6 Key Performance Indicators & Scorekeeping OBJECTIVE To align performance improvements in people. and are directly linked to plant and ultimately AES Corporate key performance indicators (KPIs).

safety and environmental incidents.7 Event Reporting & Root Cause Analysis OBJECTIVE To promote a systematic.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. Event reporting/RCA is a critical component in achieving world-class performance in plant operating efficiency. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • Each facility should define. equipment failures. Examples include unit trips. the type and significance of events that “trigger” a RCA analysis or event report. repeat bearing or seal failures. recurring. formal analysis of failures or other triggering events through completing Event Reporting and Root Cause Analysis (RCA). When trigger events occur. financial impact and necessary corrective actions. etc. the recommended approach is to use the enterprise version of PROACT software for analysis. reliability and safety. the plant should have a formal process established for investigating these events to determine root causes. For complex RCAs. Key learnings from RCAs that are of potential value to other AES facilities should be shared. These reviews ensure problems are identified and resolved and the lessons learned are shared with other AES plants in a timely manner. failures that have high impact. in writing. • • • • REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 35 . Analyses should be lead by people trained in RCA or APEX facilitation. The triggering events may be one-time significant events or chronic.

facilities. temporary.8 Management of Change OBJECTIVE To ensure all significant process or design changes are properly evaluated. o Lock out logbook will be established and controlled to ensure open items are closed in due time. are managed correctly. materials.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. or permanent process modifications. operating conditions and/or design changes. o A process for maintaining MOC records and documents. etc. as well as the operational risks arising from the proposed changes. o A MOC training program that adequately covers all relevant sections of the facilities MOC policy including examples of what would trigger an MOC. o Safety/Protective/Lock out operating controls bypass if required for plant operation will have a HAZOP study and approved only by related managers and approved for only a determined amount of time if otherwise a permanent design change will be in order. o Assurances that all relevant stakeholders are notified of the change subject to any confidentiality agreements that may exist and any applicable approvals are obtained with regards to warranties and/or service agreements. which may significantly affect plant or business operations. control logic. this includes elements such as: § § § § The intended change The documented findings of the MOC review Change approval Close-out o Requirements for the removal of plant protective systems and operating without protective systems functioning normally or bypassed. o If any Safety/Protective/Lock out control is bypassed operators will sign a log book (electronic or written) and tight safe operation controls will be in place and clearly written. technology. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • A Management of Change process exists that clearly defines: o Procedures that control all emergency. Proprietary & Confidential 36 . implemented and documented. The Management of Change (MOC) process ensures that the health and safety. A disciplined program and process that defines the requirements for managing permanent and temporary process changes to equipment. procedures. approved. o Submittal of fire protection changes or major facility changes to Property Insurer.

Where applicable. equipment or process that is changed is reviewed and modified to reflect the change. A complete list of temporary MOC is maintained and reviewed at least monthly.119 (I) Management of Change Training material related to any system.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S • • • • Definitions of “permanent” and “temporary” changes exist. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 37 . the program meets the requirements of OSHA 29 CFR 1910. are known and are followed.

Identifying areas prone to accelerated wastage and implementing more frequent tube mapping program in these areas.9 Boiler Mapping OBJECTIVE To help optimize the integrity and availability of the steam generator and allow for near and long term maintenance planning. Trending tube wastage rates and predicting time to replacement. failure mechanism. Boiler water wall tube failures are the most frequent cause of fossil-fired boiler unscheduled outages and are the largest cause of unavailability for the conventional fired boiler fleet. Understanding changes in operation such as cycling. fuel blends. repair. Documenting boiler tube failures in a comprehensive format describing the specific boiler and tube location. weld procedure and solution applied. These programs can assist in understanding the amount and characterization of any tube deposits. temperature and pressure changes and adjusting the inspection frequency and scope as required Tube sampling and metallurgical analysis (at a limited scale) as part of the boiler mapping program.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. • • REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 38 . hydrogen damage. and caustic gouging. Storing. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS Facilities with steam generation equipment have an integrated steam generator integrity program that includes the following activities. Tube samples should be taken from the highest heat input areas. • • • • • Tube mapping for wastage and other degradation mechanisms that identifies remaining tube thickness. trending and analyzing mapping and failure data. internal and external pitting.

o Cold weld repairs should be inspected regularly on a time interval specified by an approved welding engineer and all cold welds found to be cracked on inspection should be re-repaired. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES:   Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 39 . unless the parts being welded are not load-bearing or pressure-containing. o Repairs are required as a result of breakdown and system requirements are paramount. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • Welding should be done by qualified welders. Welders in these cases will still be provided with appropriate training and guidance to ensure that they are competent in the maintenance and operation of the welding equipment to be used. reliable and economic plant. Weld quality is critical in maintaining a safe.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. Whenever window welds are used for emergency repairs to boiler tubing: o Records will be kept of all window weld procedures and the areas affected.g. Proper control of heat treatment cannot be met) o Conventional repair will result in unacceptable extension of planned outage.10 Management of Weld Quality OBJECTIVE To achieve control of welding quality. o All window weld repairs should be replaced with conventional inserts at next outage or next suitable opportunity • • Cold weld repairs on CrMoV and 2CrMo components may be considered whenever: o The conditions required by conventional repair cannot be met (e.

unless they are to be machined out subsequently. o Gas pre-heat is only permitted on butt welds in plates up to 12. o Backing rings should not be used for welds in high integrity pipe work. Gas pre-heat is not permitted for: § Ferric steels containing more than 6% alloy content. § Ferric steels containing greater than 3% chromium content. o New materials should be certified in terms of mechanical properties and/or chemical analysis. o Preheat by electrical resistance heating elements controlled by thermocouples when possible. weld procedures.5mm in wall thickness and 127mm outside diameter. o Approval of the procedure and welder will be obtained before any welding.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. o Nomination and approval of welders should be done by name and/or mark and documented appropriately by the contractor. o Ensure that welds containing unfused lands are cleaned of residues which may impair weld integrity or interfere with the welding process. o Machining of weld preparation is preferred on all sizes over 50mm OD – rotary abrasive wheels or discs. Pre-heat Proprietary & Confidential 40 . referencing drawings. • Additional needs include: Needs Documentation Materials Welding Preparation Method of Preparation Inspection of Preparation Details o A weld schedule should be produced for planned work. and heat treatment procedures at least one month before the start of the outage. abrasive caps and manual filing are all acceptable on smaller sizes. o The contractor should submit the schedule. whichever is smaller. provided they can be shown to achieve the specified preparation geometry. drawings. rotary burrs. o Pre-heat should be maintained throughout the welding period over a heated band width of 3x the parent material thickness or 75mm. § Any element that exceed 12. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • Procedures for pressure welds that to be used by contractors should be reviewed and approved for repair and maintenance contracts: o Welding procedures should be identifiable and traceable to the specific welds that they will be used for.11 Welding Requirements for Repair and Maintenance Contracts OBJECTIVE To reduce potential major safety hazards or commercial threats resulting from the failure of welds performed by contractors. weld procedures and other special process procedures.5mm thick and pipes up to 12.5mm of thickness.

o When welding a new insert into an existing tube. § Tube attachments. o Tube attachments: § No welding of attachments should be done while tubes contain water. o All tubes should be cut square and cleaned o Exposed tubes. o Local excavation of the defect is allowable if defect is within the bottom 50% of a weld and the repair excavation does not exceed one sixth of the circumferential surface length of the weld. the wall of the existing tube should be lightly ground for a length of at least two inches below the weld preparation to avoid contamination of the weld metal by the corrosion deposits.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S Consumables Post-weld Heat Treatment Acceptable Standard Boiler Tubes o All welding consumable should have traceable batch or individual analysis certificates o Temperature measurement should be done using capacitance discharge welded thermocouple only. which have been calorized during heat treatment. provided any excavation is blended smoothly into the weld surface profile and weld thickness is sufficient for design purpose. will be capped to prevent entry of extraneous material. o Defects within top 10% of the weld should be removed by grinding where possible. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES:   Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 41 . pipes. etc. o Local excavation of the defect is allowable if defect is within the top 50% of a weld and the repair excavation does not exceed one third of the circumferential surface length of the weld. should be ground at the welding positions to remove all traces of the calorized layer before welding on tube attachments. headers. o Calibrated recorders and controllers are used to monitor post-weld heat treatment.

When a defect is found. This strategy should include: o Inspection schedules and procedures § § § § § Keep detailed records of all inspections and defects found. high temperature steam pipework systems manufactured from chromium-molybdenum-vanadium (CMV) materials. o Corrective actions whenever a leak is detected § § § § § Take unit off load and de-pressurize system Make further detailed inspections of leaking area Take samples Implement weld repair Monitor area after repair REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES:   Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 42 . Carry out follow-up inspections Weld repairs and repairs to Type IV damage Weld repairs and new welds should be made in accordance with approved weld procedures. and sister units. adjacent welds.12 Non-Destructive Testing – CMV Weld Inspections OBJECTIVE To ensure the safety and integrity of pipework systems by providing a strategy for reviewing and responding to new findings and failure mechanisms in high pressure.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. o Assessment of defects in welds § § § § § Inspections should be assessed by a specialist metallurgist with experience in investigating weld defects. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • • Establish and maintain an updated inventory of CMV pipework and welds within the system Define and carry out a specific inspection strategy for CMV pipework. Compile and maintain a complete inventory of welds in each pipework system including a unique identifier for each weld that is labeled on updated drawings as well as on the pipework itself Define the period of inspections Establish a procedure to detect leaks from pipework welds Carry out inspection in accordance with approved inspection procedures. take into account possible similar defects in parallel lines.

13 Care and Replacement of Threaded Fasteners OBJECTIVE To establish appropriate procedures for the care and replacement of threaded fasteners operating at temperatures exceeding 370ºC (700 degF). Fasteners have to be made from steel listed in EN 10269 or they have to be approved in a “Particular Material Appraisal”. AISI Type 410 Chromium-Molybdenum Chromium-Molybdenum-Vanadium AISI Type 304 AISI Type 347 AISI Type 316 AISI Type 305 with restricted Carbon AISI Type 304N AISI Type 316N Unstabilized. Manufacturer has to give certificate according to EN 10204-3.eu/enterprise/pressure_equipment/ped Proprietary & Confidential 43 . B8MA. European Commission http://ec. B8A B8C. B8TA B8R. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • Fasteners used for pressure vessels. B7M B16 B8.1. B8M3 B8P. B8PA B8N. flanges and fittings for high-temperature service should meet the requirements of ASME SA-193. please visit web site of Enterprise and Industry. B6X B7. mechanical properties and high-temperature characteristics. B8NA B8MN. B8M2. B8MLCuNA B8T.europa. stating that the products are approved in accordance with PED 97 / 23 / EC.B. service conditions. B8SA B8LN. B8LNA B8MLN. Selection of an appropriate grade of fastener will depend upon design. Fasteners used at these high temperatures more subject to creep and deformation. 20 Chromium.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. B8CA B8M. Grade B5 B6. valves. B8MLNA Description 5 % Chromium 12 % Chromium. 18 Nickel. B8MNA B8MLCuN. 6 Molybdenum with restricted Carbon AISI Type 321 22 Chromium-13 Nickel-5 Manganese 28 Chromium-8 Nickel-4 Silicon + Nitrogen AISI Type 304N with restricted Carbon AISI Type 316N with restricted Carbon • Type Ferritic Steel Ferritic Steel Ferritic Steel Ferritic Steel Austenitic Steel Austenitic Steel Austenitic Steel Austenitic Steel Austenitic Steel Austenitic Steel Austenitic Steel Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel • Legislation across the European Union requires that all applicable items of pressure equipment placed on the market by May 2002 will be fully compliant with the PED 97 / 23 / EC. B8RA B8S. For more information on the directive.

A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S • As failure of fasteners may cause serious injury or death. operating temperatures. and effective operating hours. Re-use of bolts is not recommended unless testing or calculations reveal the fasteners have sufficient life remaining to reach the next planned outage. if performed. • • REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES:   Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 44 . with updates following all retightening and replacement actions. for critical applications it is advisable to procure fasteners from reputed manufacturers only. Calculation of remaining life. in order to maintain a basis for future assessment and comparison. Plants should maintain database records of current status of fasteners. should consider mechanical properties.

Injection sealing is permissible for routine and emergency on-stream. and pressures from vacuum to 6000 psig. Examine and review records of previous repairs on the leaking component. leak repair in water. • • Maintain updated records for each repair carried out and assess when permanent repair is appropriate. o Determine cause and assess effects of component failure.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. o Perform a technical assessment to ensure that proposed process is suitable for the repair of component being considered. and determine any limitations. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • • Identify and confirm a list of approved and assessed contractors to carry out the sealing process. online.14 Injection Leak Sealing OBJECTIVE To ensure that plant safety and integrity are maintained in the injection leak sealing process by site specific care and maintenance strategies. Check repaired component at next outage. air. process and steam applications ranging from cryogenic to 1700°F. o Ensure that sealing material used is compatible with the fluids and substances in the pipework system as well as the materials of the plant components. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES:   Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 45 .

number of running hours and fan starts for each fan. periodic inspections are needed. cone sheets and blades. o cracking from the region of the weld toe. Any defects identified should be recorded and assessed by a specialist or knowledgeable person prior to returning the fan to service. • • REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES:   Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 46 . o A Material Composition Inspection should be performed to determine material grade of each section of center sheets. Operation and inspection strategies will provide guidance in classification. the defect should be recorded and categorized by defect type. grinding work or other repairs performed. o Ultrasonic Inspection only needed in special cases using specialized procedures. The record should also include details of any defects. and identification and categorization methods to assess risk of failure. o Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI) should be performed at least every four years.15 Care & Maintenance of Induced Daft Fans OBJECTIVE To ensure the continued safe operation of induced draft (ID) fans given the risk of fatigue crack growth and brittle fracture. readings of horizontal and vertical vibration levels of fan and motor bearings should be recorded and trended at least quarterly although monthly is recommended. for example: o cracking from region of the weld root. The recommended inspections and frequency include: o Visual Inspection by experienced personnel every overhaul. • If inspection reveals defects. Because of the risk of cracking and brittle fractures of fans operating as induced draft fans.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. o cracking approximately normal to the surface Plants should maintain records of original design specifications. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • Under normal operating conditions. inspection intervals.

carry out the following tests to assess integrity of stator core and windings • Rated Core Flux Test. effects of load cycling. stator internals. HV windings. Tan Delta Test. o No work activity should be carried out near any live conductor. Partial Discharge Test Carry out any remedial work based on inspections and tests • Clean/Dry Out of Windings. applying suitable monitoring equipment and adopting detailed test and inspection procedures. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • In the absence of standards set by local legislation. should be conducted in a way as to avoid danger. feed pumps. the adoption of the following standards should be considered good practice: Work activities. and Varnish & Stove stator windings § § § Proprietary & Confidential 47 . o Only people with technical knowledge or experience should engage in activities where technical knowledge and experience are necessary to prevent danger. etc. o • Maintenance. Monitor stator winding temperature. Conduct detailed inspection of the following areas: • End windings and end winding supports. Cleaning every 5 years is common. and monitoring of stators on critical electric motors o During normal operation § § § Clean and inspect regularly – frequency of cleaning depends on operating environment and type of motor. and vibration levels. Perform on-line partial discharge analysis for the most critical motors o During outages § Undertake routine tests on strategic motors such as fans. When necessary. stator core. including operation. fault diagnosis. slot wedges. re-wedge. use and maintenance of an electric motor system.16 Care & Maintenance of Electric Motors OBJECTIVE To help prevent the failure of electric motors during normal operation by establishing careful operation practices. core repairs. pulverizers. re-brace.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. EL-CID Test. Insulation resistance and polarization index tests should be conducted at least annually and results trended. and stator frame.

o Carry out the following recommended condition monitoring while motor is running: § Monitor temperature rise in bearings – excessive temperature rise may mean abnormal condition. • Insulation Resistance of Wound Rotor Windings – insulation resistance and polarization index should be measured to ensure the safe condition of winding for high voltage testing. Accuracy in accordance with manufacturer’s tolerance. § Monitor shaft eccentricity – maximum eccentricity should not exceed manufacturers stated limit o Carry out detailed inspections and tests during major outages § With rotor in place. § Typical restrictions might include limiting starts to no more than three starts in one hour. procedure for drying/cleaning windings should be used. and monitoring of rotors on critical electric motors o Identify and adhere to any constraints on starting cage rotor induction motors. § Monitor temperature rise in coolant – exit temperature should not exceed limits set by manufacturer. Low resistance indicates further investigation is needed and a possible “dry out” will be needed prior to high voltage AC testing. • Fan. § Typical tests include: • Winding resistance of wound rotors – should be measured using a high current type milliohm meter and set to the standard temperature. • Cleaning/Drying out of Windings – if values of insulation resistance and polarization index are below acceptable limits. seal and baffle clearances. o Monitor induction motor for conductor defects. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES:   Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 48 .A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S • Maintenance. most motors should be capable of two successive starts followed by a 30 minute cooling period. or three starts equally spaced throughout one hour during normal operation. fault diagnosis. § For example. the following inspections should be used: • Air-gap check – measure air-gap at four mutually perpendicular positions around the rotor at each end. • Axial position check – ensure that the axial position of the rotor within the stator lies on the magnetic center.

A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. then replace the cell as soon as possible. then perform a capacity test to verify its state of health. capable of continuously making all of the voltage. • • • • • • • Proprietary & Confidential 49 . If greater than 80%. Trend monthly data from internal cell resistance measurements and take action as follows: o If any resistance reading exceeds the baseline value for that model cell by 50% or more. Keep in mind that capacity testing can be performed on the entire string offline or can be performed on a single suspect cell online. The room ventilator fans operation should be alarmed to control room in case of failure. then replace the cell. Sites that have both lead-acid and nickel-cadmium batteries should keep separate sets of tools and equipment for the two types. inter-cell connectors should be clearly marked to identify position and function. Respond to any out-of-tolerance conditions and take the corrective action recommended by the IEEE or battery manufacturers. and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications and IEEE 1188-1996 . If capacity is 80% or less. Station batteries are critical components to the safe operations of generating facilities by acting as back up power to operate protective relays in a lost power event.17 Maintenance of Station Batteries OBJECTIVE To ensure that batteries. Testing. If capacity testing is not an economically viable option. and Replacement of ValveRegulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) Batteries for Stationary Applications Install a permanently mounted battery monitor system. In order to limit maximum voltage that operators could be subjected to during maintenance. then continue to watch for further increases in resistance. Maintenance of the Lead Acid batteries will be in accordance with IEEE 450 . A proactive station battery monitoring program is necessary to ensure safe operations and optimized asset utilization. o If the resistance value is between 20 to 50% greater than baseline. chargers and inverters remain in good condition so they are able to perform necessary functions when called upon. current. then replace the cell without any further testing.Recommended Practice for Maintenance. Testing.Recommended Practice for Maintenance. and resistance measurements called for by the IEEE Standards. temperature. Lead-acid type cells should be installed in a dedicated battery room with ventilation and restricted access. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • • Document current battery type & technology requirements and limitations.

Make sure tools are available in convenient locations (stands/racks/cupboards) • • • Keep records of the durations and boost charge voltages of boost charging. as applicable Log and top up electrolyte levels Visually inspect each cell for electrolyte level. This should only require the rental of a load bank. lid cracking and crack propagation into container o Check all terminals and intercell connections for tightness and degradation o Log overall battery voltage. • Weekly inspections should be performed to include: o o o o o o • Float voltage General appearance and cleanliness Charger output current and voltage Electrolyte level Cell cracks or leaks Evidence of general or terminal corrosion Quarterly testing and inspections should include: Voltage of each cell and total bank voltage Specific gravity of each cell. as applicable Representative sampling of electrolyte temperature. associated load current and charger current o o o o o o • Annual inspections should be conducted to condition of each cell and the condition and integrity of the battery rack. cell-to-cell terminal resistance should be checked each year. since the monitor will log data during the discharge test. and condition Visually inspect positive connection of pillars for signs of pillar corrosion. testing frequency should be increased to annual testing. the acceptance test performed right after installation is the most important one and will be performed. Proprietary & Confidential 50 . safety and warning notices are present and legible Verify that fire protection systems are functional and on-line Make sure that room ventilation is operating and clear Ensure that room is clear of any combustible trash and is not being used as storage. The following additional inspections should be undertaken when performing routine battery maintenance: o o o o o Ensure that all identification. In addition. If battery performance degrades or reaches 85% of service life. and perform an annual sanity check on the monitor itself to verify that it is properly calibrated and working correctly (Someone will need to be monitoring this). current.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S o Perform capacity testing in accordance with the IEEE recommendations. Of all the capacity tests recommended. o Analyze data from the monitor at least once monthly. plate color. Performance/capacity checks should be performed 2 years after commissioning new batteries and then every 5 years thereafter.

Assess records and logs accumulated from monitoring. If degradation has occurred.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S • Valve-regulated lead-acid (VLRA) batteries. the checks should be done every six months • • Maintain records of discharge tests to verify operational capacity. or gel batteries. are not maintenance free. Key indicators of a problem cell are: o o o o Cell voltage is out of step with the rest of the battery High water usage High debris accumulation in “mud space” below plates Corrosion • When a battery is to be removed: o Disposal of redundant cells should be undertaken by specialist contractors – battery manufacturers usually offer this service o Extent of personal protection needs to be increased – eyewash bottles. The following checks should be performed on VRLA batteries: o o o o Internal ohmic value measured every 3 months Temperature measured on each negative terminal every 3 months AC Ripple current measured on an annual basis Performance/capacity tests should be conducted annually. first aid equipment and a supply of running water will be available REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES:   Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 51 .

frame or edges of the printed circuit board o Do not pass module to any person without first ensuring that he/she is at the same electrostatic potential – this can be achieved by simply shaking hands o Place the module on an antistatic surface or on an anti-conducting surface which is at the same electrostatic potential o Store or transport module in a conductive bag o Any person making measurements on internal circuitry of an amplifier in service should be earthed to the case with a conductive wrist band. If wrist band is not available contact should be maintained with the case to prevent buildup of static.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. Wrist bands should have a resistance to ground between 500k ohms and 10M ohms. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES:   Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 52 .18 Handling Electrostatically Sensitive Devices OBJECTIVE To provide guidance on the proper precautions that should be taken while handling components sensitive to electrostatic discharges. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • The following procedures should be undertaken when removing a module containing electrostatic sensitive devices: o Before removing module. the person removing it should be at the same electrostatic potential as the module by touching the equipment case o Handle module by its front-plate.

o Utilizing a reduced voltage to supply the apparatus. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • Risk of electric shock when using portable electric tools can be minimized by: o Earthing all exposed metal parts. dirt. excessively high or low temperatures and away from sunlight. o Providing sensitive earth-leakage protection to limit duration of the shock. instrumentation and test equipment. o Maintaining an all-insulated outer enclosure. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES:   Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 53 . Records should be kept that detail the nature of any problems found and when testing was performed. An effective calibration policy and documented program for calibrating critical measuring equipment should be established including. • • • Portable electric tools. o Maintaining double insulation to isolate exposed unearthed metal parts.19 Portable Electric Measuring Equipment OBJECTIVE To ensure safety by minimizing the risk of electric shock in the procurement. instruments and test equipment should be stored in a place free of oil. All portable electrical tools should be inspected on an interval of no more than 6 months. any required regulatory requirements. moisture. use and maintenance of portable electrical tools.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. if applicable.

These should be inspected before use for mechanical damage that could impair performance o Multimeters without Current Ranges o Contactless Current Measurements o High Impedance Probes o Isolation Probes o Low and Limited Energy Systems o Installation of view ports for Thermography inspections. the following guidelines should be taken into account: o Don’t work on live machines unless absolutely necessary o Minimize extent of live metal exposed during installation and operation o Make firm connections to prevent leads from becoming detached o Install fuses and resistance limiters as near to the point of connection as possible. o Oscilloscope probes should be a x10 or x100 with the attenuator built into the probe tip. the following options exist to be used singly or in combination: o Fused probes and test leads.20 Performing Electrical Testing on Live Apparatus OBJECTIVE To provide guidance on making electrical measurements on a live apparatus. • Properly rated gloves and arc flash personal protective equipment will be used. • Equipment should be selected to minimize the risk of accident in the event of an operational error. o Fuse probes and fused input current meters should not be used in CT secondaries. the lower voltage connection should be made first. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • In order to reduce the risk of accidents involving test leads and equipment.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES:   Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 54 . o When making connection to a live apparatus. o All equipment should be regularly checked. o The standard general purpose test instrument should consist of a multimeter with no current ranges. When selecting the tool to be used for a task. supplied with a pair of fused probes and all contained in a carrying case that provides protection for the meter and probes. inspected and calibrated.

Check for cracks. then the interval between inspections should be reduced.21 Insulated Hand Tools for Live Work (to 650V) OBJECTIVE To provide guidance on the control and inspection of insulated hand tools for working on or around live systems with voltages of up to 650V. Check for burns or solvent attack.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. Check that the bonding between the insulation and the metal parts is intact. Use only one color for the insulated hand tools at a site). grease and dirt. The inspection process for insulated hand tools should include the following: o o o o o o Check for mechanical cuts and abrasion to the insulation. All insulated hand tools should be inspected before use for evidence of any mechanical damage or deterioration which may affect electrical performance If tool is to be used in a dirty environment. The tool should be disposed of if the insulation is found to be damaged. Check that insulation is clean and free of oil. • • • • REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES:   Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 55 . MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • In order to prevent confusion between insulated hand tools and general engineering hand tools with handles made of insulating materials. insulated hand tools should be easily distinguishable (ex. If tools are being used in an environment that may lead to rapid deterioration. the user should inspect it during the task regularly to ensure that the tool remains clean and suitable for the task Tools should be inspected at least every 6 months.

feathering of edges or corners. but significantly damaged components should be removed from service. fracturing. Personnel should be trained on the site procedures for handling asbestos. peripheral scuffing. which would be able to be contained by the application of a sealing agent. sanding or other working of material that may potentially give rise to fiber release should not be permitted. Minor repair of asbestos-containing components should be permitted. Grinding. • • • • • • REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES:   Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 56 . All work should be suspended in the event that damage is incurred. would be considered repairable. erosion or significant burning.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 3. such as cracking. identified or suspected. the Job Safety Assessment should address asbestos handling provisions to minimize risk of inadvertent damage during work. When working on or near asbestos-based components. The following data should be included: o Location and type of each asbestos-containing component o Material condition of the component o Date of last air sampling survey or details of other sampling evidence for the location Safety and advisory signs should be placed at each location. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • An asset register should be maintained at each plant listing the location of asbestos-containing components. The following guidelines should be used in order to determine whether a component should be considered for repair or not: o Structural fault. a vacuum cleaner approved for the collection of asbestos should be used. When cleaning is necessary. would be considered significant damage o Surface scratching or light discoloration.22 Asbestos-based Components in Air Break Switchgear OBJECTIVE To assist in the maintenance and management of air-break switchgear apparatus containing asbestos-based components.

0 LOSS PREVENTION BEST PRACTICES 4.1 Boilers and Heat Recovery Steam Generators OBJECTIVE To define guidelines for safe operation of large power boilers and heat recovery steam generators. During major outages. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • Direct drum level imaging should be provided to the control room operator through the use of mirrors.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 4. The following critical alarms and trips will be in service for operation: o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Power failure trip Low deaerator level trip Low furnace draft trip Loss of flame alarm and trip High and low furnace pressure alarm and trip Feedwater and steam flow alarm and trip High and low drum level alarm and trip High tube metal temperature alarm High steam temperature alarm Manual operator push button trip Low air flow trip Generator and turbine trip Low oxygen trip Loss of all ID & IFD Fans or air heater trip • • • • REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 57 . Properly installed and maintained newer generation capacitance or inductance monitoring systems such as Yarway. Calibration and testing of control schedules. alarm levels and trip set points for burner and boiler controls should be performed annually. boiler tube samples should be taken and analyzed for deposit loading in order to assess the potential need for chemical cleaning and provide feedback on the plant’s water chemistry program effectiveness. More frequent inspections may be required depending on operating conditions. Boiler internal inspection frequency should be based on applicable state or jurisdictional requirements. Aquarian or Hydrastep are acceptable substitutes. Nozzles and liners of attemperators and desuperheaters should be inspected at least every five years. cameras or fiber-optics.

Ideally these tests are performed on a regular regime . and oil tanks o Turning gear. throttle. hydraulic and lube oil drains. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS Each facility with Steam Turbines will develop and implement an integrated Steam turbine integrity program that includes the following activities: • Perform daily checks of the steam turbine to include: o Visual inspection of inlet and exhaust piping. combine reheat stop and intercept valves o Cycle test extraction non-return valves o o o o • • Once per month. seat leakage. the following tasks should be performed: o Visual inspection or borescope of turbine nozzle inlet and exhaust stages and other stages if access is available. stop and control valves. the following tests and inspections should be performed: o Visually inspect and functional test stop. control.such as the same shift each week.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 4. extraction non-return and other critical valves. o Visually inspect mechanical and electrical controls and calibrate instrumentation (alarms. trips. throttle. A mechanical overspeed test can be performed every two years if the primary overspeed trip system is electronic. piping and systems. extraction and non-return valves checking for wear. o Internal and alignment inspection of turning gear o Internal inspection of main stop. or other indications of damage. backup systems and emergency oil pumps) o Test mechanical overspeed and vacuum trip devices. These tests should include: Test auxiliary and emergency lube oil pumps Test lube oil system low pressure and low level alarms Simulated overspeed and thrust bearing wear detector trips Cycle/exercise turbine main stop and throttle/control valves. control. o Visual inspection of turning gear teeth for wear or damage • Every two years. lubricating and hydraulic oil should be sampled and analyzed. Annually. generator and auxiliary systems • Perform weekly tests.2 Steam Turbines OBJECTIVE A proactive steam turbine maintenance program is necessary to ensure safe operations and optimized asset utilization. Proprietary & Confidential 58 . front standard.

number and severity of starts. o Continuous vibration monitoring and trending to include: § High and high-high level alarms in the control room. recall notices & service information bulletins) Follow outlined process for increasing outage intervals to include AGIC notification if extending more than one year from previous interval Include vibration monitoring and trending with multi-staged alarms (high & hi-high) The following physical protection for steam turbines is recommended: o Water induction protection installed and maintained to local and international standards. outages should be performed at intervals not exceeding 100. or § Turbine shaft vibration sensors or proximity probes o Emergency lube oil pumps should have battery or steam backup power supply with no overcurrent protection on the motor o Critical alarms and trips for steam turbines include: § High boiler drum level trip § High feedwater heater level trip § High exhaust hood temperature trip § Generator trip § Boiler trip § Loss of hydraulic pressure or mechanical turbine trip § Electronic and mechanical overspeed trip § Low lube oil pressure and level trip § High lube oil temperature alarm § High bearing metal temperature alarms § High vibration alarms and trips § Loss of vacuum alarm and trip • • • • REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 59 .000 hours if a risk analysis has been performed (such as Hartford Steam Boiler’s STRAP assessment) at 5-7 years into operation Stay current with OEM technical advisories (information letters.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S • The recommended period between overhauls for steam turbines depends on several factors including the operating characteristics. As a general rule. operating and maintenance history. performance expectations. § Pedestal-mounted seismic vibration probes. etc. condition of turbines.

backup systems.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 4. Mechanical trips can be tested every two years if the primary overspeed detection system is electronic. bearings and related assemblies (without disassembly) o Visual inspection of mechanical and electrical controls and calibration of instruments and controls (alarms. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS Each facility with Gas Turbines will develop and implement an integrated Gas turbine integrity program that includes the following activities: • • Daily visual inspection of turbine.000 to 48.000 to 12.000 operating hours • Stay current with OEM technical advisories (information letters. recall notices & service information bulletins) Proprietary & Confidential 60 . fuel types and other factors. emergency oil pumps) o Overspeed trips should be tested annually. trips. gearbox. firing conditions. • OEM guidelines should generally be followed for timing of inspections and overhauls. Typical timing of inspections are: o Combustion inspections at 8. generator.3 Gas Turbines OBJECTIVE A proactive gas turbine maintenance program is necessary to ensure safe operations and optimized asset utilization. the following checks should be made: o Visual inspection of turbine exhaust system for oil and/or fuel leakage o Inspection of turbine inlet and outlet thermocouples for proper operation • Annually. Typically this guidance considers the number of starts.000 equivalent operating hours o Hot gas path inspection at 16. inlets. exhaust and auxiliary systems Weekly tests should include: o Testing of auxiliary and emergency lube oil pumps o Testing of lube oil system low pressure and low level alarms o Simulated overspeed test • • Monthly sampling and analysis should be performed on lubricating and hydraulic oil systems Every 3 months.000 equivalent operating hours o Major inspection at 32.000 to 24. inspections and tests should include: o Inspection of seals.

Vibration monitoring and trending should be continuous and include: o High and high-high level alarms in the control room o Pedestal-mounted seismic vibration probes. Maintain a record of inspection / maintenance activities and test results. or o Turbine shaft vibration sensors or proximity probes • • • Emergency lube oil pumps should have battery or steam backup power supply with no over-current protection on the motor The minimum critical alarms needed for gas turbine operation include: o o o o o o Electronic and mechanical overspeed trip Low lube oil pressure and level trip High lube oil temperature alarm High bearing metal temperature alarms High vibration alarms and trips Dynamic monitoring (specific to turbine model) • REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 61 .A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S • Implement OEM advisories in the CMMS for cases where parts needs to be changed or inspected to ensure OEM advisories are tracked and complied.

generator and auxiliary system Weekly tests and inspections to include: o o o o o • • Testing of auxiliary and emergency lube oil and water pumps Testing of low lube oil pressure and low lube oil level alarms Simulation of overspeed trip Inspection of filters and water purity on lubricating water systems Vibration readings on runner. backup systems. generator and wicket gates • Monthly sampling and analysis of lubricating and hydraulic oils Annually. o Check operation of isolation valves o Visually inspect gearbox • Every two years. etc. trips. head. wear. turbine. the following should be performed: o o o o Wicket gate and runner blade variable geometry (open and inspect bearings and bushings) Inspect penstocks and surge tanks Open. inspect and check alignment of gearbox Borescope inspection of blades (if accessible) • Overhaul frequency for hydro turbines are a function of many factors including turbine design. water purity. bearings and seal oil and lubricating oil systems o Visually inspect mechanical and electrical controls and calibrate instrumentation (alarms. trash racks. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS Each facility with Hydro Turbines will develop and implement an integrated hydro turbine integrity program that includes the following activities: • Daily visual inspection of thrust bearings. operating times. tail races. emergency oil pumps) o Test overspeed trips. the following tests and inspections should be performed: o Dewater inspections o Inspect shaft seals. Proprietary & Confidential 62 . gearbox. As general guidance overhauls should be conducted on 5-year cycles. gearbox. etc. closing clearances. Mechanical overspeed trips can be tested every two years if the primary system is electronic o Inspect gates and mechanisms for damage.4 Hydro Turbines OBJECTIVE A proactive hydro turbine maintenance program is necessary to ensure safe operations and optimized asset utilization.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 4.

or o Turbine shaft vibration sensors or proximity probes • Emergency lube oil pumps should have battery or steam backup power supply with no over-current protection on the motor The minimum critical alarms needed for hydro turbine operation include: o o o o o o Electronic and mechanical overspeed trip (non-recycling) Low lube oil pressure and trip High lube oil temperature alarm High thrust and shaft bearing metal temperature alarms and trip High vibration alarms and trips Fail-safe governor drive mechanism to stop water flow to turbine in the event of drive failure • REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 63 .A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S • • Maintain records of inspection/maintenance activities and test results. Vibration monitoring and trending should be continuous and include: o High and high-high level alarms in the control room o Pedestal-mounted seismic vibration probes.

Quarterly visual inspections should be performed on blades. vibration. Maintain a record of inspection / maintenance activities and test results.).5 Wind Turbines – Suspended and under review OBJECTIVE A proactive wind turbine maintenance program is necessary to ensure safe operations and optimized asset utilization. • • • • • • REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 64 . generator temperature. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS Each facility with Wind Turbines will develop and implement an integrated Wind turbine integrity program that includes the following activities: • Daily inspection of units for abnormal operation. protection systems and nacelle and nacelle auxiliaries Annual tests and inspections include sampling and analysis of gearbox lube oil and tests to simulate system controls and interlocks (wind cut-in and cut-out speeds. Instruments and controls installed should include: o o o o o o o o o System speed – turbine and generator Generator voltage. improper positioning. increase in noise level. bearings.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 4. amperage. wind temperatures. general controls.) Every 18 months. output. direction and temperature Hydraulic system pressure and temperature sensors Critical alarms should exist for key identified information tags (turbine and generator over speed. leaks vibration. power and reactive power Gearbox oil and bearing temperatures Generator coolant and oil temperatures Nacelle ambient temperature and detection warning systems Rotor and nacelle vibration Wind speed. gearbox temp. shear. The OEM and industry experience should be considered when establishing the overhaul frequency. generator brakes. pitch and yaw control. visual inspections should be performed on gearbox internals and generators along with insulation resistance testing of the rotor and stator Overhauls schedules will vary with type of machine and OEM. damaged blades. rotor and nacelle vibration etc. etc. etc. gearbox.

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4.6 Internal Combustion Engines
OBJECTIVE

A proactive maintenance program is necessary to ensure safe operations and optimized asset utilization of internal combustion engines.
MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS

Each facility with internal combustion engines will develop and implement an integrated integrity program that includes the following activities: • Daily visual inspections of the unit’s inlet and exhaust connections, engine, generator and auxiliary systems for damage, leaks, plugged filters and abnormal operation. o If operating, verify cylinder pressures and exhaust temperatures are normal o Check all control linkages for signs of binding and general condition • Weekly inspections and tests to be performed include: o Taking vibration readings from engine and generator if unit does not have permanent vibration monitoring equipment installed o Testing of emergency backup lube oil pump for proper operation o Testing of emergency backup cooling water pump for proper operation o Testing the low lube oil level and low lube oil pressure alarms o Testing of the simulated overspeed trip, where applicable, or verify shutdown alarm operation. • Monthly testing and inspections to be performed include: o Sampling and analysis of lube oil, fuel oil and cooling water quality o For emergency diesel engines – start, run and load the generator set until the engine temperatures have stabilized for at least 30 minutes o Check ignition timing, inspect the crankcase, take valve lash readings, inspect the governor drive and inspect cams, push rods and rockers • Visual inspections of the cylinders and valves should be conducted as specified by the manufacturer for the particular model, duty cycle, type of combustion system and/or fuel type. In the absence of these recommendations, annual inspections are recommended. Annual inspections and testing should include: o Inspection of seals, bearings, seal oil and lubrication systems, turbocharger bearings and fuel system piping and components for wear, leaks, vibration damage, plugged filters and other kinds of thermal and mechanical stress o Visual, mechanical and electrical inspection of instrumentation, protection and control systems, including checking alarms, trips, filters, backup lubrication and water systems

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o Mechanical overspeed trip testing. Test frequency can be lengthened to two years for mechanical overspeed trips if the primary trip is an electronic system. o Take hot crankcase web deflection readings. o Counter weights, if used, need to be torque and checked per OEM recommendations. o Turbochargers should be disassembled and inspected per OEM recommendations o Valve clearances and other critical measurements should be taken per OEM recommendations • Complete overhauls should be conducted as specified by the manufacturer for the particular model, duty cycle, type of combustion system and/or fuel type. In the absence of these recommendations, overhauls every 5 years are recommended. Stay current with OEM technical advisories (information letters, recall notices & service information bulletins) Maintain a record of inspection / maintenance activities and test results. Coolant temperatures should be continuously monitored with high and high-high alarms in the control room Lube oil pressures should be continuously monitored with high and high-high alarms in the control room Engines should have both electronic and mechanical overspeed trips The minimum critical alarms needed for internal combustion engine operation include: o o o o o o o High bearing temperature alarms and trips Low coolant pressure alarms and trips Vibration alarms and trip High oil filter differential pressure alarm Low lube oil sump level alarm Manifold air temperature alarm Engine exhaust temperature alarm

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4.7 Generators
OBJECTIVE

A proactive generator maintenance program is necessary to ensure safe operations and reliable performance.
MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS

Each facility with generators will develop and implement an integrated generator integrity program that includes the following activities: • Stay current with OEM technical advisories (technical information letters, recall notices & service information bulletins) For sites with GE Model 6A3 and other small frame generators understand the typical problems encountered - loose wedges, corona, pole jumpers & tape migration Understand special inspection requirements associated with 18-5 Mn-Cr retaining rings due to stress corrosion cracking when exposed to water and humidity contamination. Daily inspections of generators should include visual examination of generator and auxiliary systems including the condition of frame and bed plate, seals, bearings etc. During overhauls, the following inspection and testing should be performed o o o o o • • Winding copper resistance test Insulation resistance test and polarization index Power factor test Corona probe test or partial discharge analysis Shorted terminal (RSO), wedge tightness and end turn tightness should be checked

Every 3 years, iso-phase busses should be visually inspected Vibration monitoring and trending should be continuous and include: o High and high-high level alarms in the control room o Pedestal-mounted seismic vibration probes, or o Turbine shaft vibration sensors or proximity probes

For hydrogen seal oil systems, the return detraining tank should be vented to outside atmosphere to avoid the potential build up of hydrogen inside the plant The following relays, instrumentation and control devices should exist for each generator installation: o Voltage and frequency o Distance relay o Reverse power relay (anti-motoring)

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A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Loss of field Stator unbalance Stator thermal protection Instantaneous overcurrent applying to breaker circuitry Timed overcurrent Voltage controlled timed overcurrent relay Overvoltage protection Zero sequencing voltage relay Primary ground fault relay Voltage balance Timed overcurrent relay Fault pressure relay Primary rotor ground fault voltage relay Transformer oil or gas level relay Loss of synchronization protection Over and under frequency relays Lockout auxiliary relay Bus protection differential relay Differential relay for generator protection Differential relay for transformer protection REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 68 .

Grade C class 11. 12 or 22. Ultrasonic testing (time-of-flight and focused phased array) are commonly employed. ASTM A 691 class 11.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 4.8 High Energy Steam Piping OBJECTIVE To address catastrophic failures that have happened in the industry with seamed high energy piping. High energy piping is a concern under these conditions: • Temperatures greater or equal then 950 degrees F • Pressure greater or equal to 200 psig • Chromium-Molybdenum piping material that is ASTM A 155 class 1 or 2. and ASTM A 387 Grade B Class 12. the following examination will be conducted: o Acid etch testing should be used to identify sections of piping that are seamed o Complete full piping evaluation that can identify sections under highest stress and loading and highest traffic areas o Collect metallographic analysis of plug samples collected during next outage in high stress and high traffic areas identified in (2) above OR o Insulation will be removed from all seamed high energy piping and full ultrasonic inspection using time-of-flight defraction and focused phase array techniques will be completed • Inspections and testing of high energy piping and headers should only be performed by qualified firms. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 69 . or Grade D class 22 • Longitudinally welded piping • Piping with greater than 80.000 operating hours MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • It is strongly recommended that piping meeting the adjacent criteria be replaced. Until replacement can be completed.

deareators.9 Pressure Vessels OBJECTIVE To define the routine maintenance and inspection requirements associated with pressure vessels. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS Pressure vessels such as tanks. or where the requirements are less stringent than the requirements below. Inspection should include wet magnetic fluorescent particle testing of a percentage of each tank’s weld seams and heads. etc. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 70 . the recommended approach is: • Deaerator flash and storage tanks should be inspected within 12 to 24 months after initial installation. Reinspection frequency will depend on inspection results: o 3 to 5 years if there is no crack found and no repairs are necessary o 1 to 2 years if minor cracking is observed but no cracks requiring weld repair o 12 months or less if cracks are found that require weld repair • • The waterbox of feedwater heaters should be inspected at each boiler overhaul Air tanks will be inspected in interval in accordance to NBIC and internally inspected by NDE because an internal visual inspection by the port hole will yield no significant information. feedwater heaters.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 4. Where jurisdictional requirements do not exist. often have inspection scopes and frequencies dictated by local jurisdiction.

000 horsepower. Suction.000 horsepower) and every 2 to 3 years for units smaller than 1. typical overhaul frequency is every 5 to 15 years. At a minimum. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • • • Overhaul frequency for boiler feed pumps should be determined by pump performance testing and past history. Industry-wide. each pump will be capable of supplying adequate capacity needed to continue feeding water to the boiler until all residual heat is safely removed following a full load master fuel trip.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 4. Units should have at least two pumps provided. their power supplies will come from separate and independent sources REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 71 .10 Boiler Feed Pumps OBJECTIVE To define the routine maintenance and inspection requirements for boiler feed pumps. Discharge and minimum flow valves should be inspected every 5 to 6 years for larger units (>1. o If both pumps are motor-driven.

system use.g. A proactive inspection and maintenance program of pressure relieving devices will ensure that they are capable of providing the required protection. testing and maintenance consistent with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Sections VII. specifications & drawings. if there are no existing mandatory requirements and the inspection history finds specific safety devices to have exceptional service histories. Testing and inspection criteria based on regulatory compliance.) will develop and implement an integrated pressure relieving device integrity program that includes: • Maintaining records for all pressure relieving devices including pressure loop diagrams. maintenance experience and tolerance limits. Replacement & return to service inspection & testing before resuming operations Operational considerations – e.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 4. piping etc.11 Safety Valves OBJECTIVE Properly applied. local regulations or codes requires more frequent testing. • For Balance-of Plant safety/relief devices. Conversely. the following maximum inspection intervals is recommended. • • • • • Proprietary & Confidential 72 . installed. and maintained pressure relieving devices are essential to the safety of personnel and the protection of equipment. records of any isolating valves in the pressure loop and inspection and maintenance history of devices. tanks. o Boiler safety valves should be overhauled at least every 5 years unless operational history. Understanding operating pressures for each pressure vessel and the appropriate safety & relief valve settings. capacity check method and steam calculations. Inspection history and local regulations or Codes may require more frequent and thorough inspection requirements. the re-inspection intervals may be further increased by applying a performance based analysis for testing and maintenance. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS Each facility with pressure vessel equipment (boilers. Periodic inspection. o Boiler safety valves should be hydroset tested at least every 2 years.

A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S • • ASME tolerance requirements that define the limits for acceptable and defective safety valves. Specified annual on-line inspections to be conducted and recorded REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 73 .

OEM recommendations. oil-circuit breakers. a transformer could reasonably be expected to last in excess of 30 years.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 4. winding and ambient temperatures Peak indicators recorded and reset Oil levels for transformers. By performing the proper routine maintenance that includes insulating oil testing and transformer electrical tests. • For dry transformers. debris or rodent infiltration Examination of vents for air passage obstruction Insulation resistance testing Daily inspections should be performed by operating personnel to include checks of: o o o o o o Conservator oil level Paint integrity. refrigerant • Weekly inspections should be performed on critical transformers by qualified electricians or operating personnel and include checks for: o o o o o Unusual noises Restricted airflow across the radiators Cracked or damaged bushings or arresters Excessive operating temperatures Oil leakage or other undesirable conditions • Monthly inspections of liquid filled transformers should include checks of: o o o o o o Load current Oil. evidence of corrosion Oil leakage Drainage at base of transformer (check for blockage) Temperatures of windings and oil Desiccant. etc. and by operating the unit within its design operating parameters. Each facility is expected to adjust the recommended frequencies based on factors such as outage frequency (planned and unplanned). breather.12 Transformers OBJECTIVE To define the testing and routine maintenance requirements of critical and essential power transformers. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS Each facility with transformers will develop and implement an inspection and maintenance program that includes the following activities. tap changers and bushings Tank pressures on transformers and circuit breakers where applicable Nitrogen pressures on transformers if applicable Proprietary & Confidential 74 . plant history. annual inspections and testing should be performed to include: o o o o • Measurement of coil and ambient temperatures with an infrared device Visual examination of coils for dust.

inspections and testing that should be conducted includes: Examination of surge arrestors for cracks. and U.S. reclosers and disconnects Visual inspection for cracked or dirty bushings. controls and metering devices o Polarization Index (PI) insulation resistance test • Every 3 years. and integrity of ground connections Testing of load tap changers for proper operation Dielectric strength testing of oil in oil circuit breakers Transformer dissolved gas analysis (DGA) and dielectric fluid (oil) analysis on essential transformers o Infrared inspection of transformers and substations o o o o • Annually. specific gravity and power factor o Operational and trip checks of air circuit breakers o Switchgear blade and contact surface check for arcing and general deterioration and operational checks if condition permits o Calibration and testing of all protective relays. the following tests and inspections should be conducted: o Standard screen testing of insulating oil for dielectric breakdown. relays and wiring Protective devices Counter readings from tap changers. acidity. color. and transformer tank • Every 6 months. corrosion.K Doble testing should be conducted each year for the first three years and then every three years] • Every 5 years: o A remaining life assessment should be performed on each critical transformer o All critical and essential transformers oils will be tested for corrosive sulfur per the latest available industry standard Proprietary & Confidential 75 . interfacial tension. oil leaks. circuit breakers. isophase buss ducts. evidence of overheating or corrosion Quarterly inspection and testing should include: o Transformer dissolved gas analysis (DGA) and dielectric fluid (oil) analysis on critical transformers o Pressure relief valve inspection o Examination of all major ground connections o Thermographic surveys of critical transformers including cooling systems. moisture.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S o o o o o o • Operation of fans and circulating pumps Radiator cleanliness Condition of controls. air bushing connections. the following tests should be performed: o Ground resistance test o Transformer power factor test [Note in the U.

including fault and DGA initiated testing. please refer to the AES Engineering Standard on Transformer Life-Cycle Management REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 76 .A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S • For the latest recommendation on transformer off-line testing.

annual maintenance and inspections should include: o o o o o Inspect insulators. Relays and trip devices should be tested to confirm proper operation • For vacuum circuit breakers. tracking. linkages and operating rods Confirm operation using multiple manual cycles Resistance test all contacts • Oil circuit breakers annual maintenance and inspections should include: o External inspection of enclosure for signs of leakage o Clean external components and inspect for signs of deterioration. MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • For air circuit breakers. annual maintenance and inspections should include: o Clean insulating material and inspect for signs of corona. breakage and excess wear. loose or broken parts and check oil level o Conduct screen test of insulating oil o Resistance test all contacts o Open breaker and visually examine if necessary Proprietary & Confidential 77 .13 Miscellaneous Electrical Equipment OBJECTIVE To define the maintenance and inspection requirements of miscellaneous electrical maintenance equipment including circuit breakers. disconnect switches. supports and connectors for signs of cracking or physical damage Vacuum cleaned of all dust and debris Vents and fan grills cleaned Examine filters and replace as necessary Confirm proper operation of fan and clean blades as needed • Air disconnect switches annual maintenance and inspections should include: o o o o Maintenance as outlined for ACBs Confirm proper operation of arc blades. observe for breakage and confirm cleanliness of arc shoots o Inspect operating mechanism for looseness. thermal or physical damage o Confirm spring pressures as appropriate o Clean arc interrupters as needed.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 4. and aluminum conductors. cables & buses. tracking. annual maintenance and inspections should include: o Perform maintenance as outlined for air circuit breakers o Test vacuum chamber per OEM specifications • For switchgear. switchgear. arcing. confirm proper actuation timing and lubricate as necessary o Inspect auxiliary devices for proper operation and overall condition.

proper tension. etc. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to Reference Material When Available Proprietary & Confidential 78 . physical damage. o Inspect aerial cable supports for excessive wear and inspect cable for wear at support points o Inspect raceways for proper support o Inspect cable insulation for damage o Inspect joints for cleanliness and integrity o Perform thermographic survey of bus ducts under maximum load if possible • When aluminum conductors are used. Inspect concrete for spalling. poor ground connections. etc.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S • Molded case circuit breakers annual maintenance and inspections should include: o Clean as necessary for proper ventilation • Cables and busses annual maintenance and inspections should include: o Perform Polarization Index testing as necessary to track any negative trending o Observe manhole cables for gas accumulation and inspect for sharp bends. excessive moisture. cable movement. oil leaks. these should be inspected within six months after installation and annually thereafter.

MINIMUM EXPECTATIONS • Requirements for inspection. modification and impairment requirements for fire protection systems.14 Fire Protection OBJECTIVE To define maintenance. and maintenance activities at AES Facilities along with the frequency and appropriate NFPA reference can be found in the AES Global Insurance Company (AGIC) Fire Protection System Maintenance and Testing Guideline. It is further recognized that unique situations may arise at some facilities. Standard for the Inspection. test. This was done after careful engineering analysis and in recognition of the unique nature of power facilities and the impracticality of performing some inspection. testing. operable and accessible condition in accordance with the AES Fire Protection System Valve Testing Guideline. Due to the relativity vague nature of the above referenced NFPA document. Inspection. test tanks in accordance with the AES Global Insurance Company Fire Protection System Water Storage Tank Guideline. Some frequencies may differ from those listed in NFPA documents. o Stroke all fire protection valves to ensure they are operated through their normal stroke at lease annually in accordance with the AES Fire Protection System Valve Cycling Guideline. Section 6-2. and those will be considered on an individual case by case basis. Fire Protection Valves: o Inspection fire protection valves monthly to ensure that they remain in their normal position. but in no case is the frequency more restrictive than the NFPA requirement. inspection. REFERENCE DOCUMENTATION AND EXAMPLES: Hyperlink to AGIC Website Proprietary & Confidential 79 . and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems. Testing. and maintenance of fire protection systems/equipment are based on NFPA Standards. test. and maintenance at the prescribed NFPA frequency. locked (or sealed).4 states that the interior of a water storage tank will be inspected every 5 years or every 3 years for steel tanks without corrosion protection. • • Fire Protection Water Storage Tanks: o NFPA 25.A E S G E N E R A T I N G P L A N T B E S T P R A C T I C E G U I D E L I N E S 4.

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