· 111

KATA II

VtHb
MBl{YCTBOTO

TA A OllPvtH
nOUb OCB~TnEHHETO HA
HCTOPH5IT A H H3KYCTBOTO

I~ 1/1 lEI U1ETO HA VlCTOPJ171TA
I;f

HCToPHKo-nCHxonorH~ECKH AHAnH3b
Summa sequar fastigia rerum.

CKB3KB, AbpmBHB Bb COQJJ1HCKOTO O(j>HlIepCKO cb6paHHe Ha 6nBroBew,eHHe, 7 anpam, 1931 r.

rJEYRTHHUR

COC!>H5I XYAO}KHHl<b

1931

'81)

CfIOt>' I(OHIO

It I

lif

IttFIIH11

h.

IIH.Ll.lfAXF\ Bb KPEnOCTbTF\

60H
O,lJ,PHHb

nPH

KHHraTa MOme na ce ,qOCTaBHOTb nor naBHHT'E I<HHmapHHIIH H aaropa, Ha 6yneBapAb nXp. 60TeBb" - Co <p H 51

Flpenrosopt,
Ila xanaura
o<jJl1l(eplI. Kala TOSI CH MI!IJ1bKb COllllliiCI(OTO II Id;u~o

rpYJI1.,

11J~e~TO ce

A"bJ1>HH Hi) 3anaCHI1Ti>

HaCTOSlTeJ1CTBOTO If a C HMlll~a

APY>HeCTBO aa

npena

18-a rOAHWHI1Ha OT"b araCKa3Ka B"b cnoBOHCl<a.

Ita OAPI1H"b TO Me nOKaHI1 na A"bp>Hll enaa

MeH"b Ha TOBa 6eJ1e>HHlO Ai>110 ua 6"bl1rapCKaTa rOAI1WHI1HaTa aa Hl1e, «oraro oxaaaaure TOBa C"b611 rae, CKa3KaTa a Ha

B"b Aei1cTBI1TeI1HOCTb, CKa3KaTa ce A"bp>Ha He Ha 25 MapTa,

7

anpam.,

Bnaroaeure11 113c11ywaH8

Call0H"bT"b na cB060AeH"b.

Boeuaoro

C"b6paHl1e

B"b CTOI1I1l(aTa ce

611Ae nocereaa

C"b BHI1MaHl1e. Me>H,qy npacwrcrsyaeuiar Y4aCTI1e B"b canara CKa3KaTa, 11 Ti>Mb ce nana uie araxa Ha OAPHH"b.

s

I1I1l(eWe e.QHOrOI1i>Mo oqJl1l.1ePI1, B3e11H aa 4HTIITeI1HTi> paanpe-

MHO>HeCTBOrpa>HAaHI1, 3anaCHI1 11 AeHcTBytO~11 aanesaraaa no-nerar ae-re, e B"b pllil(eri> aa reaa.

ex's na CH\.QSlT"b aa aes. OTb
no

A-Bl1eHHeTO na MeTepHal1a H pa3BI1THerO MeHTH Ti> OCHOBHIlTa BHASlTb KaKTO nnaaa, raxa H canara ras MI1 6i>we

OT.Qi>I1HI1Ti> epry-

KOHTO CbM"b pa3BH11b H3110>HeHHe Ha Bp"b3Ka All o-rep ras

H

resa,

Uel1bTa H Ti>XHOTO KaKb

Cb eAHO 1134epnaTe11Ho

HCTOpH'feCKH cj:>aKTH, nO.Qpe.QeHH Bb r nCHXOl1orHlfeCKO H 06~0
j,

sxaata

npH'II1HHa

3H8lfeHHe,

o A P H H"b
Ihb

6"bJ1rllpCKI1S1T"b

aapon

AOHAe

AO a r a x a r a HII xerom, na pa60T8 no-or-

H K a K"b T SI C e n o n rOT CMi>T8M"b, 'Ie eAHHb a separa

B H, P a 3 B H H 3 a B b P W H. OTb cj:>IlKTHH3b HCTOPHSlT8 CH\~OTO Bb TypCKHSI HapOA'b BCHYKI1, KOHTO OAripenopana

nOA06eH"b

'fpe3b Ha -

aenpexxcuar 6b11rapCKHSI xepom, caaara pa3M-BpH na H8H·A06pe

He nponycraax»

paHH4eHH Bb AYWIlTa

CTOPSIH no OTHoweHHe

6H n03B0I1I111"b A8 MO>He na ce HaC110H11 38KpenH araxara ae OAPI1H"b, HMaTb, a HMeHHO, 'fe

aa CJ1YW8Tel1S1 y6e>HAeHHeTO, KoeTO KaKTO 11 TYTpaKaHb nO-KbCHO,

,C~ H3Y'faBaI1H

PHH"b naAH8, rexe 113p83eHO 4pe3b
Ii 'fpe3b

Bb3XO.QCTBOTO na 6b11rapCK8Ta HpllBCTBeHIlTIl MO~b

apMI1S1 HaAb H 60HHaTa

npOTHBHI1I.1HTi> rOAHOCTb Ha

H,

I1AeHTi> 11 .QYXOBHI1T-BCI11111 Ha KOM8HAYBaHeTO Y'f8-

7
CTIlYIOIl~m I, nOHCKH Sb 8TaKaTCl. MaTepHanHHT-5 .. 0 11., OKonH, - pe,QYTH, BpTHJJepHticKo ObnrapHT-5 <pOpTOSe, reneua npeSb3XO,QCTBO-6-5xa HMaXB ~HCJJ 110 <paKTOPH-M-5CTMpe>HH, a ,Qa>He 11 Ha crpauara HB npea-ssH H3nonMe OCapMHSI, Ha noy'1eCKH '1aCTI1) H npesanaoro SpbCTb rapar ua <pOPTOBHSI noscu na nOCTHrHaTb HO OTb THSI HB nOBCeM-5CTHO 06ll(0 AeHcTBl1e oxonoaa 6bn-

OTb SCI1YKH BOHCKH 11 4aCT-

aTaKYIOll(I1S1 cexrop

s,

KoeTO n03BonH

016pBHSnOll(HT-5.

C8MO 'mcneHOTO

a

BCHYKH npeaxyuiecraa r o aanonaysaue 3arOpCI<H

OTb TaKTHyeCKElTa Te)f(KH 0PN\CnaByeBb OTb

XO,QCTBOSb neXOTIIHT-5 CHnH H, 6e3b

CbMHeHHe, TaKTH4eCKOTO H

H HpBBCTBeHEl 113HeHaAB npH

pB3BHTI1e HEl aTaKaTa. 6e3,QywHHT-5 H nO,QnonKOBHHl\HT-5

H TeXUH'IeCJ<OTO npeBb3XO,QCTBO Sb ynoTp-56neHHeTO 3YSBHeTO HB apranepasra.

5. Benxxonernro
,QHSIOTb nonKOBHHKb CT. H BbnyaHOBb POCTb OTb H 6e3b

Tos MeTO,Qb aa HCTopHKo-nCHXOnOrHyeCKH
B060>H,QaBawe Dbpxy He cano na He BnH3aMb

aHanH3b

neTKO

H 06l.1..1onpOSlBeHOTO H3KyCTBO H xpafiTe)f(KH H neKH nonCKH 6BTapeH, 6e3b Cb neXOTaTB Kone6aHI1e rpbH4a-

Bb nOAPo6HH OyepTaHHe He

onHcaHHSI

cnaBHHT-5

Aei1cTBHSlTa HB pa3HHT-5 yaCTH OTb 06Ca>HAall(aTa cnY4aSl H3nbKBaTb H KOHTO

KOHTO H3BeCTHa xacrs

cnensaxa

HO H Aa He npaBSI OT,Q-5nHO cxonaCIH4eCKO KHT-5, J<OHTO Bb HBAne>HHO na nonxepraa T-5XHOTO 3Ha'leHHe.

nponycuax-s

6.

crpax's. B-5PHHSlTb

aoexea's Ha4allHHI<b

OKOM-5Pb aa reaeparrs uietia KBnHTBHb

ne T-5XHOTO M-5CTO H Bb M-5pKaTa aa CElMO ce6e orpoMHH ce oxepraxa HaU1H CHJJH npenawa

poe s H HerOBHSI uiara araxa

f\3MBHOBb,QEl

CXBaHaTb nCHXOnOrH'IeCKHSI H TaKTHyeCKHSI MOMeHTb Ha 3p-5lOHB r nasaara n03Hll,HSI. aa HOll(HHSI nonyxpax 60HHOTO none

HaH-Ba>HHHTt. nOYJ<H, KOHTO OTb H KOHTO nefieno nonseprax-s, 6-5xa:

7. Pa3YMHoTO nanonayaaae
OCB-BTneHHe OTb cr paua H HeHHaT8 CpEl>HeHHSI,ncpana Ha UJYKPH ct:'HyeBb H
n

e H nyaxo
KaKTO Cb ceAeMb

1. Pcnsra
Bo pewHTenHHT-5

HEl KpenOCTbTEl, na npaxoae MOMeHTH Ha nbpBHT-5

na aeurar a 6e3CTpaWHa

nexora,

rOTOBHOCTb Aa nOCTene

CTH>HaHe CJiUI-IaTa xpenocr

s Bb Cb3HaHH€TO na H-5KOH OTo AeilI.\HT-5

XHnSlAH y6HTI1 H paHeHI1 sa KH\COTO apexe BCHYKH TI1Slnoyxa nOAyepTaXb Cb CHnHH ureuo AYMH, KaTO rnenax's pons ua

OTb H-5KOllKO 4aca. na 6H\,[IaTb CbBbPna

H nopaAH aKTHBHI1T-5 Aei1cTBI1S1Ha ra~HH3cHa Db TOS! nepaorrs Ha BOHHElTa.

OTb CKa3KaTa BC-5KOSIaa HeHHOTO M-5CTO

2.

Pa3YMHoTO cxaauiase nom,

HB reuepemrr-s raa Ha apere.

Caaoe-s,
euie

04eBHAHI1. MO)f(e 6H 38 H-5KOH OTb CllYW8TenHT-B He CTaHa SlCHa aasorara IO>HHI1S1 cexrop:s, CHllHO aHra)f(l1paHH 'Ie UJyl<PH CHllHT-5 xa TYPll,I1T-5 npemAB He aaae HeJ<8 ce aasexe aaneryp6-5we ofiase,

All He ce aenenar-s He nouino

KaTO MyXH 0 «penocrs

ra H no TOSIHa4HHb nOKa A-5nO

AOCTaTbYHO ce6e rne

nOA'II1HSlTb CBOSlTa nons TaKiSl Kp-5nOCTH 6e3b B3S1Tie Kp-5nOcTei1 Bo TO~BpeMSI, KorAB KpH3HCb, MorYTb Kpt.nocTei1 CP-5ACTBb, .Boi1Ha

,[Ibp>HH ocofieuo

AO oxoasarensero

p sureals, TO OCa>HAaIOTb ronsxo Henb3S1.

(,H AO creneas,

nawa rrs.nr o apene HI1 6eceAa

B3S1Tie KOHXb HHJ<aKb 060HTHCb

na xe spna CBOSI nO,[lBI1)f(eHb peseps-s, xoraro I1MaTb canara 6awbMb3a nopana xorar

SlBnSleTCSIBb SHA-5 3aKp-5nneHiSl

aaaoeaaala
CKOpo n e p aH B3S1Tie

,Q-BBaMe, 'Ie cera, 4aT8Ha, uie

p'suieuie

Y>He COCTOSlnOCb SnOnH-5, K 0 r A a cans aie, Ruhe). npo
ui

s

H TOB8 na BI1,[1S1Tb OTb l\HTaTHT-5 H3b xap6 rexpap aanpenaano renexriep apene -

a a n p a sx e a t e B0306HOBI1TCSI, He

n a 11 He
j,

CKaTa I<HHra "HeHI1 se-re yaCbTb ¢aKTbTb, n03HaTI1

", H-5KOH

T. e., x o r n a a a c r a n

OTb KOHTO Henp04eTOXb

Oil b 3 a r H w b SI (cnoxoticr HO ace )f(e -

Torna
6e3b -

ocana

1 cnem,

06-5Ab. Ha'lanHHl\I1-yyaCT-

06XOAH TCSI, KOHe'lHO, 6e3b

YCHnii1 H pacxona rn. 280 CTp. OTb 3 e B H u a, nepe-

-re BCH4KH npI1CH\TCTBYBall(H

onacxocra"

HHl\H, BHCWI1 AeHcTsYIOUJ,11 H 3anaCHH o<pHl\epH 11rOn-5MO '1HCnO H npyrapa MI1 113Ha3axa CBOHT-5 CbPd,[lB8HHSI Cb ronna MOSI BI1COKOAapoBHTb KOHTO He e B3HManb Cb Hai1-cHnHH CbMb Me npeaam.nnaxa Y411Tenb rexeBb areH AyweBHH 113nbnHS! yxacrae ,nyMH, ocotieuao THSI na ocraaarrs

(Teopis crparerla}"

BOAb Cb H-5Mel\KarO

CO'lI1HeHie f< nay K. B 0 H ,Qe, TOMb II.
i,

3. B'spare 4.
uems

aa 1<0MaHAYIOll(HSI H36HpaHe na

oficasxnaurara Bb ycrrsxa -

apMI1Sl H aa BTaKa H TeXHH-

perrs

o. 3. Xecan-n-ea-s,

HaYBnHHHB HB H3TOYHHSI cexrop npC:BHnHoTo 113XOASlll(J lSI pesnpen H\rbnb

Ha araxara. CbOTBeTHOTO sa TaS!

xe ra, HO KOHTO BneyaTneHI1S1 e,nI1Hb Abnrb

HAeHHH Morbnb,[la

yyaCTbKa

aa peunrrenaara

OTb fiecenara,

Cb npxaaaren-

xpenocri.ra

HOCTb H MH nOC04Hxa,

-re Bb cnysas

sneaae aa CHnHT-5 (apTHne~HSI, nexora

H AB OnpBB,[IaSi T-5XHHT-5

OYaKBaHHSI. TOBa 11 Me

8
uaxapa na npeACTllBSI na 6H6nHOTeKa, TpYAa CH Bb

H3AaHH5I Cb Mon6ll BOeHHaTa HaKpaH Temf

ce HaneyaTH,

KaTO

penaxuasra orzrs
na

aa nem,

BOeHHHTt. HYMepb Ha

KOeTO TSI BenHKoAywHO n03BOneHO Cb

npae"). oronaronapa aa CH, a

HeKa MH 6Hi.Ae

BCI1YKI1 THSI 6HBWH 11 HaCT05llllH

HayanHHl.\I1, 611BWH MOI1 YYI1CbpaABllHHsna Apy}!{eCTBO

H BCHYKH, 1<0l1TO Me YAOCTOHxa ocpHl.\epH, 1<0eTO MH Hanp8BH Abp}!{a 6eceA8Ta.

cxuio

H HaCTOSITenCTBOTO H8 CoqmHcKoTO

sa saMe

naCHHTt.

rorraxara

yeCTb na

nOl<6HH na

AraKara aa Onpa-n, norrs ocs's rneuuero Ha HCTOpH~Ta H H3KyCTBOTO
HCTopHHo-nCHxonorH~eCHH aHa~H3b
ABe BCT~nHTenHH .o.YMH aa TaKaTa Ha O.o.PHH'b. }!{eCTBO A6 -iyere

Fl.

.a'bP8UH208'b

Hasi-mspao

aexa

H3Ka}!{a

MOSlTa HCKpeuna

6n6rOAapHOCTb 38 YeCTbTa, KOSITOnpaaare KaTO CTe AownH Bb TbH He0603pHMO MHOHaCTOSlLl\aTa CKpOMHa 6eceAa. H3pa3b

Flocp suiex-s
Cb3HaHHe

TOBa aaure npHCHi.TCTBHe xaro Y HBWHSI xaporrs, ye OTb H8H-6ene}!{HTHTt.

na OH08a 06Ll\0

BTBKaTa Ha xpenocrura OAPHHb e eAHO KoneKTHBHH rrsna OTb HOBaTa 6bnrapCKa OnJlOASlB8 nyurara ua ae nOKont.HHSlTa 60HHO A8 BH-

HCTOPHSI, KoeTO Bt.YHO uie KbM'h nOA8H3H. AnK8Ta A-Gno e eAHHb H8 OAPHHb wecpAboBpb,

13

MapTb

YHHTO reaeaac

1913 r. KaTO s MO}!{eMb

,QHMb Bb C8MOTO P83BHTI1e xa 6bnrapcKHSI HapoAb H Bb CbCTOSlHHeTO aa BoeHHOTO H3KYCTBO KbMb BpeMeTO, xoero npeziweCTBYBa caxara BOHtl8 Bb

1912

r.

A raxara

Ha

O,QPHHb,

068ye, KaTO HpaBcTBeHO Hanpe}!{eHHe H8 eAHHb H8PO,Qb npa nocraraue nOnHTHyeCl<l1rt. uena HB HerOBOTO CHi.Ll\eCTBYB8HHe e He caxo eAHa

soeaaa

n06eA8,

HO H I..\t.nb

H8L1,HOHaneHb

meMb .o.a npeu eHHMb TaR araxa xaTO 60HHO H Hau,HO-

M8pTb 1913 r. 6bJlnane BCHYKHTt. nHWHI1 ~ 6~ AOK83aTenCTB8 38 BeJlHKOnenHHT b CI1 OI1HH HanHO .o.'5no. xa-iecraa, KOI1TO I1CTOPHSlTZlOTb He3anOMHeHI1 8peMeH8 AO H8WH AHH My e npH0I-ICe6n8 H My npl1nHCB8 Cb BCHYKaT8 rescecrs H8 CBOSITacnpaAHeC'b r py nuo 1"1038 A8 nOYYBcTBYBaMe, 068ye, eenHYHeTO H8 nOABHra H KpacoTaTa Ha H3KyCTBOTO, I<OHTO ce OyepTaB8Tb

Flpa O,QPHHb Ha rllpCI<HSlTb naporrs

13

eeAJll1B8 npeueaxa.

Bb rep0l1YH8Ta 60p6a Bb TOSI AeHb npa OAPHHb, ce HCKa A6 MO}!{eMb A8 ce 86cTpaXl1p8Me OTb BCI1YKI1 OHI1S1 YYBCTBa 11npe}!{HBSlB8HI1S1, OI1TO MoraTb K na HH BbnHYB8Tb np a MHCbJlbTa ae CTpaWHHTt. nOCJleAI1L1,H orb neyanHI1S1 38 uac s 3aBbpweKb aa 06Ll\aT8 BoHHa. HeLl\aCTI1S1Ta aa aaurara H Hwe npexapaaree HCTOpHyeCKO pOAHHa CHi. 113BbHpeAHO rOJlt.MH
BHAH caMH. Db KpaS! H8 TOS! MH

*)
TPYAb,

Bo

AeHCTBHTenHOCTb, ce H3AaHHero aa

KaKTO

uie ce

eAHO OTb H8H-Te}!{I<HTt. nor nenneers

spe-

HanO)f{H

HanpaBHMb

MeHa aa H8weTO

CHi.Ll\eCTBYBaHHe, 36

na He CMe Ha TOSI

Bb CbCTOSlHHe Cb XJlaAHO CnOI<OHCTBHeAa

10
noneur s, KoiiTo, HapaBHO Cb TYTpaKaHb H AOHpaHb, AO HOBa aotiua uie CbCTBBnSlBB HaH·rOpABTa YTeXa aa HBWJ.1S1 BpOAb_ H Bl) eAHO spexe, KOraTO HB 6bJlrapl1S1 CIi'\ OTHeTJ.1BCJ.1YK~1 Bb3MOmHOCTI1 He CBMO 3B nOlll1Tl1yeCKI1 I1Hl1l..\l1aTI1BI1, HO Aame 11 aa HaAemAHO OpraHI13Hp8He H8 c06CTBeHBTa CI1 oT6pBHa; KOf aTO HaAb aaurara pOAI1Ha TemaTb no Cbl<pYWI1TeJleHb H8YI1Hb napl1mKI1T-E AI1KTaTI1; KorBTO 3B HaLl,HOH8JlHO ,[IOCTOHHCTBO CIi'\ 3ana311Jll1 'lpaBOTO na roaopsr-i, cano TI1S1,KOHTO ce6e CH HBPHyaTb "n06e,[lI1TeJlJ.1"-KB3BaMb, Bb TBKOBa apene Tpy,[IHO e, 11 ,[IBme e HeMI1CnHMO, ,[IB MomeMb na ce H3AJ.1rHeMb Cb nyxa CI1 TbH BI1COKO, W,OTO AB 61i'\AeMb Bb CbCTOSlHl1e npBBHnHO na OLl,eHI1Mb nonaara na HBWI1T-E HecpaBHHMI1 BOHCKI1 npn OAPI1Hb. H, HBI1CTI1Ha, He BI1 JlI1 cnyuiaaa BC-EKI1 yaCb Ha,[lMeHHI1S1 e3HKb 11 nOBeAeHHe eTO Beye 12 rOAI1HI1 HB "n06e,[lI1TenI1T-E"? He AOnl1TaTb nl1 ,[10 H"Cb cTOHOBeT-E aa CTpaAaw,I1T-E HaWI1 6pBTSI nozrs cbp6HT-E, rbpLl,I1T-5 H POMbHI1T-E? He (Me nl1 HeMOW,HI1 sparena npem, nnaAHeWKI1T-E y6I1HCTBB, 1<0l1TOHBWI-1T-E CbCeAI1 BopWBTb no rpBHI1L1,I1T-E HB 3HenOJlCI<0 J.1 BocanerpaACKO, no npOCTOpI1T-5 na A06pYAmB 11 AOnHHI1T-E na Mal<eAOHHSt7 He npI1KnJO'"IBBMe nl1 HHe ,[IHI1T-E Cb rneryuia CKPb6b H SlAOBe Bb nyuiara, npHYI1HeHH OTb CTpaWHHT-E HenpaBAI1, I<OHTO ce H3BopWI1xa HaAb 6bnrapHSI J.1 60JlrapCKI1S1 uapom, ? He l<J.1nJ.1lH Y HBCb BCt.1<11AeHb 6naropoAHo J onepaenae, KOrar o Bl1)1<ABMe na ce OTpl1LJa aa HaWI1T-E 6pBTSI H Bb Cbp611S!, 11 Bo rbpLl,HSI, 11 Bb POMoHJ.1S1 npBBOTo AB ce HapHYBTb 6bJlrapa, eCTeCTBeHOTO npaso AB roaopar s, '"IeTBTb H nxurarj, no 6bnrapcKH? AB. UJ,e Tp-56Ba na ce cur JlaCHMo, ye e TPYAHO npa TaS! nesanae H HenOHOCHM8 AeHCTBI1Tem-IOCTb A8 MomeMo na oueHHMb npaaanuo nOABJ.1ra npl1 O,QPI1Ho npes s 1913 r. 3a na nOYYBcTBYB8Me I1CTI1HCKaTa ropnocri, 11 AOBOJlCTBl1e OTb 10HawKI1T-E A-BJla Ha HaWI1T-5 BOHCKH, Hl1e Tp-E6BB na ce nOBbpHeMb Cb YMa CI1 Bb spereeaara aa I1CTOPJ.1S!T8; p-56BB na 386paBI1Mb T 38 Ml1rb TaS! Tli'\mHa cerauma ,QeHCTBI1TenIlOCTb; Tp-56Ba na nor nenHeMo aa cb6HTl1eTO, 1<0eTO HI1 e cb6pano, OTb no-nanexo, TO'"lHO raxa Kal<TO ce rnena OTb xYAomHHKa enaa xapruna, aa na nOYYBCTBYBa Hei1HaTa npenecr s, HeHHI1S! CMHCbnb H Hei1HOTO CbAbpmaHl1e. Flornen-s Bb ras MI1HyTa MOSlTb yMb ce HOCI1Bb OHOaa AaJleYHO spene, xoraro CTapl1S!Tb PI1Mo, cnen s KaTO 6-Ewe nO,[lYI1Hl1nb ncrrs CBOSI 3aKOHb 11 CBoeTO rocnOACTBO l..\-Bnl1S!roraaaure-rs CB-5Tb oxono Cp-5AI13eMHO Mope, 6-5 Cb3Aano enna CI1CTeMa aa Ml1pb, KOHTo I1Ma TonKOB8 06w,0 Cb MI1p8 cnerrs Ofiuiara BOHHa cera. Hexa ce npexecesrs Bb OHOBB apene, 1<0raTO cnem, n06e,QBTB CJ.1HBAb 113BeCTeHb uaHa3<lAb B'b HCTopHRTa. PHI"I CKHRT'b MHp'b H YHHllI,OmeHHeTo I"IY OT'b HOBHT1> HapOIl.H.

IhaK<lTa ua

OAPHIl"

11

POAb, pilMnSlIlHl1; My HBnBraXB Teml<I1T-E ycnOBHS! -,Qa 113rOpl1 Kopa611T'L CH AO 113BeCTHO YHCnO, ne paapyuns I<penOCTHTt CH, na nnaru I<OHTPI16YLl,I1I1,na CTBHe CbJ03HHKb HB PHMb H KBTO TBKbBo HI1KOrB na He OTBBpS! BOHH8 ne HerOBI1T-E CbJ03HI1L1,I1, KoeTO BBTOMBTl1yeCKI1 3H8yeWe, na He Mome na BOAH HI1K8KBB BOHHa, noaesce BCI1YKI1 n06eAeHI1 HBpOAI1 no nepadiepaara na HMnepl1S1Ta CTBBaxa c sr naCHO T8S! nOnl1TJ.1Ka HerOBI1 CbJ03HI1L1,H. Ila, ETO 11 roraaa seuapyaa eAI1Hb Ml1pb, KaKbBTO Espona Ha "n06e).,(I1TenI1Tb" ce cTpeMH 11 cera na yCTPOI1 11na Abpml1, Ml1pb uensurs Ha~l-n-bnHOTO 113non3YBaHe 06narl1r1,OTo cne seneuara nofiena HB 60HI-IOTO none. Ero raxa ce 3aHI13BXa r oraaa rOAI1HHTt HB PI1MCKOTO rocnOACTBO Bb CB-ETa, rocnOACTBO. K oe r o Bb CBOSiTa HaAMtHHoCTb He noaaaaauie npyr a HapOAI1 OCBeHo PI1MCKI1S!11 sapaapa, n06eAI1TenH 11 nofieneua. Ho, KBKTO nerl10HI1T-E no AYHaBa H PeHHb He Momaxa na cnpar s CTpaWHI1Tt YOBtWKH BI1XpyWKI1, KOI1TO ce paspaaaxa Ha,Qb PHMb, xoraro r oru, XyHH, 6bnrapH, aaepa H cnaBS!HI1, p83BI1xa CBOHT-E HaweCTeHSI 11 He OCTaBI1Xa KaMbKo na KaMbKo Bo nOTbHaJlaTa Bb nl1L1,eMtpl1e, caMOAOBonCTBO 11 caM03a6pBBa HMnepl1S1, aexe ce HeA-EBaMe, -re 11 cera HCTOpl1S1TaHa CBtTa He uie 3aKbCH-Ee na OTBOPI1 OTHOBO CBOI1T-E CTpaHI1L1,I1aa not rpananar s H TpeTHpaHHT-5 Cb HaAMi;HHOCTb HapOAI1, 3Cl na MoraTb na Bb3BbpHBTb CB05lTa (B06oAB. Pa3BI1BaMb TI1S1 MI1CnH, sautoro menanb 6HXb na ncnveprea, ye I1CTOpH5ITa Ha 6bnrapCKHSI aeporrs nOYBa I1MeHHO Bb OHaSi enoxa, xoraro eAHI1 HenpaB,Q11 KaTO AHewHHTt aanyuraaxa no-ron-ssrare yaCTb OTb HBPOAI1Tt HB CBi;Ta; xorar o nrrer+eaere MemAY KaBKa3b, KapnaTHTt H PeHHb no Cl1nBTa na HCTOpl1yeCKara HymAa aa eAHO CeneKI..\110HHpaHe rp sfieeure na 113nt3HaTb Bo rrspsare nHHHS! 38 HOBo nO,QbOMb aa YOBt'leCTBOTO; xoraro 611YbTb 60ml1ii, f\Tl1na, Hmf KaKTO naurara 60nrBpcr<a xpoanxa ro napa-sa f\BHToxono, 6twe 611Yb H8 ce6eOTpl1L1,aHHeTO cpeuiy 113pamAaHeTO, Ha canara cpeuiy HeMow,bTa, 611Yb 60m11H, C8MO no ce6e CI1 MaTepl1anHO 113pameHI1e Ha 3ar<OHa 3a eCTeCTBeHI1S! nO,Q60po, KoiiTO rocnoncrsyea Cb HeOTpa311Ma cana oxono HaCb H Bb I1CTopHS!Ta Ha HBPOAHT-E, mI1BOTHI1Tb, paCTeHI1S1Ta, BHAHMHT-E 11 HeBI1,QHMHTt CB-ETOBe.
rOpAHTt BpeMeHa aa CT<lPHT1> 6'bnra· pH H Ha 6bnrapCKaTa A'bpmaBa.

}!{enaJlb 611xo na non-repras rOPAHTt BpeMeHa OTb HayanHHTt CTpaHI1L1,I1 Ha Haurara I1CTOPI1S1, orar o 6bnrapliT-E x ce CMtTaxa aa naH-CTpaLUHHSI xaporrs Bo cs-sre Bulgares toto or be terribiles; xoraro sa 6bnrapl1Tt, KaKTO 11 aa rOTI1T-E, ce xaaaaure, xe HI1KOra He HMo e IiABano ua yMb na 6traTb Bb 60ii due nationes qui bus inter gladius fuga subvenerunt; xoraro BHAoTb Ha 6bnrapCKI1Tt nbnYI1w,a nnawe we 11 HaH-xpa6pIiT-E ._ non te terruit Bulgarorum globus; xora ro Cb Meya CI1 6bnrapHT-E norpe6axa BoiiHI1WKaTa xpa6-

T K r a ua

OgP>IIlb

13

12 POCTb aa pl1MCKaTa I1MnepCKa apMI-H1 npa p. 3ypTa ibique Hlyriiana virtus rniliturn periit. Hae rp sfiea na I1MaMe nperrs BI1Ab TI1S1 ropna CnOMeHI1 orb aaurer o cnasxo MHHano, K0raTO w.e HCKaMe Abn60KO na 113nHTaMe BCH~KHTi; npeneCTH H nerHTHMHOTO caMOAODonCTBO OTb yparaHHHSI W.ypMb Ha OAPI1Hb na 13 MapTb 1913 r. f\3b pa3JlHCTBaMb TI1S1 CTpaHl1l1H OTb HaweTO crapo MI1aarro H uie OTKpHSI H Hi;KOI1 OTb cneaaaunrr a, 38W.OTOHl1e Obnrapar's He rp sfiee na 3a6paBSlMe, ~e H!lIlHOrlanHIlTa HCTOpHyeCKIl xpaua e nO-CHJlHa H OTb 6eCHnKI1Ti;, 11 OTb nyurxar-s, H OTb ronoser-s, 11 OTb reaoeer s. TSI e TaHHCTBeHara cane, KOSITOBb3nnaaeaaaa MaCI1Ti; H TBOpl1 HCTopHSITa. Ha HeSi ce AbJl}KH AHClJ,l1nnHHara na naponar s H BOHCI<l-ITi;, I1CKpeHOCTbTa Bb ynapH"!"i;, TO~HOCTbT8 Bb crpentiera 11 rOTOBHOCTbTa na ce no· JlO>f<H>f<I1BOTa aa notipyaanero H cB060AaTa ua pOAHHaTa. Bb HeSi rosopa r JlaCbTb Ha H3Mpi;nHTi; nOKoni;HI1S1 sa CTpap,aHHSlT8, YCHnl1S1TaH Me~TaHHSlTa HIl Ai;AHTi;, 3a nOCTHrHdTOTO H Koero OCTaBa na ce nocrara, sa asryoexoro H KoeTO npeACTOH na ce OTBOIOBa. TSIOI'XpaHBa nyurara H8 HapOAI1Ti; H Cb3A8Ba C8MHTi; HapOAH. 11 3asJli;3anb TaKa Sb I1CTopHSITa Ha HaWHSI aaporrs, a3b SI1>f<AaMb rpanecere XHnSiAHaTa «ouaa Maca Ha 3a6epraHb, I<aSITO Bb 558 r. MI1H8S8 no nenoeer s H8 .D.YHas8, na aaxnyaa Bb 6anKaHcKHSI nonyocrpoe s, na CTHra no OAPI1Hb 11,3aAaSaHI<H Y>f<aCb xa SCH~KH CTpaHH, na ce aaco-iaa yaCTb sa Tepaonanur s, npyra na araxyaa no cywa 11 no Mope Bynaap s, a rpera na ce SlBI1 npezrs CTeHHTi; aa Uapl1rpaAb - ensa nO,QsH>f<Ha BOHHa, Sb MHoro OTHoweHHSI nOD,06Ha Ha ras, KOSITOHawHTi; noxorrsHHSI 113HeCOXaCb TonKOBa 6ni;cbKb 11 cnaaa npea s 1912-13 r. f\3b BI1>f<,QaMbcTapHSI PHMCI<I1 reaeparrs BeJlH3apHH Cb M~Ka na MO>f<ena 3ana311 CTOnHlJ,aTa Ha BH3aHHISI OTb aTaKHri; Ha 6bnrapHTi;. npeCKayaMb Bb VII Bi;Kb, xoraro F\cnapyx'L, cnem, KaTO 6i;we ce yxpenarrs Sb Becapafias 11 Sb .D.06pYA>f<a npa HHKOJll1l1enb, paarpoxa Sb 678 r. npa 6a6ap,arb apMI1 sra Ha I1Mnepar opa KOHCTIlHTHHb Iloroxer-s, aasnan's H3TO~HaTa nOJlOSI1Ha na Banxaaa 11 ~pe3b npecrrosa H o-repoaaaaero OTb nofienar a rpbMHa cnaaara aa 6bnrapHSI 11 nOYHIl 06pa3YBaHeTO Ha 6bnrapCKI1S1 uapoms, KaTO pesynrar s OTb eraaxecaa ra KOM611HallHSI OTb xyao-fit.nrapa 11cnaBHHO'dHTI1, KOHTO e sxoae no-paso 6i;xa >f<l1si;nl1 eAHI1 AO npyra 11 eAHH nozrs p,pyrl1 Sb IO>f<HHTi; CTenH ua PYCHSI, 6i;xa SOAHnl1 6e36pOH APY>f<HI1I1nl1 napanenna Hawec TSHSI Sb I1Mnepl1S1TIl, 6i;xa araxysana saenao Cb aBllpHTi; Llapurpam, Bb 626 r. no cyxo H no Mope H 6i;xa pa3BHnH no roraaa ner s OTb ceoar urecr s CTpaWHI1 aTaKI1 HIl Bb 581, 586, 617, 619 H 68g rop,I1HH*). HeKIl senaara non-repras,
s Co nym,

TIIS! aTaKI1 6i; 3aMHCneHa 11 OpraHI1311paHa OTb sers'spr« 1 opar-s na F\cnapyX8, Ky6epb, KOHTO, cnerrs KaTO 6i;w .. lip CTOSlnb 113BeCTHOapexe Bb rpaHHIII1Ti; HIl asap' CKOTO uap Til , MHHa p. Casa 11 ce HaCTaHH Sb uearpanua Mal<eAOHHSI {', IIdMi;peHHe na saanezrse Cony-rs, KaTO HMnepaTHBHO no lHe aa 06eAHHeHI1e aa HaWI1Ti; nparrsna cnaSHHO' aHTH T, M'b, H na otipaaysa orrranaa ,Qbp>f<llsa. Hexa TaKIl C~W.O Bel\fld a ortienesaa. ye SlBSIBaHeTO aa Ky6epb Bb MaKeAOHI1S1 c-scraensaa cnoperrs aHrnHHCKI1S1 I1CTOPHKb RunciIT'an HaH-nbp' aara ocacea 31l 6bnrapCKI1Ti; npl1Te3aHI1S1 HaAb HeSl - the first foundation of the bulgar claims to Macedonia. Ilpeuacsers ce Sb H8yanOTO Ha VIII Si;Kb 11BH>f<AaMb SOHCKI1Ti; aa Tepaern, nperrs Llapurpan», 38 na ceanar s HMnepaTopb TH6epHH 11 noc raSSlTb IIIl TpOHa IOCTI1HI1S1Hb;Tepaerrs, KOHTO npocrp i; I pauauur 5 ua 6bnrapl1S1 nane-rs na IOrb OTb Banxaua H Yl1eTO SIlI1S1Hl1enocraraa AO Ccny-rs H CbPAlIeTO Ha MaKeACHI1Sl. Cnerrs TOBa nperrs HaCb e SeIlHyaS8Ta Qll1rypa ua aaxoaonarena H nonxosoneua KpYMb, KOHTO 113rpap,H OTHOWeHI1S1Ta e>f<p,y 6bnrapH M 11 cnaasua ua 6a3aTa Ha ep,HHHOCTbTa H1l HallHSlT8 Ii p,bp>f<aBaTa 11 npocr p s rpaHHIII1Ti; Ha 6bnrapHSI OTb YepHO-Mope AO Eparacnasa Bb YeXHSI 11 OTb KapnaTHTi; no H3TOYll8Ta 4aCTb aa Ma Kep,OHHSI; KpYMb. KOHTO. cnopezrs C~W.HSIaur IlI1HCKH HCTOPHl<b, npeCb3p,ap,e 6bnrapl1S! had remade Bulgaria - y6H ADaMa HMnepaTopH Bb 60H, csana OTb npecrona TpeTH. npesae yeTHpH OTb HaH-roni;MHTi; I<penOCTH, SKIlIOYHTenHO OP,PHHb, 3aCT8SH uaceneuaero na H36i;ra OTb nae, aacrpaunr HaH-CepI103HO Uaparparrs, 6e36pOH n~TI1 pa36H HaH-p,06pI1Ti; apMHH Ha BH3aHTHSI H OTb 6bnrapHSI Cb3p,8p,e HaH-roni;MaTa aoeuaa cane Bb 113ToYHa Espona. HHe CMe lib IX Bi;Kb, enoxara Ha Oxop-rar-s, enoxa Ha YCHneHO S~TpeWHO TBop~eCTI?O, Ml1pb Cb BI13aHTHSI, eKcnep,HIIHH cpeury cppaHKHTi; Sb Kpoauas, npa KOI1TO apMI1S1Ta6i;we ripeHaCSHlana nOAI<H no .D.YHasa H Casa, 11 1<0raTO npeCTH>f<bTb aa p,bp>f<aBaTa, 06W.OTO MHHano OTb ep,I1Hb H nonosaaa Si;Kb no roraaa, 06W.HTi; n06eAH H YC[1i;XH H p,eHHOCTbTa ae 6ene>f<HTHTi; 6bnrapCKH ananere na ManaMl1pb, a oc06eHO Ilpecas-n, H 60Pl1Cb cnep,b TOBa. nanoxa Sb peayrrrar s ow,e ab rrspaara no noBHHa Ha nOMeHaTI1S1 Si;l<b nbnHOTO 06ep,HHeHHe ua HaWHTi; nparrsp,H CnaSSlHI1 Orb cnaaaao-arrrcxare rpyna H OKOfiyaTenHOTO ofipa3YBaHe ua 6bnrapCKI1S1 aaporrs OTb OXPHP,b 11 6i;nrpaAb no YepHO·Mope. KaKTO TOH ce sasae OTb 842 r. no HaWH p,HH. noI<pbCTSaHeTO Ha 6bJlrapHTi;, KoeTO erase oq,I1I1HanHO Bb 864 r .• HO KoeTO npex r asecxa 6i; 3aanap,i;no MaCI1Ti; na 6bnrapo-cnaSSlHHTi; MHoro no-pano, 03 Hay a san 0 en e n u H SI e r a [1b H a eTHH~eCKaTa l<oM6HHaIlHSI, KOSITO Bb p e s y n r a r » p, a p, e 6 b n rap C I<11SI Hap 0 AbC b e ,q H 0 H M e. e p, H a B i; P a, e A Ha A b P >f<a sa, e p, 11H b e 3 H K b. e A H H 111< H o0 M 11x e C K H H Y >f< H H e p, H H b A non H T 11ye C I<11 C T P e-

*) Hlecrera araxa ce H3BbpWH orb HaWf1Tii npagiigH
lI(oraro oficanara ua ConYHb rpas nae rogHHH.

Bb 735-737 r.,

4

1\ T KIIHl lIil OJIPlll1h

15

M C m b,
Ii tl

'I> n

a ~1M e H H 0 0 - MOp .

If 3

na

3b

H3

a

K pen

SaH e

Ha

6

p 1; r a

I1HH Bb CBOHT

338

nanauero
Yepllo

101\111111 penyaar s Sb HCTOpH5!Ta Ha 6bllrapH5! ce AO H 110Ab 8H3aHTHSI, OTb Ti;Xb nocnenuar-s 176 rOAI1HH

It OTb YepHO II F q>l1aTH'IeCKO MopeTa. OTHOBO 6bnrapl1T~ n sexa Bp'hXl I A L r-spuar a, KOI1TO ncpana aaceneeuero ua ria THHCKHT-& t Ab >KaTh I K8.fr0 III

"l

Jl bnH 6bnrapHT-B

OTb ,lJ,YHaBa AO

Tecanas
C~

C1, rpaHH1~11 OTb

Kapnarar-s

AO CaMHT-B CTeHH ria

AO F\,QpHaTH4eCKO MopeTa.

60PHCb, Ca. KllHMeHTb. CHMeOHb, HBdHb EK3apXb, Fler s p-s, Flpeaaarep POMallb, CaMYHllb H lli;llH

Cs. S:S. KHpHnb '{epaopaseirs
s K03Ma, Cs

Cony-rs

I

rOHOCll11 Bb UapHrpaAb

enaa

Momaxa

na

ae-

H OTb

H MeTOAH, Xpa6bpb, Ha. PHllCKH,

nap s 11Mana-F\3111l. OT HOBO6bnrapcKI1Ti; BOI1CKI1, "I MeTO aa KpYMb, cera npa KanOSlHb nlle~l1xa Bb
HMnepaTopb 6allAYl1Hb npl1 O,[lP~I1Hb, YOHxa Sb «pans - 6011I1<paU,HHMOH<pepaTCKI1I1 Bb POAOnI1Ti;,

60H
6011

Iltft

b

b OTb HaH-aKTHaHJ1Ti; nOKOlli;HI15!

aa

AIfHb

6bllrapCKHSI uapon s npes's TI15! 176 rOAI1HI1 naaoxa na 6bllrapHSI Toad, KoeTO Bb oaoaa apexe MallKO HapOAH, SbHb OTb apa6HTi; 11 BH3aHTl-1HIlI1Ti;, nparescaaaxa : a HMeHHO e,QHO SI1COKO Ha1l110-

ytftll ~oml1xa HaH-A06pI1T-B pauap-r, pa3rpOMI1Xa apMI1I1Ti; 11Mb, IIp~B3exa BCI1'It<IfT-B I<penOCTH, ocsem, Llapurpan's , 11 cnacaxa 1I0JlYOCTposa DTOPOTO6bllrapCKO uapcrso, K05!TO rpae OTb 1185,[10 1394 r., I1nl1 liCI1'IKO 208 rOAI1HI1, e 3Ha'I11TenHO noae-ie ycnoscaeaa nopana 3aceABaHe Ha KPbCTO~IOCU,I1T-B Bb Llaparparrs , COllYHb 11 MopeSl, no-x hCIIO rlOp8J~~1npOHHKBaHeTO Ha Cbp611Ti; Sb cesepua Mat< p,OIlIUI Ilb 1282 r., a ouie nO-f{bCHO nopana 5!SSlBaHena TYPIlItT

aa

mHTellHT-B,

KO'IHO ro

HacenSiBaxa.

Enoxara

aa

aanao

4YSCTBO,

enua

HanbllHO

060c06eHa

irspxaa,

enua

H3'Iep-

naTellHa pellHrH03Ha nHTepaTypa H eAHa 6e3b cbMHellHe, OTb BHCOKO paeaauie. npi;CllaSb UlOTO HawHTi;

MaTepHanHa Koraro Sb mHsi;exa,

KynTypa,

uape
Sb

mHsi;exa

Sb MpaMopHH Espona

Flnacxa H nanaru, Sb C,"",KaKTO Ape-

apexe

xpane r s

sananua

s ce H3pa3S1sa, Bb npOCTH Ki'i\~H, nOKpl1TH Cb cnana. Flpe80AbTb Ha eaaarenaero I-Ia 6bllrapCKH e3HKb H3pa3S1sa p enarl103HaTa H xyrrrypaara peaHOCTb aa 6bllrapHTi;, enH'IeCKaTa

nep

li

Ha

nonyocrpoae.

ueua
HO

aaroaa

xaxro

nOSTap5!Me, enoxa 3Ha'I11TellHO YCI10mSb nOJlI1THyeCI<O, TaKa 11 Sb COUl1anHO OTHOWeHl1e, sbnpi;KI1 SCH'I1<11npeeparuocra Ha Ci'i\p,6aTa 11 TSI e ll-BnHSI

cpeuiy 8H3aHTH5! npH Ca-ryana eAHHb 11 nOllOSI1Ha si;Kb cnezrs roaa - Selll1411eTO ua HallHOHallHOTO 'IYBCTBO Ha 6bllrapCKI15! napon-s. "rl1raHTCKaTa 60p6a Cb BCH4Klni; CI111H ua 811' 3al-lTI1HCKaTa I1MnepH5! cpeuiy 6bllrapHT-B 11Ti;xHI1S1rb cMi;nb cy60p6a

rrs.nua

Cb nO,QB11311a n

aaporrs

11 Ha lIerOSI1Tt, F\ceHb II.

oTP,i;nHI1

~~CTOpI1'IeCt<11 1111'IHOCTI1. F\ceHb Vlsai1no, Caerocnea:s, WI1WMaHb, naTpl1apXb 11 rpl1rOpHH UaM6naKb,

I, KallOSlHb,

Teprep u,
ua

MI1X81111b, HsaHb F\lleKc8HAbPb, HsaHb E<pTI1MI1H11HeroBI1Ti; Y'IeHI111l1KI1npl15!Hb 6eneml1TH

Epopee Byzantine, -rere Cb BbnHeHHe

eepe-rs

CaMYl1nb,

Ka3Ba WllYM6epme He Mome na He Ta5!

Bb

rporue

s saeneuaero

na

'II1Taren5!.

CBOSiTa TOH uie

CTpaHHI1T-Bnpeaparaocra

BbPXOBHI1Ti; rbp'IeHH5! aa HapOAb 6bnrapCKI1S1h• P06CTBOTO HCTHHa,

rcpna

ua ras m.nra arOHHSI aa ll-Bnb
1018 AO 1186

npana,
eAHHb r.,

,[IYXOSHara npoca are H HaYKaTa Sb PYCHSI, H KOHCTaHTI1Hb <P111l0CO<pb (KocTeHe'IKI1), 6a~ara ua HCTOpI10rpa<pI1S1Ta Bb Cbp611S1, H lli;na peAI1u.a 0611acTHH Som,[lOse, SOHBOp,H H AYXOBHI1UI1 He Ci'i\ cano I1MeHa, a noaexe 111111 no-rsenxo enOXH, lli;lla HCTOPHSl, 1<0SlTOI1Ma CBoeTO aena-nre 11 CSOSI6ni;cbKb - HCTOPI1S1, snepc IlI1'Iaw,a Cb ras aa 8113aHTI1Sl, aAMI1HaBaw.a Ta5! Ha Cbp6115!, KOSITO H 6-Bwe np ocnana urecrs S-BKa 11 enaa Sb XIV si;Kb nane ep,I1Hb CTe<paHb ,lJ,ywaHb, H nane-rs 1<0SlTO noxaa OTb XV B. 11 ce I1CTOpl1'IeCI<aTa ,[Iei1HocTb HaAMI1HaBa~a raa Ha 811awKO, 5!BSlSa KaTO nporrs.nsceune orb

xaro

peanpocrpaaarena

HHt.t.t.OHe HaManH nOCTl1rHaTOTO Hall110HanHO 060c06neHl1e, na~110HanHOTo caM0'IYBCTBO H cne-reneaar s 60p'IeCKI1 npI1BH'It<H. Benauaaoro Bb3CTaHI1e aa neTbpb ,lJ,en5!Hb opes's 1040 r. Bb MaKeAOHH5! 11 MopaBcl<O Ha HI1KollHlla Bb 1067 r. Bb Te canaa, Bb3CTaHHeTO H6 Feopru BOHri;xb OTb CKOnl1e H KOHCTeHTI1Hb 60AI1Hb Bb 1073 r. H3pa3S1BaTb CTSOTO aa 6elleml1Mb, HeyraCI1MI15! 'Ie CTpeMemb 11 araxara

cnp

s

norrs

8113al-ITH5! OTb

aa-

Bb3XOAa Ha 6bnrapl1T-B

Bb

HCTopHSlTa, HO TO Cb

ua Conyers,

ua

6bllrapl1Ti;

cnerrs
MHorO

aaananaeaaero
no

Bb3CTaHI1erO

Ha

6bnrapl1S1

OTb

TYPU.I1T-B.

aa

6bllrapl1Ti;

H

nom,

p06OT-

He3aBI1CI1MO nOlll1TH'IeCKO Bb OHI1S1ape-rena

cxuiecrayaanae.

Hexa

He 6i;we

H3BeCTeHb WOSHHI1-

CTI14eCKI15!AYXb, Wl1pOKa Mpema aapom, na

KOHTO rocnoncr ayua cera, HI1TO I1MaWe raxasa y'I1111I1~a, a ouie nc-nanxo cTpeMemH aa aa-

ETHH~eCKHTB OCHOBH Ha 6bnrapCKaTa Abp)t{aBa. nCHxonorH~eCKHT1; aano sc6H Ha 6bnrapCKHR HapoAb npeau 81;KOBeT1;.

Tp stiee -reprae,
CKaTa

nefieno,
'Ie

nefie

na

ce nOA-

Ci'i\~eCTSYBaHeTO Ha 6 b s p sr a a a

n

ra

n

no xa aa

He

paa

n p a u u a na

y

n a PHMCKI15! I1Mnepl111 11 H a 6 0 m e C T S e HOT 0 H a11 y a 11 0 H a 8 11 a H T H SI, He Hap e 11 11 1-13 r
Mb

CI111C1BeHaaCHMHnalll1S1. npeaors

se

F\

BCH'IKO rosa Bb ce5e

n03S01111ua 6bnrapCKH5! 8H3aHTI1S1, 6e3b na 113Han p 11 Ii I1I1 n a Han HCTOpl1'IeCKO ceraunra C r S 0,

CBoeTO Hro non's

o 3 HOT 0 'I Y S C T SOH a T Y P II 1151, H H T 0 O-S 11CO KaT a K y n T y P a, aanp. KaKTO 4 Y BK 0 H TO 3a 6 b

ry611 nyurara Ha3Ha4eHl1e.

CH H Bi;paTa

CI1 11 csoero

F\Hrnl1S1,a 'I11CTOH npOCTO H a e T H 11 e CK 0 T 0 4 II a H a I1I1 0 Han H 51n p 11H I1I1 n b,

H eTO aauio I1CTOpl15!TaHe 3aKbCHe na OTKpl1e OTHOBO <:sOHTi; CTpaHI11111 Ha He3aBI1CI1Ma 6bnrapl15!, KOSITO 6bpme 06e

PI1T-B n p a o c o ti e a a r a r e o r p a rp a x e c x a c r p y x r y p a aa 6 a n K a H C I<11SI non y 0 CT P 0 S b CbS n a A a (b He 0 T P a-

n

r a-

16 3 H M H T -B H K 0 HOM H -r e C K H H Y >t< H H 8 C H. ur e C T B Y B aA H H e T O. ViCTOpHSlTa H8 6bnrapHSI Bb MHoro OTHoweHHSI 6-Bwe, H e, HCTOPHSIae HeHHI1S1 HapO,lJ,b Bb HerOBI1T1; eCTeCTBeHHHymAH H, cnenoaarenuo, cpt.MemH na ce noxona .0.0 6p-BrOBeT-B aa 6-Bll0-Mope. Vi Bb TOB8 OTHoweHHe HCrOpl1S1Ta 6bllrapCKI1S1 aaHa POAb e 611-BCK8aO nOTBbp>t<,IJ,eHHe aa reopaare, ye ,lJ,ei1cTBI1Tell' xara I1CTOPHSI BOAI1 CBOHT-B 3apOAI1WI1, T. e. ce aapascne, Bb KYXHSlTa HllH KaKTO nopm, P.KTOHb Ka3Ba, the true historian must now take his meals in the kitchen. ETo Cb THSI 3allom6H Ha Ha~110HallHa e,lJ,l1HHOCTb ofiuio H '\, aaponno YYBCTBO, e311Kb 11 B-Bp8, KOI1TO He3aBHCHMOTO Abp~'/ >t<aBHO C~ll.leCTByB8Hl1e 6twe n03BOllHll0 npes s rpaeaero H8 B-BKOBeT-B na ce pa3BI1S1Tb y 6bnrapcKI1S1 aaporrs , aacr anaxa rO,lJ,HHHT-BHa P06CTBOTO noms TYP~HT-B. To Tp8S1 ~-BllH 483 roo AHHI1 H TO aacerxa eAHaKBO H BCHYKI1 npyrn 6allKaHCKH Ha· pOAI1. Bnarraiouiero nnene, TYP~HT-B, 3ana311 aa ce6e CI1 BCI1YKH ¢yHKI..\HI1 no o rfipaaara H ynpaaneaaero na Abp>t<aBaTa, a aa 6bJlrapHT-B H npyrar-s XpHCTJ.1S1HCKHapOAH OCTaBJ.1n~H npaurero ua TpYAa, TbprOBHSlT8 H 3aHSlTI1S1Ta.MHO r 06 po 11a a r a p8S1 H c s e c e n s M81106pOHHOTO a n a n a io ui e n n e M e CKOPO ce npl1CnOC06Hxa eAHHb KbMb APyrl1 11 KbMb oc06eH8Ta CI1CTeMa na TypCKOTO rocnOACTBO. Tas Abllra enoxa He e .QOCTaTbYHO Ab1160KO 116e3npl1CTP8CTHO H3yyeH8 OTb H8Cb. HHe HM8Me Hai1-KpI1BH CXB8ll.laHJ.1S! BbPXY HeSi H ofiuro e MHeHHeTO, ye KaKBI1TO IleAOCTaTbl..\11 MOmeMb na CI1 npanaure+rs K8TO aaporrs, TOBa y>t<b 6111111HeAOCTaTb~H, A06HTI1 npea s apexe H8 saurero P06CTBO nom, TYPU,HT-B. ,D,8me H-Bll.lO noaexe. Hue KaTO -re nl1 3a6paBSlMe, ye noms TOBa aro Bb C~ll.lOTO apene 6-Bxa J.1 cbP6HT-B, 11 rbpI..\I1T-B, KOI1TO A06Hxa CBOSlT8 cB060Aa Cb cbAeHcTBHeTo Ha PYCI1S1 H Espcna caxo 50-60 rOAHHI1 no-paxo OTb HaCb. Ho, H-BMa no-ropxo 3a611y>t<AeHHe OTb TOBa.
TYPU,HT1> He "O)l(axa Aa H3.. 1>HRT'b nCHxOnOrHyeCHHT1> 3ano)f(6H Y 6'bnrapCKHJI HllpOAb.

r
RTaKaTa HII OAPHHb

17

,I'

~

He e M-BCTOTO cny-ras na H8npaBSI eAI1Hb H aHallH3b aa >t<HSOT8npe3b THSI B-BKOBe,3a na BI1AHMb, 4e 6bllrapCKI1S1Tb HapoAb norrs HrOTO Ha TypU,H r-B He C8MO He 611Ae CMa3aHb eTHl1yeCKI1, He C8MO He 6HAe pasue611TeHb Bb CBoeTO HpaBCTBeHO cuen neaae KaTO naporrs, HO ofiuiara c~A68 aa XPI1CTHSlHHT-BH Ab1160KaTa nponacra, KOSITO C}I\ll.leCTBYB8we Me>t<AY Typ~H H 6bllrapl1, 6-Bwe T8Ka aenpoxoAI1Ma, "Ie ,lJ,a>t<e B-BK8 ce oxasaxa 5 HeAOCTaTbYHH TI1S1AB8 xeporia H e C8 M 0 A 8 C H nOB 11H SISIT b e A 11H b H 8 A P Y r 11 B b CB 0 e T 0 A Y x 0 B HOp 8 3 B 11 11e, HO A 8 >t< H B3 a J.1 MHO T e .0.8 ceo n 0 3 Ha SIT b. Cb H3Kll1OyeHI1e H8 113BbHpeAHO p-BAKH M8JiKI1 nOKpai1HHHI1, C06CTBeHO OTA-BllHI1 rpenose, He cena, HI1K""Ae 86cOll1OTHO HI1K""Ae TYPU,HT-B He Momaxa A8 ynpamHSlTb HliTO 'H8H-ManKOTO BllHSlHHe BbPXY nyurara aa 6bJlrapCKI1S1 H8-

II b. ,D,a>Ke 6bnrapCKHT-B HeCelleHHSI, KOHTO TYPL\HT-Bno Hy>KAH H6paH8Tt1 na Abp>K8BdTlI 6HAoxa 3aCT8BeHH na 06bpHaTb MIOCIOJ1MoHCTBO, aKTO CTaH8 Cb nOMa~HT-B, A8>t<e11y T-BXb K I I, lie MO«axa na H3M-BHSlTb eTHHyeCKOTO HMb CbAbpmaHHe H 11I1XOl10rl1yeCKHT-B 11Mb 3ano>t<6H, uannacreaa npes's rpasse na K LeT-B npena TOBa. KOHTO e nocer arn, KOHTaKTHaTa 30Ha M',IJ,Y TypU,11 11 norsaua, aanp. P.Kb-6YH8Pb Bb POAOnHT-B, TOH 1I0JH8Ba YyBcTBI1T~nHOTO pa31111411eMe>t<AY eAHI1T-B H APyrI1T-B 11 TOH xarranuo uie ce csrnaca Cb aaurara OCHOBHaMHCbnb sa cnetioro BJll1liHHe aa TYPU,I1T BbPXY 6bnrapCKHSI aaporrs I:; npeau apene Ha P06CTAOTO. ViCTOpHyeCKH ¢aKTb e, 4e TYP~HT1; He Mom8xa nil 1l0BlHHHITb Ha 6bnrapHT-B HHTO no e3~iKa-H3KnI04lIaM b JleKCI1KOll0rI14eCKliT-B 3aeMKH aa AYMI1 HH ro no B-Bp8Ta, IIHTO no TpaAI1u,HHT-B, HHTO no 06H48HT-B, HI1TO no B-BpBaHHSlTa, HI1TO no HpaBCTBeHHT-B CXBall.laHI1S1,HHTO no HpaBI1T-B, HHTO no HHll.lO. T-B He Momexa na y6HSlTb H Me4THT-B aa aapona KbMb nOJlI1THyeCKa He3aBI1CHMOCTb.C}I\ll.leCTBYBaHHeTO ua enOC8 OHOll0 KpaJlJi MapKo, 6011eHb ,D,OHYHHb, MOM'I~1Jlb IOllaKb, ,D,e6eJlb Hoe8Kb H OKOJlO XaH,[IynlT-B .0.0 AeHSI aa oCBo60m,[leHl1eTO e eAHO ,[IOKa3aTeJ1CTBOaa BCH4KO TOBa. Vi mHB-BXa 6bJlr8pl1T-B Bb rypcxara I1Mnepl1S1 B b C -B HHaT 8 H 8 m 11BOT a, ynoparo HeOT3HS4HBH KbMb KaKBOTO 11 na e BJlHSlHl1e Ha BnaA-BIOll.lHSI H8pOAb. 3aTBopeHH Bb ce6e CI1, paoorsuia sa npane-renaaae He06xo,[lHMOTO aa cxuiecrayaanero CH, TpeTHp8HI1 06HKHOBeHO Cb ropnocrs 11 HaAM1>HHOCTb- Bb BC1;KI1 cnyYaH He no-rorraaa OTb OHaSl, KOSITO PI1Mb Ht.Kora npanaraure cnp1;MO n06egeHHTt.-6bnrapHT1; no carrara Hi:! CBoeTO YHCnO, Ha CBoeTO 3eMlle,[l1;nl1e, CKOTOBbACTBOH gpe6HH 3aHSlTI1S1, no CI1JlaT8 Ha M-BCTOnOnomeHHeTO Ha 06naCTI1T-B, KOI1TO HaCeJ1SIBaXa,He 3aKbCH-BX8 na A06HSlTb Bb Cb3HaHI1eTO ua TypCKI1T-B ynpaBHI1u,11 11 MaCI1 egHo eneMeHTapHO 3Ha4eHI1e H36411raue. 06CTOSITenCTBaTa, npa KOHTO CTaBa HaweTO Bb3pamAaHe, BpeMeTO xoraro TO nOYBa - HeJ<a gbpmHMb nperrs 0411Tt. CI1, -re npena 200 rogl1HI1 11 irsna Eapona He 6-B J<OHanae KonKO MlIoro uanpeaaana YAHBI1TenHHT-B peay JlTaTI1, KOI1TO TOBa Bb3pa>t<gaHe HI1 nasa, Bb06ll.le u,-BnOTO Bb3pam,[laHe aa ~t.nl1S1 6bnrapCKH uaporrs. KoeTO He e eAHa cnY4aHHoCTb, HI1TO H3KnlOYHTenHO A-BnO aa eAHHb YOS-BKb, KaKTO ce MI1Cnl1, e HaH-"'orJr\ll.lo AOKa3aTencTBo, ye 6"LnrapCKI1S1Tb naporrs 4pe3b ypo•• Tt. Ha 3nOYeCTHHI1Tt. 11 CTp8QaHHSlTa He H3ry6H CBOSITa aa~110HanHa nyura, CBOHT-B HacneACTBeHI1 I1HCTI1HKTI1,CBOHTt. nCHX0110rHy"'CIU1 oc06eHOCTH I CBOSI xapexrep-s 11 CBOSI TeMnepaMeHTb. B-BPB8Mb, 4e uie Mora na AOK6ma Ha npyro M-BCTO,se P06CTBOTO nOAb TYPU,HTt., KOHTO, nopaAH penl1rl103HHTt. CI1 a6ep8~HI1 11 npespeuaero CI1 cnp sao pasre, He CH AaBaX8 HHKaKbBb TPYAb na aCI1Ml1nl1paTb npyra HapOAH, ae 6bnrapCI<I1S1 HapOAb 6-Bwe enaa I1CTOpl14eCK8 n04HBKa, eAHO YHCTHnl1ll.le, 38 na MO>Ke Ype3b CTpaAaHl1eTO OTIiOBO na ce SlBH Bb l1eTO-

RTaKIITa aa OAPI1H'b

19

pn 1 I b noue-re 6J1t.Cbl{b 11 nosese CMHCbJ1b, Kal<TO ro BHm· JlilMe OTb 54 rO~I1HH HacaMb. VI nOTBbp,Q11 ce Bt.YHaTa I1CTHHa, ye Ht.Ma Bb3KpeceHHe 6e3b paanarue, rpanesx s 6e3b paapyureane J.1M}/\~POCTb 6e3b crpanauae. Anpl1ncKoTo Bb3CTaHHe Bb 1875 r. - He noxenaaam, BCHYKI1 npyra gBl1meHI1Sl npes s Bt.KOBeTt. no-pauo - noryureao Cb CTpaWHI1 KbpBI1 H noscapu, rp sfiaaure na Bb3BeCTH aa CBt.Ta Bon SlT a H a 6 b n rap C K 11Sl H e p 0 g b, Y e 113 a Her 0 T P t. 6Bag ace 0 T g t. Jl H n 0 g b C n b H u e Toe ,QIH0 M t. C T 0 3 a e ~ H 0 He 3 a B H C HMO C}/\ u; e C T By BaH 11e. OCB060m,QeHHeTO na 6bnrapHSl, KoeTO He 3aKbCHe na CTaHe, MaKapb 11no-cerae OTb rapaa H npORBHT'B TOBa ne rbpLl,I1Sl H CbP6J.1Sl nopana Mt.Cna 6'bnrapCI(aTa TononomeHHeTO aa 6bnrapCKaTa pcnaaa 11 euepraa. nopana HeBb3MomHOCTbTa Eapona 11 PyCI1Sl na CTOPSlTb no-paso TOBa, e HaH-BamHHSl MOMeHTb OTKOraro nOYBa Cb rrsnao npnnoseeaae xa HaLl,HOHa1lHHTt. Olnl1 enna I1CTOpl1"1eCKa geHHocTb, OTb KOSITO HHe cera H BCH41<Hnoxon'sHHSl cnern, HaCb uie ce rOpgt.SlTb, ,QOKoraTO CBt.TbTb uie CBt.ryaa 11 eTHHyeCKHSlTb npunuarn, uie 6}/\,Qe CYI1TaHb KaTO HaHBamHO Cpt.gCTBO aa He3aBI1CHMO nOnl1Tl1yeCKO C}/\~ecTByBaHHe. LJecTHTH C}/\ HaWI1Tt. nOKont.HI1Sl, KOHTO Momaxa na BHgSlTb Bb3KpbCBaHeTO Ha Tpera 6bnrapHSII LJeCTI1TH CMe BCI1Yl<H 6bJlrapH OTb Oxpam, go -lepao Mope 11 OTb J],YHaBa go 6t.no Mope I VI CMe YeCTHTI1, 3aW;OTO Bbnpi;KI1 BCHYl<H npeaparaocru Ha CH\gfiara HHe MomeMb na BHgHMb 3agb HaCb Bb H3Tel<nHTt. 54 rogHHH BenH"IaBHTt. nogBH3H Ha 6bJlrapCKHSl Hapogb. fbb BHmgaMb aa yTpOTO OTb OCB060mgeHHeTo 6bnraPHTt. He caxo OTb 6bnrapHSl, HO H 6bnrapHTt. OTb MaKegoHHSl, TpaKHSI H MOpaBCl<O, BCI1Yl<H am.xaoaeaa OTb aeynacyereo menaHHe na CiY\w;eCTBYBaTb Bb HCTopHSITa. A3b BHmgaMb eaanHocTbTa na 6bnrapCl<HSl aaporrs, aapaseaa rrrspno OTb eaue crpaue Bb neTHI..IHHTt. ~O PYCI<HSlHMnepaTopb, nonnacaaa OTb rrspeen1..1I1Tt. Flapo r s, HHWb, Bpaas H BCI1YKH rpanoae Ha Ha MaKegoHHSl, OTb npyra Bb HaCTpoeHHeTO cure Bb nbpBOTO aacenaaae aa rrspBOTO 6bnrapCI<0 Haponao cb6paHHe, KoeTO Cb rporarenaa HCKpeHOCTb acxauie na npOMHWJlSlBa sa BCHYKH 6bnrapl1 aa BanxaaCI<HSl nonyocrpoa s. Ht.Ma 6bnrapCKo cspnue, KoeTO na He rpenaa npa cnoneua Ha THSI CMt.JlI1 meCTOBe, KOHTO yepTaSlTb BbnHeHI1SlTa xa 6bnrapCl<aTa ponaaa, 3aBelllaHa HH OTb Bt.l<Oee rs H YCHnHSlTa na 40 noxorrsuas, 60 uape 11 MHnHOHH 6bJlrapa, nannana sa g06pOyeCnlHaTa Ha 6bllrapCKI1Sl HapO~b. A3b BH>H,QaMb na YTPOTO cnemoCBc60mgeHHeTo YCH11HSlTa na BCHYKH 6bnrapH anp aruara sa Rb3xoga aa HaWHSl napom, I<bMb HerOBOTO "IeCTHTO 6}/\gew;e. J.1OTb e,QHH npOBHHI..IJ.1H, npexapana e sxoae Bb npere suie CbCTOSlHHe,Kal<BHTO no-paso 6t.xa oCB060AeHoTo sese I<HSlmeCTBO 6bJlrapHSI H J.13TOYHa
OCBo6o>H,D.eHHe H rpa,D.em'b aa 6'bn-

PYMellHSl, CBt.TbTb BH,qt. aa ro,qHHH, He •.• aa MeCelll1, na ce H3,Ql1ra e,QHHb xaporrs, CTpeMSlLLl,b ce BcecTpaHHO,Qa ce paaaae, 11 enna rrspscaaa rOTOBa na BCHYKH mepTBH, aa na Mome na aaena MtCTOTO CH nom- He6eTO H Bb HCTopHSlTa. rpa,QembTb Ha 6bnrapHSl e e,QHHb 611t.Cl<aBb TPHYMCPb aa 6bnrapCl<HSlTb ,QYXb, aa 6bnrapCKt1Tt. TBOpyeCl<H 11 CTPOHTeJlHH 11 HCntHKTH, Ha ~6bnrapCKaTa ynopara eons 11 Ha egHHb npaKTHyeCl<11 YMb, KOI1TO Bbnpt.KH BCHYKO e HaH-u,eHHI1S1nap s Ha CaMI1S16bnrapCKI1 naporrs : npal{Tl1'1eCI{H YMb, I<OHTO cnensa na ce n03HaBa He OTb aparoae'r s HI1, a OTb caMHTt. THSI na KOHTO c-",,q6aTa C1lyyaHHO H11J.1o CI111aTa n aa pa3BJ.1THeTO nOBbpSlBa ynpaaneaaero aa ponaaare. He e cnysas na npaes KpHTHKa otia-re ,Qe6eJ10 Tpt.6Ba na ce nouxeprae, 4e, aa HeLLl,aCTl1e, c~ pacrexca na spereero nOCTeneHHO nO-KbCHO ce H3,Qbn6a enaa He ManKa nponacr s Memgy 3,QpC!BI1S1paaysrs ne HapO,Q8 11 3a6bpKaHHSl Cb KHl1meHb 6anaCTb yMb aa TaKa HapHyalllaTa ce HHTelll1reHLl,HSl, KOSITO Bb no-rOllt.MaTa CI1 yaCTb ce o-repra '!e e aecnocotina na MI1CnH 11 YYBCTBYBa 110 6bnrapCl<H, npon~CTb KOSITO nporranscaaa na cxurecrayea J.1cera. J],bpmaBaTa KaTO OT,qt11eHb mHBb opraHH3bMb Bb K;v;,CO BpeMe e pa3BHTb Bb BCH4l<HTt. CI1 opraHH H Bb BCH"IKI1Tt. CI1 CPYHKI..II1H. J.1110,Qb OyapOBaHl1eTO Ha cB06o,QaTa nOYBa HapO,QbTb na pacre Bb CBoeTO gYXOBHO H HpaBCTBeHO Cb,QbpmaHHe. Crpauara ce noxpaea Cb He06xogHMHTt. ,QbpmaBHH H 06LLl,eCTBeHI1 Y4pemgeHI1Sl, ~bPKBH 11 Y4H1lI1ll.\a, a KpaH rpanoaer-s ce 3aCTpOSlBaTb OHI1S106~emHTHSl-pa60Tl1nHHu,H aa YOBt.WKHSI 60pyeCKI1 nyx s, 06LLl,eCTBeHa COJ1I1,QapHOCTb11 AI1CUl1nJ1HHa, KOHTO ce HapH"IaTb l<a3apMI1. J.1 KaTO '!e na, sa na ce ,QorOHI1 H3ry6eHOTO 110-paHO BpeMe 110,Qb I1rOTO Ha TYPIlHTt., BCI1Yl<H eHeprHI1 Ha 6bnrapJ.1T'B ce anp arar-s Bb enao He 1peK-"'CHaTO ,QeHCTBHe. Ilpoaaxsa KYJ1TypaTa J.1 ce naaa npOCTOPb Ha nO,Q06peHHeTO aa MaTepHaJ1HOTO 6JlarOCbCr05lHHe. OTKynYBaTb ce npOCTpaHHH 3eMI1, 0041H nOnOBI1HaTa 6b11rapHSl, OCTaHaJ111xaro neHHH anageHI1Sl, nO,Qap5lBaHH cr s cyrrraaar-s Ha CBOHTt. J1J06HMI..IH11 sacnyml1J1HTt. xa AbpmaBaTa MIOCIOJlMaHI1 npea s Bt.I{OBeTt. Ha Tt.XHI1Tt. 3aBoeBaHHSI. ETO raxa Cb oxapoeanaero OTb cB060,QaTa 11 OTb cnaaara aa repOHT1;-onbn'!eHu,H OTb WHnKa, CTapa-3aropa, WeHHOBo H 3eneHO-,QbpBO, CbCTaBJlSfBaLLl,HnbpBl1rt. OCHOBH aa ,QOKTpHHaTa H Cl<pl1mam1Tt. na Mna,Qa!a 6bnrapCKa Boi1Cl<a, ,qoxamAaMe no cpb6cKo-6bnrapCKaTa BOHHa Bb 1885 r. - BOHHa, K05lTO cbP6HTt. HI1 OTBOpl1Xa nopana TOBa, '!e 61; 0651BeHo OTb 6bnrapCI<HSI aaporn, Cbe,QHHeHHeTO aa Vl3ToYHa PYMenl1Sl Cb 6b11rapHSl H KOSlTO 6t. nropa ,QeHCTBHTenHa BOHHa Mem,Qy 6bJlrapl1Sl H C~P6H5I ,QO rorasa npea s TpaSiHeTO aa U,t.1111 crorraraa 12 HCTOpH"IeCKI1 mHo BOTb sa 6bnrapCKI15111 Cbp6CKI1Sl CnaB5tHCKI1Hap0,QH He EanxaaHOBOTO 60HHO Kp'b-

w.eHHe

B'b 1885 r.

20
CIOUI pint

flTIIKI!Ta HI! OAPI1H'b

ihaKdTa

HJ

OAPI1H'b

21 ce
no Ha,Qne-

nonyocrpoa's. Hexa nonsepres, '!e nOXOAI1T-5 Ha 6bnra· npa Flpecasaa, Bopaca, CHJI1eOHa 11 CaMYHna Bb caxara Cbp61151 (PaWKa) CH\ cano 0611KHOBeHI1 HaKa3aTenHI1 exnenauaa,
HO He H BOHHH Bb I1CTI1HCKHSI CMI1Cbnb Bb Ha AYMaTa. nOXOAbTb

ra3HHHI-t C. meHb ce HanomH

c.
xe

nYWI<H MaHnl1Xepb. BoeHHOTO YYHnHllle

OpraHH3Hpaxa

rlaYHHb

nOnI<OBI1T-5 BoeHHH Ol<px,mHSI; oc06eHHO

8HHMaHHe

H ,Qame He 3aKbCH-5

na ce

aa

WI1WMaHb

,£10 VlneKb BOHHa,

HHeTO Ha cpew,y

emra

npOHHKBaHeTO

noaesre e npennpaer s OTb 6bnrapHT-5 aa Cbp6HT-5 KbMb Llfep-s-nnaaaaa, HO
Ii3BbpWeHb OTb BHAI1HCKOTO 6b11rapETO 3aTORa CM-5TaMb, H 6bnrapHSI Bb noKOSITO 3aBbpWI1, Cbp6HSI

1288

r. HMa, HaHCTHHa, cbAbpma-

OTKpHe WI<OndTd aa 3dnaCHH nOAnopYYHl!H. npeaeAoxa ce YCTaSI1T-5 sa 06yYellHero 116 80HCI{dTa 11 ce 3dJl0»<Hxa OCHOBHT-5 Ha BoeHHaTd nHTepdTypa H MJ.1Cbnb, I<dl<TO H

ce

nOYHd H3AaBaHeTO

TOSI nOXOAb-BOHHa

6-5we

CKO KHSI»<eCTBO,a He OTb

u hna

6bnrapHS!. Bb

Ha "B. (.13BeCTHst", "B. ~ypHanb", .B. C6Hpl<a", nO-l<bCHO no yaCTHa I1HHllHaTHBa "BOHHb" Hd 1<6nHTaHb Jlecem, H nopyYHl<b ,lJ,HM4eBb, CT. H no ~C8eAeHHSI no H3M-5CTH BoeHHOTO A-5no" -

se

HCTHHCJ<aBOHHB Me»<AY AbpmaBHT-5

aa nOn1<081<0iiTo

Cp-5AHHT-5 B-5KOBe e BOAeHa paAI1 Bb

cano

1330 r.,

HHl<b ,lJ,HI<OBb, "BoeHeHb

nHCTb"

Ha nOnl<OBHHl<b <DHnHnOBb PYCKHSlTb e3Hl<b, 6bnrdpCI<aTa Hd ,£10 dpMHS!. (.1 no' HaWHSI Ha-

B-5P0110MCTBO OTb cpb6cKa CTpaHa Bb AHHT-5 Ha npero· aapsae, Cb nopaseeaae xa 6bnrapCJ<aTd BOHCKa, KoeTO H n03B011H TOSI I<bCeHb VlCTopHSITa CmIBHI111a B-5l<b Sb3XOAa Ha Cbp6HSI Bb nonYOCTpOBa.

1893

ros

HdYHHb

ce

6-5we

1<0MdHAHHS!Tb e3HI<b 8b Bb BCHYI<HT-5 npHnemaHHe.

CTeneHHO Cb ynopHToCTb, POAb, 3apa60TH Cb YAH8HTenHO

1<0stTO e C80HcT8ella

aa BOHHaTa Bb 1885 r. e H3BeCTHa. Ilooenara npa nane Ha 6bJlrapHSI S1:;pdTa Bb ce6e CI1 H Bb CBOSiTauiacr nnaa 3se3,QB. B's TemKHT"S AHH na TaS! xspaaaa 60p6a 6bnrapl1T-5 ce SI1A-5Xa ace raxa CTpaWHI1 aa spare, Kal<TO I1C10pHSITa rH noaaase, ace raxa rOTOBI1 ua cefieo rpuuaxae, Kal<TO
»<I1BOTbTb AbTb Bb H Abnrl1T-5 n CTpaAaHI1S1 6-5xa H rl1 HaY'!Hnl1. AOMa Hap 0a

ce

ofinacra

ua

BoeHHOTO

,Q-5no

rpenr sxa
8b

T OOa e Bb3XO,Qd na 6bnrapCI<aTa apMHSI no CTPbMHf1S1nx,Tb Ha 6ntCI<aBO H3nblllleHHSI ,Qbnrb. T08a 6-5xa rO,QHHHT-5,I<OraTO rpd,QHHapI1T-5 no 80eHHOTO A-5nO patioraxa, xonaxa, c'sxa H Hd,Qb Bb CBOSlTa

paeore

Cb rpHml1Tt

nu

no

u

opJr.mHe YHI1COHb

na

pon

ur

j,

n e x i,

H MI1Cn-5Xa TOBa, '!e

caa eH

r
o
v

penr

aa e

fs x

caM03a6paBa

CBoeTO 36HstTHe

neeu's

na

YBn-5YeHHS! ,£10 Y'leHI1S1Ta

H 0<jJH4cpb.

nao:

l<a3apMI1T-5 H CPPOHT08HT-5 3dHSlTHSI H6

I<a I< b A a cpa 3 51 b B par a. T Tas BOHHa e 6ene»<I1Ta '!pC3b 11 B 0 H C I< 11, II a'! a

B 0 11C I<0 S 0 A lll1 11 M H C Jl -5 x a Cb

ce OTnH'lH BpeMeTO ,£10 1894 r., nOCTeneHHO rrsnaar-s Cb nOYYHTenHH ABYCTpaHHH Y4eHHS!,
MdHeBpH. cnym6a nOI<On-5HHstTd eAHal<80

nnaua, Cb I<dl<BHTO noxaaxa na ce ,£10ManKH H rOn-5MH CBOSlTdsoeHHa Ha <DPHAPHxa

n

H 11 lll1

11 no A 4 H H

noxaaxa

Ad npeMHHaB6Tb OTb BpeMeTO

C B 0 51 Tar 11a 8 a H A e 6 e3b n p e 8 3 e M K H, BaH H st,

i1

CT 8 Y B a x a C b 6 e3b MilO roy CK H a

C B 0 e T 0 C b PAll e. 4 e H 11 X 11T P y B aeAHal<80 H Cb MHcneHeTO Cb n p 0CH·

c

r pe

ti x a

M n a A H T 1; xa H

6 b Jl rap

B 0 e H H 0 H a 4 a 11 H H lll1 I{ a I<T 0 a

n06eA6Ta H aBO

a

CJlH8HI1lla

Benaxa, xaxro H Cb H08HT-5 8l;eHI1S1, KOHTO rpHmnH80TO H3yxaaae Hd 80eHHaTa HCTOPI1S1 nOACKa3Bawe. VI nOYHa na ce npo3Hpa enaa HOBd enoxa-enoxa Ha 3,QpaBHSI pa3yMb HdAb PYTHHaTa, HB pa3YMHO~0 npHnOmeHl1e 3d Ha,Qb

Cb ne,QaHTI13bMa

x p 6 6 DOC T b T a CTOTaTa

H C K H T 1:; C H,

uratinoua,

Ha J.13I<YCTBO6naro-

eCTeCTBeHOCTbTa

u

TO HaAb

3aHastTYHHCTBOTO.

apMHstTa

B'b3XO,lJ,'bT'bHa 6'b1T' repcxara apMHSI. HHe,

Enoxara cnerrs cbp6cKo·6bnrapcKaTa BOHaa ,£10ras Cb TYPllI1T-5 Bb 1912 r. e ,£10CTOHHd na npaerrs-re aaurero 06w.0 BHI1Mapauaouanuo na
CH 06stCHJ.1Mb nOABJ.1ra

napeuae 06W.HT-5 ae-re ce oraapsxa zrs nra
cb3epl!aTenHa AaTenHocTb

na

6bnrdpHS!,

YCHllItSi Ha BCI1YI<I1 HeHHH 6e3npe,Q-5nHHT-5 npOCTOpl1 H aHdnHTHyeCl<d

TBOpYeCl<11 cHnH, HB 80eHHoTo H3Ha npeml1SSl8aHe rOn-5Ma Ha6moHa YMa H

I<YCT80, 1<0eTO, Kal<TO BC-5KO H3I<yCTBO, e H eAHa HCTopH4ecKa Ha 1<0SlTO ManllHHa

pafiora,

rrsno

OAPHHb. Torasa 6bnrapJ.1st 6-5we 61;we Bb rpaHHlV1T1; CH rocnonapxa C8MooT6paHa; TaKb8b HaAb HeSl He

aa na

MomeMb

npa

rpKmnH88

l<ynTypa

He3aBHCI1Ma AbpmaBa. TS! Ha J.1HI111HaTI1BJ.1T-5 CBOSiTa aa HI1KaKBH orpaHH4eHHSI OTb meCTOKI1T-BAOrOBOpJ.1 HapeyeMb apMH~Ta 11 a J.1Bb

xapexrep's, sa Ml1pb. (.1 aoenaa
Hei1HHT-5

reacaxa
-

KaK8HTO cera Cb3AaBBTb 6bnrapl1S1

neue raxa

PH\KOBOAHTCnl1,

AestTenH H pOAI1Ha

notiposcenarerurr

Tos ycrrsx-s 6bnrapHr-5 ,QbnmaTb CaMI1 aa 8HKaxa YymAH BoeHHH MHCHl1, xaxro T08a npaBHnH TYPlll1S1 l1 rbPllHst AO roraaa.
3acITymHITH paTHH' IJ,H B'b BoeHOTO nonpHlI.I,e H BoeHHaT3 MHC'blTb.
Bb

rO,QHHHT-5 OTb 1900 ,QO 19]2 C}f;. rOAHHH aa HaH-BHCOI<OTO H3AHraHe, ,£10 KoeTO apMHSlTa HH Momewe na ,QoH,Qe8b Ml1pHO apexe. ce6e CH; T-5 He noMHoro nx,TH 6-5xa

c spnuero,

C"" cnoc06HH

na ce

nOAnomaTb.

o're-recr
mara

aoro-c-petior-sure

Cb BCJ.1YKdTa CepJ.103HOCTb,KaK8aTO

aa aanaaaaae
TOBa KbMb

cxxnara

aanarauie.

rpa-

CbeAJ.1HeHHeTO

otinacr

sra

ua aoeaaara

nenaroras

na-

npeAI13BI11<a H nb11Horo peopraaaaapeae Hd apMI1S1Ta. OTb ,QPYmHHHaTa H nonxoaara OpraHI13allHSI ce MHHa KbMb 6pHra,QHaTa, a cnem, ,Q118113HOHHaTa. KOPO C ap r anepaara ce 8bO' Cb MaP}f;.»<11Cb KpynOBCKI1 CTOMdHeHI1 OpH\,QHSI, a nexorara

uiara pOAHa apMHSI 6-5we yeCTI1Ta na 6H\,Qe nOAnoMorHaTd 'lpe3b l<anHTanHHSI rpyzrs Kl1pl<OBb K.; no 06yBOHHHWI<H Y'le6HH-

v aa nOKOHHHst MaHopb yeHHeTO na BOHHHllHTi; HMawe enaa cepas

l!H

OTb

,lJ, 5nOSb, -

Tourea's,

KaHTd p,Q»<l1eBb, T 0,QOP08b, nO-l<bCHO

1. H KOTeBb, ,D.paHroBb 6., 6paTSI IOpYKoBH H np.; no nO,lJ,rOTOBl<a na IOHl<epHT'S -- enna cepaa Y4e6HHLV1 OTb F\rypa, r lanpakoa s, Xecanvaem., f\H,n,peeB1o, ,D.HMHTpHeBb, HaH,lJ,eHOBb, KOOil4eBb, KaHTapA>«HeBb, CllaB4eB1o, 6allKaHCI<H, ,D.06peBCI<H, Pyces-s, PaAHOHOB1o,nO'K1oCHO WKOHHOBb, Jledrrepoa s, ,D,HMI1TPOB1o, B1ollKOBb, Ilerpoa-s, MaHOllOB1o, H np. H np.; no BOHHHWI<O 4eTHBO CTaTHH H Malll<H 6powypl'f 0110 KaHTapA>«HeBb, ,D.a6Ko YCTa-reH4eB1o, rHprHHOB1o, ,D,paHroBb, CHpMaHOB1o, KOHSIPOBb, WHHrapOBb H np.; 06ll.(0 no soeaaara MHC10llb CTaTHH H OTA'SllHH TpYAoBe, oparaaarrs HnH npeaorrs, OTb Xecan4l1eB1o, <PH4eBb, Haan 7ii:MOBb, ,D.HKOBb, Bpaxsona, n'SeBb, ,D.aHAHW1o, Raeapaanaee-s, Jlecems, Ilpaarorrs. CTOHKOBb, )t{OCTOB1o, Pycea's, F\3MaHOB1o, MI1.ql1neBb, H np.; no soeaua Kpl1THKa - KpHTH4eCKHT'S 6ene>«I<H H OT311BH Ha AapOBI1THT'S nOI<OHHHI..{H CTOH4eBb, ,D.aHAHW1o, >«HBHT'S <P114eB1o, t{eI<OBb, nOI<OHHHSI )t{o) CTOB1o H np.: no aoeaaa HCTOPHSI - TpY,lJ,OBeT'S Ha Xecan4HeB1o Xp., Touiea-s, ,D,HMI1TpHeBb PaAI<O, Flonom, Xp., CHpaKOBb PaAOH, )t{OCTOBb, 4apal<4HeB1o, Mapl<OBb. BeHeAHKOB1o, KOneB1o Tarno H np.; no TaKTH4eCKH 3aAa4H HBaHoBb H., KOBa4eB1o, Hepe30B1o, nYKOBb H np; no naouepaoro rrsrro KHHrHT'S na Basoa-s, BellH4KOB1o, ,D.06peBCI<H, CHnSiHoBcKH H np. H np. 4Hcnolo aa no-rnaaaar-a ,n,'SHlIl1, ua KOHTO apMHSlTa Abn>«H aa CBOSiTa nonroroaxa AaHb Ha npH3HaTenHOCTb, He e ManKO, H HMeHaTa HM10 TPY,lJ,HO MoraTb na ce ~136pOSlT1o cera. Ho Bb 4HcnOTO ua BCH41<H THSI 6naropoAHH paTHHI..{H aa c sanaeeae eoeuaara MOll.(b Ha 6"bnrapHSI aexa nOMeHeMb HMeHaTa Ha MYTxypom., HHKOnaeB1o ,D.., Fle rpom, Paxo, nI060MCKH, F\rypa, nanPHKOBb, CaBOB1o, HBaHoBb, ,D,HMHTpHeBb Panxo, 60TeB1o K., ¢H4eBb, Ila3n.7ii:MoB1o, Xecan.IHeBb, HHKHCPOPOB1o, ,D,HKOBb, Ba30Bb, 5iHI<OB1o, HaHAeHoBb, 3aropcKH, LJ,eHOB1o, Baaapos-s, KyTHH4eB1o, Toures s, KOBa4eB1o, 60SlA>«HeBb, XPHCTOBb, Teuem, H np. F\3b He noxeaaeaers OHHSI caM06HTHH ,ll.'SllOBH CTpoeBH ocpHl..{epH OTb u snara aoeana HepapXHSI, KaTO aanp. repoar s cpHnococp1o CTpoeBH ocpHlJ,epb MaHopb CTOSIHOBb, KOHTO Bb MallKa enaa KHHmKa no cpeXTOBK8TCI H C K awe A a B H ,lJ, 610 ]1H rap C I{ a T a a p M H 51 A e H b T10 11a n p a B H H 0 ut b, a H 0lLI b T a A e H b, KaKBHTO HaW8Ta 8pMHSI OTn.7ii:4H OT1o ce6e CH eAHH10 ron'SM1o 6pOH; ocpHlJ,epH, aa KOHTO cny>«6dT8 6'Swe enao CBell.(eHO,lJ,eHCTBHe, 8 sana-rare na nonr oraar's 4aCTHT'S CH eAHH10 nH4eH1o HAean1o. c.1I'\ll.(0 He nOMeHaBaM1o H OHaSi nneana ,lJ,eHI..{H, KOSITO e npHHecna H npHHacSi Cne,lJ,b BOHHaTa H AHeCb CBOSITa ,lJ,aHb aa norroroexara Ha apMI-1S1Ta, 3all.(OTO TOBa e CneA10 C106HTHSlTa, KOHTO pasr ne >«,lJ,a e. B10 ras MHHyTa a3b ce M nOl<naHSlM1o npezrs BCH4KH THSI paTHHlJ,H Bb xaurero aoenno rtonpauie, KOHTO HCKpeHO noncsorxa npes's lJ,'SnaTa 01 cny>«6a 8CH4KaTa CH 6naropOAHa euepras, 3 a ~ ace. C 103 A a A e 0 T q
01" C'y>«ryllOB1o

BCH4KH CHHOBe n a 5bnrapHSI e n a a n06e,lJ,OHoCHa apMHSI H OTb BC'SKH BOHHHK1o eAHHb r e p o a. He e cny-ras cera na oxepraaaers rp'SwKHT'S, I<OHTO HaWHT'S HayanHHlIH nonycaaxa sa acecrpeaaera nOArOTOBl<a Ha apxaara sa .qe?icTBHSI l<aKTO neue, raxa H HOll.(HO apexe, l<aKTO Ha XbnMHCTa M'SCTHOCTb, raxa H B10 nnaHHHHT'S, Kal<TO B10 nonCI<HSI raxa H npa I<penOCTl-iHSI 60H; rp'SWKHT'S B10 nonroroaxara H H360pa aa caMHT'S HaYanHHI..{H H re+reparre-uiafixa ocpHl..{epH; rp'SWKHT'S B10 TeXIIH4eCI<OTO cHa6ASlBaHe HEl apMHSlTa; He.qOCT1lT1o<lHOCTbTaB10 BoeHHO-HCTopH4eCKHT'S, BoeHHO reorpatpavecxar-s BoeHHo-nCHxonorH4eCI<HT'S H3YYBaHHSI Ha c06CTBeHElTa H HenpHSITenCI<H CTpaHH H apMHH. B1:. TOBa OTHoweHHe >«enalOlLIHT'S na ce 3an03HaSlTb C10 TOSI esnpoc's 6Hxa HaM'SpHnH Bb TpYAa "B 0 e H H a 6 10n rap H SI COl..{HOnOrH4eCKa CTYAHSI Bbpxy 610nrapCKaTa AeHCTBHTenHOCTb ", nHCaH10 H H3AaAeHb cure Bb 19} 1 r., BCH4KO l<aKBOTO Mo>«eM1o na l<a>«eMb TyK10 cera. Hexa ce YTewHMb Cb cpal<Ta,lie, l<aKTO cBHAeTencTBYBa HCTopHSlTa, apMHHT'S nOYTH BC'SI<Ora ce S1BSlBaTb aa BOHHa Cb OCTap'SnH HAeM, Cb aenor nenaaa nponycxa H C10 MHoro MHpHOBpeMeHHa PYTHHa, KOHTO, 06a4e, HCTHHCl<aTa xsp aaea 60p6a MHoro CKOPO KopeHHO xoperapa. Hexa HMaMe raxa C7ii:LlJ,Onpezrs BH,lJ,1o,4e B10 BOHHaTa He e Ba>«HO na 6.7ii:Aew1o HAeanHO rOTOB1o, AOCTa e caxo ManKO ,lJ,a npee'saxoacnaun, npOTHBHHl<a CH, HO na ro npea'saxoaenaun, HenpeM'SHHO. BOHHaTa B10 Ha ceraurHHSI uaps, H. B. 60PHC1o III, COCPHSIliMa 4eCTbTa na nocp-suine KaTO rOCTH no cnYllaH Ha TOBa T1opmeCTBO npecrosacnenaaI..{HT'S xa 6anKaHCKHT'S CTpaHH H CneI..{HanHHT'S npeACTaBHTenH na OCTaHanHT'S ,lJ,1o~maBH. Toraae 6bnrapHSI, ormpauia ce na CBOSITa H306LlJ,0 HaH-Ao_?pe opraaaaapaae, Hai1-A06pe nOArOTaesa H cpaKTH4eCKH HaH-CHnHaTa apMHSI aa nonYOCTpOBa, 6'Swe m.psceae, sa KOSITO CB'ST1oT1ozrspsceure A06pa CM'STl<a, H H naaaure aacnyaceuoro 3Ha4eHHe. npHSITenCTBOTO aa aauiero OTe<IeCTBO ce uea sure 11 aKHIBHOCTbTa aa 61onrapHT'S OT1o 51onraPHSI, a He noxanxa H Ha THSI OTb MaKeAOHHSI, aacnysceno B'b36Y>«Aawe Bb3CTopra Ha BCHLfl<H HaWH A06pomenaTenH. Bb Cb3H8HHeTO Ha THSI nocnenaar-s 61onrapHT'S C7ii:LlJ,eCTBYBaxa C10 04apOBaHHeTO OT1o notienara npa CnHBHHLla H B1oOp7ii:meHaTa 60p6a B10 Mal<e,lJ,OHHSI aa He3aBHCHMOCTb. n1onHon'STHeTO aa npeCTonOHacne,QHHKa 6'Swe uapcxo H BoeHHO T1op>«eCTBO. Ha napana B10 BoeHOTO Y4HnHLlJ,e IOHKePHT'S ce npencraaaxa Bb HaH-BHYWHTenHHSI BHA'b, Bb KaKbBTO TOBa Y4HnHlLIe H'SI<Ora 6'Swe ce S1BSlBano. Flpezri, npecronoHaCneAHHI..{HT'S Ha 6anl<aHCKHTt A1op>«aBH apMHSlTa MaHHcpeCTI1pawe CBOSiTa nOArOTOBKa H CBoeTO rOPAo apaacrseuo Ha~TpoeHH~, npe,IJ.b rrpara aa BOHHaTa B'b 1912 r,

H He CMe nexe nperrs npara aa 1912 r. Bb AeHSI Ha nbnHoll'STHeTo

ATIIK81'8

118 OAPHHb

25

5b11rapHSI MaHl1cpeCTHpaWe nperrts Cbce· ,QI1Tt. CI1 CBOSITa rOTOBHOCTb aa 60p6a, T .. lie 3!lKbCHe na HaCTaHe. HeMHHyeM8TCl BOHH8 sexe Bl1a~ 1\ ' we 1\"b11601<0nyxa aa BCI1YKI1. 1-1 xoraro Ha 17 cemeMBpHI1 I 12 r. B"b Ka"leCTBOTO MI1 aa ocpH~epb Bb Lll,a6a aa apMHSlTa C~,Q6aTa 6t. onpe,Qt.I1HI18 Cb eAHHb ,Qpyrapb na nonyxa 3~no' BtAbTa 3B M061111H3a~HSI, nonriacaaa OTb MHHHCTPB aa BOI1Hara, reaeparrs HHKHCPOPOBb, H na SI WHCPPHpaMb, sa na ce npenane I1H"IHO aa Tel1erpacpHaTa CTaH~HSI Bb CTOI1H~aTa aa Obl1raPI1S1, B3b Mo»<aXb na BI1ASI K~CH 48COBe cnerrs TOB8, KBKb MbPTBHTt. necer s ,QyMH aa 3anOBt.,QbTa pa3ABI1»<Hxa Cb Ht.KaKBa MHCTH"IeCKa cana ~t.na ObnrapHSI. CbBpeMeHHL\11 H8 TOSI C~,Q60Hocelib ,QeHb OTb I1CTOpHSITa aa aaurara pO,QI1Ha, HHe BCHYKH 3HaeMb, KaKBO npe,QCTaBnSlBawe CB060,QHOTO OTe4eCTBO Bb TOSI 11 Cl1e,QB6ll.\I1Tt. ,QHH. Karo ye nH ell,I1H"b HenOHOCHMb TOaap's ce CMbKBawe OTb rbP6a na BCl1lJKH 6bl1rapH. Karo ye l1H enuo cpaMl-to neTHO npencroeuie na ce 113TpHe. LJ,t.l1HSlTb 6bnrapCKH HBpO,Qb, BCHYKH ,QO e,QI1Hb ce nOYYBCTBYBaxa KaTO e,QHa ,QyWB, e,QHO Tt.110, e,QHO cbP,Q~e. ObnrapHS! 6t.we aexe B,QHrHBTa HB KpaKb, sa na OCB060>HABBa 6paTSITa OTb MaKe,QOHHSI H TpaKI1S1. 1-1 BCt.KH 6bp3awe,Qa ce SlBI1 HB CBoeTO Mt.CTO, Bb CBOSlTB YBCTb. 1-1 BCI1YKI1 Bb TOB8 e,QHHO,QYWl1e, peweHH aenpeersuao ,QB ~110MSlTb aenpaarens, ce n04YBCTBYBBXB B,QbXHOBeHI1 OTb Hal1-HCKpeHI1 nOpl1BI1 aa 60p6a 11 OTb HaH-TBbp,Qa a spa Bb nofienara : 06yYeHI1eTO Bb K83apMaT8 11Mb 6t.we nano Bt.p6Ta Bb ce6e CI1 H APyrapl1Tt. CI1. 1-1 sa TpH AeHa H3HI1KH6Xa KaTO cpeHI1KCb OTb nenerrsra CTpaWHI1Tt. nonxoae HB O"bllrapHSI. 3eMSITa TpenHa norrs ,Qpy»<HHSI KpaKb aa M0611nl1311paHOTO OTeyeCTBo. BCHYKO, noae TOBa KoeTO ce OTHaCSIwe AO M06HnH3a~I1S1Ta Bb HeHHara TeXHH'-leCKa C~w,I1Ha, ce 113BbPWI1 no yaCOBHI1Kb 11 no YCTaHOBeHHSI nna-rs. rOp,QI1Tt. no nxoae na Obl1rapas, MaKapb 11 He HaH-,Q06pe 06nt.yeHI1 H CTbI<MeHI1, norrs npl1Kpl1Tl1eTO aa M00l1m13l1paHaTa rpaHI1YHa cr pasea 11 KOHHI1uara, H6 ce,QMHSI ,QeHb, 11 no-paso, se-re ce ,QBH»<exa KbMb npe,Qt.nHTt. Ha TYPL\I1S1. >Kent.3HH~I1Tt. pa60Tt.xa KaTO Bb eAHHb aAb 11 npaaoaaaxa BOHCKI1Tt. KbMb onpeAt.neHHTt. 11Mb 30HH aa CbCp-sno T04eH HeTO. Ha 5 OKTOMBPHH BOHHaTa 6t. 06S1BeHa. 4yBBwe 1111TYP~HSI Ml'i"»<ecTBeHI1Tt. CT~nKI1 ua 6bllrap· CKaTa BOHCKB HaH-Ba»<HI1S1HeHHb npOTI1BHI1Kb 113Me>H,Qy BCI1YKI1 ,Qpyrl1 68JlKaH'CKH apMHI1, cxuio BAl1rHanH ce Ha BOHHa cp-suiy HeSl7 4YB6xa na -ypuar s 06W,OTO .ypa" Ha Bbop~»<eHI1S1 6bnrapcKH Hapo,Qb7 BH»<ABxa nl1 nOToM~I1Tt. Ha Mypa,Qa 11Basaane, aa Jlana WaXI1Hb H f\nl1-nawa, aa Kapa- Xal1l1Jlb A»<el-l,QepBJlI1 H V1H,Qeoana6aHb, aa EBepHOCb-6eH 11 Xa,Q»<11 V1n6eKI1, ye cpeuiy O,QPHHb H n03eHrpaAb, cpeury Llapar parrs C'" TpbrHaml

nOTOML\I1Tt. aa KpYMa 11 CHMeOH8, He KOJloSiHa 11I-1BaHa f\ceHb IJ 7 I-1nl1 TYPl(I1Tt. Bb CHJlaTa aa CBOSiTa nerl1TI1MHa ropnocre aa saaoeaarena Ha nonyocrpoaa 6t.xa ce yuecna Bb ycnoxoaTeJlHHTt. BI1,QeHHSIHa CBoeTO CJlaBHO MHHano? Hae CMe sese Bb caxara BOHHe aa 6aJlKaHCI<I1Tt. Cb103HHl(H cpeuiy Typl(I1S1; BOHHa, KOSITO ce pa3BI1 r JlaBHO Me>HAY 6bJlrapl1 11 rypua : BOHHa, 1<0SlTOrp sfiaauie na 113Mt.HH nonaTI1'-IeCl<aTa xapra Ha nonyocrpoaa, Ila OCTaBHMb CbI03HI1~I1Tt HI1, KOI1TO cnem, TOBa ce oraecoxa Bt.ponOMHO Cb 6bnrapCKI1S1 l1apOAb, Ha crpaaa. Hexa CbCpt,QOTOYI1Mb BHI1MaHHeTO CH BbPXY ,QBaTa aapona, KOI1TO 113Hecoxa Te>Hl<aT6 60p6a; ,QBaTa H6pO,Qa,6bnrapCKHSI 11 TypCKI1S1, YI1S1 crape I1CTOPI1S1 ro rl1 nOCTaBS! eAI1Hb AO npyr s aa H3BeCTHO epexe Ha ceaep s OTb KaBKa3b 11 Bb CTenHT-B He PYCHSI; ABa uapona Cb BenHyeCTBeHI1 BoeHHH nO,QBH3H, KOI1TO ce pa3BI1BaTb : 38 6bnrapHT-B Bb BoeHHo·nonHTH4eCI<HTt 11Mb I1HI1~HaTI1BI1 KbMb naIlOHHS!, MH311S1, TpaKI1S! 11 Mal<e,QOHHSI, a aa TYP~HT-B npea e KaBKa3b Bb npOCTOpl1Tt Ha Mana-f\3HSI, oanKallCKI1S1 no nyOCTPOBb, KbMb Kepnarar-s, no ceaepaar s 6ptroBe ua f\CPPHKcl H KaMeHI1CraTa f\pa6HSI; ABa napona >HHBtnl1 cnerrs rosa 50J rO,QHHH e,QHHb AO npyr s, HO, KaKTO xaaax s no-pano, 6e3b na ce on03HaSlTb H 6e3b ,Qa ce 06HKHaTb. V1CTopHSITa ua TypCKHSI HapO,Qb e nOYYHrenaa no CBOHTt 6e3nO,Q06HO 6bP3H H TYPlI,HSI. WHPOKH 3aBoeBaHHSI, I<OHTO eAHHb aapozrs, peuie-rs na anazrae, MO>He na 1l0CTHrHe, xoraro ce p~KOBO,QH He OTb npesae r a HAeH. rOp,QH aaaoesarena, OCMaHCKHTt. TyPl(H ce SlBHxa ua nOBbpXHOCTbTa Bb HCTopHSITa Cb ,Qbp>HaBHa I1AeSi Bb 1299 r., T. e. TbKMO eAHHb caxo BtKb npena na aarrsaae cnasara aa ObnrapHS! H HeHH8Ta He3aBHCHMOCTb. T'sxaara HCTOpasecxa rnonxa 6twe crapa <PpHrHSI, ManKa 06naCTb oxono f\uKapa, cer auraara cr on rua aa TYP~HSI. V1OTb TyKb aa e,QHHb BtKb aaseno Cb Ocxaau-en-Feaaa (n06eAI1TenbTb), Opxairs, Mypa,Qb J H oaSl3H,Qb I-1nAbpbMb (rpbMOTeBH~aTa) TYP'-lI1Tt KaTO BHxpywKa 113n"bpBO Cb neKI1KOHHH MaCI1, a cnem, TOBa Cb Te>HKaJ.1eHHyepCl<a nexo re, CbKpywHxa BCI1YKO npezrs ce6e CH Bb MaJla-f\3HSI, aaexa Fanartona Bb 1356 r. 11Cb rpbMOTeBHlJHa 6bp3HHa no npocropar b Ha OaJlKaHCKI1S! nonyocrpoe s caenoxa BI13aHTHSI Bb cTeHHTt Ha LJ,apl1rpa,Qb, orxa spnaxe Obnrapl1S1 K"bMb BHCOYHHHTt aa Banaaae, 06bpHaxa He3aBHCHMa MaKe,QoHHSI Bb sacanao KHSl>HeCTBOHa KpanH MapKo, pa3rpOMI1Xa OKOH4aTeJlHO cnerrs TOBa Cbp611S1, 6bJlrapHSI H nOCTaBI1Xa rpaHH~HTt Ha AYHaBa BKnIOYBaHKH MaKeAoHHSI, Bocua H Xepueroaaaa. ' Cnem. enno Me>H,QY'-lapCTBHe, H6CTl'i"nHJlO nopana crpaurHHTi; YAapH OTb TaMepnaHb npa f\HKapa Bb 1402 r., ,QeTO oaSl3H,Qb V1JlAbPbMb rl6,QHa Bb nneHb H 6H,Qe 3aKnlOyerib Bb
rp'b !"IOTeB H'I H HSlT'b HII Bb3XO,D,b

'J

RTaKaTa

Ha OAPHHb

27

p.Ha »<eJl;;3Ha KJleTKa aa noxaa s 11 repop's aa HaCeJleHHeTO anoxea noaa cepus 3eBOeaaTeJlHI1 CYJlTaHI1: Mypap.b II - sasoeUaTeJlbTb aa Cony-rs npea s 1429 r., n06ep.HTeJlbTb npa Bapna ab 1444 r., MyxaMep.b II er,-<PaTHxb 3aaoeBaTenbTb ua LlapHrpap.b npea s 1453 r., 6aSl3Hp.b II en-Co-py (M7i\~pe~bTb) _ aaaoeearens'rs aa MopeSl H aa rp. Jloae-rs, KOI1TO nanaa KaTO nocnenaa KpenocTb-rpap.b ab ~;;nl1S1 nOJ1yocTPOBb, Ha KHnHSl H f\KKepMaHb Bb 1484 r., CemlMb 1 71BY3b (HenpnxnoaHHSlT'b) 3aBOeaaTeJlbTb aa nonoaaaara nepcHSI, ~;;JlHSl ErHneTb H f\pa6Hs! C'b CBeTHT;; MIOCIOJlMaHCKH M;;CT8, KoeTO My cnexena BHCOKaTa THT na ra xa,QHMb-IOJl-XapHMeHHb wep~cpeHH'b (cnysorrens aa naara rpana MeKa H Mep.HHa) 11 CIOJleHMaHb I eJl-KaHYHH (3aI<OHO,QaTeJlbTb), KOHTO »<eCTOKO pa36H Map.»<apHT;; npa Moxa4b, 06cap.H sa nbpaH n7i\Tb BHeHa npe3b 1529 T., aanasa f\Jl»<HPb, cnexena nbJlHOTO rocnoncrao Bb Cp;;p.113eMHO Mope H YMP;; npa oficanare ua Carer-s ab YHrapHSl, orrnero nOCOJleHOTO My T;;JlO 6Hp.e npeaecexo Bb Llap'Hrpap.b OT'b 6bJlrapH HOJlapH B'b 1566 r. TOBa e anoreSlT:? a a r y pC H H T;; B 0 e H H 11 no p. B H 3 H H C Jl a B a. BeJlHKb aoacxoeoneirs, 3aKoHop.aTenb H nonHTHKb, TOSI CYJlTaHb B:}> C7i\W,OTO epexe noe-s H C;;MeTO aa ynap.bl<a aa TYPllHSI. TOI1 BbBep,e Bb P.bP»caaara nponaea-rero xa CJly»<6I1T;;, pyumera H OTBOPH BpaTHT;; Ha Hep.OCToHHCTBOTO H 6e3p,apHOCTbTa.
J

npH"fHHH aa ycrrsXHT"h Ha TYPU,HT"h OpraHH3au,HR aa HeHH"fepHT"h.

Bb rpbMOTeBHl.JfUISl MapWb aa CBOHTt aasoeaaaas, Typ~I1Tt He ce SlBHxa Cb enaa nO-BHCOKa «yrrry pa, HHTO C'b enaa xarrsnuo pa3BHTa lIHBHJlH3allHSI; Tt H;;Maxa KaTO aaporrs H l.{HCneHOTO npeBb3xop.CTBO. F\ Me>t<p,y TOBa, HHe BHp.txMe, KaKb Bb npOAbn>t<eHHe na eAHH'b B;;K'b H n0110BHHa Tt paarpoaaxa necers uapcraa H otipaayaaxa eAHa H MnepHS!, aa KOIITO rpaHHlIHT;; ce npocrupaxa OTb rH6paJlTap'b no Tauncenr s H OTb Byna-Ileura AO HaH-IO>t<HHSI 6p;;rb aa w,aCTJlHBa f\pa6Hs!. Ha Kal<BO ce Abn>t<ewe TaS! crpauma CHJ1a, nperrs I<OS!TO HI1W,O He MO)l{a Aa YCTOI1? reHHH JlI1 H;;KaKBI1, KaTO F\JleKCaHAbpb BeJ1I1KH, Lle3apb, ClIHnHOHb, Hanoneoa's, BOA;;xa cr paurHHT;; apMHI1 Ha TYPllHSl no npOCTOpI1T;;, Bb I<OHTO H;;l<ora rocnop,apCTBYBawe 3aKOHa aa PHM'b? VlJlH TOBa 6;; A;;110 aa eAI1Hb BOHHcTBeHb uapozrs, BAbXHOBeHb OTb 6e3M;;pHH aM611~I1H aa cnasa 11 sa snacr s ? Bb Haya11HHT;; apexeua aa TypCKOTO A'bp>t<aBHO cxuiecTByBaHHe, Bb lIapYBaHeTO Ha BTOPHS! cyrrra-rs OpXaH'b-eJl-raa3H npenn TYPllHTt na MI1H8Tb Ha 6aJll<aHCKI1Sl nOJ1yocTpOBb, HCTOpHSITa Ha TOSl HapOAb 6e11e>t<Hep,HO Cb611TI1e Ha rneAb He OTb rrspeocreneuae Ba>t<HOCTb, KoeTO, ofia-re, ce OKa3a Cb CI'i'\p.60HOCHH nOCJlep,HlIH sa BCI14KH HapOAl1, AO KOHTO TYPUI1Tt MO>t<axa Aa AOHAaTb Bb cbnpHKocHoBeHHe H 06W,H rpaHH~I1. TOBa peWalOw,e cb6HTHe e opraHH311paHeTo aa HeHHyepl1Tt - nOCTQ'

SlHHaTa apMHS! aa Typuas, ,[1.0 KbMb 1340 r. TYPlIHT;; paaaaaaxa CBOHTt BOHHH Cb nexa KOHHHlIa, 1<0SlTO He 6twe penoaao OpraHI13HpaHa H aoc-sure HMeTO a K H H A »< H. TaS! l<OHHl1l1a ce CBHKBawe npn noxseue aa eAHHb noxon's H ce paanyuiauie cnerrs caupuraaae aa BoHHaTa. Ho, l<aKTO BCH4KH nOA06HH HapoAHH BOHCKI1, TSl He 6twe eAHO HaAeWAHO op""AHe aa 60p6a. f\JlSl EAAHHb, 6paTbTb na OpxaHb 11 BeJ1I1Kb aeroms Be3Hpb, peura na opraaaaapa nOCTOS!HHa BOHcKa, aa KOSITO nane I1MeTO nunoe, nexora, xaro na BCtl<H BOHHHKb OnpeA;;J111 sannara no eAHa acnpa Ha AeHb. Ho H raa BOHCl<a CKOPO ce oxasa HeTbpnHMa Cb CBOI-IT;; 6YHTOBe H npereuuaa. KOMaHAYIOw,I1SlTb apMHS!Ta XaJlHJ1b ,[I.»<eHAepaJ1H npennoso,Qa ce 06pa3yBB eAHHb ocofiex's xopnyc's , I<OHTO na ce l1a6Hpa C'b BOHHHlIH OTb npyra HapOAHOCTH, e3HKb H Btpa. MHor06pOHHHT;; Ha6;;rH H AecaHTH, noeese OTb 19, KOHTO TYPlIHT;; H3BbpwHxa Bb THSl apeaexa ua 6anl<ElHCKHSl nonYOCTpOB'b, OTb KOH10 e,QHHb cpeuiy necnor i, MOMl.JHnb, HMb nane Bb3MO»<HOCTb na nneasaart, r011tMH MHo»<eCTBa M11a,Q11 b11rapH H rbpllH. 6 ETO OTb cp-snara aa THSI M11a,Q11 xopa Xa11H11b ,[I.»<eH,Qepa11H Cb3,Qa,Qe HOBHSI KOPnyc's BOHCKH, I<OHTO rp sfiaaure Cb nOCTOS!HHOTOCH pa3BHTHe H YBe11Hl.JaBaHe na pasnpocrpe BJ1aCTbTa aa TypCI<HSI aapom, no CB;;Ta .• 6e3b cexelicrao, 6 3b PO,QHHHCKI1Bp'b3KH nOMe>t<,Qy H Cb uapona, xaaaaure TOH, THSI (OJlAaTH uie npaaannea.ar-s aa CYJlTaHa, KOHTO H uie rl1 yrtpaanaaa. Bb CI'i'\W,OTO spexe Tt uie 67i\AaTb BbBep.eHH Bb HCTHHCKaTa penaras, noxesce cnopem, P.YMHT;; Ha npopoxa BCtl<11 40B;;l<b ouie Cb CBoeTO paseneae HOCI1 Bb Cb3HaHHeTO CI1 saponaura ae Vlcns!Ma". VI aa nOI<J10HeJiHeTO. 1<0eTOOpxa-rs Cb TOSlHOBb xopnyc's CI<OPO H3BbpWI1 npn lIeJlOM7i\ApeHI1S! ,QepBHWb xa,Q»<H Bearaurs Bb F\MaCHS!, aa na n0J1Y4H xerosara 6J1arOC110BHSI, eAHO 3HaMe H eAHO HMe, weHxbTb, xaro Bb3nO»<H p xxaea Ha CBOSlTa poria BbPXY r 11aaara f{a eAHlJb BOHHHl<b, xaaa : .,VlMeTO My na 67i\Ae HeHHl.JepH (HOBa aOHCI<a), J1HlIeTO My na 61'i'\Ae 611;;Cl<aBO, p-"'KaTa My resexa, ca6S1Ta My OCTpa, CTpeJ1aTa My npOHH3HTenHa I Ha rp'sr eaae na HaMHpa notiena, Ha ap suraae Tbp»<eCTBO I BbpBI1I" OCBeHb TOBa, xa,Q>t<H6eKTaWb CPOpMYJ1l1paAOI<Tpl1HaTa, B;;PYIOTO H Cl<pH»<anHT'S na ras BOHcl<a, 1<0SlTO no-ma na pacre Cb paaurapeaae na 3aBoeBaHHSlTa. Hafipoaaar's ce nosese OTb 5 MI111HOHa6bJlrapl1, apuayru, cbp6H, 60WHSllIH, cpaBHHTeJ1HO nO-MaJ1I<O r spua 11 apneaua, 1<01·fTOCI'i'\ MI1HaJ111npea's penoser-s na TaS! crpaunra BOHCl<a, KOSlTO Bb 60S! npn 3aMaXBaHe xa cafinsra cnoperrs Prince de Ligne, aBCTpl1HCKI1 BoeHHOHa4anHI11<b OTb enoxara na naHCHH, np0113HaCSlJ1a ,QYMHTt .,H e 60 H C e" "Qu'il soit def endu a l'arrnee de prononcer Neb 0 iss e, ce mot qui veut dire: n'a y e z pas p e u r, et que les turcs, qui n'ont pourtant pas l'air plaisant, prononcent en coupant la tete - xexa ce sanperu aa apMI1S1Ta Aa npoH3HacSi AYMaTCl He 6 0 H C Ce, KOS!TO 3HaYI1 He ce crpa-

IhaKaTI!

ua

Onpau 29

XyU<lI1, H KOSlTO TYP~HT'S CbBceMb He aa wera npOH3HaCSll":>, 1<01 1'0 OTCH<{aTb rnaaara" - rn. CTp. 97 OTb KHHraTa Fantalsic, mllitatres - KoeTO nOKa3Ba eTHH4eCI<I1S1CbCTaBb na CI'I\:~aTa OOHCKa Cb nOCTOSlHHaTa CH apMHSI OTb HeHH4epl1, cpaHTa311paHH OTb ~OKTpHHaTa ua xa.QmH 6eKTaWb 11 06Y4eHH no e~I1Hb ne~aHTH4eHb Ha4HHb ~O creneas na MoraTb na 3a6HBaTb crpenara Bb enaa ManKa ronxa Ha~b rnasara Ha »<I1Bb 40B'Sl<b H Cb e~I1Hb 3aMaxb Cb ca6J1S1~a HaHaCSlTb CMbPTOHOCHH y~apH, TYP~I1T'S nparescaaaxa HaH-MO~HaTa CHJla, 1<05lTO He 6t BI1»<.QaHa ~O roraaa, H Cl, 1<0SlTO peurasaxa CI'I\:~6aTa Ha cpa»<eHI1S1Ta, uapcrnara H HMnepl1HTt. KOHHHT'S MaCH OTb CnaXI1I1, CHnHXnapa, Yl1ycpe.QmH 11 rype6a HMaxa sanexa Bb BoeHHO apexe na C'SSlTb repop s Bb 30HaTa aa HaweCTBHeTO, a Bb 60Sl 3ae.QHO Cb aprunepanra, KOSITO TYP4HTt Ha epexe BbBe~oxa H WHpoxo 113non3YBaxa, Bbpwexa caxo nonror earenaara pafiora. Eea s CbMHeHHe, rOJltMHT'S TYPCI<H 3aBoeBaHHSI ce ~bJl»<aTb Bb r orrsna creneas H na ~aCT I1HBaHl 3Be3~a aa TYPCI<HSI aaporrana OT111'i'\4H OTb CBOSlTa cp sna e.QHO rorrano 411cno ~a· pOBHTH 11 CM'Sm-t BO.Qa4H H cYI1TaHH. Ho 11 TyKb 1{0111<0TOcnaaara npl1Ha.Qne»<H Ha 1<0peHHHSI TYPCKH aa PO.Qb, He no-nanxa aacnyra I1MaTb BCH4KH OH'S3H rbPQH, 6bnrapl1, cbp6H, apHaYTH, I1TamlSlHQH, KOHTO npes's HeHH4epCI<H~t O.Q»<aQHI1nH I1Ha4e cnerrs nOTyp4BaHeTO CH .QOCTl1rHaXa .£.10 Hal1'BHCOI<I1T'S cny»<611 11 411HOBe Bb BOHCKaTa H zrspscaaara. f\.QMHpanbTb na 400'T'S I{Opa6a npa oficanara aa Llaparpam, Bb 1453 r. 6:swe 6b.nr~pana Banraorny - "Une flotte de quatre cents valles fut e.qUlpee et mise SOus les ordres du reneqat bulgare Baltaoghh ernra cpJlOTa OTb 400 xopatia 6H.Qe CTbl<MeHa 11~ocTaBeHa norrs 3anOB'S.QHT'S aa pexerara 6bnrapHHb 6an;aor ~11 - r n. CTp. 171 OTb Histoire de l'empire ottoman, par Theopnile Lavallee. FlspBHSlTb BOHHHl<b, KOHTO ce nOl<aYHJ1b ua CTeHClTanpa LL\ypMa na CI'I\:UJ.HSI rparrs, cnoperrs naMapTHHb, 611nb naKb 6bnrapHHb; aaaoesaTenbTb xa f\nmHpb H oCHrYPI1TenbTb na rocnO.QCTBOTO no Cp sna3eMHO Mope, XaHpe.QHHb 6ap6apoca, 6'Swe rpbl<b OTb MI1Tl1nHHb; nHSlne, CI'i'\UJ.o 6eneml1Tb MI1HHCTbPb 11 aAMHpanb, 6'Swe 111anl1S1He~b' 3HaMCHHTHTt BenHKH Be311pl1 V16paXI1Mb·nawa npl1 ClOneHMa'Hb Bemfl<onenHI1H 6'Swe rpbKb "appartenalt, pa~ sa naissance, comme presque tout les grands ~ommes qut ont qouvernes I'empire ottoman, aux races varncues, aux races chretiennes : c'etait Ie fils d'un metaJot de Parga npanannexceure no CBoeTO pom.QeHHe, xaxro BCH41<11BenH1<11MI'i'\»<e, KOHTO Cl'i'\ ynpaanaaann OTOMaHCl<aTa I1Mnepl1S1, aa n06e.QeHHTt HapO.QI1,aa XPI1CTHSlHCKI1T-Bpaca ; TOH 6-Bwe CI1Hb~ xa e.QI1Hb MOPSll<b OTb napra"; MoxaMeAb Coxon», HaH-Benl1l<l1S1Tb MHHHCTb p s, l<aKbBTO TY~~I1S1 Mo»<a na HMa !itl<ora, 6'Swe cbp611Hb OTb 60CHa c'etalt un slave de B05m", rn. 246 CTp. OTb uarapeaara no-rope V1CTOPHSIae OTOMaHCl<aTa I1Mnepl1S1.

XVI H XVII B-BKOBe TYP4HSl npexapa Bb saxpenaaxe OCHOBHT'S Ha npocrpaauara xopnyc-s. J1MnepJ1S1, per sprrk H-BI<OnI<O n BI'I\:TpeWHH Me»<Ayoc06H4H, ~OCTHrHa .QO nocnensoro pasurapeaae Ha rpaHH4HT'S CI1KbMb YHrapl1S1, nO.Qonl1S1,Ilonure, pa3BH BOHHaTa Cb BeHe4HSI no Mope H cywa H 6e3ycn-BWHO 3aBbpWH nocnenaara oticena Ha BHeHa Bb 1683 r. XVIII B'Sl<b 6ene»<H HaYaJlOTO Ha .QBH»<eHHeTO aa TYP4HT-B Ha3a.Qb. f\BCTPI1S1,BeHe~HSl 11 PYCHSI He caxo cnaparj, TYPC!{HT-B aaaoeaaHHSI, HO nOYBaTb na pyuiar s HMnepHSlTa, 1<0SlTO6twe sanana TonKOBa rpeaorn 11 rpl1mH xa ca'sra. MOrl'l\:llIaTa HeHH4epCKa apMHSl 6-Bwe se se H3mHBtna enoxara Ha CBOSIra HeCbl<pywHMa MOUJ.b H na CBOSITil cnasa. 6YHTOBeT'S Bb He51 11 HeHHHSlTb npeTOPH5IHCI<H.QYXb 6txa SI HanpaBHI1H ae-re onacao Opl'i'\mHe sa CI'i'\~ecTByBaHeTO Ha J1MnepHSITa. Bce CbCTaBeHa OTb XPI1CTHSlHCI<I1 Mna.Qe»<H 11 see Bb3nJ.tTaBaHa Bb .QorMHTt aa xa.QmH 6eKTaWb, l1eHH4epCI<aTa apMHSI, KaTO 4e nl1 Cb pacreaea aa Cb3HaHI1eTO ne HaceneHHSlTa, OTb I<OHTO ce Ha611pawe no HaCHnCTBeHb aa4HHb, pacr sure Bb CBOSI ynarrsxj, J1 Bb CBoeTO rrsnao paanomeHl1e. TSI aexe H-BMawe npe»<HOTO CI1 nOBHHOBeHHe H ~HCQHn11 I-Ia, HHTO HecpaBHHM6Ta 11 CH Htl<Ora .Q0611eCTb, H sa carypHOCTbTa aa AbpmaBaTa cynr a-n, Cenl1Mb " npH61;rHa Bb 1796 ron, Cb nOMOUJ.bTa Ha cppel-lCKH ocpl1QepH 11 I1H»<eHepH I<bMb oprasaaapane no npl1HQHna Ha 3a~bn»<I1TenHaTa eoeuaa cnym6a Htl<onl{O norixa HU3a,lfU o:Jlcei}uo'b OT"bTYPLtI1 no posmeaae, Ho, Banxairsr-s, Ha.Qb KOHTO rypcxare MOUJ.b AO rorasa Bb npo.Qbn»<eHHe aa 400 rO~I1HJ1 6twe nbnHa rocnonepxe, He 6-Bwe aexe CI'I\:UJ.I1S1. Cb6y>«~aHeTo Ha Eapona 6'S pa36Y.QI1no 11 ensllIl1Tt Bb C-BHl<aT6 Ha HCTOpJ1SlTaHapO.QJ1 aa nonyocrpoaa. Ke r o pe3Y11TaTb ua B"03CTaHHSI 11 aa BOHHHT-B Ha PYCI1S1cpeuiy TypLtHSI no 6YKypeLL\KHSI MHpb OTb 1812 r. Cbp611S1 6'Swe ae-re ~0611na CBOSiTa aBTOHoMHSI, a no O.QPI1HCKI1SlMHpb Olb 1828 r. H rbp4HSI A06H CBoeTO oCB060»<.QeHHe. ETo I1MeHHO Bb TOBa apene HaCTaHa 11 CMbpTHI1S1Tb 4aCb Ha l1eHHyepCKI1S1 «opnycs, I<OHTO 6-B noxpum, 60HIJHTt 3HaMeHa Ha TYP4HSI Cb 6ntcxeaa cnaaa, kaxaatc CB'STbTb p lsnxo 6twe Bl1m.Qanb.
HOBaTa TYPCKa apMH"

Yna,lJ,bl<bT'b aa Typ. U,HJI. YHHw,olKeHHe aa HeHH'fepCKH"

Ha

HH3aMH ,lJ,lKe.o.H,IJ,'b.

15 IOHI1H 1826 r. HeHJ14epCI<HSI 1<0pnyc's Bb !..lapHrpa.Qb, OTb 411HTO penoae

Cb MI'i'\Ka ce H3TpbrBaxa 4aCTH aa nOTYw, aaae aa rpb4KOTO Bb3CTaHI1e, BCI141{0 51 O.QmaKa I111H pont, npa e.Ql1Hb 6YHrb 6H~e 4aCTb H3Tpe6eHb, a APyraTa My 4aCTb peanp'scuara OTb ronoaer s 11 nyuixar s Ha BtPHHT'S BOHCI<H HH3aMH .Q»<e.QH.Qbaa HMnepl1S1Ta. Ha f\Tb·MeH.QaHb 11 Bb nerrenHllIeTO Ha HeHH4epCI<HT'S orpOMHH l<a3apMH, I<OHTO 6H.Qoxa H3ropeHI1, 6H.Qe norpeoaaa no TOSI Ha4HHb crapara aoeaxa cnasa ua TYP411S1 11 OTb TOSI .QeHb 3aXBaLL\a I1CTOpl1S1Taaa aapO.QHaTa Beye apMI1S1 aa CI'I\:LL\aT6.

HOBaTa apMHSI Orb 20.000 6bp>He ce pa3BH AO 120.000 AYWH OTb BCHl.JKH pOAOBe Op/l\.>HHs!. TS! ce 06JU1Lfawe H 06yxaaauie no eBponeHcKH. Bb HeS! Me>HAY "IY>HAeHJ.I,HTl; HHCTPyKTOpl1 6l;we OTb 1835 AO 1839 r. 11 CraHaJlHS! nO-KbCHO 3H6MeHI1Tb rpacpb XeJlMYTb Kaprrs BeuxapmCPOHb MonrKe, KOHTO B3e YLfaCTHe Bb BOHHaTa cpeury KIOPAHTl; Bb 1838 r. 11 Bb TaS! cpeuiy Eruner s, Bb CHPI1S!, 11 Bh 60S! npa HH3H6b, ae KOHTo uie Ka>HeMb CJleAb ManKO ABe AYMH nose-re. TaS! HOBa apMHS! ce Ha6Hpawe no 3aKOHa aa 3aAbn>HHTenHaTa cnY>H6a sa OTeLfeCTBoro, xoiiro, ofiaxe Aonyw.awe HaH-Wl1pOKH 11 nexa orxynBaHI1S1.BOeHH(lTa cny>H6a MO>HeXa na 113nbnHS!BaTb cano MIOCIOJlMaHHTt H TS! nerua rnaBIIO BbPXY 6eAHOTO H CenCKO aacenenae. TOS! HaLfHHb KbpBaBI1S!Tb AaHbKb He 6twe 06UJ.b, a TOBa HaManSiBawe l<aLfeCTBaT6 aa CbCTaRa aa apMHS!Ta H nOApasaure l.JYBcTBHTemlo HpaBcTBeHHTl; OCHOBI1 aa caMaTa BoeHHa cnY>H6a. 3a Ha60pa Bo KIOPAHcTaHb, eTO KaKBO nauie MOJlTl<e Bb CUOHTl; B iefe i.iber die Zustende und Begebenheiten in der Turkel aus den Ib.iren 1835-1839, a HMeHHO Bb IlHCMOTO CH

no

OTb

23

MapTb

1839 r.:

• HII60Pl,Tb ce SlBSlBII npOCTO nneHb S6 TI1S1rnoae : HMa cene, KOI1TO C}f; OCTIIHanH nl1WeHI1 OTb MnllAH xopa CIloc06HH 311 pa60TII: Tp'B6Ba All CTe npHc~TcTByBllnl1 HII TBKbBb eAI1Hb nOBb sa XOPII, Tpt.6sl1 All CTe BI1Ai;nH All npl1CTHrBTb HOB06pBHl.\I1T'B Cb BbPSIIHH p}f;l.\e 11 O'IH IIbnHI1 Cb nltBb. 3) All plIs6epeTe, KaKb np6BHTenCTBOTO, Bbnp'BKI1 A06paT6 CH nons , npaaa npOTHBHa Ha ce6e CH nyuiare HII TOSI HllpOA'b. HenocptAcTBeHI1T'B 3nl1HI1 Bn'BKOTb SII 6}f;AIIWeTO e,ll.HO HeoTpII311MO lIaMllneHl1e HI1 11 TI1Ka pt,ll.KOTO TypCKO HllceneHHe; ocsems H3'1epn8aHe ro HII oT6pallHTenlll1Tt. Cp1>ACTOa, paspyuiaear» ce HanbnHo 11300PI1T'B, OTb rnero T'B I1STH'IIIT"b·.

4epHTt sexe He CiY\W.eCTBYBaxa. TYPI.l,HSI ae-re son-sure BOHHa Cb HapOAHa apMHSI. VI Bb HayanOTO Ha HeHHaTa soeana I1CTOPHSI npn BCI1YKOTO YHcneHO npeBb3XOACTBO, nanese He ce nOKp'l1 Cb cn~BaTa, Cb KOSITO CTpawHHTt HeHHyepCKH KopnYCH BtKoBe ys HyaBaXa no-pane 3HaMeHaTa Ha TYPI.I,HSI. Bb nHCMOTO CH OTb 4 IOHHM 1838 r., KaTO onacaa excneAHI..\HSlTa cpeuiy KIOPAI1Tl;, MOJlTKe na eAHO MtCTO Ka3Ba' "K~raTo ce npOH3Be>HAaWe aTaK6Ta aa cerioro, BHAtXb e,QHH~ BOHHHKb na H3npa3Ba nyurxara CH KbMb He6eTo 06pbw.aHKH rnaaara CH H6 npyrara crpana . " f\ pxanauns, xeaax s My a Ha ' ){/I\.Ae crpensurs TI1? 3apapb OHKb, 6a6aMb, HHwannaXb ; I OTroB~P~ H rpbMHa npyr i, ascrpem, no C/I\.UJ.HSI Ha4HHb u YPAY OHHaT6 Bb 1839 r. Me>HAY TYPI.I,H5I H Bb3CTaHanl1~ Ernner-s aa MexMe,Qb f\nH 6twe eAHO ropYHBO H3nHTaHHe aa HH3aMI1 A>HeAHAb 11 06w.0 sa apMI1S1Ta H6 HMnepl1S!Ta. Bb CTaHa~OTO Cpa>H;~He npu HH3H6b, aenane-n, OTb 6HpeA>HHKb Me>HAY nerrs H HHTa6b Bb CHPH5I, aa 24 IOHHH C}I\Il.(aTa rOA~Ha n H TypCKH CH~11 57 r: rafiypa, 5?- ecxanpoue 11 150 Op/l\.,QHSI H e~neT~KI1 BOHCKH rafiypa, 48 eCKaApOHa H 160 op/l\.,QI1S1TypI.I,HT nper'sprrsxa rrsnao nopaseexae, KaTO nanoxa 9 xl1nSlAI1 ~neHeHH .11 rporpea 18.00J nyuixa, 144 0P/l\.AI1S1; OCBeHb TOBa a ~peAMocTBOTO yxpenneaae npa 6HpeA>HHKb erHnTSlHHTl; ~aM puxa ouie 35 Te>HKI1 0P/l\.AHSI. ETO sa TOSI 60H Hl;KOH OTb ene>HKI1Tt H6 MOnTKe Bb nl1CMOTO My OTb 12 IOnHH 1839 r. J

es

HaHCTHHa penHrH03HOTO "IYBCTBO H cntnara nocnywHOCTb Ha TYPI..\Hrl; no OTHoweHHe Abp>HaBaTa, xaro npI1Bl1nHrHpOBaH~ nnexe, nOMaraxa CHJlHO aa na ce Cb1AaAe eAHa HaAe>HAHa apMI1S!, 06al.Je, HY>HAI1Tt lia >HHBOTa, l<aKTO CTaBa BI1HarH, ce oxaaaxa nO-Cl1nHI1 OrKOJlKOTO caMHTt HAel1, aKO uiere nasce H orb caMI1Tt 3aKOHH. CVaHaTI13bMbTb Ha MIOClOnMaHHTt ce OKa3a MOr/l\.w.b noaese npeAb 6el0p/l\.>HHHTl; npOTHBHHI.I,H H HacenetlHS!, OTKonKOTO npeAb paBHOCTOHHH Henpl1S1TenH. TypJ.I,I1S1sese He MO>HeWe na ce 60PH Cb ace noaexe 11 noaese HaI.l,HOHanH3Hpaunrr s ce apMHH na CBOHTl; npOTHBHHI.I,H. ,D.oKa3aTenCTBOTo aa TOBa C/I\. PYCKO-TYPCKHT5 H APyrl1Tt BOHHH, I<OHTO aexe ce BOASlTb aa TepHTopHS!Ta H6 TypCKaTa I1Mnepl1S!, H npa KOHTO l.JHCneHOTO npeBb3XOACTBO BHHarl1 e 611Bano Ha TypCKa CTpaHa. Ha 11 IOHHH 1829 r. Bb OTKpHTb 60H npn KlOneB'Ia 28 XHnSiAH PYCH 06pbw.aTb Bb 6l;rb 30 XHnSlAHa rypcua BOHCKa HH3aMH A>HeAHTb, KOM6HABaHa OTb CaMHSI BenHKb Be3Hpb: ",IJ,oporH 6binH nOKpHTH nOB03KaMH, OPYAiSlMH H 6poweHbiMb OPY>HieMb" rn. 4eKMapeBb, f\Tnacb Cpa>HeHiH XIX BtKa. Q6caAeHHTt KpenOCTH Epaxna. CHnHCTpa H Bapaa xensr s, H"5Ma na Ka>Hi:l KaTO xpyum, HO see nanar s. f\ ,D.H6H'Ib 3a6anKaHCKH Cb He ronl;MH CHnH saenan's QAPHHb Aa>He 6e3b 60H. VleH~-

•••• .QOKaTO Bb TypCKHSI nare erHnTSlHHTt uepyaaure MI1SepHSI' p~ ce Xap'leXlI 0rpoMHH CyMH, Bb TOSI ua 6 rpe ra OTb IlIlWIIT8: erHneTCI<HTt 'BO~H:~a:I1H:~:Xlla lie nocruraure ,11.0eAHII nY'lIlSl1nH 311 18 Meceua 3I1nnIlTHTi; CI1-. nanerx« 11 He 6i;xa no-

f\ xoraro Orxpana OrbHb
He 6t.~~· 'n~~p:C:~:O

60S!Tb

nosaarn,

H aprnnepasra
HHTO eAI1Hb

aa erarrrsuar-s
TII6yp'b. KOHTO All

O~~H~:11 aH~1I OCTIIIlII

~::~;we I1 H36YXlIhwe nocptA'b eAll~O~~~~113a~r~~~~ '~~T~I<~:~a~~ r:.:~~:~ C CTPIIH~' " B::eA'bceTPoH 'ieTDbpTI1 '-tllca IIpTHnepl1HC1<1I crpentie OTb ABeTt; ••• I1lKAIIXII TonOBe H AIIlKe ea .L npSllKl<H All ce OTTerJlSl • MO KOlle C'b cpb3aHH 311' Ullnl1 .• , nOAb npeTeI<C:~ :al1~~~:~SI IItl<OI1 MYHHUl10HHH Kona 6 sxa 1136yx· AyWH OTb eAHl1lK Tb paHeHI1. OTTerJlSlXII ce rpynH no 4-5 11 npOCTO H3ry6:11~:.:,· Bb06w.e. Db MOpanH) OTHOWeHl1e 60llT'b 6i;we '-tHCrO

f\ Me>HAY TOBa 3ary6HTt
noaese He OSPBIIM'b.6 npoAbnlKIIBII OTb 1000 Ha ASCHI1S1q,naHr~ ~~~8~A~~H~:H.~. CH P}f;K8 TOH Hockwe 3Ha ' A

C/I\. 6Hmf
MonT xe, HII

HI1~O>HHI1.
6 OHIIOTO none ~ AB e HMllno naura OTI1Ae coticraeuara

rn~IIHoKoMIIIIAYIOWHlITb uaM pH CMbPTbTII CH. Cb

0611'1e Ta6YPbT'b He ro no~~;~o:l ~I1Hb TII6YPb peAHqJl1 OTb rSIlPAHSlTa, TI10a A'blllKeHHeTO Ha TOSI 60H' 6pHr~AII IIJlI<O All ce pII31<aSBa 311 npoCM'bPTbTII H8 COOli x 115 . Til In IIMAH naura ce aannaui« OTb 6HHOKbna nanpen's p n bp'b HII'IlInHHKb. y6HTb aora'ro HI16nlOAa0l1We C'b

OX

HSBbHb penoaer-s. ~~. ny~~:aTsa" c~~enllwe .0Tb OrpOMHI1 PIl3CTOIlHHlI, 'teCTO CB'bpWI1 BCH'IKO. MOlKe All ce Ka 3AYX~. KOHHHl.\aTa ce npbella 11 CKOpO WHTH HIIH-,o.06pe OTb OCH'IKH. lKe KIIH'HIIKPIIH, xe apTl1nepHSITII ce 311·

f\TaKaTa

He OAPHHl>

33

32
Bb

f\TaKeTa

ua OAPHHl> .QHrt

taxa aapeseaara
nOBHKaTb AO

Kpl1McKa

BOs1Ha, KOSITO nOYHa

OTHa-

npu

enaa

Bb

canara rypcxa BOHHa cpeuiy

I1Mnepl1S1, XPHCTHSlHCKI1S1Tb eneMeHTb 6anKaHCKI1Tt Abpm8SI1 le SlBSIBawe c06CTBeH HerosaT8 KoeTO HHe

xano noxa
AHxa KoeTO

MemAY PYCHSI H TYPIJ,HSI Bb >HeCrOKO pa36HTH npa F\xanlJ,Hrb H

cano

na

aa

1853 r., Caaorn,

TYPllHTt 6HH ce npHHYBb TaSi BOHHa

HeYA06eHb, a n03HaB8xa HI1S1 aaporrs, CI1 apMHSI? 6txa CKHIJ,HpaXMe H XHnH038

npa

Heycnl;xb Aame 11 spenerrs. nl1 BCHYKH H8WH Ha4anHI111H HagemAHo apMI1S1, rypcKHSI H3Y4BanH

c06CTseHaTa nl1 rpl1mnHBO AO TyKb? nereHAl1rl; Vlml H

aaporn,

nOMO~b

F\HrnHSI, ¢paHIJ,HSI H CapAHHvHSI,

AOBeAe

06caAaTa

TypcKara

uaponaa apMHSI He ce OTmlYH Cb Ht~O oc06eHO. Bb aa-rancro Ha oficanera rt HMaxa caxo 7.000 AYWI1 enaa AI1BI1311S1 TypU,H noms KOMaHAaTa na cppeHCKI1S1 reueparrs IOcecpb, a Bb MaH 1855 r. 28 XHnSlAI1 npu 100 XHnSlAI1 cppaHu,Y311, 32 XI1nSlAI1 aHrnl1yaHI1 11 1~ XHnSlAI1 CapAHHu,I1. VlCTI1HCKOTO 113nHTaHI1e sa rypcxara cuapeaexaa apMI1S1 6twe pycuo-rypcxara BOHHa Bb 1877-78 r., KOSITO ce YBtHya
Cb oCB060mAeHI1el0 Ha 6bnrapHSI. Bb OKOmfTt Ha nntBeHb

aa

Ceeacronorrs.

BCI14KO TOBa,

na

ce HaMl1paXa nom, 04apOBaHI1eTO cnaaara Ha crapara apMHSI - HeHHOTrOBopHTl; no TI1S1Bbce CMl;C-

4epHTt Ha TYPllHSI? Pa3YMHI1Tl; xopa uie npOCH He Bb

aa

cne-renesar s
Ha

HaMtpSlTb n06eAH,

nero

nO-I1HTHMHO

Morlf'~eCTBOTo BOs1CKI1Tt, a Bb

rrenaa
nemH, 6e3b

xona

na

KOMaHAYBaHeTo BOHHaTa, Bb

Cb Morlf'~eCTBOTo Ha nponYCHaTI1Tt BenI1KO-

raxa

TYPlJ,l1Tt nposaaxa Benl1KOnenHI1 xaxecraa: npa Jlose-rs cxuto TYPU,I1Tt ce 611xa Bb Abn60KI1 OKOnl1 11 He no sne, r nasuo nopana H3BeCTHI1 TaKTl1yeCKI1 rptwKI1 aa pycxo ro I<OMaHAyBaHe:

cnYY811 11 Bb Kone6aHI1S1Ta, 4e CIf' fiyuiyeana Bb nyurara cbMHeHHe,
Bb

aa

KOI1TO I1CTOpl1S1Ta uie orfieH1;KOI1 BI1CWI1 HaYanHI1IJ,I1.

OTb
r.

ABeTl;

CTpaHH.

BoiiH8T8

nnnca
He

craraar»
cano na

aa

MaHeBpl1paHe;

ycrrsxu
nopana

npa

npa

Lllanxa

1912

MHorOKpaTHO

I-Ia no'1I1CneHHO npeBb3X01lCTBO KOMaHAYBaHe rranca nopana neCHO nOAAanO-3HaYI1MaCH ce OKa-

Tt

He Momaxa

MaHeBpl1paHe

saae ua
TenHO

rptwKH aa TYPCKOTO HO YI1CTO 11 npocro pa3CTpOHCTBO Bb

Bb nl)nHTH'feCKO OTHoweHHe He 6t;we H3HeHa,o,a.

BOHHaTa Bb ;912 r. Bb nOnl1Tl1yeCKO OTHOuieaae He 6l;we eAHO cnY4aHHo I1nl1 BHe3anHO

npaxaasaure

HCTopH4eCKO cb6HTl1e. 3a HeSi ce rOAI1HH norrs perrs, TSI 6twe pa3BI1TI1eTO

HpaBCTBeHO

CbnpOTHBneHl1e.

raa

npa cp suiaae ua

110rH4eCKa

nOCl1eAI1u,a OTb

BOHHa TypCKI1Tt

aaxa

ce

Cb nO'Cl1nHO naHHyeCKO Bb06pa>l<eHl1e, OTKonKOTO Bb06~e saaeure H AOKonKOTO ouie rocnoncraysaure nereunara aa T. e. HeHH4epCKaTa H Hen06eAI1MOcTb. 4HcneHO Tt H3ry611xa Hagb MaKapb

aa

OCTpOBa Bb XIX BtKb, nanaraure cpaTanHO no CIf'~ecTByBaHeTO. 6bl1rapl1 6l; 6txa

r118BHO Ha 6bl1rapCKI1S1 aeporrs. TSI ce CI111aTa Ha 118i1-el1eMeHTapHHTi; HymAI1

na

HapO.Ql1rl;

Bb

nOl1Y-

TSI Momewe

na ce
TaSl

11361;rHe, aKO MaKeAOHaKO OTb TYPlll1S1 BoHHa.

rypcxara,
BOHHaTa,

CI<I1Tl;

nO-TbpntnHBI1

11, r l1aBHO, Abp>+<aBa Mo>+<ewe, KOHTO

na

HCKpeHO

HMaxa 6txa

npeBb3xOACTBO

PYCHTt, 3aw.OTO Hl;Maxa Ha HeHI1'1epI1Tl; H 3aw.OTO AI1HI1Tl; 60TSlTb H BtKoBeTl;, BCptAb

aexe xpaacraeuoro
npocnana

npea s KOHTO cnenaaure nepona H apnusre CH, aa na
BOHHa Bb

npeBb3xoACTBO Bb 6e3rpl1>1<He r orpHmnHBO MoraTb

Tel1Ka aa MaKeAOHI151 11 KaTO HI1T1; 6anKaHCKH CTpaHH, caxo BaHKI1 ce KbMb Ab1160KI1Tl;

»cenana

na

1136trHe

na

na pa-

no-cansa Typuas npo-rsa«,

Karo

npareseaOTAl;l1-

pa3YI1-

Bb3pamAaHeTo l1a 6bnrapl1Tt, Cb neCHI1Ha XO.Qb Ha cb6I1TI1S1Ta. 6ene>l<I1TI1Tt Bb3CTaHHSI Ha MaKenOHCKI1Tl; 6bl1rapH Bb

npacnocotisHaCT~nI1Xa cnem, Aa nane Apyrb
He

rar s
nenao

Ha ycrrsx-s. Bb rpblJ,KO'TypCKaTa crparerasecxo

1897
H

1902

11

1903 r.
Cb yenl

11 TtXHHT-B H AeHHOCTb,

60p6H 6txa

caxo

Cb nlf'TSI Ha

r. npl1 npa

eAHO BenOKOSlBHO YHcnellO He vAaAoxa, BOHHa. Tl;

60M6H neua

H AI1HaMI1Tb, KYl1TypHa

ABl1meHI1S1. HO 11 Cb HaH-YCI1nOCOYHl1l1 Cb I1HTepeCHTl;

CbcptAoTOYeHHe

lIaAMO~He, 130 XHnSiAH cpeuiy xaxro Momewe na ce OY8KBa, cnesenaxa BOHH8Ta, HO cpaKTHyeCKOTO pa3SHTI1e He Mom8 na ce ysenHYH aa nonyoc'r poaa. uanpe>HeHHeTO, car-s. nbpBI1Tt BrOpI1Tl; KoeTO HMaxa CaMHTt

65

11 npoca -

XHnSl.IlH, TYPllHTl; enxa CbKpywHTenHa

sa eAHHb HMnepl1S1Ta

no-nocronene-rs
H3XOAb

srxa
11

no-csorsere-rs

aBTOHOMI1S1Ta Ha

MaKeAoHHSI

ofia-re

npeCTH>HbTb HMb, KaTO 60HllH npa Ha onep811HI1Tl; 11 60eBeTl;, Cb HH~O uapona na xoraro noaea Bb 3ary611 '1epTaSlTb ce H Benl1411HaTa H6 nanaa 11

TYPIJ,HTl; npemAeBpeMeHHO cnptxa THSlTa. KaHTo ce aaae, KaTO nnon's Ha MaKeAOHCKI1Tt rpaaau» 06naCTb 6bl1rapl1, 6twe nom, eTHl1yeCKH CTpaTHBH8

npaBI111HI1S1 XOAb Ha cb6HOTb nOMeHaTI1Tt Bb3CTaHHSI Bb 6bnrapCKHTt.

Bb Cb3HaHHeTO na HeBOIOBaw.HTt rbpU,rlTt H TYPlJ,l1Tt 11

MaKeAOHI1S1 060c06eHa Bb Ha

H.

orrrsnae

aAMHHHeBpOneHCKI1

CbOTBeTHO

cpb6cKo-6bnrapcKaTa y611TI1 11 paae+nr H 11

BOHHa Bb 1885 r. HHe I1MaMe 5.200 gYWH 1.467 nneaena, a cbp6l1Tl; CbOTBeTHO 5.316 Bb

3.279 3.785

y611TH H paHeHH

152

AYWH.

247 Toraa s

xo-rrpona

BenHKI1Tl;

nneueaa,

CI111I1.Ho, TOBa 060c06S1BaHe MO>l<eWe na S3eMe cpopMaTa ace r.aKb aarn.nuo naTpl10Tl14eCKaTa, Bb He

pxuer-s

aa MaKeAOHI1S1, KoeTO nOCTeneHHO Ha enna aBTOH()MHa npOBHHIJ,HSI H6 CYl1TaHa, He ce paafipa OTb WOBHHHCTI14eCHaTa, ",aCTb H8 TYPIJ,H notrspaexa na 0651-

Ka3BaMb

Cnerrs MnaAoTypcKaTa pesornouas a saenoxa 3aAbnml1TenHa soeaxa cnY>I<6a
OPI1 CIf'llJ,eCTBYIO~I1Tt OTHoweHHSI

1 .641

40Bl;Ka.

1908

TYPCKOTO 06w.eCTBO. r. TYPU,HTt

naTp110TI1T1;

3

H 38 XPHCTI1S1HHTl;, HO

11 HaCTpoeHHS1 Me>HAY aapo-

RTal<aTa

ua

O,o:pHlIb

35
H CKonHe".

HII'll
II

CUOSlT6Mn6AOTypCKa
110

peaomouas,

KaTO

a speaxa. na
xa

'-Ie CMi;-

ra

eqHHb

uap

s

oaaa-raaa

AeHCTBHTenHO cMi;Ha

I,KonCllb '.pe3b

peH<HMb.

MnaAOTyp~HTi; Bb

noacxaxa
H

ucnacaaar a

aa

eAHHb

''CO¢HSI

H nnOBAHBb

KbMb

UaplHpa,Qb

s
He Ha

I1MnepHSlT8 Ype3b KopeHHH TyPCKHSl

BR\TpeWHH npoMi;HH H Bb

nOnHTHyeCKH CXBa~aHHSlTa

nOCTpOHKH,

Bb TOSI 6bnrapCKH TPY,Qb ce npae CpaBHHTeneHb lIHanH3b Ha q,aKTopHTi;,

sure

e,QHHb nO,Qp06eHb OTb KOHTO 3aBHCi;we

napom,

OTHoweHHSlTa My KbMb

no-xynrypxar

paxrepa

enua

s

BOHHa MeH<AY 6'bnrapHSI H TYP4HSI, a HMeHHO: YMCTBeHO pa3BHTHe, nOnI1TH'-IeCKO ynpaBneHl1e, EKOHOMHyeCKO P63BHTHe eHeprHSI, TeXHHyeCKa nO,QrOTOBKa H 60eBO Bb3nHTa:

uiaxa

nOAYHHeHH HeMY 6bnrapH H npyra XPHCTHSlHCKH HapO~H. J.1 noaesce nOnHTHyeCKaTa npoersaa, KOSlTOMnaAOTyp~HTi; H3BbpCb BbBeH<AaHe xa KOHCTHTY~HOHIIHSl nepnaxearapem, peH<I1M'b, He 6i;we cbnpOBoAeHa Cb npo-rsua Ha nyurara H

MopanHa

HHe, MaTep,!Slnb, neXOTHO 0pR\H<He, Bbop;v;,»<eHH CHnH, 1<0MaHnyea He, I< 0 11 Hap 0 .£IbM 0 H<e A a p 0 A H B 0 e H H 11 SI r e H H H reo I<bBb MeT p H K 0 - M e x a H H 4 e CK H Mome C b 0 6 p a H<e H H SI,

I< a ~ ii,

M6HTamITeTa LUHnb

ua

TYP'-IHTi;,

TO H

H3CTR\nneHHSlTa Ha TYP~I1Ti; H KoyaHH, "Ie BCHYKO BbpBH no

cnpano

npa

HOBHSl peH<HMb He 6bnrapI1Ti;. aK~HI1 cMi;HeHH 6i;xa SlCHO

Knaserera caao
xepr

cnp sxa
Bb aaxe, BOH-

n a 6~Ae
pa3B/[THe

B1;pOSlTHI1S1

~ 11 T 1;, B i; p 0 51 T H H SI 80 e He H b Bi;pOSlTHO 3 a I< !l 10 "I e H He, Ha YeTHTi;. n p 11 no H<e H He:

06e30pN\H<HTenHHTi;

a

nn

nn ea

i,

aH b

Ha 6 b

n rap
11

ua

TypHT

a

BoeHHHTi;

AeHcTBHSI Tal<THK~

crapas perrs :
MOH<e Hi;KOH BOHHaTa Bb B'b ¢opMaTa BH~Tb

Hi;K<:H

OpraHH3a~HSl

naua,

HO CHCTeMaTa npO,Qb11H<aBaWe na

OCTaBa CR\~aTa. Sl r.

H

HaTa AOH,Qe, 6e3b
BO~HaTa H"lHeHaAa eHHO He If 6t;we Bb BO-

na

na

cnpe.
He 6i;we e,QHHb H3HeHa,l1a H 3,Qpa-

1912 He

OTHoweHHe.

Ha HeHHoTo

pa3BHTHe.

B'b ras 6bnrapCKa KHl1ra aa ,Qei1CTBHSlTa Ha OAPI1HCKHSl TeaTbpb, HapOYHO 3anneTeHI1 oxono KpenOCTbTa OAPI1Hb no C'b06paH<eHHSI, KOHTO aarop-s rj, e HaMi;pHnb 36 .Q 6pe na 0 cnenaa, ce Ka3Ba:
OLlPI-1t-lCKJ.1 nosene TOBII Til na uie noae-re AHBb MOTHI<II ce5e A II <:HpII CH, cjJ0 CBoeTO ce OTb uie H YB"BH'flle TERTbPb. Cb KorllTo 3I1nIlAH!lTa KbMb OIlPHHb pII3lrtflH uie Ob11nlpCI<II ~Hnb. IIPMHII w,e see

pa3yM'b

'10,QCKa3Bawe, POSlTHI1S1 XOAb

npa
aa

aa

¢aKTHyeCKOTO n0110H<eHHe cb6HTHSITa. MaHeBpI1Tt.

aa

caxo

BOeHeH'b BOHCKa

H15~aTa, uBi;-

AeMOHCTpIITHBHO

HIICT}IO;nnelfl1e eA1I1I rp03HII norerna eAHHb ae uie 6bnr

I<O~TO npa BbOpliI.)f(elill OTb

ua rypcxara

ycrrsx-s,
v

ObnrapCl<1I

Mllca 11pea~ n110Buie .!leI<bMb e 11b cjJopce

Bb 190911 1910 r. Bb I-I3ToYHa TpaKI1S1, opHeHTHpaHH ~ npa npen'lOnOH<eHHe Ha eAHO Haw e C T B H e aa 6bnrapCKH BOI1CKH KbMb IOrb
11

150.000
III1CT}IO;nH

AYWH, I<bMb

uie

H ll,apHrpIIllb.

npHCT}IO;nH .!lPIlMII, no

I<bMb

AeHCTBHe, I<IIBllnll, KIITO

PCKH CYBOPOBb

61>nO-Mope.

1YP~HII
nOTernH TypCI<H I1Ma

1111ABe. I<bMb MaCH 3 II All

Bb

CN\~aTa H Bb 6i;xa

30Ha,

6i;xa

np03paYHH

OTb KbMb ~a60Be

CBOHTi; KOH-

npeeaexe

KCIHITH, HII'fHHb,

rIOMlOpA)f(IIHa, IIPMHII. lill raxoaa TOil Bb

cenuua
rypua

CBOHTi;

uen 11. Feaepanaar's
H Ha ,QHI1Ti;

aa

6'b11rapl1

HanpaBH1111 BCHYKH CMi;TKH no H npOTHBHHKOBHTi;

M06H11H3a'-lI1I1Ti; H3YHcnHnH 3aBbpwBaHe

rue OOnel<'fA panll}1I IIa P C ~ P II T P II I< 1111C I< II
pIIBH~Ha) epene, • HII

TOil

npHBn"Bye r11I1BHIITII Tap AIIAIITb

no-rorrsx«

KOIITO uie CYBOPOBb.

u

a B H 11H a

(nOA'fepTIISlIMe: 6naronpHIITCTBHe 11H~eTO HII H eAHII no 110XBllnH cjJOPMII uie eAHHb eAHO rp

Ha c06CTBeHHTi;

BOHCKH, 6i;xa

Tpal<HHCl<lITII

.!leucTBHIITII

I<OHTO ure ObnfllpCI(OTO

1<0nHyeCTBOTO Ha TpeHOBeri;

aa

aa

OCliI.)f(AaTb nllli.HITII.

rrspao

uie

11111<11101OTnOC11e 1<0llTO 113b Obl1TIII<bBb HII-

cbcpi;,QOTOYeHHeTO H, KaKTO ce 811H<Aa, u6i;xa ,BCHYKO OTb ,QHHaMHyeCKaTa ofinacr s na eOHHaTa, THSlra ~i;nH 60p6a.

npeABHAi;nH ofie se, C'b6HnpeABI1K'bpBaea

LUOTO HOBIITII IIHH6anUl,HHII.

Bb3POAeH1

I<OMIIHAYBIIH_, uie npeAH313HI<II HII ~"BIlHII 06pII30BIIHb CBt;Tb. KbMb cera 'fHHb, Bb H! Mora MilCH I"IIPCI<HTl; cTlIcjJlI·nawli HII B'h ABaHIIAeceTHII All Bb I<IITO HnH CH

06U(OTO

YAHBl1ellHe lib

noxaaaxa,
Bb TOBa

'-Ie Ti; HH~O

HnH nOYTH HH~O

He 6i;xa 11 3 r ce a H H. 6i;xa

neus

1111 BOHHIITII, reliHIITb I<bMb OAPHllb, JlrllpHT't II CHIlH uie

OTb nCHX011orH4eCKaTa BOHHaTa Bb

ofinacr n

s Ha

eaearyannara
CT

npeACTIIBlI,

OOpOIlTII Ii

H'~CO'fH

nOC11eAHO HMeHHO HeHHOTO

OTHoweHHe,

ne

H<~ a,

IOtKHl 6bnrllpWII
npel\H3BHI<II Me)f(AY apMHII TYPCI<II Ii ero l~e H

OAP~II"

se

LUOTO

TypCI<Hrb npeTbplfH

OTI<PHT'h 3!1Bbpme

DOH I<bMb no

pa3BHTHe a e T i; res

OKa3a nHC8HH

/'Ity_

'b 11H

a

H 3 He H

a

A

a

H

3

a

cpamelfHe neTHT~ OAPHllb Bb OTb I<OMY-

P

1<0eTO TYPCI<IITII OTCT}IO;nBIlU(IITII TpH K0110HH no

roni;MH MIIPHlUI. CYPOBOBb, ll,lIpHrplIAb,

nOpa)f(eIlHII. TYHD,)f(1I uie ce

MeH<AY TOBa, rO,QHHH npenn

BOHHa

BOUCI<!!. 0 H

LUe 6nOI<HpIITl.

'TaTHH H '-I'511H TpYAOBe. Bb H'5KOH OTb KOHTO Cb roni;~a npaBAonOA06HOCTb ce sepraeure Bb3MOH<HHSl XO,Qb ua BOI1aara 11 ,QaH<e Bb H'5KOH OTHoweHHSI C'b .. 6 nop63HTenHO rap H CT a H npopoCe yeCKO npos peaae. ~Ha11eHb Ha TYPCKH e3H Kb Ha,QcnOBb: CiVi.weCTBYBa e,QHH'b cne-

Te'feHHeTO

1111 pbl<HTb DbnrdpCI<HII I<bMb Hlli

H RpAII. III1CO'fH

C}IO;1J~OTO BpeMe ~IHI<II111101l1fIlTII lOr". rllpCl<u

OTPJlAbTb l1HIiHII uie A

I<IITO pll3PYWI1

1111TYP~HTt oneplI~HII

Ii

TII~. weMenl il U'lHCI<II II

)Cl1H!lOCTbTIi BlIl1MIIHHe

H AHC~HnnHHIITII 1111l.It;nHII H II C.. t;Tb;

1111 Ob11' 01106 b n0 5. uie Til

y,o:l1BlITb

OOUOTO n P HBn M II C H

TPY,Q'b nom,

Yn

n-

I< II A II Til" r II p Ii II; C II A H II II Bb Bb

0
no

P

11II b n

11-1 e If II

t

'f e

A Y X 'b T b na

U t; 11II b Oop6

cenel1 TeXaH11S1T'bH,QaH CO¢HSl,QaH <1>H11H6e,QeH Ile p c a n e r r e na cun 11M H ur -rpesom, caHb

J.1cKlO6e r e n e n sc e x H6 rpyrre, cnacana-

0 n b 11'1 e II U H I< 0 P nyc CIlOHT"li

U( e

n p H C T H r HaT H ...... lIpHl\II,

I< 'b M b

(nOA'f

_DTIIBIIMe:

On'b11'fe~II.IH s nlil.Tb Bb uie

MaCH); xe

6}1O;Ae enH'fHII 1<1·PBH, ure OOSlTHIiTII

pa3MtpH

H cjJopMa

HIIHOBO

nOTbHlInll rc nneMe AbpI<pb' If a

?"

OTb MexMegb (no6ega) aa e,QHa xacre

3aTH, OTb Bb

KaTO

npanoseeaae

HHeTO "3a¢ep'b"

19J2

r., TPYJlb

rtpencraanaaaurt,

ua

H3npIITH 3 D'bnrIlPCI<OTO 1111KanOIlHII. II

nocncneu
rOBHII '"

Cb113HT-B HII CBOII AYXb YMb, nper'aaar-s

ure

6tnO'Mope. I<OHTO TIlIIT'b ynopcTBO, HerOBHTt; HerOBIITII

OTb nO,Q06eH'b 6bnrapcKH 1903

nOTOMllHTb mIlBIIH'f'!CI<H BO>t<IIAHOCTb.

11 113,Qa,QeHb ouie

r.,

nom,

aancnom, : .0 T b

CbOOplI)f(eUHII, HerOBaTII

n011I<OBOA4eCI<H

xpll5poCTb

,o:011HHHTt;

36

I1TIIl<aTa

Ha

OAPHH'b I1T81<ara Ha OAPHHb

37

MIIPHQII, MOpe

uie

3116HlITb

6'bnrllpCI<HlI 6bnrepcKHlI e

TpHKOnbOp'b 381<0lib 06 CeAIIHb, II B'b 8 n H no C a A II H C TOp

HIIA'b

6ptroBeTt

HII EreRcl<G CB06oA8. no I<pIlTKOr Cb 8HII

101 rue HI!nOlf<IITb CH we

0.11 P H H C I< II TaB 'l'PIIHIIOCTbTII nni.Bcllb, C DOli T8 BOnOMeH'b n CHX 0

n

6bnrapCKIITII CBOllT8

101 II I<

Ii II T III< II, KOllTO 101 T a II H aBO Cb

HllnOMHlI II P T H

I<p'bBOnpOnHTHOCTb HH HTt C BOll no6eA8TII

iu e

ceo

3 II 8 M e HOd

A 101 H II B

n

Cp K

j.j C I< 8

a

A rOT eAHH

0 B I< a,

n
n

6'bn rapCKIITIi u 101 H 8 0 II
KbMb • H8 3n06a 0

nor

n

exoreas we

WYPM'b

H Cb

BenHKH yB'BH'IlIlIT'b II HII Bb

T8I<THI<0II-

H 'I e C I< 101 K 0 U C e BOHCI<8, HII

nu
H8

101 . I<OHTO H

uie

npen.H38HI<8T'b II P M

6 e 3 Y C nOB

C M a H C K 8 T II

H II H we
neTb BtH8

noaeo
HII

a

T II I< II n 101 Y T

nar's Te6e

6e3cnHpHHlI CHMCOH8 Cb AYW8Ta, rnCAIITb

MapWb BenHKHH. MonHTBH Cb lIA'b H

CTCHHTt

U,8pHrpIIAb ACHb'

HOBHT1> nOTOMll.H eHcprHlI H8POAb

I

TbpmeCTBeH'b Cb

YCT8TII, Bb

nOTeHQHlInHII M8CHTt

AHH8MHTHB H8 6bnr8pCKHlI

ft Bb rnaaara 3 a H n 10'-Ie H H e aaropur's Ha TaS! 6bnrapCHa HHl1ra ce 06pbw,a HbMb CBOI1Ti:;npyrapa no I1AeS!H opx>KHe Cb cneAHHTi:; AYMI1:
"U,tnHlITb tt8POAb HII BIlCb HHe, H CI<OPO, Mome BCAIIO Cb

cvpnuero

l"

aa nero
eAtl8 I.IHTt ce we WC na3H

60HHHTt till H8

nonera,
Cb ce

6101, uie Hero,

Bb3nomH

CBOIIHI

CJII,D,68

K81<TO AHeC'b 311 OTe'leCTBeHHlI

BH Bb3n8ra H)lean'b.

TH'ICCK8

He3!1BHCHMOCTb. CMbPTbTIl 1<0llTO 113b TpaAHUHH

oxpaaara ne CBOliTII nonawe norer nHM'b I<bM'b noH8C;, ~C CC H3npt'll+ HMnepHli 3a we H HeAOCTIIT'bCT8paTa e

npeAb

8pMHlI

OnHT!I 6R>,ne n8AMe

na

ce

crapo

nOMJII.'1HX'b B'b

ae

MHllllno,

AOCTOHtlCTB!lTII HeHMoBtpHH neCHO Ha

HmOCTpHpIlM'b. 60p6aTII,

311U1HTH. TSJ we H MHOro UO Cn8BH8 CAHIt'b

ynoTpt6H

YCHnlHI, .118 ce CHnH

ae aaKOH.nYMH

1Q6rpa>l<AaHeTO OAPI1Hb. TYPCKaTa 113TO'lHaapMI1S! 6i:; npaHa aeneaa Bb rrsnao pa3CTpoi1cTBO H nOBceMi:;::THI1 naHI1HH, HO aa TOBa nbl<b OAPHHb 11 rapHI13HOHbTb My Cb cMi:;nl1 HanaAeHI1S! 113BbpWI1Xa 61li:;cKaBo 3aAalJaTa CH: na npaxoaar-s oxono ce6e CI1Bb3MO>t<HOno Be'Ie 6bllrapCHH cl1nl1. Flpocropar s aa TpaKI1S1aese CJr\ OTl<pHTH aa <popCHpaHeTO H OTb 6bnrapCHI1Ti:; BOHCHH.Ho, TYPltHTi:; 6bp>t<e ce CbB311MaTb. Ha nl1HI1S!TaByxap e-Xacep-s - Jbone-Bypract, Ti:; ae-re AaBaTb OTb 15-20 OHTOMBPHHynopa r s orrrop s. Boptiara e rescxa H xp ueonponarua. ABa xpaopa HapOAI1 ce 6HSlTbAOCTOHHO eAI1Hb cpeuiy npyr s. Korrafia, COYA>t<aHb-Aepe, Kapara-rs YOHropa, TlOpl<6eH, Jlione-Byprac-s, Flypanas H 6YHapb-XHcap': CTaBaTb I1CTOpl1'1eCKH HMeHa. Y1 npa 06w,11 6bnrapcI<H 3ary611 noae-re OTb 20 Xl1nSlAI1nyuia, TypCHOTO c'snpornaneaae e cnoMeHO; TYPl.{HTi:; OTCTlKnBaTb Bb 6e3peAI1e, H cnem, enxa no..,HBKa OTHOBO6bnrapHTi:; ncrerrnoearj, sa Lleparparrs, TO'lHO raxa l<aKTO Hi:;Hora BOI1CI<I1Ti:; aa Tepsens, I{pYMa, CHMeoHa, Kanosaa 11 Y1aaHa ftceHb II 6i:;xa ce ABI1>t<enH HbMb ClK~l1S1

rpan-s.

CBOCTO C/I\weCTBYBIIHHe OmCCTO'lCH8 TemMaTa, H T8KbB'b 83b

Espone.
ponll .na

npeAOHAH, BOHHCTBO H3'b H8pOAH.

I<p'bBOnpOnHTH8.

6'bnrepCI<OTO eopOneHCI<HT'i>

nporoua
BCptAb A8

TYPCI<HTt Bb :58

THHCHT8 Ha Mt no T8l1 p b,

.118 B'b3CT8HOBH

TP8HHHlI Dllmellb He we H8weTO

MHpb MOf8

IlpeAb K'bMb

MOMCHTb, BOHHCTBO, 38 Aa

3aKntO'lHTeI1I1HTi;

KHHr8

apyro
Ha

4 HoeMBpHH He naaa OlJaKBaHI1S1crrsx's , Me>t<AY TOBa, TYPltl1S! y e HanbnHO paarpoxeae : MaHeAOHI1S1 Bb pxuer-a aa CbI03HHe 4HTi:;; aaurara 7-a AI1BI1311S1 npa Conyers: Cb yMi:;no HaCO'le
aaae Ha pa3XBbpneHHT-B '1E1CTI1 e>t<AYCTpYMa H MapHlIa CHOPO M 611BaTb nneaeaa OCTaTbl.{I1Ti:;OTb rypcxara apMI1S1- xopnyca aa 5lBepb nawa AO <pepe npa MepxaMnlK aa 14 HOeMBpI1H. OAPHHb e HanbnHO 1130nl-IpaHb 11 06nO>l<eHb. CJr\W,OTO CTaBa H Cb $lHI1Ha 11Il.Ixonpa. Bb 6nI13HHTi:; AHI1 no-rea rrspaoro npaMl1pl1e 11 Abnrl1Ti:; nperosopa sa MHpb. Ho, Ti:; He AaBaTb <>'1aI<B8HI151 pe3YJ1TaTb. Ha 21 SlHyapl1111913 r. nO'IBaTb Ol'HO80 BOeHHI1Ti:; eI1CTBI1S1. eAI1Hb aenauonenea s oT6p8HHTeneHb A Cb 6011 npa Bynaap-s H enua MJr\>t<eCTBeHa0p6a 11araxa sa OT6 611BaHe AecaHTa Ha 30 Xl1nSlAHHSI TypCI<H H?pnycb npH WapX I<bOH, 6bnrapCKI1Ti:; 3HaMeHa ce noxpaeer s OTHOBO Cb naunra cnaaa H YBa>l<eH l1e. CBi:;TbTb OlJaKBa nanauero Ha OAPHHb, $lHI1Ha 11 Hlxonpa, Y1 BOHHaTa cnerrs TOBa e 60p6a aa n03Hl.{I1I1Ti:; npa YaTanA>t<a H oxono Tl1s! rpa KpenOCTI1 no TPI1Ti:; CTpaHI1Ha Esponeacxa Typ41151. APHHb ce 6nOKHpa 11 ooca>t<Aa OTb 6bnrapl1 11 cbp6H, O 5lHI1Ha-CaMo OTb rbPltl1, WHOApa-OTb cbP6H H -repuoropira. He ce IlI1 nopaxcnaure Bb HHCTI1HI<THTi:; a MacHTi:;, H3npan eeHI1 npezrs THSI HpenOCTl1, Hi:;HaHBo cbpeBHYBaHl1e? He 6i:; nl1 nonnoseeaa aa 113nl1TaHI1e nenaxaraara crpyua Ha 'lOBi:;WHOTO cbPAl.{e Ha 6bnrapl1, cbp611, r s P4H H 'lepHOrOp4l1, aacraaena cnem, '-IeTHpI1Bi:;HoBeHb I1CTOpHl.JeCHHCbHb eAHaHBO cpew,y <BOI1Ti:; aaeoeearena >" .
RTaKClTa Ha O.n.PHHb ce Hanara no cunaTa HCI cb6HfHRTa.

EAHa npH6bp3aHa

11 HenOArOTBeHa araxa

aa YaTanA>t<a xa

K8m8, CBOHTt

60eBOTO T H, All

C'bJHaIlHe ce CT'bKMH

.118 KpHCTllnH3Hp8 101 rio 60mHlITa T8KbB'b TypCKHSJ

xB8 onepauaa

ouie ouie

ne

OCBeH'b n CH

,118 anenHpaM'b

H30CTPK

nO'TBbpAO no·6yi1HO, KaTO

X0

6/1\Ae

6 'b

H8'1HH'b,

nOXHTH

TaHHHTt

ua

nor P30

CBOSJ 0 K Bb

o-

H 'I e C I< H CBOHT1;. H3KY-

BOeHHOTO

CTBO,

C'b

nOMOUlb BbOp/l\meHH

101 H8POAIIIIT8 Ai'yr8pH' BHe

nopamcHHlI K8K10

ua
we

acxep's. cneaa",

cana
CTe

All

aauece

HIIH-meCTOKH

Hanpem,

,D,HeCb OTe'leCTBeHIITa

vrpe

cane,

6J11.ACTe HerOB8T8

TOBa 6i:;we Me'-lT8Hl1e, npopovecso npospeuae na MnaAb6bnrapCHI1 nopyvax s, '-II1I1TOCnOBa ovepresaxa, HaHTO ce BI1>1<A2l cera, Bi:;PHO nyxa Ha apMI1S1Ta11 na apenero r oraaa. 3a TOSI TpYAb Bb Die Heere und Flotte n der Gegenwart 1905 r. ae CTp. 88 ce r oaopa, <Ie e .eine strategische Stu die mit vie len richtigen ftngaben uber die Verhaltnisse in de r tUI kischen und in der bulqerischen ftrmee- crpererasecxe CTYAI1S1 MHoro npaaanxa TBbPAeCb HI1S1 cXBaw,aHI1S1 H BbPXY oocroarencrsare Bb rypcxare H 6bllrapcxara apMHH Y1cTHllcHaTa BOHHa, xoraro crpeunnrr-s nonxose aa Ebnrapas no-rer mrxa cp sury TYPltHSI, AOHAe nesere rOAI1HH cnerrs HaTO 6i:; nacaao BCHlJHOTOBa, usrrapaao cera.
It.

HawI1Ti:; no nxose xa 9 OKTOMBPI1Hcpasaxa, He •.• noxeroxa CbcToSlw,aTa ce OTb '1enrpl1 xopnyca H3TO'lHa TypcHa apMHS!Ha nl1HHSlTa Epaxnep-s, ECHI1-nOnOCb, Cenaony H Fexxeana. ,D.eHb cnerrs TOBa r s aaanezrsxa Cb 60H Jloaenrpem, H nOArOTBHxa

n06e.n.OHOCHOTO uaweCTDHC Db TpaKHR Db 1912 r.

39 Bb caMI-ITi; TYP4H He roaop sure 1111 se-re CTapOTO 4YBCTBO Ha rocnonapa? CnOMeHI1Ti; aa aecpaeuaxara cnaaa aa crapara rypcxa apMHSI He OBnaASIBawe nH cupnuara Ha HOBa TYP4HSI HoMo HOBa cnaBa H HOBH n06eAH? THSI HCTOpl14eCHH MOMeHTH C~ oco6eHO Ba}f{HH aa nCHXOnOrl14eCHH 113CneABaHHSI. ,lJ,aBaMo AYMaTa na Xaca-rs ,lJ,}f{eManb, HOHTO e 6Hno OCPH4ePb Bb OAPHHb npes's aperee aa oocanara 11 anexar.nenaara CI1 e H3Aanb Bb cpopMa He AHeBHI1Hb, CbAbP}f{aw.b 4-Enl1 596 ne4aTHI1 CTpaHHIII1. nom, aencnoa s: "HIJHU

H

xap6 6aW'bAl'b30 m etcpap zen en sep - Edu1-JHe xapo s, uy xacapacm, ecapem Be ec6a6u rjJe.llflKem·, KoeTO aa 60nrapcKI1

apena. Ho no TOBa HHe ure l<a}f{eMb AYMaTa CH Bb cneuaane+rs TPYAb, sa KOHTO npaBI1Mb He06xOAHMHT-E npHrOToBneHHSI. TYKb e AOCTa na oT6ene}f{HMb, 'Ie KpenOCTl-IT-E YCHnBaTb rapHH30Ha Bb TaKTH4eCKO 11 ncaxonorasecao oraouieaae, HO Bo cxuiara M-EpKa T-E HaMaJlS!BaTb CTpareruvecxara HMo HHIIHaTHBfI, T. e npHKOBaBaTb no CaMI1S1 raison d'etre ua kpenocrura caMHT1; BOHCKH KbMb caxara MbpTBa xpenocr s, f\ TOBa e enaa MHCbnb, n04TH 3aKOHb, HOSITO. H3r nesena, He 6-E CBHna rwt3Ao Bb CbPA4eTO Ha 6bnrapCI<OTO sacuie KOMaHAYBaHe,
HCTOPHH OAPI1Hb e n03HaTb Bb HCTopHSITa 113nbpBO Cb aa upeno c'rvra. HMeTO YCKYAaMa, KaTO cronaua Ha TpaKI1HCKOTO nnexe OApHCH. Flpea s enoxara xa MaKe,qOHCKOTO pesurapeune 113rne}f{Aa, se rpam.r-s e 611nb npeHMeHYBaHb Bb OpeCTHSI,qa. 3a rrspaa nX\Tb e 6Hnb npeaaer s OTb PHMCKHSt npoxoucyrrs MapHH Jlyxyrn, Cb 113MaMa Bb 75 r. np. Xp. Bb rrspaare 4eTBbpTb na " B-EKb TOH e 611no Hape'!eHb ua I1MeTO aa HMnepaTopo f\APHSlHb (117-136 r.). Bb rpana Bb THSI 11 c11eAHH'r-E B-EKOBe e HMano cpa6pt1Ka aa op~}f{l1e H W.HTOBe (F abricae .... scutaria et armorum).

3Ha411: "HoBHT-E HH BOeHHI1 n a r a n a -OAPHHcl<aTa o 6 C a A a, nne H b T b H n p H 4 11H H T -E 3 a Hew. aCT H 51T a " . Ha CTp. 368 npa BHAa ua nanaurar a norrs YAapI1T-E Ha oticanara xpenoc'r s OAPHHb TOH ce npOBI1HBa: "OTb rne H3n-E30Xa cera THSI aaponn, KOI1TO H-EKOra saenuo Cb CTOnI14HT-E H I{OPOHHTi; Ha l.\apeTi; HMb nannaxa nom, xpa6pHT-E aTaKH Ha TYPCKHT-E nocrosaua, 6pOHI1paHI1 11 eHTYCI1a3HpaHH apMHH? Ha T-EXb nH HHe CTaHaXMe nneHHH4H ... 0, Eosce, TOBa HnlO3HSI nH e? .. - EBeTb, oCMaHnHnapbH xap Be AaHM A}f{eBWaH xypywaH opAynllpoHbH WeXaMeTl{S1p xannenep bOHIOH,qe 6HP 3eM~Hnap TaA}f{ Be raxrnapane CyKyT HAeH 6y Ml1neTnep WHMAH uepeneu 4111<TH? 6113 fiynrrapa M~ ecap onAJi'\K? • " 6y xaHS!n MJi'\, f\nnax?" ETO raxa HHe CMe se-re nperrs canara araxa Ha OAPHHb. [lpena na npl1CT~nHMb KbMb HeHHOTO onacaaae, nonesHO e na nonsepraers s, 'Ie 6bnrapCKOTO sacure KOMaHAYBflHe, B-EPHO Bo cny-ras Ha HHCTHHKTa 11 3ApaBHSI paaysrs ua 60nrapCKHSIaaporrs, npaaanao 6-E peuiano m.npoca aa pa3BHTHeTO ua BOHHaTa Cb TYPl.\HSI: na ce Haxnye Bb TpaHHSI, KaKTO MHoro nJi'\TI-! 6bnrapCKHT-E BOHCKH npea s B-EKOBeT-E 6-Exa aaxnyaana, na ce pasfiae }f{I1BaTa cane Ha spara Bb OTKpl1Tb 60H no npoCTOPHT-E aa ras crpaaa H cnerrs TOBa 4aKb, 6nOKHpaHHH rpana, KaKTO 6paTbTb aa KpYMb 6-E cropxrrs H-EKOra TOBa, na ce HanaAHe H npeB3eMe KpenOCTbTa OAPHHb. He e MOMeHTa na H3naraMe cTpaTerH4eCKHT-E rp-EWKH Bb paanperranenae-r o H H3non3YBaHeTo Ha paanonaraenara 6bnrap cxa cana. Flpa ace TOBa, netieno Tp-E6Ba na ce nonxeprae, 'Ie Bb nbpBHT-E H. cnenosarenao, peWHTenHH AeHcTBHSI H8 3, 10 H 11 OKTOMBPHH, OApHHcKaT8 xpenocrs, npx rapHH30Hb no Marepaanua cana paae-rs aa oxorro ners 6bnrapCKH 6pHraAH, 06e3BpeASIBa l.\-EnH 10-11 AeHnBHTenHH 6bnrapcKH 6pHr8AH, xoeTO Cb3A8Ba nOnO}f{eHHeTO 6bnrapCKaTa apMHSI Ha peWI-tTenHHS! CPpOHTb Bb TpaKHSI na ce oxasse Bb cana 10 6pHraAH H 1 KOHaa AeBH3HSI cp sury 12 TypCKH AHBH3HH (6pHraAH) cz.uro Cb 1 KOHHa AHBH3HSI. A TOBa nOnO}f{eHl1e Bb H3BeCTeHb cnY4aH MO· }f{ewe Aa ce oxasce cpaTllnHO aa xona aa cb6HTHSITa Bb Haw6.

Bb 324 r. npH O,uPHHb e 6Hn'b HHH OTb KOHCTaHTHHb Be11HKHH.

pa36HTb

xoacyna

nHIIH-

Bb 378 r. npa C)i'\W.I1S1 pam, e 6Hna paarporreua r H YHI1uroxeena apMHSlTa aa HMnepaTopa Baneacj, OTb rOTl1T-E. Koraro cnbHlIeTO 3ani;3Ha TOSIneue, Ha 60HHOTO none nexraxa ABe TpeTI1 OTb paxcxara apMHSI, BKnlO4HTenHO H HMnepaTopa. HaYKaTa 6ene}f{H, 'Ie Bb TOS! 60H aarrsae cnaaara xa PHMCKHT-E nerHOHI1 H HaCTaHa enoxara Ha I<OHHH4aTa. J<OS!TO nO'lTH sa xunsna roAHHH ce 3ana311 KaTO uapxua Ha 6051. Bb 550 r. MHoro OTpS!,uH OTb CJlaBSlHH Bb Tpl1 rpynH naxnyxa Bb nonyocTpoBa, KaTO OnJlSl4KOcaxa cTpaHaT8, KaTO Aa C~ Y AOMa CH, 6e3b crpex s OTb BH3aIiTHHl.\lofT-E H OTb BoiiCKHT-E HMb. Flpa OAPHHb Ha cnenaara rOAHHa eAHHb OTb THSI OTPSl,[lH 611Ae cpeutuar s OTb BH3aHTHi:lcKa BOHCKa, K05lTO Bb CTaHanHSI Ha cnennas neas 60H 6HAe pa3611Ta AO KpaKb. Bb p xuer-s na cnaBSlHHT-E nanaa Me}f{,qy npyroro H enuo 3HaMe. Bb 587 r. aBapCKHSlTb xaraHb 6aSlHb xa seno Ha aaapa, 6bnrapH H cnaaaaa, cnerrs KaTO aaxny Bb nonyo cr poaa H paarOHH BOHcKaTa aa BH3aHTHSI, oficann cxuio OAPHHo, HO 6HAe 3aCTaBeHb na CHeMe oficanar a 11 ce OTTernH nperrs BOHCKHT-E, H,qSlW.H OTb Llaparpam, aa reueparn, MHcTaKoHb. Ha 22 IOnHH 813 r. KpYMo 611H30 AO OAPHHb, npu Bep3HHHKHS!. paarpoxa apMHSlTa Ha MHXal1nb I Panrafie, 06bpHa 51 Bb naHH4eCKO 6-ErCTBO H, KaTO OCTaBH 6paTa (11 na oficascna xpenocr s'ra, no neTHT-E ,qOCTHrHa Lleparperrs. n030pHOTO nopa}f{eHue 611Ae H3KyneHo Cb xopoxara xa HMnepaTopa. Hacnen-

4

41 TO KanOSlHb 6i;we Ha nonyocrposa. nOciiJ1b Bb nyurara aa TI1S1HeKaHeHI1 rOCTI1

W1I<"T h My nOHCK6 Cb H3M6Ma na y6He C6MHSI KpYMb. nOCJ1e,[ltlI1S11b onyc'r ouia TpaKHSI, YCHJ1eHO 60M6apAHpa Cb MaWHHH CTe~II1Ti; na O,[lP11Hb, 3aCTaBI1 rpana na ce npenane 6e3b ycJ10BUe 11 OTMbl<Ha AeCSlTI<H XHJ1S1,[111 nJ1eHHI14H, KOHTO nOCeJ111aa cesep» OTb YCTI1S1Taaa AYHaBa. Flpeau 849-850 r., I1Ma OCHOBaHI1S1 na ce npaexa. xe H npeCI1S1Hb e pa3rpOMI1J1b nal<b 6J11130AO O,[lPHHb BI13aHTI1HCKI1Ti; <{aCTH, KOHTO CJ1e,[lb H3TH<{aHeTO Ha 6eJ1emHTHSI TpHAeceTb roo ,[IHweHb MHpb 6i;xa nOlJHaJ111 na HaXJ1yBaTb Bb nperrsnxr's aa 6bllrapHSI. Bb 894 r. He nanexe OTb O,[lPI1Hb CHMeOHb pa3611 Ha6bP30 cb6paHHTi; BH3aHTI1HCKI1 BOHCKH OTb L(apHrpa,[lb H Tpat<11S1 a reaeparrs KpI1HI1Ta. H Bb 914 r. OK0J10 aarycr's CI1MeOHb 06ca,[ll1 OAPHHb 11Bb cenTeMBpHH xpenocr sra nanaa Bb 6 bJ1rapCI<H P"'4e e,[lHaKBO nopana carrara aa 6bJ1rapCKaTa BOHCl<a H M6WHHH, K6KTO 11nopagH ManoAYWl1eTO H6 KOMeHAaHTa, apneueua Flauxparyxa. Bb 921 r. Bb HalJanOTO H6 n-BTOTO CI1MeOHb OTHOBO otica,[\11 O,[lPI1Hb, KaTO ro 3a06H1<0J111 Cb oxona 11 no-usa npl1rOTOBnexasra aa ,[IeHCTBI1!1 Bb CblO3b Cb apa611T-B cpeury Llaparparrs no cywa 11 no Mope. Bb cnenaare ro,[lHHa rpaAbTb nanua OTb rnarrs 6e3ycnoBHo Bb 6bJ1rapCKH p xue. Bb 970 r. CBeTOCJ1aBb PYCKH q>opcl'lpa Bansaaa 11TpaKHSI, MHHa KpaH OAPHHb 11 611Ae pa36HTb npa Jhone-Eypre c's. Bb 1003 r. CaMYHnb Cb eAI1Hb XBbpKoBaTb nOXOAb, KOraro BaCHJ1I1H II 6bnrapoy6Hel\bTb oficascnaure SI1AI1Hb, SHe3anHO ce !lBH aa 15 asrycr-s npezrs OAPHH b , aTaKYB6 Cb 113HeHaAa KDenOCTbTa H 51 npease. Bb res crparera-recxa ,[IHBepCI1S1I1Ma Hi;~o KpaCHBO 11 CM-BJ10, H-B~O ,[IOCTOHHO sa aauiero BHHMaHl1e. Bb 1189 r. ¢PHAPI1Xb 6ap6apoca Cb CBOI1T-B KpbCTOHOC1..111, MaKapb ,[IBI1>t<y~b ce KaTO npl1S1TeJ1b, uacana aae rpana 11 npexapa 311MaTa Bb Hero 11 OKOJ1HOCTbTa. Bb 1205 r. Ha 14 anpl1J1I1H naKb npezrs OAPI1Hb, ortipaHSlBaHb OTb rbpUI1 11 6bnr6pH cp aury 06ca>t<Aa~HT-B nan-fliCKH I<PbCTOHOCl\l1, KaJ10SlHb paarpoxa no CbKPY urarenea s HalJl1Hb apMHSlTa aa HMnepaTopa 6angYl1Hb, KorOTO 11 nJ1eHH. TOBa nopa>t<eHHe e npOH3B-SJ10 Bb r ana AO L(apl1rpaAb enaa CTpaWHa riaHI1Ka, Kal<BaTO TPYAHO Mo>t<e na ce noxacna. 7.000 pauapa Bb Llaparperrs senaara ce nOKalJlWI1 aa Kopa6l1Ti; 113anJ1aBaJ1H aa pOAI1HaTa CI1, KaTO ..THSI CTpaXJ1I1BH nepaepr sopa oraecoxa Bb CBoeTO OTe<{eCTBO caxo cpaxa, Cb KOHTO 6-Bxa nOKpI1TH". F\ OCTaI-lKHT-Baa pa36HTaTa apMHSI npa O,[lPI1Hb aa CJ1eAHI1S1 AeHb Bb 6-Brb ce cb6paJ1H npa rpane naMq>HJ1b, OT,[IeTO norrs HalJaJ1CTBOTO aa MapWaJ1b BI1J1XapAyeHb na CJ1eqHaTa CYTPHHb ,[IOCTHrHaJ111Po,[\OCTO, T. e. aa ABe HO~H H eAI1Hb geHb H3BbpWHnH nose-re OTb 120 KI1J10Merpa, KoeTO -reprae rOJ1-BMI1HaTa aa yxeaca, KOH-

Bb 1206 r. KaJ10SlHb HaHOBO nosene BOHHa aa 3aBJ1aAi;naxe OAPHHb H AeMOTI1Ka cpeuiy rbp4l1T-B 11J1aTI1H4I1T-B, KOI1TO 6-Bxa ce cnopa3YM-BJ111 nOMe>t<AY, HO 611,[1e OT6J1bCHaTb. HI1luna F\I<OMI1HaTb TBbPAH, lJe KaJ10SlHb "ClJI1TaJ1b 3aBJ1a,[l-SBaHeTO ua THSI rpanoae ,[IOCTOHHa aarpana sa u snara BOHHa 11 CN\~eBpeMeHHO Bb TYH Bl1mAaJ1b OCN\~eCTBSIa a n e a a >t<enaHl1eTO CI1 c u s c e x u n a 113rOHI1 rbpU 11T -B 0 T b T P a I<H 51 11 na 51 06bpHe Bb ml1mt~e aa AHBH 3B-SpOBe ."

Flpes-s nporrars r a xa 1207 r. KanoSlHb, CJ1eAb KaTO CKJ1lOlJl1 CblO3b Cb Jlacxapaca, 06ca,oH OTHOBO O.£1PHHb Cb MHoro BOHCI<I1 H 33 06caAHH MaWI1HH, HO H Bb TOS!cnY4aH TOH He nOCTHraa nO-rOn-BMH ycrrsxa. OTTerJJSlHCTO Ha KYMaHHT-B, KOHTO He 6-Bxa npHBHKHanH Ha rOpe~I1HI1T-S, ro 3aCTaBH na CHeMe 06Ca!\aTa. Bb 1363 r. OAPHHb nanaa Bb p xuer-s aa Mypa,[lb I, 11 sa 90 rOAHHH 611.£1ecroriaua ua TYPUHSI.
Bb 137 i r. xpane Bbnl<aWHHb, 6a~ara Ha xpana MapKo 11 BJ1aA-BTenbTb sa cp snua MaKe,[lOHHSI, 3ae.£1HO Cb 6para CI1 neenor's Yrneurs, rocnonepsr-s ua Cepecs, Cb 60 XHJlSlAHa apMI1S1 ce orurra na H3rOHH rYPUHT-B OTb Espona H na 3aBJ1aA-se 0,[1PHHb, otiaxe, npa 4epMeHb, He nane-ie OTb CN\~HSI rpanu, lJpe3b He04aKBaHb aoureu s 60H 6H,[Ie pa36HTb H apMHSlTa My YHHW.OmeHa .£10 KpaKb OTb EBpeHOCb 6eH. Bb 1420 r. npa O,[lPHHb 6HAe nofienem, nperexneara Ha TypCI<HSI npecrorn, MycTaq>a OTb cynram, Mypa,[lb II, aeros s 6paTb. 6e3b ce Bb 1829 r. O,[lPHHb CbnpOntBl1eHHe. ce npenane Ha AH6HlJb 3a6al1KaHCI<H

Bb 1877 r. Ha 8 SlHyapHH O,[lPI1Hb OTHOBO 6e3b H3CTpeJ1b npenane Bb pN\ueT-B Ha PYCHT-S 12-T-B eCl<a.£1pOHa Ha reueparrs CTPYKOBb - MaKapb <{e TYPUHT-B, cnerrs l13ry6BaHeTO apMHS!Ta Ha Bejicern, nawa npa WeHHoBo, I1MaXa Bb3MO>t<HOCTb na npl1Bn-S1<8Tb Bb KpenOCTbT6 noeexe OTb 33 XHl1S1AH BOHrlHl\H OTb i-13TO<{HHT-S 6anKaHH.

ETo ras e I{paTKaT6 I1CTOPHSI Ha «penocrura O,[lPHHb, 1<0raTO HaWHT-B nOKOl1-BHHSI Bb 1913 r. Ha 13 MapTa, B.£1bXHOBeHI1 OTb nOnI1Tl1lJeCKHT-S nopaaa Ha H3Mp-snHT-B nperrs HaCb ,[It.£1H H nparrana, OTHOBO 6-sxa ce Hape,[lHJ1H nperrs q>OpToB8Ta nHHHSI H6 TaS! 6el1e>t<Hra xpenocrs, aa na S! 36ana,[l-BSlTb H ocarypsr-s aa cl1e.£1Ba~HT-S nOI<O!1-BHHSI cB060.£1HHS! H3na3b Ha 5-BnO-Mope.

42
KpenOCTbTa 81> ~op-

IhaHaTa

ua OAPHllb

/haHaTa

ua OAPI1Hb

43

,D,a SI1AI1Mo cera, xaxaa 6-5 TSI So <popnl<pI1KalJ,I10HHO11CTpaTerl1'-IeCKO OTHOWeHl1e. TH~HK U.HOHHO O:!"· KpenocTbTa OAPI1Hb 3anOYHa CBoeTO I1CTOH ,wellHe H HeHHOTO CTp3TerH'IeCKO pl1yecl<o c7f\~ecTsysaHl1e KaTO eAI1Hb 1J,113H3'1eHKe. TaAellb (3aMbl<b), Hapl1yaHb 11 AO cera ua T I1TaAellb Sb speMeTo Ha I1MnepaTopa rpbll,KI1 K aCT p O. O:H~ Bo I<penOCTHaTa CTeHa, KOSITO06KPJi'\F\API1S1Hb 611Ae SKlllOY KOSITO ua SC-5KI1 60 80 Kpa'lI<H >t<11caMHSI HacelleHb nyHKTb 11 'LT"'- npOlJ,bBT-5 MHoro, CTaHa KYlla Torasa rparrs u I1M6We no enna . Hoemi mons 11 AOCTl1rHa 3Ha'leHl1eTO CTOll11lJ,a ua npOSI1Hll,I1S1Ta I1r aAb Sb I1Mnepl1S1Ta. Bb Tosa aa STOPH rp6Ab clleAo ~:~apf sbKOBeT-5 AO nanauero My Sb O MY nOll0>t<eHl1e Apl-1Hb n 30TO a3WHpeHI1e Ha TYPCKaTa HMnepJi'\ll,eT-5 aa TYPll,I1T-5 5bP 11>«: sa 3ana3BaHeTO 11 nO-HaT6TbWr pl1S1 He Hall0>t<11 OCO eHH PenOCTb. CeraWHI1T-E YKpenlleHI1S1 na HOTO pa3SI1THe Ha TaSlKp l1eTO ua noclleAHaTa pyCKOKpenOCTbTa AaTl1paTb OTb HaABeyep I1Hll,I1nJ.1T-5 aa <pOpTH<pI1Ka-

PYCIW-TypcKata BoHHa". Hal1cTHHa, TOBa O<pl1lJ,HaJlHO 113AaHHe nOMeHBa, -re "cneUb YimlHAeHCI<OTO Sb3CTaHI1e Bb 1903 r. OTHOWeHI15ITa Me>«AY 5bnrapl1S1 11 TYPU,I-1S1rauaxa c raupne 06TerHaTH H Bacoxara nop ra 06bpHa BHI1MaHHeTO Ha SOeHHI1T-5 BllaCTH aa aacanaaxe OAPI1HCKaTa xpenocr s " H -re y>t<b ensa cnerrs 1908 r. "cneAb MnaAoTypcKI1S1 npeapar-s •.• nom, P;?;KOSOACTSOTO ua repxaacxa aoeuaa MHCI1S1 TYPCKHSlTb reaepanea s ~a6b aanoxaa na paapafioraa nnaHb Ha BoHHaT6. Flpa paapeuraaaae msnpoca, KaKb na ce 06e3nel.JH CbCP-5AOT0'IeHl1eTO aa rypcxara apMHSI, senuara H3nbKHa r01l'SMOTO cTp6TerHyeCKO 3HayeHI1e H6 S<-311I1T-5 aa n~TI1~aTa O.nPHHb 11 Jloaexrperrs, KOHTO Tp-56s6110 (?) A6 ce yxpenar s" 11 np. 8cI1l.JI<I1 THSI TSbpAeHI1S1 ce S1BSlsaTbcbBbpweHo nOrp-EWHH, CTHra yoe-5Kb na Mo>«e na npo-rere CaMHT-5 TypU,H, KaKBO no TOBa Ka3BaTb. F\xMeAo .D.>t<eManb Bb CBOSiTa ",D,>t<orpa<pI1S1-I1acxepa" OTb 1896 r., ua CTp. 58 naure cneAHOTO: "nOHe>«e OAPHHb e pesnonosee-rs Ha nYHKT6, AeTO ce cb6HpaTb H TPHTi; P-EKI1, F\PAa, MapHu,a H TYHA>I<6, H nx rauiara 11 >l<eni;3HI1u,I1T-5, KOI1TO BbPBSITb no AOllHHHTi; HMb H no ras aa Epxeae, H KOI1TO SOASlTb KbMb .D.apAaHenI1T-E H Bocrpopa. TO aa eAHHb uenpasre.rrs, KOHTO HaCT}f\nB6 OTb ceaep-s, TO 51 n Y H K T b n p e a C T a B11SIB 6 H a H - B a >I<H J.1 one p a r 11S e H b 06 e K T b (eu 51 MIO· XI1M xenedi-ron-xapexara), a 36 HaCb, TYPll,HTb, C7f\~HSlTb nYHKTb npencrasnsae enua onepauaoaaa OCb 36 MaHeBpl1paHe, 3 a K a eToe 11 Y K pen e H b no J.1 S b H P e Jl. e H b H a 'I H H b (MI1XSep3 IOI1-xapeKSIT ol1AyrYHAaH <PeSKYllSiAe 6HP ciopenre T6XKJ.1M onyunyiuyp). Ofiase, nporrsnscaaa see CIY\lll,I1S1Tbaerop s, noaexee e Sb3MO>t<HO HenpJ.1S1TellbTb, KOHTO 611 ce cnycaarrs npea e npoXOAI1T-5 na Yi3T0'IHI1T-5 Banxaaa, na OCTaBI1 aa A-ECHaTa CH crpasa OAPI1Hb (6e3b SHHM6HJ.1e) H, KaTO uaxnye Bb 30H6Ta Me>«AY TaS! xpenocrs 11 Cr paansca nJlaHHHa, ua CK~C6 KOMYHI1I<aU,HoHHaTa lll1HI1S1 Me>«AY cro nauara 11 OAPHHb, TO CTaBa HY>«Aa na ce yxpenn 11 Jloaeurnerrs, K a K T 0 OAPI1Hb (KbpIWI1CeHI111 A6XH EAJ.1pHe r 11'6 11 TaXI{I1MH I1A>«a6 H,JJ;ep)".

6

TypCl<a BOHHa 11 C7f\1~;boe~885n~., nJI1~1TO 6elle>«IHb npeACTaBI1ll,H>lTa OTb enoxere 6-5 6ellnlHcKHSlTb reuepane 5PHSIllMOHb. Tenb Hd speMeTo CH we OSiTb' 1-0 OTA-511HH cpopTOBe aa npl1HlJ,l1nHT-E 6-5xa na ce ~T~S1 sa 611H3~a oT6paHa icaro onOpli11 nexora KbpTe'lHHlJ,l1 H op A -5 aa cpOpTOSeT-5 sa 60p6a nYHlno'se; 2-0, 6aTapeH Bb Me>l{AHH~:xoTa H 3-0 pa3HI1 cpopn1Cb HenpHSITellcKaTa apnl11epYiSI H 0 'nolle ' n peAb 11 OKOll0 Q)l1KalJ,I10HHH CTpoe>«11 ua Tal<THyeCKOT 6aTapeHT-5 11 <pOPTOB:ZS, -E C7f\ 6111111 26, HO AO OKTOMSPHH CnopeAb nnaua 't'OpToseT e H3Sb uiana OTb 6bll1877 r. 6141114 nocrpoeua 24. ~~6~:a:~x~ ynoT:-56eHH l<aMbHI1, rapcxa censaa, a sa rpa)AH.InpbcTb 11 np. cPopTOSeT-5 ap s (He 1J,I1MeHTb , n bCbKb, 34 TYXlll1, B 200 300 Aywl1 rapHH30Hb npa 6'txa npeAlla3Ha'leHI1 sa ~HI1HaTa HarpaAa OTb 1/1-11/2, oP7f\AI1S1· T-E OTCTOSlTb OTb OKpal1 0 Me>«AY <jJopTOeeT-E e .I2 11 3 I<M p a3CTOSlHHeT 45 a H bKOI1 AO . lll1HI1S1roraaa e 61111a I<M. OKOll0 no 1 I<M. 06~0 <jJopTosal a HO no-rOJl-5MI1 OTb OCTa' neTb OTb YKpenJleHI1S1T~ C}f\ 3:~~~T;:HH MHoro TpaSepCI1, nOAb HaJll1T-5. Bb <jJOpToseT C7f\ n Ka3eMaTI1 a Ha r opseeaaKOI1TO 11Sb 6pYCTsepa HMa nOM-5;,epHI1~~COYHHaTa' Ha 6pyCTsepl1ra '1aCTb Bb H"SKOH 11l<a3aP MI1 H • 6 7 M' BbHWHHT-5 POSO.I3 31/ M a Ae 6 eJlI1HaTa ., .lT b e OTb 2', OKH 5-6 M. KoraTo PYCHT b se CJi'\ Ab1160KI1 4 Mi8~7 ~HPcnopeAb La Guerre cl'Orient en Bll-E30Xa Bb rpana Sb ., ' aMe nISI AaHHI1, 2 1877 -1878, par un Tactltle ,"" OTb AeT 0~a;~lJ,HallHOTO 113AaHHe I1 6 111111 111111 OTb <jJOpTOSeT-5 He 3 rOTOS . VOn e p aLI eCKa KOMI1CHSI TOMb " aa 6bJlrapCKaTa Y1CTOPI1Y en 0 C T s" TSbPAI1 Ha .L. JlO OApl1HCl<aTa I<p 1J, UT b 0 I{ 0 H aa 5bllrapHSI TYPCKOTO CTp. 2, se "CJleAb ocs060>t<AeHHeT~ OA HHb e 3ary611Jlb (?) npaBJ.nellcTso 3anOYHa na CM-5Ta, 'I K~enocTbl a 6-E 3anyCae-re csoero CTparerl1 leCKO 3Ha4eHl1e. eHl1e Bb 1<0SlTO51 3asapl1 HaTa (?) 11 OCTaHa eb C}f\~OTO nOJlO>t< ,
L

Tp sfiea na 67f\AeMb 113BbHpeAHo 6n6roAapHI1 ae c;?;A6aTa, l{e J.1MeHHOT6KI1B6 6-Exa cxaauiaaaar a na TYPU,HTi; OTHOCI1TenHO 3Ha'leHHeTO ae OAPl1HCK6T6 xpenocrs 11 scnencraae H6 KoeTO T-5 6-EX6 H a A u e H Hll H HeHHoTO 3Ha'leHHe (c06CTseHO B-5pBaXa' 'Ie 6bnrapHT-E uie H AaA~AaTb HMeHO TaKOBa saaseaae H uie ce 3611enSlTb 0 HeSl KaTO MYXH) H 6-Exa no All, e H H n H 3Hal.JeHHeTO Ha eAHHb peunrreneire 60H Ha nOnCKI1 apMI1H Me>l<AY OApHHb. H Jlosearpazrs. 3a~OTO, axo TYPU,HT-5 He 6-Exa CM-ETanH O.nPHHb KaT a H6H-Ba>«eHb oneparasem, 06eKTb H6 enua apMHSI, KOSITOnaCT7f\nBa OTb ceaep:s. a 6-Exa CTOSlnl1 nO-TBbPAO xa y6e>«AeHHeTo, 'Ie TaSi apMI1S1Mo>«e na npeaefiperue xpenocr sra, TO XOAbTb Ha Cb6HTI1S1Ta H-EMaWe Aa HMa sa rypuar s TonKOB6 enexexr a na CTpaTerH'IeCKa H3HeH6Aa, KaKTO CTaHa Sb AeHCTBHTenHOCTb. Ho,

-------------~~--

fhaKaTa

ua OAPHH'b

45·
ABe l1HHHH Cb 7 <POPTB

11S1B8Tb enaa BCH'II<O rOBB HHe BOi1I1H" I<Hl1ra VlCTOpl1"1eCl<aTa I<OMI1CI1S1 e

11 HHI1SI. aa H 2 Bb

H3TO"lHHSI -

uie pasrnenaae arope.
HJ CTp. 43

Bb HaWI1T-B "CTYAI1H no HaWI1T-B HanpaBI11la

Bb

rrspsara

BTopaT8,

CbOTBeTHO 5 Bb CBOSI V TOMb,

rrspaare

aa

ceBep038naAHI1S1

TpH I1HHHH

.paenaeae
puna aa

rp-surxa
YM-BCTHO

enaa aropa aeonAeTO e HaM-B"Bb l1.l,a5a

HHS!T8 H8 <popTOBeT-B*)

OTb

apMI1S1Ta H 11LU0 m H 11 T -B (I) B b <p 0 P T H <pH K a ~ 110 H H 0 0 T Howe H 11 e Ta61111 (1<. naurs) ce Hapl1"laXa ,,<popTOBe". C 11a 6 a T a

na

Ka>t<e AOC110BHO cneAHOTO:

aa

3Bn8AHB cTFaHa OTb rpBA8, ripen's Hero II 'lamas» J10.llY, nperrs. Hero III Haup» ma611R, Bb A-BCHO OTb nes IV Ail/wAlK (Mu.Ilem'b) HeS!

CJY\: Xaot-p.uac», I

H 3 H 2 Bb

OCTBHBl1HT-B. HBHMeHoBaHaH-611H3KHSI <pOPTb H8

matiun, Bb A-BCHO OTb HeSi V Ke uept: matius , Bb A-BCHO OTb VI Bauao cs matiust , aanperrs TpH <p(JpTa Vl! Kapazsosz
cnerru
TOSB 3a,[lb 6BWb TB611S1 O p. A TYH>t<B lleup-

r n a a a a oT6paHHTenHa
nOSICb. Hl1eTO

I1HHHSI LUa6a

ce

HapH"IaWe C<popMl1panO

~<pOPTOBb y6e>t<Ae· apMI1S1 na-

m.atiust n ap»,

Y

Ha"lanHI1Kb

ce

66we

«en» matiun, aa
VIJI
OTb T-BXb

"Ie I<penOCTbTa e MHoro

CI111Ha 11 xe

6bnrapcKaTa

Baui» C/JaKlK

H3TOKb

He pa~nonara Cb Cp-BACTBa aa e.L4Haarexa". A3b He Mora Aa Ka>t<a, "Ie TOBa e nbnHO MeTbTa "Il1cno na ce cxara aa Ha ioaaua nonuep naAHanl1T-B nperrs 11 npOn-BI1I1T-B OAPI1Hb, I<pbBbTa ofia-re, Bb xpenocrsra

sep's He3a"lI1TaHe CI1 HeCM-BTHO Ae6e110 Tp-B6Ba KaBI1"1KH nOI1orb~b .n011<ppaHlJ,Yn0311lJ,I1I1T-E Bb

Ha KpenOCTHHSI nonarosrs.

rae, -re Aa>t<e6e3b

<popTOBe -

<pOpTI1<pI1Ka~l1S1 uanpaea BOHHa Aa>t<e cpeuiy OpJY\AI1S1 Bb CI1Y"IaSi cano ras

Henpl1CTJY\nHI1 rrsnra

Cl1eABBTb HB ior-s: XIV Al1dJICU MOJlY matiun, XV Kecmene nux» matiun, XVI KYPY'leUlAfe matiust, XVII HlKJlO'bP'bAl'b matiusi, 3BAb Hero Bo aropa I1HHHSI XVIII Ilo«:e-

XI Totus maiiun, npezrs HeS! XII t-:eHll. TaLU'b XI!I Ai18aS'b 5a6a m atiun, KOHTO <pOPTb e xa

X

OTb HeSi no I1-BBI1S1 6p-Bro aa TYHA>t<B matius: 11 IX Touonu» AAmtK maoun, Ha ce-

/(aJlll'bK'b

matiun,

HB H3TO){b

OTb

nOCl1eAHBTa xa H3TOKb

maoun,

H3XO,QSll1.l,HSI JY\rbl1b

06LUaTa paHb. Bb

MHOrO,[lHeBH':_SI 6apa6aHeHb BOI1Ha. npI1M-Bpb: BepAIOHb

BU3AllIC'b (KoICapoJICa)

matiuit,

KOHTO <pOPTb e 61111b 3anYCHaTb

CTpaWHI1T-B

ure HanOMHSI, xe npa

311T-BOTHa"lanO M 1CI1-BXa, -re <popTOBeT-B 11Mb He uie 113Abp>t<aTb 11 H-BKOI1 OTb T-BXb uanycxaxa, 06B4e, T-B CKOpO ce y6eAI1xB Bb npOTI1BHOTO 11 3ApaBO naKb rl1 aaexa. Hue LUe B-1AI1Mb cnerrs MBI1KO, "Ie <popTOBer-B He ouie 6-BXB nosexe KOH 3Hae KOI1KO nO-A06pl1 Bb OTb se H-BKOI1 pB60TI1 HB

XIX Tons J !O.l1Y HB IOrb OTb Torrs
H ApAB Bb

H fie

6H11b npasene-rs

Flopr-s-

m aouu , MemAY MapH~B XXII Eo CHa matius, a HB 3BnBAb OTb TOS! <pOpTb nOCl1e,[lOBaTeI1HO XXIII lle.MllpOeUl'b matius XXIV Meph.e3'b maoust, XXV Kapo zas» mtuiust H XXVI Mapalll~ f(oB/C03o IO>t<HHSI<pPOHTb : Me>t<AY ApAa a Bb HB H MBpH~a enaa Ab11roBpeMeHHH yxpeneaa yxpenapexe

Bb oT6pBHB; HB IOrb OTb Y!JY\l1Ab3b TB6HSI: m aoun, aa 36n6,Qb OTb HeSi XX KaUK'b matian

Hony

XXI

ApTYPb PI1Hb, CKBTa <popTOBe nnauapaaa HaHCOBI1

TI1S1HB OAPYCKI1T-B

(Apda) matiu»,

H-BKOI1 OTb Britannica,

l1eHHSI He e HMBno. CJY\ opraHI13Hpa11H WHPOKO xpenocr MeHHH ce

Ha BOI1HaTa TYPCKI1T-B BOHCKH n03H~HSI no nOI1CKa <pOpTH<pHKalJ,HSICD nperpflmAaHI1S1. CbCTBBI1S1BaTb CKel1eTB HB

He 6-Bxa

OKOH"IaTeI1HO 11 36BbpWeHI1. 6el1e>t<11 EncyclopaediB

"nOpTb-ApTYPKBKTO 6-B CI1B6HT~ <p11BOI1HBTa, "roKa3BB Perm aHAel1".

Flenas-s-rene
HB TeneHHT-B

KpenocTb.

npBBH116TB HB C~l1.l,eCTBylOl1.l,BTBroresa H3n0113YBfllle s ra. Bb ¢opTOBeT-B, KOHTO H36DOHXMe, MemAI1HHT-B

OTb PYCI1T-B Bb 1900 Cp-BACTBa OT"IBCTI1 cane HO noae-re

r. 11 nopana 3BBbp'.ueHa npena Bb La

I1Ma OTeHbKB,

HI1UJ,O, HB CbBpeMeHHHT-B <popTOBe Cb"lI1HeHHe HMBxa

ua TOSI caener nasce H cera,

I1-BMHT-B AbllrOBpeMeHHI1 C. rYHAeTTH Bb CBoeTO nente OTb 1908

nop~~-A~TYPb, FortlflC2IZIOne

YKpenl1eHI1S1,

raupne

s

OTb

rrsnruepeHe noHe KorBTO

CHI1HH Ha BpeMeTO

CI1, a

Mal1KO CTpaWHH pasno nara

aa aTBKyBaHe

oc06eHO

r.,

cTp.359,

HenpBBI111HO TpanelJ,OBI1AHO 3 B C Tap 6 11b Cb KBl1116bpb, xoraro 11 C.PAY/fl'b,

Cb CbOTBeTHa Te>t<KB BpTHl1epl1S1 Bb MOpTl1pa OTb

,[lOCTBTb"lHO BbopJY\>t<eHH

O"lepTaHl1e 11 6-Bxa OTb THnb no - C I{ 0 P 0 BI1(OKb napaner s aa OpJY\,[lHSIOTb Cp-BAeHb TBKHBa Bb T-BXb I1MaWe ",

KOl1H"IeCTBO, TYPlJ,I1T-B 6-BXB nOCTpoHI1H 71 6BTapeH, 06l1.l,0 Cb 25

15 11 21 CM., 84 Te>t<KI1 OpJY\AHSI OTb

To s

aarop

e

ABBa nllBHOBeT-B. 11 npo-

<P1111I1T-B B nOpTb-ApTYPCKHT-B H

<popTOBe

KOHTO, cpaBHeHI1 Cb nnauoser s 11 r l1aBHO npo<pI111HT-B Ha <pop· TOBeT-B HB O,[lPI1Hb, Hay"lHo He ce pa311I1"1BBaTb nO"lTI1 Bb HI1LUO. T-B He ce pB311I1"1aBBTb MHoro 6111111 nOCTpoeHI1. TOBCl, "Ie npa BM-BCTO aap s 11 no MaTepI1BllI1T-B, Cb KOI1TO CJY\ B CJY\l1.l,eCTBeH6TB pB311I1KB ce CbCTOI1 caMO Bb pyCI1T-B 6-Bxa ynoTp-B6111111 ~I1MeHTb,

Kll.KyaH.'b

15 CM., 49 Te>t<KH 0P~AI1S1 OTb 12 CM., 33 Te>t<KH OpJY\AI1S1OTb 10.5 CM. H 212 nOI1CKH OpJY\,QHSIOTb 8.7 H 7.5 eM. HI1H 06l1.l,0 402 42 OpJY\AI1S1 eAHHb H rBy6H~H OTb 12 Te>t<KH 0P~AHSI nO,[lBH>t<eHb apTI111epHHCKH H 15 CM., peaepm, 15 CM., OTb 30

4

MOP.THpH

OTb

Ab11rH 130.000

OTb

12 H 10.5 CM. H 46

nonoo«

0P~AHSI

HnH BCH"IKO Bb xpenocrsra TOBeT-B, A06pe 3eMl1eHI1

HMawe 92 6aTapeH

Co 524

OpJY\AHSI Cb

CHBPSl.QI1**). 6aTBpe11T-B 6-BXB .Q06pe OKonaHH Me>t<AY<popMacKHpBHH H npeACTaBI1S1BBXB TpH BHAa: 3eMl1eHH, n110Cb 6eToHHI1 nI10l1.l,aAKH H 3eM11eHI1 Cb 6eToHHH

OAPI1Hb ~I1MeHTb e ynoTp-B6eHb cano aa 6aTBpeI1T-B. EAI1Hb ~OrlleAb Ha Tpl1BepCTOBBTa KapTa Ha PYCKI1S1 reHel1.l,a6b, a CJY\l1.l,O 11TaSi Ha BBCTPHHCKI1S1 reaepaneirs P.11 y6e>t<ABBB, oT6paHa. se wa6b, xaP-BAKH Tonorpa<pH"IeCKI1S1Tb npeACTBSllSiBa

palleHb paxr ep HH

113AaHI1e ApTapl1S1,

s

aa

M-BCTHOCTbTa OK0110 OAPHHb aa

*) r neAaii npanoaeeuara **) r n CTp. 15 .EAHpHe E e A e p x a H 'b.

ua Kpall CKHQa.
cyKYTYH1:
H

H'f

103H

M

OT'b

A)f(

e n 1I A e T b

npel1MYl1.l,eCTBa

Ha

CJY\l1.l,aTa xap ra

CJY\ HaHece-

11 CaMI1T-B <popTOBe,

KOHTO Ha

IO>t<HI1S1 <pPOHTb npencras-

46

F\TaKaTa

ua OAPHII"b

47
ABOHHO no-r0111;;MO K0J1H4eCT80 80HcKa. OCMaHb nawa 8b 1877 r. aa AHH 11 CeAMHl.\H Cb3AaAe OTb nn1;BeHb enua xpenccr s, illyKpH naura Bb 1912-13 r. He nponycna OTb nOS1;;peHaTa My xpenocr s na Cb3AaAe Cb n03HaTaTa H6 TYP4I1T1; CK110HHOCTb KbMb OKonHaT6 60p6a enaa AeHCTBHTenHO CHJ1Ha 6apHepa, 1<05ITO rp-sfisaure na errsxae, H arrsxaauie, 81;pa ua rapHI130Ha MY, H KOSITO rp sfieaure na cnpe araxara H6 6b11rapHT1;. no eAH6 CbBoKynHocTb OTb npH4HHI1, S1CHHaa aacrosurero HH H3Cl1eABaHe, roaa.ofiexe, He MO>t<a A6 ce yS1;;H4ae Cb ycrrax's 36 TypCKOTO op7f'H<l1e. npeAHHT1; n03Hu.HH xa "'3T04HI1S1 cearop's CJV\ HM611H ouie OTb MHpHO e peree eAHHb penyr s H TpH noncxa 66TapeH, a OCTaHanOTO Ha THSI n03H4HH e 6Hno nOCTpoeHO Bb apexe aa M06HnH3a4HSlTa H oticanara. V1 raxe, OAPHHb 61;;we CH11HO yxpenein, Cb crapa AbJ1rO8peMeHHI1 YKpenneHI1S1 H HOSH ¢OpTH¢HKa4HOHHI1 crpoesoi OTb nOnCKI1 xapaarep-s H, 8aH<HOTO, rapHH30HbTb HMawe rrsnaa B1;;pa Bb xpeno cr s re, nEAHpHe raHp Ka6H11 3a6T 6HP Me8KH MIOCTaxKeMAbp" 0 A P H H bee A H a Hen p e 83 H Mae M a K p en n CT b r n. 336 CTp. O1'b I..\HTl1paHaTa aexe rypcxa KHHra, H3111;;311aaenocp sncreeao cnezn, 6anKaHCKaTa 80HHa, n V1e H H X a p 6 6 a w b M b 3 aTe K pap r e J1e H n e p: EAHpHe xap6~ Myxacapac7f', ecaper Be ec6a6H ~enSiKeT" OTb Xaca-rs ,D,>t<eManb. 5iCHO e, 4e Bb OAPHHb H1;;Mawe 6pOHHpaHHT1;; 6awHH H xynonar a Ha KpenOCTHT1; f\HTBepneHb H Byxypeurs, HHTO npencraansaaure illYMaHOBI1S1 apMl1paHb ~pOHTb ua POMbHCKaTa yxpenexa nHHI1S1 na p. Cepe ru. ECTeCT8eHO, TOH He 61;;we yxpeneHb H KdKTO cera ce YKpenSlB6Tb xpenocrnr s Cb nOA3eMHH nOM1;;w,eHHSI aa ner s AO necer s MeTpa noms 3eMSITa H Cb npocra OKonH aa noe e pxaocrara. Ho TOH HMawe OH08a, KoeTO >t<el11;;3HHT1; H >t<e111;;306eToHeHHT1; yKpen11eHI1S1 Ha Byxypeurs, KO~TO ce npenaae n04TH 6e3b Aa rObMH ~ nYWKa, He MO>t<axa na nanar s : eAHHb xpa6bPb, cnocofie+rs H cbcp1;AOT04eHb KOMaH' AaHTb 11 erma apMHSI-rapHH30Hb, KOSITO MeH<AY BCH4KH npyrn TypCKH apMHH npOSlBH HaH-ron1;Mf1 HHHl.(HaTHSH, HaH-r0111;;MO ynopcr ao H, 6e3b CbMHeHHe, HaH-A0611eCTHH AeHCTBHSI. Aa>t<e, aKO OAPHHb H1;Mawe HHTO eAHO AbnrOBpeMeHHO H11H n011YAbnrOBpeMeHHO yxpenneuae, a K8Kro n111;seHb 61; 113AHrHaTb Bb apene na caxara 80HHa, TO aa 13 xapra 1913 r. TOH ursuie ne 67f'Ae Cb CSOI-iT1; 500 11 noseve o p7f'AHSI, 6e3b CbMHeHHe, no-crpeurem, OTb nn1;;seHb 11 nO-TpYAHO arauyex s OTKonKO HenpeK~CHaTHT1;; ~pOHTOBe 8b Ofiuiara BoHHa. Koraro r080pHMb sa araxara aa OAPHHb 11HCKaMe na 04eHSiBaMe cb6HTHeTO C era, HHe >t<eCTOJ<O uie c6bpKaMe, aKO ras xpenocre nOAl.(eHHMb, KaI<TO, aa >t<anb, CbSbpweHO He06sICHHMO npaaa T08a nHcallbTb OTb noxeaarara sexe OTb MeHb V1CTopH4ecxa KOMHCHSI. 3a Aa 67f'AeMb Bb HCTHHaTa, HHe Tp1;;6a na ce a6CTpaxapa-re OTb oaoaa, KoeTO 3HaeMb cera 1112 rOAI1HH cnem, 06w,aTa BoHHa. HHe uie Tp1;;6Ba na 3a6pa8HMb HOBHT1;; Cp1;AcT8a H ep-

lw,aAKH II 6eTOHHO 06n1;;Kll0. Sb npO¢Hllb BCH'iKH 6aTapeH 6'txll Cb r nac.Hco06pa3HI1 6pYCTsepl1 6e3b aM6pa3YPH. Sb rpaSCPCIIT'li Ha nbpBHT1;; naa SHAa 6aTapeH 61;;xa nOCTpOeHH 611I1HAiHI<I'I Cb BbnH006pa3Ha naxapana H 3eMneHb C110H AO 80 CM. cp UJ.Y uipanaennar's KypWYMH H rpaHaTHI1T1;; napsera. Ha Tpen1S1 SHAb 6aTapeH 611HHAa>t<HT1;; 61;;xa nOCTpoeHH Sb 6eTOHHHT1;; nOl1eraTOCTH Bb 6pYCTsepa. EAHa uenpexx caara reneaa Mpe>t<a OTb 5-9 MeTpa ofir-pas« nauie KaTO nose's lrSl1aTa K pence b 11 npenp-sxaaure AOCT xna AO rnaaaara oT6paHHTe11Ha lll1HI1S1 no HaAe>t<AeHb Ha4HHb. Ha H1;;KOH M1;;cTa HMawe H3KonaHH H rpyna Bbl1'Hf S1MH, a Me>t<AY c. Xoaapec's 11 Ilpoaancxara p sxa HMawe Aa>t<e H aBTOMaTH4eCKH ¢yracH. E~Ha A06pe oprauaaapaua renetpoaaa MpeH<a, ABe 6e3H<H'iHI1 cTaHu.I1H, 10 nposcexropa, H1;KOI1KO aBToM06H11H aa npesoaxa na cuapsna. AOCTaTb4HO xenaorpadia H eAHHb npHBbp3aHb 6al1oHb, KOHTo ofiaxe ce H3AI1rBa caxo TpH n7f'TH, norrs.naaxa CbOp7f'>t<eHHSlTa aa kpenocr s ra. V13xO>t<AaHKH OTb npeAn0110>t<eHHeTO sa enxa aneaanua araxa OTb crpaaa aa 6bl1rapHT1;, TYPU.HT1; 61;;xa npHrOTBHI1H aa I1HW".S1Ta aa ¢opTOBeT1; Rapar soa's , Bb C. 3. cexrop s aa xpenocrure MeH<AY MapHu.a H TYHAH<a, nperrs ¢opT08eT1; N!! N2 III, IV, V H VI, H1;KOI1KO ynopHH nyaxra Cb MeH<AHHHH 6aTapeH, Ka3apMH, norpefia, a HMeHHO r pynar s Raaairs-rene, 6bOHH<a, KYPY'ieWMe, illeHTaHb-Tapna, AO KOHTO 61;xa npexepaan AeK08011HH I1HHHH, KaKBaTO HMawe nocrpoeaa H KbMb "'3T04HHSI cex rop s npes's KaSl11bKb Ta6HSI AO Taurrrsk's f\11T7f' Ta6HSI, H enua ofiuia Te11eHa MpeH<a npen's H1;KOH OTb rpynar s. V13TO'lHHSlTb cee rop's, cpeuiy KOHTO ce npOH3BeAe peunrre.naa'ra araxa, no TonOrpa¢H'leCKHSI H OTKpHTHSI xapaxrep's na M1;cTHOCTbTa H r7f'CTOTaTa aa ¢opTOBeT1;; TYP4HT1;; CM1;;Taxa ae HaH-Cl-weHb H 36 ¢POHTb, cpeuiy KOHTO araxara e ManKO 81;;pOSlTHa. KaKTO no 41;nHSI ¢OpTOBb noac s, raxa Ii ryxa, TYPU.HT1;; pa3nOnOH<HXa apTHJ1epHSITa Me>t<AY ¢opTOBeT1;;, KOHTO 61;xa 3aeTH 01 b nexora H KapTe4HH4H. Ocaea s T08a, 3aI:lb ofiuiara reneaa Mpe>t<a nperrs ¢opT08eT1;; xa 50-100 Kpa'lKH H MeH<AY ¢opToBeT1; 61;;xa nocrpoeaa crpenKOBH OKOOH naKb sa nexorara Cb MHoro XOA08e aa cb06w.eHHe (cH4aH HOJ1nap) no Me>t<AY H KbMb TH11a. Tp stiaa na ce HMa npems BHAb, lie OTb MOMeHTa aa M0611nH3a4HSlT6 AO 12 MapTb 61;;xa H3MHHa11H 5 Mece4a, H TypU.HT1;; npea s TOBa Ab1!ro aperse Mo>t<axa na H3rpaASlTb OKonOSPbCTb 41;l1a H08a xpenoc rb, aKO uie 6H 11 caxo Cb nOI1~KI1 ¢OpTI1~HKa4HOHHI1 nOCTpOHKH, KOHTO, KaKTO Ofiuiare BOI1Ha cnerrs T08a noxasa, He C~ raxa neCHO araxyexa npa C7f'w.eCTBYIOW.eTO oruecrpenao op7f'>t<l1e H ApyrHT1;; Cp1;;ACTBa aa 60p6a. V1, HaI1CTHHa, TYP4HT1;; Ha 113T04HHSI ~pOHTb. 6 cxuio 11 8b APyrHT1;;, 61;; x 6 n p a rOT B 1111H n p e n H H n o 3 H 4 H H c a a H no C e 6 e C H A 0 C TaT b II HOC H 11H 11, npem, KOHTO 8b 1138eCTHI1 CI1Y'laH MO>t<ewe na ce pasfiae nopasa 36 aT6K6 Aa>Ke H6

48

f\Tal<aTa

Ha OApHH'b
f\TlIIHITa

ira OAPHHb

TI111epHS!T8, b KOHTO ce 03HaMeHOBa TaS! He6HBana BOHH8. HHe C u~ Tp-s6Ba,[Ia He ce nonnaeaxe na BnHSlHHeTO~a CTaHanHT-SaTaKH ua KpenOCTHT-S Bb HaYanOTO aa Ofiuiara BOHHa, KOI1TO H3HeHanoxa cB-STa Cb CBOSI pbMOTeBHyeHb ycrrsx-s : He Tp-s6Ba ,[18ce r HMnpeCHOHHpaMe OTb 6bp3HHaTa, Cb KOSITO nanaaxa nHe>Kb, M06bO>Kb, Haenop's, cpeuiy KOHrO repMaHlJ,HT-Sce SlBHxeCb CBOSlra HOBa Te>KKa apranepas H Cb CBOSITa xonocanaa apMHSI, HaWe,[lCTByrouia KaTO BanSlKb. Aei1cTBHeTo cpeury Ha BOHHa HMa cano KOHKpeTHH cnysaa, e.D,Ha xpenocr s ce KOHTOCHI1MaTb CBOI1T-S oc06eHOCTI1 H KOHpa3BHBa Bb 3aBHCH- TO He ce noarapar s HHKora, nopana OCOMOCTb OTb KOHKpeTHHT~ ycnOBHH. 6eHHSI KOMnneKCb OTb 06CTOSITenCTBa,npH 6 HCTopH'teCKH npxKOHTO Bb06w,e ce pa3BHBa KbpB8BaTa opM~pH. 68. OTb npaKTHyeCKa T04Ka ~peHH~eH araxara xa O,[lPHHb 6-swe eAHHb KOHKpeTeHb cny-raa, KOHTOnonnesceuie na ce peum cb06p83HO 06CTaHOBKaTa. Cnem, KaTO rrupBHT-S nperosopa sa Ml1pb He A8,[10Xa na ce nOCTl1rHaTb nonaTHyeCKHT-S ue.na aa BOHH8Ta, BKnlO4HTenHO OTCT7f\nBaHeTOHB CbI03HHlJ,HT-S KpenOCTHT-S O,[lPHHb, 51HHHaH Lllxonpe, araxara Ha Ci1>.W,I1T-S H8nO>K11Cb HeOTpa311M8Cl1n8. Y6e>KAeHl1eTO, ye ce Cb npeaaesraae r o aa OAPHHb SOHHaT8 uie ce CBbPWH, 6-swe 06w,0_ KbMb TOBa Tp-s6Ba na ce npH6aBH H 4YBCTByBaHeTo nynca Ha rapHH30Ha OTb crpana na naurero KOMaH,[IYBaHe,oc06eHO TOBa ua KOMaHAylOw,l1S1 apMHSI, KOHTO6nOKHpawe xpenocrura, II Yc suraure ce ye KpenOCTbTa Bb HpaBCTBeHO OTHoweHHe ap se, KaKTO 6-swe 'Ha3p-Sll0 11 BpeMeTO, xoraro OTb q,pOHTa Ha 4arannaca H Eynaap s 611xa MornH na ce orzrsns r s CHnH aa ar aKYBaHe TaS! xpenocrs, KOS!TOnpexxcaeure n7f\TSIaa npeaoat, Ha xpaua H npanacn aa apMI1HT-S H craaaure npl1YHHa,[la ce npoAbn>KaSa ouie BOHHaTa, MaKapb 11 60eBe na He ce aorrsxe. OCBeHb TOBa KbMb II apMHSI aa oficanara na xpenocr sra OTAaBHa 6-sxa ~a peanonosceaae H Bb 60HHaTa nHHHSI ,lJ,YHaBCKaTa H THMowKaTa cPb6cKH AHBH3HH. CM'BTaMb 4e TOBa H3I.faKBaHe,,[16ce aTaKYBa OAPHHb, 6-swe enno OTb HaH-'pa3YMHHT-S peurexns Ha neurero rnasao KOMaHAYBaHe. BOHHaTa He ce BOAH OTb nlO60Bb KbMb H3KyCTBOTO,a 3tl na ce nOCTHrHaTb uenHT-S aa HapO,[lHOTOH ,[Ibp>KaBHOTOC7f\F\ xoraro THS! uena MoraTb na ce nOCTl1rHaTb urecrayaanae. 6e3b oc06eHO KpbBonpOllHTHe, 3ApaBI1S1Tb paaysrs, na H Hayxara Ka3BaTb xe TOBa 6H 6Hno HaH-A06pOTO. 3al1.l0TO, na ce aTaKYBa e,[lHa' xpenocr s, He e enna arpa-rxa, HI1TOenna nexa pa60Ta BbHb OTb H3KyCTBOTO,Cpi;ACTBaTa H Cl1llI1T-S, TYKb noBe'Ie' OTb Bci;KiV\,[Ie apyrane H6 BOHHa ce HCKa Cb3HaTenHO M7f\~ >KeCTBO11 cnoc06HOCTb na ce H3TbpnSlTb H OTb HaYallHHlJ,HT 11 OTb npOCTHT-S BOHIiI1UH HaH ron-SMH ,[IyweBHH uanpescexas , KaKBHTO npe,[lH3BHKBa nOKpHBaHeTOnonecpeseexaero Cb XHllS1AH, yeCTO AeceTKH XHnSlAI1y6HTH H panena, H TO Bb I<7f\COTO BpeMe Ha H-SKonKO xaca HnH AeceTKI1 MI1HyTH.

Oficanara aa C e B aCT 0 non b Bb 1854-55 r. rpas 11 Mecella; xpenocr sra H3TbpnSi 6 60M6apAHpaHHSI, cbnpOBO,[leHH Cb MHomeCTBO HaCT)\'; are naa AeHcTBHSI; cpeuiy C7f\w,aTa ce 113n xBbpnHxa 1.350.000 apTHn. CHapSI,[IH;nanoxa ce 06l1.1o OTb ABeT-S crpana 30-40 XHnS!,[IH AYWH 3ary611 H cexo npa nOCne,[lHHSI l1.IypMb aa 27 asrycr-i, aTaKYlOl1.IHT-Snanoxa 10.000 y6HTH 11 paHeHI1, KonKOTO HHe npn O,[lPHHb, a oT6paHSllOl1.Il1T-S ] 1.700 ,[IYWI1. Ilpa ace TOBa, PYCI1T-Sce orrer naxa Cb apMI1S1Ta CH,Maxap-s rpaAbTb 11 na na,[lHa Bb pi'f\lJ,eTi; Ha CbI03HHIII1T-S q,peHIIH, aHrnHYaHI1, nl1eMOHTIIH H TYPIlI1. Oticanara na 6 e n q, 0 p b Bb 1870 r., npa CBOI1Ti;ocrep hna Yl<penneHHSI OTb BpeMero Ha B06aHb, oT6paHSIeaHI1 OTb 16.000 ,[IyWH, npOA"bnml1 rpa Mecella; xpenocnsra H3Tbpn-s nae YCKopeHI1 11enna He3aBbpweHa nocreneaaa araxa, H xa 18 q,eepyapl1l1, Hal1CTI1Ha,KanHTynHpa, HO TOBa CTaHa no aanoa-sm, Ha CBoero npaaaTenCTBO11Cb eoeliHH n04eCTI1. repMaHIII1T-S I1Maxa 17.600 nexora, 4.700 apTl1nepl1CTI1, 1.100 naosepn, 34 nOnCKI1, ocserrs TemKI1T-S H ray611YHI1Tt Opi'f\,[lHSIHa lJ,-snb oticanem, napx-s. T-s naaoxa 2.000 ,[lywl1 3ary611. 06Ca,[laTa aa C T p a c 6 y p r b Bb C}\\l1.IaTa BOHHa, o rfipaHSlBaHbOTb 17.0UOAYWI1, 113Tbpn-s ABa MeCelJ,a06caAa; 113pa3XOA. saxe ce 202.000 cnap sna, 11 cneAb enaa araxa, n pl1 3ary611 952 AYWH aa repMaHIIHT-S 11 800 AYWI1 sa q,peHIIHT-S, 611Ae 3aCTaBeH"b ne xanarynapa 6e3ycnoBHo. Ho CI<POMHI1Ti; 3ary6H TyKb -repraar-s Oficanara Ha n n -s B e H b, 113AI1rHaTb Bb xpenocri, Ype3b BpeMeHHI1 YKpenlleHHSI Bb 1877 r., npl1 35.000 TYPIlI1 rapHl130Hb, TpaSl41/2 Mecella; rpem.r-s 113TbpnSi rpa araKI1 ace 6e3ycn-swHH, npa KOHTOPYCHT-SAa,[loxa 3ary611: 7.200 A. npH rrspsara H 16.000 ,[lyWH npH rperara, nntBeHb nanua npa cM-Snl1S1 nl1Tb ua OCMal-lb O nawa na CH np0611e ni'f\Tb Cb lI-snHSI rapHI130Hb KbMb Jloae-rs. Tan crpauraa CbnpOTI1BJ naa cana Ha TYPIlI1T-S He ce msnrre »ceuie CaMO Ha reHI1S111 6n-SCK8BaTa MOl1.lbua OCMaHb nauia, HO, 6e3b CbMHeHl1e, y. na ce6eOTpl1118HI1eTO nO,[lYHHeHJ.1T-S BOHHa My CKH. Ll..J.-Swena 6}\\,[le He6naropa3YMHO, aKO HaweTO HOMaHAYaane He 6-s Abpmano CM-srKa aa THS! q,aI<TH, KOHTO c'scraansBaTb HaH-6n-scKaBaTa CTpaHHlIa 11 nocera aa 3HaMeHaTa Ha HI13aMH A>KeAI1Ab Ha TYPIlHS!. Oficanara Ha B 11 11 b Bb 1885 r., npa 6bnrapcKI1 rapxaAH 30Hb 3.170 3anaCHH BOHHHIII1.,[l06pOBon1lH 11orrsnveuua, 2,[1bnrH H 2 Hi'f\CI1 24·q,YHTOBH Op7f\AI1S1, MOpTl1pa, 26 nOllCKI1 OP}\\. 1 AHSI OTb pa3HI1 CHCTeMI111 Kanl16pl1 115 crepe CHCTeMa xap revHHIII1 Ii npu cpb6cKa 06caAHa apMI1S1 l 1.000 nyuixa OTb THMOWxara ,[lHBI13115!, 400 ca6nl1, 12 noncror H 18 06C8AHI1 OPi'f\AI1Sl,ce aaa spura na 13 HOeMepl1H Cb enua 6e3ycn-SwHa araxa OTb crpaHa aa cbp6Hr-s, HOI·HO 6-sxa aaernr npennara 6bnrapCKa n0311lJ,HSI,H KOI1TO ce npHHY,[lHxa na sanoscar-s rnspaara napanenb, aa na noaenar s nocreneaaa araxa Ha xpenocrure. Ho, TOBa He
4
H

xona ue res araxe.

RTIIKara

ua Qp,PHH"b

51

110) AH HaCT]~nHIIOTO npHMHpHe Ha 16 HoeMBpHH. 6bllraI1T I H3~bPwHxa nsa CMt.IIH 11311a3a, 1<0l1TO nanoxa n06e.o.HI151 ~peC~I1H<b aa 1<0MaH.o.aHTd, KanHraHb Y3YHOBb, H Bt.para 2 aa apHI130Ha Bb ce6e CH. Ilpa Bl1.o.HHb cbP611Tt. 2.o.a1fxa 36 Y ;~~ H aHeHH 11 70 nlleHeHH, a 6bllrapHTt. 0't'H~epH H 6~TH 11paHeHI1 11 50 nJleHHH~I1. LJHCIIOTO Ha nneaexur'a seprae ~elll1l<Ol1enHI1S1 ocpaH3HBeHb .o.YXb Ha caetara OT6paHa. OnHTbTb 38 3aSlla.o.SlBaHe 6 t. Jl 0 r p a A 4 H I< ~ OTb CTpaHa Ha cbP6HTt. Bb C~w,ara cpb6cKo-6bllrapCl<a BOHHa Cb 3 .o.PY>f<I1HH 1 nllaHHHCKa 6aTapeSi H 1 eCKa.o.pOHb nponanna ouie npa nb B~51 na b nperrs TaSi MallKa, HO BaH<Ha Kpe~ocTb. npl1 CTaHa~l1S1 H: 6 ~OeMBpI1H nperris 6t.1I0rpaQ4111<b 6011 aa TI1S1CI1I1I1, HaC04eHI1 na 3aBlla.o.t.S1Tb KpenocTbTa 11 Bb TOBa epexe aananHaTI1 OTb CJla6I1Tt. 6bJlrapCI<I1 4aCTI1 OTb 720 uiaxa. cbP6HTt. npeTbpnt.xa nopaH<eHl1e, xaro 113ry611xa .:b y6HTH, ~3~3BeCTHO 1<0111<0paHeHI1, 1 nacpeTb OTb nnaHI1HCKO op~.o.l1e H nyurxa. Cpa3eHH, 6e3b CbMHeHHe, e.o.HaKBO OTb 6bllrapCKaTa xpatpocTb, MaKTO H OTb npecnosa aa raa ManKa xpenocre, CbP6HT TyKb Clle.o.b nOpaH<eHHeTO CH Be.o.Hara ce OTTer naxa aa rpa6HH~aTa. TaKI1Ba C~ Bb BoeHHO BpeMe nCHXOnOrHyeCKHTt. OCO eHOCTH Ha MaCHTt. aa KOHTO yeCTO e!J.,Ha .o.YMa, e.o.HO BHyweHl1e, enao npeYBenHY~HO MHeHHe, enaa npenaaera l1.o.eSl MO~H<e.o.a Hanp~BI1 720 W,I1Ka na ce OKaH<aTb nO-Cl1nHI1 OTb TPOHHO no-ron MO

J

'YI1CJlO W,HKOBe H T01ll<OBa Op~.o.HSI H ca6nH. 1904 r oceMb ro06caAaTd ua no p T b - R P T Y P b Bb " HHH n ena 06Ca.o.aTa aa O.o.PI1Hb, t5t.we ouie no-nOY4l1TenHa ~a rOA:HrlTt. .0.0 6aJlKaHCKara BoHHa. Cpew,y eAHHb rapHH30Hb 38000 AYWI1 pyCH aa e.o.l1Hb CPOPTOBb ncsc s OTb 19 KM. no ·orb awe 90.000 .o.yWH SlnOH~H; 06ca~aTa rpaSl 5 Mece~a; cyurara, HM b nSi T HaT a K H orb KOHTO nOCJle.o.HaTa ycnt.wKpenOCTbTa H3T P P '6 npu KpenocTbra 3ary611 Ilia aa S1noH~HTt., KOHTO nanoxa 0 Ul,0 T t.6Ba 30 000 .o.YWI1 cnOpeQb eAHH 11 50.000 cnope.o.b APyrl1. p ()T~OBO ne npHnOMHI1Mb, 4e nOpTb·RpTYP!' He ~6t.we KnOo~~~~~ OB eM HHI1Tt. YKpenneHI1S1 KOI1 3Hal1 Kon weH~~:eb~:pe~eH~ OTb OAPI1Hb. Hexa nOBTOpI1Mb, rrsnroapeQ

:~~~I1Tt.

11 nonYAbJlrOBpeMeHHI1Tt. My cpOpTose 6 t.xa :O~~H lJ,~~ 6 t. n OCPHIII1 Cb MHOH<eCTBO Ka3eMaTH, pa oren C~~:T Cb rft.CbKb, 'KaMbHI1, npbCTb H 3aCHlleHI1 Cb .o.bpBeH b MaTe~ 6 M arn, (MI1HHI1 no.o.nOpHI1 rpena 11paMKI1) Bb spexe xa 0 canara; ~11 t. My 6t.xa MeH<AY cpopTOBert. 6e3b 6POHSI, K8KTO npn aTapel1T Bt. HO e -re Ht.KOI1 OTb nOpTb-RpTYPCKI1Tt. YKpenJleOAP~;b~ H3~n6a~11 Bb CK8111111.0.0 n04BaHe Ha 06caAaTa PYCI1T1> HI1S1 x lll1JlH _POPTOBI1S1oac's Cb Ht.KonKO J1HHI111 n OKOnl1 11TBbp6t.xa yCI1 CPOpTl1cpI1Ka~HOHHI1 CTpOeH<11OTb nOJlCKI1 X8paKTepb, pene MHO:0 el1 06a4e, nOBTapSlMe, TyK b Ht.M8we HI1TO rpyso6ara AyTH p, 0 6pOHHpaHI1 6awHI1, HI1TO apMI1p8Hb 6eTOHb; HOBH xynona, HHT rara 6t.xa noopN\AI1S1ra cTpenSlxa OTb OTKPI1TO, a sa npacny

~TpOeHI1 Ht.K"'Ae Cl1llHI1, Ht.K~Ae cna611 Ka3eMaTH 11npOCTH CKPI1B8JlHUl,8. Heka nOA4epTaeMb, 4e SlnOH~I1Tt., 1<8KTO aac s, Ht.MaX8 eAHHb HanbllHO CbBpeMeHeHb apTHllepHHCKI1 napKb. MaK8pb H na HMaxa no nponopuas Cb AbJlH<HHaTa Ha cyxonxraara 06· canua lll1HI1S1 MHoro noaexe TeH<KI1 OpN\AH5I, OTKOJlKOTO HHe. Flpa rrspaara araxa Tt. ce SlBHxa Cb 78 TeH<KI1 OTb 12 H 15 CM. 11 200 nOllCKI1 H nn8HI1HCKH OP"'.o.H5I, HO CKOpO Tt. noxecoxa MHoro TeH<KH OP}ll\AHSI 11 TeH<KH ray611~H. F\ .0.0 KaKBa crerteas CPOpTOBeTt. Ha nOpTb-RpTYPb C}Il\ 6HJll1 cnoc06HH Aa npOTI1BOCT05lTb aa H8H-TeH<KaTa apTI111epl1S1, ce BI1H<Aa OTb cpaKT8, -re KOMaHAYIOUl,I1S1Tb BOHCKHTt., reaeparrs KOHApaTeHKo, nyurara Ha OT6paHaTa, nanaa y611Tb OTb 8CCPHKCI1S1Bb eAI1Hb OTb Ka3eM8' THTt. Ha HaH-3.np8BH5I CPOpTb KI1KyaHb, OTb np sceaaero Ha CHaPSt.o.b OTb 28 CM. ray611~a, npofiarrs H8CI1na H CBO.o.8H8 cscenHHSI Ka3eMaTb. TYKb n0411HaX8 80cpHl\epH, 8 Ht.I{Ol1l\HHa 6HAoxa paHeHI1. 06C8.o.aTa aa nOpTb-RpTYPb nora'spna, 4e 8TaKl1rt. Cb OTKpl1T8 CHJla no MeTO,Q8 H8 xonauneua Koexcp-rs OTb XVII Bt.Kb 11 H8 repxaueua CPOHb 3ayepb OTb nOCJle.o.HHTt. nece'n, rOAHHH H8 XIX Bt.Kb npencraanaear'e H8nbnHO PHCKOB8HO Ht.Ul,O, oc06eHO xoraro He ce paanonara Cb Mor",w,b apTHnepHHCKH napx s. OrpOMHl1rt. 3ary611 npa rrspear s ABe aT8KI1 HaKap8xa !nOH~HTt., cnem, TOBa, .0.8 He npaear s HI1TO Kpa4K8 Hanpe.o.b, oea s na He H3nOJl3YB8Tb KHpK8T6, 1I0n8T8T8 Hnl1 Top68Ta Cb nt.CbKb, a npena aT8KaT8 - H MI1HHTt., 38,Qa ce OTBOPI1 n}ll\Tb aa W,YPMYIOUJ,I1Tt. KOll0HI1. ETO 3aUl,0, HeK8 nOBTOPI1Mb, 11348KBaHeTO .0.8 ce aTaKYB8 O.o.PHHb e enao n s no OTb BHCOKO nOY411reJlHO eCTeCTBO. Sb TOBa peWeHl1e Bt.e e.o.HO BI1COKO BoeHHO 113KYCTBO, 3ane~aTaHO Cb KpbBbTa H8 Ml1nHOHH 408t.K8 11 nonsepraao .o.e6eno OTb BCH41<11pa3yMHH BoeHHH Y4eHI1 11 MHCnl1Tenl1 OTb Bere~I1H Bb KllaCH4eCKHSl PI1Mb.o.O KllaY3eBI1lJ,b, HaH-.o.bn60KI1S1 BoeHeHb <PH1I0COCPb, KOHro ce SlBI1 cnen s enOX8T8 H8 Hano neou's, H KOHTO 'Y4eHb OCTaBa HeH8AMI1HaTb H .0.0 cera. KJl8Y3eBI1lJ,b 1<83Ba: ,,)].0KaTO paoorara He e MHHana peurarensara CH cp83a, 06CaH<.o.aTb <:e caao OHHSI KpenOCTH, 6e3b ~l1eTO oenarrssaae HH84e HHl<aKb He MOH<e. 3aBJlaAt.BaHeTo Ha xpenocra Bb nperrs Bl1.o.b ocarypsaaxe 3aBOeBaHH5ITa ce SlB.SlB6(H6cr8Ba) Bb OHOBa apene, KOTaTO peuieuaero ce e nOCTI1rHall0 uarrsnao, Kor8TO KPl13HCbTb H aanpeseeaaero Ha CI1JlHTi; CiT\ MHHanH 11He CKOPO Morarb na ce Bb306HOBSlTb, T. e., KOnlTO e HaCTaH811b nepaorrs Ha 3aTHWHe. Toraaa 06c8.o.aT8 H rrpeaaexaaero Ha KpenOCTI1Tt. He CTaBa, paafiapa ce, 6e3b YCHJlI151 H paaxona Ha Cpt..o.CTB8, HO ace none 6e3b onaCHOCTH". Orb npyra CTpaH8 11 C8MaTa nooena I1Ma HY;X.o.a.o.8 yap se, T04HO raxa, KaKTO sp se BCt.I<O ~t.JlOCTHO .o.t.JlO Hlll1 nposaa Bb npaponara. H eTO 3aUJ,0, peureaaero Aa ce aT6KYBa O.o.PHHb TbH KbCHO, a He no-paao, e .o.t.no Ha nOnO>f<I1TeJlHO BoeHHO H3KYCTBO. Cne-reneuoro apexe n03BOlll1 no-noneaao Aa ce rpyna-

53
It K til ua QAPHllb

na ce 3an03HaTb h xpenoc'r s re, a nexorara H nHoHepHTi:; uio-rone na ce npuror aar e sa ocofieuara pafiora npa araaara, a oc06eHO npa npeMHHasaHe TeJleHHTi:; MpemH. Hexa oT6eJlemHMb, 'Ie Bb TI1Jla npa C. Kapa-Kicydn, HMawe npHrOTBeHb eo,l1Hb naoaepe-rs noJlHrOHb, nero no pen's APymHHHTi:; ce aorrsxa, aa na ce ynpamHSisaTb Bb npexaaaeaae Ha TeJleHH MpemH H araxa Ha yxpenJleHHSI. 06B'Ie, 06Y'leHHeTO no pi:;3aHe reneua MpemH ce OKa38JlO Hl;l<aKb 06e3CbpA4HTenHO, nonesce HomH~HTl; 61-1JlHMHoro HeyH I,AoTO'laTb CHJlH, SOHCI<HTi:; A06HH, a TeJleHHTi:; >f<H~H

.cp

nosexe

aanoa-snaer's na areuyaaxe SCI141<HTYPCKH npenaa nosesepe. ,UanH uie ce cnpeers TaMb, HnH uie npOAbl1>f<HMb arexar a, oLLIe He MO>f<e na ce Kame, HO a3b CbMb ye speuu, 4e 3aeMaHeTO xa npeAHHTi:; n03H~I1H e pafiora cano aa 2-3 -race, a nocne uie BHAHMb" •.. Cnerrs npo-nrraue ua 3anoBi:;AHTi:; H paaersaara Ha MHCJlH no nonarxanar-s ce BbnpoCH, sa BCH41<HCTBHa 04esHAHo, 'Ie npa Cx.LLlecTBYlOl.I..IaTa 06CTaHoBKa HaH- A06pe ute 6x.Ae na ce araIlOCJle HaMb n03H~HH ow,e KYBa HeHaAeHHO 6e3b HHKal<Sa apTHnepHHCl<a nOA[OTOBl<a, KaTO

na

Y4e6HHSI

nOJlHrOHb

61-111H MHOlO

ce aa
ro

H3non3YBa s MOMeHTb

no

oCHrypSlBaHe

aarrsnao TbMHHHaTa Ha HOLLlbTa aa H3HeHaAaTa. Feueparrs VlBaHOBb, KOHro Bb
TOSI Ha'lHHb Cb Ha4aJlHI1Ka Ha LLla6a

nO-SIKH, OTKOJlKOTO 6HJlH TypCKHTi:; 3anoBi>.o.b aa ar axa Ha npe.o.HHTi> n03HU,"H.

nperrs

YKpen11eHI1S1Ta HMb.

npHcTHrHa Bb

HHl<b >KeKoBb,

,UeHbTb 7 MapTb e peWI1TeneHb ae a snpoca, KOHTO HH 3aHHMaBa. Fexeparrs Canoe's MHXaHJlb, KaTO sHAi:;

caxoya-apeaocrsre

na

KOMaHAylOLLlHSI 06C8mAaLLlaTa apMHSI, reuepams VlsaHoBb HHKOJla H xaro S3e MHeHHeTO na Ha'l8JlHHl<a xa J.-i3TO'lHHSI cexTOP':' reaeparrs aene peurarennara

sa HeHaAeHHa araxa 6e3b apTHJlepHHCKa nonroroaxa, H Cb enaa xparxa pe-rs ce nocrapa A a n peA a A e Hac b 6 P a H H T l; r on l; M H H a 'I a Jl H H u H B C H 'I K H T i:; C 11 n 0 p H B H H B C H 4x a r a CH a s p a Sb y c n s x a x a a r a x a r a n a n p e n a a r s n03 H u H H, xaro AOnbJlHH, 4e cnerrs TOBa MO>f<e Aa ce areKYBa H cpopTOBaTa nHHHSI.

aa cexropa,

urafia

CH,

nOJlKOB-

Bb3npl1e

cb06pa>f<eHHSlra

Feopra, KOHTO rp stieeure na npOH3aanoa sns na ce araxyaar-s ripenHI1Ti:; n03 HI..I111. Ha 10 MapTa Bb 7 'I. en. nil. reaeparrs 1 Casoa s Bb AHpeKTHBa N2 21 aanasara ua 06Ca>f<l1aLLlaTa apMHSI onpeAi:;nH H nl1CMeHO raka :
Ba30Sb aT81<8, A8Ae

ABe
nH

AYMH 38 reHepan-s HB8HOBb H. aTaKYBa

Hexa
HJlH He

nonsepreeers,
OTHoweHHe OTb y

4e

ras

aeonperrsneAB-

HOCTb no

Ba>f<HHSI BbnpOCb,

11-H Mapta, Cb BOHCKIH-B OTb H3TO'lIiHII cexrop-s na araxyaa H S8CMCnpcAHHrii n03Hl\HH aa npoTHBIIHKa Ha r03H CCKTOpb. BCH'IKH ocraaana cexropa n a nOAAbpm8Tb HI31i IITaKa Cb CAHO eueprH'l110 nact ~nncH'leu.

.. 11 f\PMHII yrpe,

uie ce aa caxare
I..IHH SIC b, H

CPOPTOBHSInOSICb H

.o.HpeKTI1Sa

CJleAHHSlTb KaTO H l<aTerOpH4HO:

se

N2 21
na

xora, na

e

nnozrs
no 3 HnoCH

rJlaBHOKOMaHAYIOLLlHSI. noce6e CI1CHnH n Ka>f<e SlCHO

nl1 He HaMi;pH ce

11 ace

3 a B Jl a A i; SIT b aTaKYBB

pe

n H H T l;

cn

en

Cxuiara HOLLlb Bb 11 4. 30 M. reaeparrs YiBaHoBb nerpadia npenaae .0.0 apMI1S1Ta CH CBOSiTa aance-sns, Bb

no

re-

KaTO

ce

s

TOBa

CPOPTOBHSI BbPWH MO>f<a pa60TaT8 Ho, aKO

OCTaBH 113nbnHHTenbTb I<px.ra

KOSITO

Cb HHH4HaTI1Ba Bb Cl1nH Bb ce6e CH

na aeroaara
ce

na

cnym6a.

Ba>f<HHTi:; nYHI<ToBe cx. CJleAHHTi:;: .. 3. Ha noe s oeuere MH apMHII ce m.anare § sanaxar a All sac Me npCAHHTii n03Hl\HH 11<'npOTUBllHKa H ro OTXBbpnH 3aAb <pOpTODlITa nnHI1I1, 38 KOIITO uens KbMb noe sp 118Ta MH 8pMHII, oceea s npHAa,o;ellllTa aese 3-a 6pHra,o;a OTb 4-a npeCJlaBCKB AHSH3HII, CC ABSC:IHI-a 6pJ.lraAa OTb 3 8 138nKallCK8 AHBHSHII. § 4. 38 HsnbnHCIIHC Bb3nO)KeH8r8 aaaa-ra ua ap~IHIITa aanoa Ln88Mb: I. Yrpc, l1-H MapTb, Bb 1 'I. en. nn. .11.8 nosue aprancpaiicxa nOArOTOBKa Cb SCJ.I'IKaTa 06CDAila H noricxa aprunepas S'b SCJ.t'IKJ.Icexropa. 2. npesb aounrra Ha 11 cpeuiy 12 MapTa neXOTDTa, nOAb aaurarar a Ha oecam ar a 11 noncxa apTHlIcpHII, ,o;lI lIaCT~nH H na paSCbMBOH~ 3t1LMC npCAIIHT-B n03H'-I11H ua npOTlHIHHKD. cnopen s KaKTO e yxasauo Bb AHPCKTHBaTa MH N2 56 OTb 1·1l MapTa r. r." Bb Bb CBOH LLla6a

HOI<OMaHAYlOl.I..Il1S1Tb,Kal<TO

BH>t<Aa, He

TOsa nbKb

xpenocr s-ra, a He CaMO aa npeAHHri:; n03HlIHH, aa reaepam, VlBaHOBb noe 3anoBi:;AbTa Cb BCH'II<HTl; CH nopasa H u snare CH nyura, HenpeMi:;HHo na aaenerrae rpana OAPHHb. Bb nyuiara na reueparrs Hsaaom, B i:; p a r a B b n 06 e A a TaB b C n y 'I a Sl 6 i; wee A HOp e a n H 0 4 Y B C T B 0,
Ha o C HOB a H 0 H a e A HOT B b P A 0 Y 6 e >f< e H H e. TOH A ayaauie, 'Ie 06cTaHoBKBTa e ee-re namsnao yap'sna aa peWI1TeJlHa

araxa

na noexe

OTrOBopHOCTbTa

aa

na

rnaa-

HaMi:;pH

peWHTeJlHaT8

cr

araxa. Karo rnaaem,

Ha4aJlHHKb

aa

enaa

4YB-

Mi:;CTOTO, TOH no-

A06pe OTb r naBHOI<OMaHAYIOLLlHSI'1YBCTBYBawe nynca H8 CBOSlra BOHCl<a H aa HenpHSlTeJlSl. Ko.na-recraoro aa BOHCI<I1Ti:;, Cb KOHTO

ae ras 3anOBl;Ab reaepam, Ba30Bb cb6pa na cexropa Sb 7 Y. np. nn. HayanHHI..IHTi:; Ha ABaTa orrrsna (y-racr sxa) H 6pHraAHI1Ti:; 1<0MaHAHpH, BCH4KH Cb
H3nblll;leHI1e CH, H, npena KOSITO 6l;we na HMb npoxere r aeaa KbMb AoHpe. no sacexno apMI1S1Ta H ras, na npenuara npnro sa araxara n03HI..II1S1, 06bpHa ce yaCb cb6paHaH-

pasnoneraure, onHTHOCTbTa H H3Y'lBaHHSlTa, 1<0HrO erie-rena H aanpaaa Bb npozrsns-enae ner s-xecesaara oticane aa «penocrar a,
~erOBOTO y6e>f<AeHHe H onperrsnaxa I1Ael1 6i:;xa aa SlCHH H pa3YMHH. .o.Hpel<THBa cexropar-s, uie HerOBHTl;

c'ssnenoxa HHSI.

CXBaLLl8ce

Ha4aJlHI1I..1I1Tl; Ha LLla60BeTl; noa-smsra ropa <:x.

Heroear s

TOBa HaH-A06pe

BH>f<AaBb aeroaara Ti:; My Ha'lanHHI..IH CXB8LL1aHe, KaKb

N2 56

OTb

1

MapTb

}]O nOA'IHHeHHcaoero H Bb

Bb

1<0SlTO TOH H3n8ra xpenocrura,

HHTi:; Cb H i:;I<OllKO I1YMH, CJleAHHTl;: "rOcnoAa,

Me>f<AY I<OHTO Bb MHor004aKBaHHSI

cny-ras

nO-BamHH

ce ClTaKYBa 11 aeanan'se

55
KTUII 1011 He n p o n y ui a n a n p e n a n e CSOSITa. II 0 K)I T H M a B i; P a B"b Y C n i; x a B"b A Y wa T a Hac Jr.1I~II I I, II a 4 a 11H H 1.1 H. .Cpi;ACTBaTa, C"b KOHTO paanoneraxe, H MHO>KeCTBOTO Ha aaunrr s BOi1CKH, KB3Ba TOH Me>KAY APyroTO. HH naear s npeao na e speane e"b n"bnHHSI H 6"bP3HSI ycrrax i,". Cnerrs KaTO 6i;we pesnperramers H npeAHa3Ha4Hn"b n0J10BHHaT a CH apMHSI cpeuiy H3TO'lHHSI CeKTOp"b H nOCTeSHJ1"b MHOrO'lHCJ1eHa ,·e>KKa apTHJ1epHSI aa Kp"bCTOCaH"b H aHq,HJ1aAeH"b. Or"bHb cpeuiy H3XOASlW,HSI Jr.r"bJ1"b npn f\HBa3"b 6a6a, C"b noneaarara AHpeKTHB8 TOH ce MJr.YH cano A8 eHywH CJ1eAYlOwHT1;. SlCHH HAeH: 1. LUe ce nosene aT8Ka He xpenocrs ra no 1.Ii;n8T8 H yxpeneua nHHHSI. Henpaarem.r s, 068ye, He Tpi;6Ba npescneapeneaao A8 nO'lYBCTBye8 peWHTenHHSI YA8P"b· 2. LUe 8TaKYBaTb BCHYKH cexropa H uie n0J10>KaTb BCH'IKH yCHnHSI, aa na ce paaaae Bci;KH nOCTHrHElT"b ycni;x"b, nero ce nOSlBH. BCH4KO nCHXOJlOrH4eCKO MorJr.w,eCTBO H HHCTHHKC"b ycrrsx s 60PI..IH. Tpsfiaa AEl nonxepras CII\W,O, 'le ep,HHb reaeparrs , KOHTO He e B"b ycrrsxa, TOH HHKora He MO>Ke A8 noCTHrHe. H l"J1aBHaTa sacnyra He reuepam, HBaHOBb 6i;we, H e, "Ie TOH KaTO HCTHHCKH nOJ1KOBOp,el..lb HMawe nbJlHa Bi;pa Bb ycrrsxa, H TSI He ro HanYCHa AO CElMOTO aaenansaaae xa xpenOCTbTa. Tp-s6B8 CII\W,O na nonxepre s, "Ie ycn-SXHT-S He BOHHa CN; p,-SJ10 npena BCH4"0 H8 xapaxrepa H BOJ1S1Ta,a nocne aa HgeHTi; H KOHCen1.lHHTi;. Hexa Aon"bnHHMb, 'le AYMaTa HH e aa reaeperrs HB8HOB"b npa O,nPHH"b; aa reuepam, HBaHOBb npa KYKYWb HHe npyrane CMe CH Ka3aJlH H8weTO 060CHOBaHO MHeHHe.
spaa ycn-sx s

rOTO npena TH na BOAHWb

3. H3TO'lHHSlT"b CeKTOp"b, HEl KOHTo e paano noscexa n0J10BHaara apMHSI, uie npoaasene peWHTeJ1HaTEl aT8Ka, uie npofiae cpopToBaTa nHHHSI H uie cpaue «penocri.ra. 4. IO>KHHSlT"b cexrop s uie p,eHcTBYBa HeOTCJ1a6HO, 3ElW,OTO H aer oaar a aTaKH uie 6N;AaT"b peunrrenaa, KaKTO Ha H3TO'lHHSI
51cHo e, -re reaepam, HBaHoBb no nOHSlTHH npHYHHH Bb3nara peunrremurr s AeHcTBHSI Ha 6"bnr8pCKHTi; BOHCKH. Ho .. TOH ce cr pexa na H3non3YB8 pasyxao H cpb6cl<HTi; BoHcKH. Hcroaara KOHCenl..lHSI e ras H8 Henoneoaa, KOSITO ce H3pa3S1Ba C"b AYMHTi;: crpafisaa ce apar a HaBci;KN;p,e, a Ype3"b npaBHJlHO pa3npep,i;J1eHHe Ha CHMIT"h C"b ron i; M a Mac aMY Ce H a Hac 51 y A a p"b H a e A HOC a MOM i; C T 0, Bb cnyxas H3XOASIW,HSI 7H"bJl"b Ha «penocrura HnH q,opToBeTi; TaW"b-TEl6HSI, r ilnasn-Batia: H f\g>KH Ho ny, p, e TO C e C"b 3 A 8 e a C"b 6 H THe T 0 Han 06 e A a r 8. f\ «penocrs B"b TaKTHyeCKO OTHoweHHe ce npeB3HM8 HMeHHO T8K8, T. e. xoraro no nJl8H8 aa AeHCTBHSlTa BCHYKH ce Bp,HrHaT"b H HCKr:eHHO BnO>K8Tb yCHJlHSlT8 CH Bb. 06W,HTi; yCHnHSI 38 HenpeMi;HHOTO nper eaaaae H8 peWHTenHHSI nYHKTb M"bpTBdTa H >KHBaTa OT6paHa H8 epara. B~ AeHCTBHTenHOCTb, peurxrene+rs nyaxr s CTaB8 T03H, npa KOHTO uie ce nOCTHrHe ycni;xb, KoeTO MO>Ke na CT8He H nero He ce e 0'l8KBano. ETO sauio, CMi;no MO>KeMb na Ka>KeM"b, "Ie reaepam. HBaHOB"b C"b CBOSITa HenOKnaTHMa Bi;pa Bb ycn-sxa , C"b npoCTOTaTa H S1CHOTaTa Ha CXeaw,aHHSlTa CH ce S1BSlBaB"b THSI 6eJ1e>KI1TH Aei1cTBHSI KaTO eAHH"b MOf}IIW,"b TaKTHK"b. He cexo no KHH>KHHTi; npHHI..IHnH H HAeH, HO Cb nyurara, xapaarepe, HHCTHHKTHTi; H npHBH4KHTi; CH. Hexa nonxepras, "Ie nonesao e· na ce npasa p83J1HKa Me>KAY crparer s H TaKTHK"b. EAHOTO HCKa roni;Mb MaTeMaTH4eCKH HHCTHHKT"b H B"b06pa>KeHHe, npy-

cexrop:s.

reuep. CJr.W,O raxa SlCHH, npOCTH 11 pa3yMHH CJfi. Ba30B'b r. H HAeHTi; H CXBaw8HI1S1Ta aa Ha4aJ1HHKa He H3T04HI1S1 cexrop-s, rexeparn, Ba30Bb Feopru, KOi'TO 6-swe naouepem, ocpHl..lepb Cb eHcwe 06) a30BaHHe, orpoxem, >KHTeHCKH onHTb H aeuri, n03H8Ba4"b H8 «penocruara BoHHa. H Bb H360pa ua TOSI Oq,l1l..1ePb HMa Hi;w,o, KoeTO naaa 6ni;C"bKb He 6bnrapCKOTO KOMaHAYBaHe. "Ha Boi1Ha 40Bi;1.I11T-S CJfi. HHW,O, BCH41<0 e 40Bi;1<8~ 1<83Ba Hanoneoa-s, HJlH the riqht man in the right orace Ka3B8Tb 8HrJIH'l8HI1T-S. H TOH, KaKTO 11 resepam, HBaHOB"b, Bb apMHSlTa ce nonayseure Cb npeCTI1>Ka Ha xapaxrepem, H AapOBI1Tb, l<aKTO e 1.I-Snl151 My pozrs, 0q,H1.IePb H H84anHHK"b. Me>KAY 6e3cnopHO l..IeHHHT1; cneuaanacra B"b w,a6a xa vl3T04HH5I cekrop s, HeKa nOMeHeMb: 3aropcI<I1 CT., Ha4anHI1Kb H8 06caAH8Ta apranepus, C7i'\.60Bb B. H-Kb Ha noncxara aprnnepas . .n06peBCKI1 3aBeAYIOw,b 11H>KeHepHaTa YaCTb, BbJlKOBb HB.-Ha4aJlHI1Kb uiafia, 11apr a n. HH>KeHep"b Cnaa-ree u CT., KOHTO B"b 1911 r. 6-s p,"bp»<an"b 6ece.o.a BbPXY arexara H o rfipauara na O.o.PHHb npu ensa Bb3MO>KHa rypcxo-ti'snrepcxa BoHHa. H3JlI1WHO e na xepaxrepaaapane 1.IeHHHT1; Ha4anHHI..II1 11T1;XHI1T-S noMOl1.(HHI..IH OTb npyrur s cexropn, BKJlI0411TellHO TOS! Ha HaWI1T1; roraaa C"b103Hi1I..1H Cbp6HT-S. MaKapb cbp6HT-S 11 na nanoxa npa araxara weCTb nll\TI1 nO-MaJlI<O 3ary611 OT"b 6"bJlrapHT1;, HCTopH4eCKH cpaKTb e, "Ie Ti; CJfi.W,OnOJlO>KHXa CBOI1T1; 6J1aropOAHH YCl1nH5I, T04HO KaKTO reueparrs HBatlOBb 6-swe 3aMHCllHll"b, T. e. na eurasorpar-s 3ApaBO apara , .o.OKaTO Bb H3TO'lHHSI cexTOPb 6"bnrapHT1; cpaaar's xpenocrure. Heuocp sncraeaar a nO,QrOTOBKa aa 3an04BaHe Ha araxara Ha OAPHHb, nposee, o-repraaa BCHYKH AeH~I1, OTb rexepana .0.0 pennaxa, rOTOBH aa nOABI13H 11 cnaaa,
,u,yl"lK aa

ABe

c. -

CHnH H (50IfHO pasnHCBHHe Ha o(5ca)l{n aurar a Bpl"lHR.

uapeoenu : C e B e p e H bOT

Ha J I uapma

«a

i13mO'tH.Uf7

cexmop»
Ai;
JI

CAt

b,

nO,D."b

B.:

roe

KOMaH.QElTa aa reaeparrs Fp sa-rapoe-s, Heuiafia f\3MaHoBb .n., ae HH>KeHepHaTa xacn, CHnSiHoBcKH 6pHra,naTa aa f\6paweBb CT., HerOB"b Ha4anHHKb w,a6a J<Hpnl1-

s H-Kb

56 KOBb ViB.: ABe APY»U1HH OTb 54. nonx s H I..rSnl1S1 56. nortx u Ha 6YIOKJII1eBb H.; reaocara apranepas xa Cnaexem. CT.; 6pHraAaTa Ita KbPA)!{HeBb rl1HbO, aeroa s Ha4anHI1Kb uiaoa Ilonoe's A06pH: 10. nonx s Ha $IHKOBb Feopr», 23. no nx s aa nawHHoBb ViBaHb, apr Hnep. oTAi;neHHe aa VirHaTOBb CT. H ray6HYHOTO OTAi:; reHHe Ha Ka6newKOBb H,; reaocara apranepas Ha Bb1l4aHOBb neTKO, H nHOHepHTi; Ha Koneau H. H Benl14KOBb 11.; 6pHraAaTa Ha P116aPOBb H., xeros s HayanHHKb urafia rHKOBb CT.: 29. nOllKb na 311aTapeBb KPbCTbO, 32. nonx s ua 3JJareBb T., aprHJ1epHikKHTi; oTAi;lIeHI1S1 Ha CapaHAapoBb 11. 11 TOTeBb VlB. H n110HepHTi:; ua ViBaHoBb 8n. H nbpBaHoBb MapKo; sam, Ti;xb,3a o rrrkna, M a HeB p e H H T i; B 0 H C K H: 53. nOllKb Ha Y3YHOBb I1TaHaCb. IO)!{ e H b o r n i; 11b nom, KOMaHAaTa aa nonKOBHI1Kb A i;1I0Bb B., Heroa s Ha4allHHKb uiafia CTecpaHOBb CT., HayallHHKb ap runepxsra f\pa60Bb K.: 8i;cHa K01l0Ha Ha KlIHCypOBb 57. nOll~b Ha 60HyeSb BlIaI1KO, APY)!{I1HHTi; aa MepKoBb 6" apTHnepHHCKI1Ti; OTAi;lIeHHSI He I1Kpa60Bb K., AI1MyeBb Xp .. Herrs nseas A" XYM6aJJ,)!{HeBb CT.; rraaa K01l0Ha He naHaHOTOBb CT., HerOBb HaYanHI1Kb l.I..I.e6a Flasnom, BlI.: 58. nonx's aa C~l.I..I.l1s!naHaHOTOBb CT., 1 6aTapeSi H B3BOAb naouepa ; cnensar s KOHHHTi; norncone aa MapxoneBb Feuxo, >KHBI<OBHYb flepa 11 ecxanpouar a Ha $IKOB' 11eBHYb f\.; 3aAb BCI1YKI1 Ti;xb, aa oTAi;na, enaa APY)!{I1Ha M a H eB p e H 11 B 0 H C K 11. 06 l.I..I. M a H e B p e H H B 0 H C K 11 Bb cexropa: 11 6pHrap,aTa aa UepKOBCKI1 BaKlIHHb, aerom, HayanHI1Kb uiafia KoBayeBb ViBaHb: 43. nonk s Ha CTOSIHOBb CTOSlHb, 44. nonKb aa PaAKoBb PYCH 11 apnfJIepl1HCKOTO orn-sneuae Ha ApYMeBb Mapl1Hb; 6pl1rap,aTa Ha flacxanea's ViBaHb, HerOBb HayallHHKb uiatia Bo-rem, ViS8Hb: 11. no.nx's Ha CeMepA)!{HeBb XPI1CTO, 24. nornc s Ha Herrsnxoe's XPI1CTO, apTl1l1epl1HCKHTi; oTA'GlIeHHSI ua Flonoa s 11 PYCKOBb 11 nHOHepI1Ti; na Caponaxom, AHMHTbpb.

57
ray6l1YH~ 11 15 6bllrapCKH n01lCKH 6aTapel1, a Bb peaepm, 52, noruo, H enua APY)!{HHa OTb 32. norrx s : 8CU'lKO 17 OPYJlCIlHll, 4 «apmecuu pomu, 23 tiamapea - 06l.1..1.o 16.278 nyurxa, 16 KapTeYHl1l..(H H 94 0P~AHSI, OTb I<OHTO 2 Te>l<KI1 12 CM. A/30. 4 c. c. no ncxa ray6HI..(H, 24 c. c. 11 36 He C. C. nOnCKI1 OP"'AHSI 6b1lrapCKI1 H 8 Te)!{KH 12 CM. A 30 OP}I\AI1S!, 8 ray6111..(1115 CM. H 12 ray611~11 II CM. cbp6CKH. Bs canaonuu u. Ceeeposanaanuu cenmopu ust a Ife: 6b1lrapCI<H5I 55, nonx-s ua Feopraeat, raHYO, 11. He C. C. apranep. n011Kb aa CHpMaHOBb Heporea, enua resoca }of 2 Kyn01lHH 6aTapel1 11 cbP6cKH 28 APY)!{I1HI1, 7 KapTeYHH pOTH H 18 6aTapel1 061U.0
81>

oeama cesmopa

c'bp6u

lI.

6b

IlLtP'L

25.549 nyulKu,28

«aprex-

r..

HHUI1 11 108 OP}I\AH5I, CKH 12 C.M. ray611~H, 6b1lrdpCKI1 11 60 c. c. H mo xa, 061u.0

231/2

tcapme-uai pomtt, 102 tiamapea
!lYlIi.KIl,

OTb KOHTO b Te)!{KI1 12 <'.M. A/30, 8 non4 xynonna 57 C.M. Op~P,I1s!, 30 He C. C. cbP6cKH OP}l\AI151. oticaonama ap uu» tipou 99 0PY:JICllHIl
Il 9'/, eck aopona, KOlan; 94 tcapmewnuun, 430 OptKOIHl It

06/lI,o npae» 111'b83.754

1.104 ea6.1I.1l.

06l.1..1.o 41.927 nywKH, 50 KapTeYHI1I..(H, 228 0P~AHSI, OTb Ti;xb 62 Te)!{KH 12 H 15 CM. 0P~AHSI, 46 nOllCKI1 c. C 11 He C. c. ray6111..(H 11 120 noncxa C. c. H He C. C. Op~P,I1S1, H 1.104 ca61111. lin /OJ/CH.Ufl cetcmops C~ aapeneua nom, Haya1lCTBOTO Ha rexepem, KI1PKOBb A , npa H-I<b uiafia Pycea s VIa., aa aprunepasra 6byeBdpOBb Xp .. Ha HH)!{eHepHaTd -racr s MaTOBb K.: Ai; C e H b 6 p a r a A e H b Y -t a C T b K b Ha MapYHHb Feopru, HerOBb uaxanHHKb uiafia CrOS!HoBb BlIaAI1MHpb: 30. nonKb Ha Paurxoe» 51. IJOnKb aa Y3YHOBb M., r pn CKopoCTpenHI1 fiarapea OTb 8. apTl11lepl1HCKH nOllKb H He C. c. 6aTapel1 Ha HHKOJlOBb CT.; 11 EBb 6 p a r a A e H b Y x a C T b K b aa nayeBb ViB., HerOBb HayanHI1Kb LUa6a KaHweBb I1T.: 12. nonx s aa Flerpoe s 3naTH, TpH c. c. 6aTapeH OTb 8. apTHlIepHHCKI1 nonk e H 3/2 ray6HYHa noncxa c. c. 6aTapes ua K81lI1~HHb CT.; C e I< TOp e H b P e 3 e p B b: 52. nons s Ha Bap,eHl1yapOBb K, 1. p,pY)!{HHa OTb 32. norrxt, Ha AI1MOBb Flerxo. Bb rrspsa 1I11HI1S1 HaMHpaTb 30., 51. H 12. n01lKOSe Cb ce enaa 6b1lrapCKa 11urecrs cbP6cKI1 Te)!{KH nruoc's enna 6bnrapcKa
II

me-cnu pomu. 53 tiamapea

BCIl'tI(O

na Himo-ucun. cexmopn
9

til ecicaopono -

50

dPYJICIlH.U,

12

til

«ap-

r.,

~HTl1paHaTa ae-re rypcxa KlIl1ra "VieHH xap6 6aWbMb3a rexpap reneunep", fipou : 5 KpenOCTHI1 apTI111epI1HCKH nonxa (6.,7.,8., Y. H 10.),1 c. c. Te)!{KO n01lCKO apTI111epl1HCI{0 OTAi;1IeHl1e, I c. c. Te)!{KO ray611YHO OTrrsneaae, 1 He C. c. ray6HYHa nexa 6aTapeSl, 06l1..1b apTl111epHHCKI1 Haya 1HHKb P 11cp a T b n a w a; 4 KpenOCTHI1 KapTeYHI1 POTI1, 10 nposeekropa, 1 npHBbp3aHb 6a1l0Hb, 1 KpenOCTHa naoxepua ApY)!{HHa, 1 )!{eni;30n~THa 11 1 rerrerpadiaa POTH, 1 re nerpone-n, B3BOAb, 1 MocrOBa APY)!{Hlfa, 2 aeponnaxaa 0P~AH5I, BCI1YKO enua noseaporecarenaa po ra, 1 0603Ha APY>l<HHa, 1 aBToM0611nHa pore: aa BCEKa AHBH3HSI no eAHO xeriaorpadiao oTgi;neHHe H no enua caHHTapHa pora, 11ni;XOTHI1Ti; AI1BI13I1H: 10-a HI13aMCKa (28., 29., 30. nHHeHHI1 11 4. cTpenK0311 n01lKOSe no r pa APY>I<I1HI1), 11-a HI13aMCKa (3~. 11 33. nOJlKOBe 11 1 crpenxosa APY)!{I1Ha), rIOMIOPA)!{HHCKaTa H OAPI1HCKaTa peAl1cpcKI1 ,o;I1BI13HI1 no 9 APY>I< HI1, H 6a6a-EcKHHcKaTa 11 OT b 11 .QPY)!{HHI1, OTb KOI1TO 2 OTb Bpyceucxare peAl1cpCKa QI1BH311~; 1 coope-rs KOHeHb n01lKb, 2 KaI?TeYHI1~ ecxanpoua: 1 Ta6YPb MycTaXBiY\311; 10. nOllCKH apr anePHI1CKI1 oopasuoa s no nx s , P,06poS01lyeCKH CKopoCTpenHI1 n01lCKH 6aTdpel1(?). Vi3TOYHI1S!Tb TYPCKH CPPOHTb ce KOMaHAYBa OTb nonKOBHHKb I1ml WCCPI1Kb 6eH, IO>KHI1S1Tb-OTb Vi6paXHMb nawa, a 3anaAHI151Tb OTb 113H3b nauia. Cnopern, A)!{enS!AeTb Eenepxasn, - r n. 16 CTp. OTb "EAI1PHe CYKyTYHbH I1Y 103H" rapHH30HbTb e Ha6pOSIBanb OK01l0 70.000 Aywl1 - HI13aMI1e, pe'lI1CP, MycTaxBb3 ecppaAbHAaH MlOpeKe6 01ly6 l1eTMI1W 611H panecuane HAI1; AI1BI13I1HTi; ce KOMaHnyaar s : 10-a - OTb XI1CaMeA.QI1Hb nauia, l l-a - OTb Vi6paXHMb

rapHH30H'b Ha xpenOCTbTa. ABe AYJIIIH aa WYKPH nawa.

TYPCKI151Tb rapHI130Hb

Ha xpenocr

sra

pem,

'

cno-

58

I'ITal(era

He O.nPHHb fhal(lIl a 1111 APH'ib O

nawa, 2-a OAPHHCK8 pe)U1<pCKa OTb fhH3b naura, 2-a 6a6aECKHHCKa peAH<pCKa OTb F\nH Ha3i"1t.Mb nawa, 2-a rlOMlOpA>t<HHCl<a penarpcaa OTb nonKOBHHKb HYPH 6eH, HH3aMCKHSI CTpeJ1KOBH nOJ1Kb OTb nonKOBHHKb ,D,>t<eJ1S1J1b 6el1. Ilo 3 OKTOMBPHH 06W,b HayanHHKb xa THSI BOHCI<H, sxmoYHTeJ1HO BCHYtUf apnWepHHCI<H H np. Y8CTH, 6HJ1b I1cMaHJ1b naure, KOHTo, CJ1e~b npacrarauero H8 MexMeAb WYKPH nawa 38 Ha4anHI1Kb Ha yxpeneuas nYHI<Tb, 6HJ1b npHYHCJ1eHb KbMb rJ1aBHaT8 xaaprapa aa nOCJ1e,!{HHSI Bb l<ayeCTBOTO ua KOMeHAaHTb 0<pHl...\l1aJ1HOTOH3AaHIle Ha uaurara Hcropavecxa KOMHCHSI H .QPyrH H3TOYHHqH 06 w, 0 rap H H 3 0 H b T b Ha O.Q P H H b C e e C b C T 0 SIn bOT b 55 .QP Y >t<H H H, 10 n e x 0 THH H 4 x p e n o c r a a KapTeYHI1 pOTH, 7-3 6aTapeH 11 2 e C K a .Qpo H a, KOI1TO .QaHHH .QOCTa c sanenar-s Cb T HSI Ha I...\I1T H paHHT1; TYPCI<I1 KHHrl1. CM1;Ta ce, ye npsr-. W,ypMbTb Ha xpenOCTbTa TSI e paano.nar ana Cb 524 crapa H HOBH Opi"lt..QHSI,20 xpenocrua KapTe4HHI...\H 11 oxo no 65.000-70.000 AYWH BOHHHI...\H 11 0<pl1l...\epl1. Cnoperrs coficr eeuop xvna ra 6eJ1e>«1<6, naneaa Bb CO<pI1S1OTb caMHSI WYKPH nawa Ha 1<0peCnOHAeHTa H6 Neue Frere Presse, POTb, YHCJ10TO Ha Opi"lt.AHSITa e 6HJ10 450 6poSi. Cnopem, ,D,>«eJ1S1.QeTb enepxams, Opi"lt..QHSlTa611J1H480, OTb KOHB TO 3 aepOnJ1aHHI1. Tp1;6Ba na ce npaaaae, -re Me>«AY CHJ1I1Tt, KOHTO w,e n04HaTb KbpBaBaTa 60p6a, no OTHOWeHl1e neXOTaT8 11 l<apTe4HI1uar s I1Mawe rorrsaa AHcnpOnOpl...\HSI Bb n0J13a Ha 6bJ1rapl1T1;. Ofiaxe, y6e>«.QeHl1e ro Y TYPI...\HTt, -re ~EAl1pHe raap Ka611J13a6T 6HP MeBKI1 MlOcTaxKeMAP" 6twe enua K0J10CaJ1Ha CHJ1a, BbHb OTb MbpTBaTa CHJ1aHa YKpenJ1eHHSlTa, OKonHT1; H TeJ1eHI1Tt Mpe>«H, l:TOSlUl,I1 CTpawHH nperrs npOTHBHHKa, Bb n0J13a Ha TYPI...\1111;, 11 H1;UI,O noae-re. Tp1;6Ba ouie na ce npnsuae, ye 1<0MaHAYIOWHSlTb r ypcxara apMHSI Bb O.QPHHb, <p e pH K b Me x MeA b W Y K p a n a w a, 61;we H ce oxepra HanbJ1HO KaTO 40B1;Kb 11 BoeHHOHaya11HHKb Cb BHAalOUI,H ka-recraa, Y KorOTO BOHCI<HT1; HMaxa nbJ1Ha-He •.. a6co11IOTHa B1;pa. "Ha3HayeHHeTO ua WYKPH naura, KOHTO no-paxo 61; H.QBaJ1b Cb enaa reHepa11b-w.a6Ha rpyna 0<pHl...\epH Bb OAPHHb no YCTaHOBSIBaHe HaYHHa aa 3aCI1J1BlIHe xpenocrs ra 113aBbpwBaHe <P0pTH<pHKaI...\110HHHT1;crpoexoi Ka3Ba ,D,>«eJ1S1AeTb Benepxa-rs. ce nocpeuraa KaKTO OTb BOHcl<aTa, raxa H OTb rpa>«AaHCTBOTO, Cb 6e3KpaHHO 3a.QOBonCTBo;a YYBCTB6Ta na AOBtpHe KbMb Hero, KOHTO TOI1 Cb3.QaAe Cb CBOHT1; nOYTH Bctl<l1AHeBHH HHCneKI...\HH H 06I1K011KH no YKpenJ1eHHSlTa, 3aCHrurxa H aaxpenaxa no BHcwa creneas CbpAe4H6Ta npamspaaHOCTb Ha Ci"It.UI,OTOH6CeJ1eHl1e H BOHCKa, I<OHTO 6txa sparena H6 TaSi HerOB6 aKTHBHOCTb H rpl1>t<H- _ 06CTOSlTeJ1CTBOTO, ye TOI1 Cb CBOHT1; CMtJ1H H311a311Cb peaepsa na xpenocrs-r a ycrrs na H3nbJ1HH npes's nepaona aa nOJ1CI<HTt 60eBe npes-s OKTOMBPI1H Bb TpaKI1S1 6 n 1; C I<aBO M H C H 51 a C H, KoeTO ro nOKpH npezrs T BOHCKHTt MY Cb npecnoxa Ha eAI1Hb CM1;J1b HayaJ1HHKb; 06CTOSl-

xa «penocrure. Cnopem,

TenCTBOTO, "Ie TOI1 npO,ln,11>1<H oficanara nOYTH I...\tJ111 ne n, Mecel...\a H 'Ie npH aTaK8Ta BOHCKaTa My ce 6H AO nocneAHa KP8HHOlTb, K8TO AonYCH6 np06HBa aa KpenoCTbTa caao H8 113TOYHHSI <pPOHTb, BCHljKO TOBa nOKa3Ba, "Ie npa npyra oficroarenCTBa, HJ111HawH rptwKl1, CJ1aBaTa My He Ul,1;We ne 6i"1t.Ae noMaJ1Ka OTb TaSi Ha OCMaHb nawa npu nn1;BeHb. CKnOHeHb KbMb MaTeMaTH4eCKa MHCbJ1b - Bb nneua CI1 Bb CO<pHSI TOH 6t peureaarrs TpHrO!-lOMeTpH4eCKH 38AaljH - TOH 6twe YOBtl<b Cb noJ10>l<HTeneHb yMb H cnocooea i, KbMb CbcptAoTOYeHa aHaJ1HTH-recxa H CHHTeTHyeCKa patio re, 6e3b cbMHeHHe, TOH 61;we HayaJ1HHKb YenoBtl<OBtAel...\b, 06HyaWb pO.QHHaTa H aepoae CH a BCHYKO TOBa. BbnptKH ecrec TBeHI1Tt secrona, Cb Kal<BHTO' e cbnpoBoAeHa ordpaaera Ha enna oticaneua xpenocr s, My n03B0J1H Bb Te>l<I<HT1; ~HH aa oficanara H ar axe ra na Abp>I<H Bb pz uer-s CH xaxro BOHCl<aTa, raxa H HaCeJ1eHHeTO Ha rpaaa. n0J10>t<eHHeTO MY~ He 61;we J1el<O11,KaKTO CTaBa npa ac'sxa 06ca.neHa xpenocri, HaH-ljeCTO, yyaCTb~a My He MO>l<eWe na 6i"1t.Ae npyra. Otiexe, HCTHHaTa e, ye TOH 6J11;Cl<aBO H3nbJ1HH 3a.QaYaTa CH: O.Q P 11H b C n a C H U a PH r P a n b, W Y I< p a n a wac n a C HOT b H a Hn b n H H 51H H a H - C T paw H H 51 nor p 0 M b T Y P C KaT a no J1C I< a a pM H 51 B b T P 8 K 1151. Kal<TO l<a3aXMe H no-paxo Bb peWHTeJ1HJ1T1; AHH na BOHHaTa O.QPHHb Ha WYKPH nawa Ycnt.Q6 3a.Qbp>t<H Cb n~aCHBHI1 H aKTI1BHH .QeHCTBHSI .QBa ni"lt.TH noae-re 6bnrapCKH BOHCI<H, OTI<OJ1I<OTOcaMHSI rapHH30Hb npe.QCTaBJ1S1aauie. C p e UI, Y n e r b T Y P C K H .QH B H 3 H H B b O.Q P 11H b P a B H H Han e T b 6 b n rap C I< H 6 p H r a .Q11, HHe ce 030B6X: Me, no enae a6epal...\HSI aa 6bJ1rapCI<OTO r llaBI;O KOMaH.QYBaHe, Cb l...\1;nll 10-11 6pHr6.Q11, TOra3bl<OraToHa<ppoHTa Ha nOJ1CKI1T1; ~ewHTenHH 60eBe Bb Ci"lt.WOTO apene 9, 10 H 11 01<TOMBPHH Hl1e H M a x Mel 0 6 p a r a A H cpeuiy 12 TYPCI<I1 .QHBH3HH, paBHH Ha 12 6bnrapCI<H 6pHraAH. rnaBH~T1; eoeHHOHayanHl1l...\H na .QBeT1; crpana npa OAPHHb 6txa AOCTOHHH e.QHHb aa npyrx 11 no npeAaHOCTbTa KbMb poAHHaTa CH, H no nOYTeHOCTbTa Ha xapaxrepa CH, H no TBbpAaT6 CH BOJ1S1, CtKH aa ce6e CH na H3nbJ1HH .QOl<paH msnra B CH Ha BO.QaYb 11 KOMaHAHpb. 6op6aTa Me>l<.QY T1;Xb 6twe npHBbPweae. ,D,YMaTa HMaxa aexe HayaJ1HI1I...\I1Tt ua CeKTOpI1T1;. T1;XHHT1; nO.QYHHeH"!_ HayaJ1HHI...\H H TtXHHT1; BOHCKH. I1Haye l<a3aHo 36BbpweHa l)1;we AYXOBHaTa H nOYBaWe, raxa ne l<a>l<eMb ¢H3Hsecxare KbpBaBa 60p6a. Cpa>l<eHHeTO e 60p6a Ha .QBaMa H~"IanHHI...\H.F\P~HHT1; ~i"It.caxo HHCTpYMeHTI111; Ha .QBe npOTHBHH B011H _ La batellle est la iutte de deux chefs Ies arrnees ne sont que les instrun:ents ?e deux, volont~s oppc ses r n. 19 CTp. Ha Cc urs de Tactiqus generale d apres I Experience de la grande guerre par L-t colonel d' F\rtlllerie brevete F. Culrrann. 2-e edition refond'ue 1922.

o
FhaKJ a a Ha 11 MapTa no nnaaae .n.elibTb MHHa no 06HKHoeeHHeTo CH Cb p~.n.Ka npecTpenKa. KbMb 1 4. en nn. cpeuiy HpenOCTbTa 6bnrapl1T~ OTKpHxa e.n.I1Hb O>KI1SeHb apTl1nepHHCKH orbHb, HOHTO Tp~6Bawe na npHKOBe BHHMaHHeTO aa oT6paHaTa SC~Ki'i'..n.e .n.pyra.n.e, HO He H KbMb HsTOYHHSI ceurop s. VI 3aTOBa apTHnepl1ikKHSlTb orbHb Bb OCTaHanl1T~ CeKTOpl1 CHOPO CTaHa YCHneHb. F\pnWepl1S1Ta Ha orfipauara 11 raa aa araxare se-re nOBc.n.oxa ynopl1Ta 60p6a, aa na ce YHrfw,O>KaTb B3aI1MHO. VI aa na HMaMe enna l1.n.eSl, xexa noxeHeMb, se Ht.KOH OTb nOnCKI1Tt. 6aTapel1 H3CTpenSixa no 1600 cHapS!.n.a. f-I~KOI1 OTb 6aTapel1T"E npOAbn>KHXa CTpe116aTa 11npe3b HOw,bTa, KaTO H3CTpenBaxa no 40-51) caapsna aa yaCb. Bb Vl3TOYHI1S1 cexrop s KbMb 6 4. 30 M. apTHnepl1HCKaTa crpentia OTb ,D,BeTt. crpaaa ce npeKpaTH. "npOH3Be>K.n.aHa Bb pa3HI-1 BpeMeHa H OTb pa3HI1 CTpaHH, cr pe nfiara OTb TOS! cekrop s He ce OTI1I1yaBawe OTb ,D,OToraBaWHaTa e>Ke,D,HeBHa crpe nfia ". no T0311 aa411Hb BHHMaHHeTo aa WYI{PH nawa 6t.we npHl<OBaHO Bb npynlTt. CeKTOpl1, 1{](;.AeTo npe3b TOS! ,o.eHb. n04BaHI<H OTb 1 4. Hace rue, ce BO.n.H cnoperns 3anOBt.AbTa HaH-CHllHa apTHnepHHCHa
npe,ll.HHT'h n03H~HH

61

no.n.roTOBKa. Me>K,n,y TOBa, npHrOTOBneHHSlTa aa araxar a OTb HawaTa nexora na npeQHI1Tt. TypCKI1 n03HUI111 OK0110BPbCTb aa KpenOCTbTa 6~xa Bb nbnHI1S1 CHe xozrs. npe,o.aBaHeTO aa 3anOBt.,o.H, npensx>KeHI1S1Ta aa YaCTH, nero TOBa npea's ,n,eHSI 6~we Bb3MO>KHO, cb611paHeTO aa HayaJ1HHUI1. pa3Y3HaBaileTo 11 orne>K,o.aHeTO Ha M"ECTHOCTbTa, OpraHI1311paHeTo aa W,YPMOBI1T~ H01l0HI1 H pa60 rHl1yeCKI1Tt. KOMaHlIl1, npl1rOTOBneHl1eTO aa nl10HepHH MaTepl1aJ1H sa pa3pywaBaHe Tel1eHI1Tt. Mpe>Kl1, 3aBbp3BaHeTo Cb napuanu HO>KOSeT~ na He 3SbHTSlTb, HanOMSaHI1S1Ta Ha soHHHUI1Tt. 3a npellCTOS!W,I1Tt. lIeHCTSHSI H 1..It.l1aTa ,o.YXOSHa nOArOTOSKa aa 113BbpWSaHe aa araxara 113nbllHI1Xa BpeMeTO aa lIeHSI sa BCHYI<H. Cb uacr xnaaae aa HOW,bTa BCHYKH, ua KOI1TO npeACToewe ABH>KeHl1e, aaexa onpe,o.t.l1eHHTt. 111'lb Mt.CTa. Ha Y13TOYHI1S1cearop», KOHTO npeACTaSJ1SlBa rl1aBHHSI I1H' r epec s. Bb rrspaara lll1HI1S1 no pen's OTb ceeep s KbMb IOrb 6~xa 3aeJ1H M~CTaTa Of H 6~xa Hape~eHH: 56.,55., 23., 10., 32., 28,. 57., 58. 11 54. nOI1KOBe H Cb T~Xb uie lIaCTiY\nBaTb 2/11,2/8, 2 9' 3/ nOJ1CKI1 apTI1J1epHHCKH OTA ~neHI1S1 H 1-0 c. c. nOI1CI<O 6 ray6HYHO oT,n,t.neHl1e H1:i Ka6newKosb, KaTO npHAPy>KaSaw,a apTHJ1epHSI. 3aAb TI1S1BOHCKH ce HaMl1paXa Sb Cesepaas 06caAeHb apTl1nepl1HCl<11 yyaCTbl<b Ha nonno nk. Cnaa-rem- CT. 16 OP](;.AHS! 12 CM. A 28, 10 OP](;.QI1S! 15 CM. A/30, 6 ray6Hu,H 15 CM. A.'12 H 8 nonCI<H ray6HI..\I1: Bb VI.noYHI1S1 06caAeHb apnWepl1HCI<H yyaCTbKb aa nO,o.nOJ1K. BbnyaHOBb neTKO - 1tl ray6HuH 15 CM. A 12, tl OPN',n,HS! 15 CM. A/30 H 10 Opi'i'.AHSI 12 CM. A/30; noaa IOrb 3aAb 57., 54. H 58. n0l1KoBe-24 He Co C. nOl1CKH OpN',0.1151, C. c. nOl1CKH ray6HI..\H Ha MaHopb 8 AHMyesb, 18 He c. c. ray611UI1 aa Matiopb HeA"El1l(eSb H 6 Te>KI<H Opi'i'.AHSI 12 CM.

,D.l25 Ha Kanl1TaHb XYM6a,o.>Kl1eSb CTe¢aHb. Cpeury TI1S1HaWH CHnH TypU,I1T~ HMaxa Bb C;r,.W,HSI ceurop's Ha ¢pOHTb 20 KI1J10MeTpa 13 peAH¢clHl H 4 HH3aMCI<H rafiy pa, 13 Te>KI<H, 1 ray6HYHa, He C. C., 2 c. C. H 1 6poHHpaHa [uraroea) 6aTapel1. OTb THSI CHI1H aa npe,n,HH1~ n0311l1,I1HBb cexropa Ha 11 cpeuiy 12 MapTa Ci'i'.6HJ111 9 Ta6ypH H 01<0110 7 6aTapeH. 06w.0 Sb cexropa I1Mal1O Ha,D,b 17 Ta6ypa 11 150 op xnas. Hexa nOMeHeMb, ye Il.lyxpa-naura 10111<0Ba ~OPi'i'.AHs! Abp>KeWe H aa CeBepO-3anaAHHSI CH ¢POHTb, CYI1TaHKI1 ro 11 ,0.0 TOSI yaCb KaTO HaH-B1;pOSlTeHb aa araxa Ha IO>KHHSI ¢pOHTb TOH Abp>KeWe 94 OpJl'\lIl1S!, H \ 3anaAHI1~ 16, a Sb peaepm, - 52 OP](;.AHSI 11 10·a IlH3aMCI<a AHBH311S1. B's ,j Y. npea s How,bTa aexe Sb aenanaara crpaua Ha xpenocrs ra apTHllepHHCKI1S1Tb orbHb ce paaaaaaure Cb ocofieuo O>KHBneHHe. Bb 4 Y. np. nn. xpefipar s nonxoae aa 6bllrapHSI Bb ~Vl3TOYHHSl ceurop:s , ,D,eTO He ce np0l13Be>KAaWe HH apTI111epI1HCKa, HH nexorna crpenfia, rp sruaxa Apy>KHO 11cx sno aa npacrxrn, KbMb npeAHI1Tt. n0311LJ.HH OTb TOS! cexrop s : Bc15KI1 nOllJ<b cpeuiy CBOS! yyaCTbKb H ac'sxa WYPMYIOW.a KOJlOHa cpeuiy onperrsneaas H 06e1<T118b. nOllJ<08eTt. ce cnycnaxa no AOJlOBeT~ Ha KYMb'Aepe H Flpaaarrs-nepe, J<OI1TO ce HaMHpaTb ripen-s n0311lJ,HHTt. Ha TYPLJ.I1T~, 6e3b na 6](;.)laTb 06CTpeJlSlHH OTb apara. Y13HeHCI,n,ala 6~we rrsnaa. Cb CTpeMHTe~HOCTb H 6e3b oc06eHI1 rp~WJ<H. KaHBI1TO npa HOW.l-IHTt. Ael1CTBI1Sl 06HKHOBeHO ce CJlYlJBaTb, CTpeMI1TeJ1HOCTb o-repraaaura CTpaCTHOTO >KenaHHe uern.ra HenpeM~HHO A~ ce noCTl1rHe, CKOPO 6bl1rClpl1T~ no 1~~l1Hs! Vl3TolJeHb cearop s .00CTl1rHaXa ,0.0 npeAHI1T~ nocrose npa TeJ1eHaTa Mpe>Ka Ha Henpaarens, KOHTO Sb Ci'i'.W.I1S1yaCb noexa TpeBO>KHaTa CTpe116a Ha H~J<OI1 Mt.cTa araxysaunrr h J<onOHI1, l<aKTO e npu 29. nOllKb' He 6~xa YC'ETeHI1 OTb TYPUHT~, ,n,OJ<aTO xpa6pHSlTb nOllKb H~ ~axJlY Sb vOl orun s ua TYPCl<aTa nexora H ct.cenaa'ra 6aTapeSi. pTI111epl1I1CI I1S!Tb 101 nexo rem, orbHb nnaxaa no irsnara 1013TOYHa yaCTb Ha xpenccrure, Bbnp~HH BCHYJ<O TOBa Xpa6pl1T~ nOJlI<OBe HbMb 5 -raca nperaaaxa TereHI1T~ Mpe>K11 ' npn KOI1TO n110HepHI1T~ no,n,nopYYHlJ,11 Bel111YK08b H nbPBaHo~b npOSlBHxa xynece, araxysaxa H aaanarrsxa KOH no-pane J<OH nO-KbCHO TypCJ<HT~ n0311LJ.HH Ha CO¢yJ1apb-6ypHY, Kyw~-Tene, MaCJlaKb: Man~Tene, CanYHA>KHJlapb, Xan8C1A>KH Berxana, nayaA>KHnapb U nara npenaa n03HUHSl, rrsnra OKOll0 12 KHJlOMeTpa. Bb 6bnrapcJ<H pxue nanuaxa OKOJlO 1.000 AYWH nlleHHI1L\11 6 xapTeYHI1UI1 11 24 0P)ll\AHSI. ' He aaerara Hen pHSlTeJlCJ<a n03HUHSI Bb 5 l{. :0 M. npacrarar's 6aTapeHT~ na «ana ram, VlrHaT08b, a ,0.0 7 saca H THSI nOAnonJ<oBHI1UHT~ TOTeBb, Capai1AapoBb, Ka6JlewI<OBb,4aPOBb, Cnae-rem, H Herrsnvem., H~KOH OTb I<OHTO nozrs y611i1CTBeHHSI orbHb xa rypcxara ap ranepaa OTb xpertocr sra. n ex o r a H a p r a n e p a s TYKb BCHYKH C](;. eAHO T~JlO 11 e A H a ,D,y w a. T 0 Ban 0 B H W a B a A Y x a ,0.0 H a H - B H COl< H

15

:!

,l n p e n 15n H. BCI14.KI1 Cir\ repon Ii BC15KH HCKpeHO B3l1Ma yxacTl1e Bb nonaara. KbMb 11 xaca Ha Cir\ll.\aTa n03H~HSI npHCTl1ra 11 cnaBHOTO oTA15neHl1e aa Mai10pb ApYMeBb. Aei1cTBIiSiTa xa BOHCKIiTl;, nexora, apTHnepl1S1 H naouepa, Cir\ 6n15CKaBH Bb TaSi aours, a YClinl-lSITa HMb YB15H4.aHI1 Cb rrsnaa nofieua npa 3Ha4.l1renHO Mam{H 3ary611. Te)f{KaTa ap-ranepas OTb CBOHTt, v.3nHTaHH Ii OTnl14.HH n03H~1i 11 61; MOll.\HZ nOMOll.\HI1~a, sa Aa C1;e repop s Ii sa na ce 3aCTaBSlTb TypCKHT 6aTapeH Aa He MoraTb na 06CTpenBaTb xpatipara 6bnrapCKa nexora Cb onaceHb orbHb Bb TOSITe)f{bKb sac s. Ycn1;XbTb ce Abn)f{11 Ha TaKTHKaTa aa H3HeHa.qaTa 11 aa xpa6pOCTbTa H rOTOBHOCTbTa Ha nonKOBeT15 KbMb ce6eOTpl1~aHl1e. Bb IO)f{HI1 51 3anaAHI1S1 H CeBepO-3anaAHI151 cexropa, , AeTO Aei1cTBH5ITa ce pa3BHBaTb r.:>pe·.o.one no Cir\ll.\I151Ha411Hb, rOJ11;Ma 4aCb OTb npeAHHT1; n0311~1i11 Cir\ Ci1\ll.\O raxa Bb pir\~er1; Ha aTaKYIOll.\HTl;. Oco6eHO Te)f{Ka 6op6a ce BOAH npa TOKaTb-6a40~ 11 f\rbJ1b nepe, ne ro 4.aCTI1Tl; aa 8-a .o.I1B11311S1 aa 300Cir\ «p, OTb OKOnI1T1; ua Typ~I1Tl; C",UJ,OTO e 11 npa CbI03HI1~11 rl;, cbp6I1Tl;, npa nana3b-Tene. KpenOCTbTa 113nl1TBa CTpaWHH5I 4.aCb Ha CBoeTO nanaue. Xpa6pl1Tl; 3all.\I1THHu,H C'" Bb HeAOYM1;Hl1e, HO Tl;XHHSlTb AYXb He e CJ10MeHb. T1;XHaTa B1;pa Bb xpenocr ere He e pa3Kone6aH8. Pe3epBHTl; Ha KpenOCTbTa, 4.aCTb OTb KOHTO CYTpHHbTa 6l;X8 H3npaTeHH KbMb CeBepO-3ana.o.HI1S1 ceKTopb, Ci1\ OTHOBO nOBbpHaTH Ha 6HB8Ka HMb .0.0 r pana. HaW Y K pH n a ur a e T PYA H 0 A a 0 n p e n l; n 11 x 0 A a Hac b 6 H T H 51 a, T K 0 11Ton p e n C T 051 T b. TI1S1 TPYAHOCTI1 C,Y;, Cb3Aa.l\eHH OTb e~HO BoeHHO 113KYCTBO OTb BI1CWb pa3p5I~b 11 TOBa H3KYCTBO e pa3BI1TO Bb cnY4aSl OTb 6bnrapHT1;. Taka nauaaxa npe.o.HIiTl; n031iu,HIi Ha OAPHHb, KoeTo, ooa"le He 3Ha"leWe nanaue na KpenOCTbTa. Ho, 6e3b CbMHeHHe, AYXb~b Ha rapHH30H i Ha 12 Mapra He MO)f{ewe sese na 6i1\.o.e, KaKTO 61;we
Bne'tClTneHHJI nH ttpHe Q'bnrllpH 4eTHpH Tp-&6Ba )f(IIBH HCKIITb H3nblHlH CKHT1; B10 cynTIIHcI<HT1; H Aa C'b

63
capaa.
C'bp6H. ECClAb

40

Kpenocrera
nponHBIIHHcTO naura npenane HlBeCTeHH, BOHHII

ce

06CCI)f(Aa

OT'b 6i1\Ae

XHnllAH no-peso

Ha I<p'bBb xpenocre're CHPHII e

uie

100

XHnllAH OAPHH'b AbpH A06pe 6 bnrll

Hllnpll3AHo.

AeHII HCKIIT'b

SlHHHII. a

CTOPH

CiI\U40TO. All oTKynllTb CH.

6if'AeTe

'4e H1;I<OH eBponeHcl<H H RpMeHHlI,

ACI B,4 B3eMIIT'b

l5e:n,
e

eapear-s
p-

napa

naneCTHtlll. BC-&KII 'IlIe1> 60p611 s" -

WYKPH

nauia

e Xpa6'bPb HII cit

3I1AII'4I1TII O<j1HlI,epH

Ho,

noaexe

6e03none3Ha.

06MHcneTe

H 06el!'.AeTe,3111110TO

Be-&KH

lI,CIICH'b 311

H peAHHl\H

noanpea

aac-s. OT'b HMeTO rn. 341-343 CTp. op.

pa 'lim.

TOBa e Bb KpaTKI1 H3BaAKH Cb,llbp>KaHHeTO Ha nHCMOTO, xoe ro, 6e3b CbMHeHHe, ce oxep raaa KaTO eziao OTb CPl;nCTBaTa sa 6op6a, H KoeTO HMa CBoeTO u,eHHO nCI1XOnOrH'leCKO 3Ha"leHHe. no noaon s Ha TOBa nHCMO TypCKHSlTb aaro p s Ka3Ba BeAHara:
w TOBIl. HllnpaBH <peHII TOBII MHpb IIneHx

ua

nocne aae ce np-scua KIITO aaceneuaero H BOHCKIITII
H1;KOH H 1'1, OT'b oq,Hl\epHT-& 06l1CHHXII

HOBHH npO'4eTOXII

HIIH

6'bp)f(e

Ha

BC1;Kif'Ae -

1'1 HII

He6naronpHIITHo BCH'IKHTt 'Ie TO He weK

TeHcHp. nMCMO 6y IIKiI\H

CTpll.XnHBOCTb

ace

xopara cnenoearenno, uie
HII KOpKIIKnif'I<TIIH XIl.Hpnif' 6HP

snexe rneuae naparpao«

CH, HMIIMe

C HHW.O

Bb 6HfJ

CKOPO

apeese

npyro

ocsem,
6HHeeH

CAHllb

'IeCTHT'b

611WKCI

OnMIIAiI\rif'HH,

BIIKif'TTIi

cynxio»

OnIlA)!(lIr~HII

aHnaTTHopnIlPAH".

Me)f{AY TOBa, BM1;CTO Ml1pb, 6bnrapHTl; npea s nouu.ra Ha ros ,IleHb, 11 cpeuiy 12 MapTa, KaKTO BI1Al;XMe, npcaasenoxe CBOSlTa BeJ1HKOJ1enHa noun-a araxa Ha npeAHI1Ti; n0311~HH 11 Cb eAI1Hb ynap s rH aaexa Cb nopaaarernro 6e3CTpawl1e. f\ xoraro npea s AeHSI Ha 12 MapTa apnmepHHCKHSlTb 60H ce pa3BH .0.0 CBOHT1; HaH-BHCOKH paa-rsp« 11 6bnrapcKHT1; ycrrsxa H 60HHH J1HHI1H ce oxepraxa HflH-3aCTpaWI1TenHH, TypCKH5ITb aarop's se-re nauie Ha npyr s TOHb CBOI1T1; Tir\>KHH 6elle)f{KH: ,,6bnrllpHT1;, Me)!(AY noaexerc BOHHHUH TOBII ce npenaaaure OTb YCTe till
yeTII, no

nonxe spns
HII'IHH'b,

r-s

nocnllHHR,

HO B10 Cif'U40TO

BpeMe

eTtcHIIBBTb 1'1 eAHO Mllxcyn 311

H 06pb'lll. 6c3H3KYCTII0 IIAII<HlHA'bp), H3nHTII-

nocne aae He 61;we H3pB)f(e1lHe wHII CIIMOTO nonosceuae (aHH II I'IpTHnepHHCKIITI'I crpe ntie - HIIAHrllHe
TOBCI IIHe (TllnH.:!HH COH TeA)!(pH6ee

ros

eAHCI xlln~H HII

uiera,
6Hp

CAl.A6I1Ta
M

nocnenao

KllnKMIl.Cif'A'bP)

AeHb
H MHC-

npena

TOBa.

HCI Y'tilCTBYIOUJ.'b

TypCKH o.Hu,ep'b.

TYKb no.neauo e na XBbpnl1Mb nor nerrs Ii BI1AHMb, cnoperrs aaropa H8 "YleHI1 xap6 6awbMb3a TeKpap reneanep ", KaKBO CTaBa

Bb rypcxa crpaua Ha 11 MapTa pauo CYTpHHbTa eAIIHb OTb nOCTOBeTl; aa npenaa r s TYPCKH n031iu,HI1 BHAl; no re.neHaTa Mpe)f{a ripen's ce6e CI1 enua BbpmlHa H ua HeSi eAHHb ManbKb Bbp30nb H eAHa KHHra. Bbp30nbrb CbAbp)f{aWe cenexe 6Y"IKH aaxaps H 4.eTHpH uarapa, a KHHraTa npeACTaBnSlBawe enHO nHCMO~ HanH~aHO ua TypCKIi, OTb 6bnrapCKHT!O<pI1u,epH H pe.o.HH~H Ab . YBa)f{aeMI1Tl; OAPHHCKI1 o<pl1u,epH H BOHHHU,H. nOCMOTO no-rae C KOHCTaTalJ,I1S1Ta,xe :
Kpenocr
s'ra ce 60pH eTO ae+e 064'4C. ner s Mece~1I OTb B'b xpa5po, I<III<TO nOA06118! TypCKHT ~Bep~ pa a HT'b H ce cera HCI eA~Hb IIpMHH 6~H H;6-&rll BH~aIOU4H npH ce HapOLl,b. WllPl<bOH HCI 4aTllnA)!(1I 60H, H rllnHnonH MnaAOTyp~HT1; 6HAC nero OTHOBO CI!'. n05eAeHH. C'b 6poHeHoccLlB HaH·npo'4YTMltTb

Ha npe,llHHTl; n03HUI111 Bb Yl3TO'lHI1S1 ceurop s OTb rypcxa crpaua Me>K,IlY 6aTapeHT1; 11APY)f{HHHTl; 611nl1 Ta6YPHTl; Keure+re, 6a6a-EcKH, '{opny, Manrapll, TeKI1PAarb, LJaTanA>Ka H 28. nome's OTb 10-a HH3aMCKa AI1BH3HSI. TYPCKHSlTb aar op's onacsa 60SlTb Ha npenaara n03HlIHSI no ClleAHHS! Ha'lI1Hb, KoeTO, 06a'le, npencraanaea cano Bne"laTneHHSI nO-CKOpo OTb eAHHb APY>KHHeHb Y4aCTbKb, OTKonKOTO HG enua 60HHa nHHH5I rrsnra 12 KnM. Flpa TOBa, onacaaaero e TaKOBa, KaTO -re nl1 605lTb e npn AHeBHa ca s-r naaa, xoraro aerop sr-s MO>KeWe, HaHCTHHfl, na BI1>Kna KaKTO 60HHHTl; 6bnrapcKH J1HHHIi, raxa H TOBa, KoeTO CTaBa 3a.qb TtXb •
.Ha ,U)!(eMlln'b, 611TII cpeuiy IITIl.KII BHIITb HH Cb CHneHb

12
TpH.

MllpTil

cy rpHHbTII, TIIOYPb HM'b H

HII

3B30pIIBIIHe, Ta6yp'b

HII3BIl. peAH<pH I5bnrllpHT1; All cnpe. 3-H

IIBTOPbTb nO'lHII ce

XIICII~lb crpe nBb msp-

nbpBHIITb

OTb KeWIl.HCI<HT1; eAHHb BH)f(AIl.Tb ce

n'bpBH

HenpHIITcnll. B10 THnll orbHb 1I0BH 3aAb CHnH

Cpeury

IIBltBIITb npH

OW.C CHnH

H KOHHHl\I1. OOIl.'Ie. TIIOYPb HaHOBo

HenpHIITenbT'b Til6YPII

e npHHYAeH'b ce

noeMlli4orb

CC onara

lUI AIiAe

110 )f(CCTOKO

OT3I1A'b

3C1nOB1;Ab, KeWi!Hb

HenpHltTenbTb tlaMHpliwe

npOAbn)!(IIBB

.f\Cllp-H-TeBq,HI<'b"

Ll.llpHrpaA'b,

III1CTif'nneHHeTO.

28·.:;

64

RTal<llT!! H!! OAPI1H'b

flTaKaT8

H8 OAPHH'b

HI1311MCKI1 nomo., 'll1iho KOM!!HAI1P'b K8nIo1T!lH'b 6elIpH ce BAHrHII C'b TIIOYP!! eH II!! HO>K'bcpeuiy Henpl1l1Ten5l. Koiho li1>we AOOnl1>KHJ1'b AO q,n8HrOl:leTb IIH. HenpHSlTeJ1bT'b TyK'b e OTOn'bCHIIT'b. KIITO A8Ae rs spne MHoro >KepTBH KanHTIIHb 6eApH n8AHft yOHT'b. 8 nopy'lI1K'b <!lya.ub OI1Ae P8HI'Hb 8b OKOTO, H OTUOBO'l!!CTHT1> 311eXII 01<onH11> H OT15PIIH!!T!! 3!!nO'tHII. Bb TOBa ape ere lIenpHSlTenCKHT1> 15I1T!lpel1 rpcersxa o l(OnHT1>. K8TO c peuiy eAHHb H3CTpenb T1> AIIB8xa necers. (B'b AeHCTBHTeJ1HOCTb Bb TOB!! BpeMe HIIWIIT8 apranepHil crpensure no HenpHlITenCK!!TII 8pTH1IepHII no I:ICH'IKI1T1> n03I1UHH. AeTO ce auaeure 'le 11M!!OPII'..IlHSI. !! A!! lie CTpeIlSlT'b no IIIIW!!Td 8T!!KYBaWII ne3 XOT8. 6. HaW!!). Henpl151TenCKH KOHHHUI1 Cb C815nSl Bb pll'.KII noap-suie xe nOBbpHlInHTt ce H1I38Ab 6bnr8pCI!I1 neXOTI1I1UI1.Bb C.w.WOTOapexe H 6bllrapcaa O<j)l111epHCb peaonse p-s Bb pll'.KII CneAFJlITb 311Ab BOHCHHT1;CH H 311cTpenB8Tb IlC1>HH, Koiho OCT8B!! eAIIII KP8'lH6 HII38Ar.. (RT!!l<aT!! ce 1'138bPWH Bb TbMIIO, nOp!!AH KoeTO THSI cueua. HAil 6",;X6 CTII1I6nH. lie ce 811)1(A8XII OTb , YPLiI1T1>.R H HHWO n030pHO IIbMlI B'b 10BII, H II n pOT H B 'b, 8 eJlH'l6HWII Hy>KAII e A!! ce B3eMaTb uaH-paUHOllaJlHH M 1>P H H 3 II He A 0 n y W II He 0 T A 1>J1H 11 Y n 11 8 W e H H B 0 H H HUH, I<!!K8HTO BC1>HOrawe HM!!. A II 3 II P a 3 51 b C b CT P 8 X II C 11 Mil c a r a. T K 0 51 0 Hen p e M 1; H HOT P 1>6 B 8 A 8 3 8 B b P w H C 'b 'y C n 1>x b 6 0 HT HOT 0 A 1>11 0 H n 0 C T H r H eBb 3 11 0 >Ke HaT II H T II H T H '< e C H 8 U e n b. 6. uauia.) O'rfipaua ra npOAbn>K11 , at.pne MHoro Kp'bBOnpOIlI1TH8 OHOnO ABa 'lllca (B» AeHCTBI1TenHOCTbTSI npOA'bn>KH Ha nO-rOn1>M8TII 'laCTb OTb aTlIKyBIIHlITlI AB8H8AeceTb-KloIJIOMt!TPOB8 n0311lJ,I1Sl CIIMO 15 MHIIYTH. nouesee 61>we 8TIIK8 Cb OTl<pldTII cl1na 11BHe38nH8. 6. Hilwa). M1iCTHO<'TbT8nperrs OI<OnHT1;AO 400 Kpa'lKI1 ce noxpa Cb y611TI1. 068'le. 15'bnrllpCI<I1Tt JlHHI1I1 OTHOBOce H3nbJlB8Tb C'b BOHHI11111 AeHCTBI-ISlT8HMb npOA'bJl>K1I88Tb HIIH WIITi; TYKb 15aTlIpeH 6t.xa 311BbPWHJll1 CHapSlAI1T1;CI1 116tlxa 3aMJlbl<Hllnl1 (Bb AeHcTBHTemtOCTb. T1:. 151.xII ae se nrraaeu a. 6. ~t6WII). Ilpa TaSi OT6pllHa TII6YP'bTb KeWIIH'b 6t.we 113rbpM-BlIb 60 C!!HAbK6 narpoua H ae-re 6t 6e3'b T61<11611. TIIKII otwe 11 npa APyrI1T1; PCAHq,CI<HT80YPH. R Me>KAY T088. Iten pHSlTenbTb IIPOAbll>K8B8We aT81<IITII CH Bb np83AHI1T1; MtCT8 Me>KAY Taoy· PI1Tt. H He npaso cpeury no- ron1;MIITa 'laCTb OT'bq,pOHTa H8 peAHq,CKHT1; re6YPH. Me>KAY TIIOYPI1TB 40pny H TeKHPAar'b CII'.WO HMllwe en ao np83AHO M1;cTO. HenpHnenbT'b ce 8MbKHII 8b TOB8 npII3AHO MBCTO. R B'b T088 apexe IIpTH1IepHSlT8 OTb KpenOCTbT8 He HI1 A8BI!we HHKllKB8 orueea noa ouu., nouesse HIIBC1>KIIIAe 6 sure pa3CTpoHCTBO H paapyurenae. HenpHSlTencK8Hl IlpTHnepHSI 6e3cnHpll0 crnensuie. PeAI1q,HTT, ce BAHrHllxa OTb OKonHTt. H nO'lHllXII All ce HllCO'lsaT'b H838A'b. l1axnymutTb Henpl1S1Tellb B'b Tt.XHHTt. n03Hlll1H OTl<pH q,1I8HrOB'b Or'bHb no n03HlJ,I1HTt. Hll ltH38MCKI1Tt 'lIlCTH. Bb TIISI MI'1HyT8 Y BOHttHlJ,HT1;61:.XIl OCTII1I8JlH H MllnKO narpoua. Tt. tlHT8X8 se ne rpoaa H. K8TO He flonY'lIlBIIX8. AYX'bT'b 11Mb riaaeure. Jl8 AOHAIIT'b OT38.11b 60HHH npanaca, H-BMllWe HHKaKBa uanescna : lien pHSlTeJlbT'b XB'bpJlSlWe uipanuem, cpeuiy BC1:.KHnpeB'b BOHHHKb, KorOTO 3116ellt)f(ewe. ETO B'b TOBII apejee nanaexe MHoro oq,HuepH OTb t1H38MCKHT1:. 'laCTH H nOJlOBI1H8Tll BOHHHllH H3J1t.30Xll OTb CTPOSl nOp8AH OTCTlI'.nne~IHeTO HII peAI1q,I1Tt. H KaTO ClIe.aCTBl1etill TOB8. nopana OTKpl1BIIHe q,118HroBeTt. Hll HH3I1MCKHTt. 'lIlCTH H, rnesuo. no He.aOCTl1rb Ha narpcua H HH3aMCKHT1:. noxaexe A8 ce OTTerl151Tb H8311Ab. 4I1CTHT1>, I<OHTO ce 3l1Abp>KaX8 AOKPilH B'b pII'.UeT1; Ha HII'l8nHHlJ,HTT, HM'b, OTCTlI'.nl1XaAO TeneH8T8 MpelK8 Cb 60H. Kora ro Tt nO'lH8X8 All ,.... HIIBllTb npea» npOJlt.3HT1i HI! TeJleHIIT8 Mpe>KII. HenpHSITenbTb p83BH eAHH'b Y>K8CeHb 8pTH1IepHHCKH orbHb no THA Tt.CHI1 M1:.CTa 11H8WI1T1>'l8CTH nanoxa MHoro y611TH H pIIHeHI1".-rll. 344-347 CTp. OTb UHTHPIIHOTOTypCKO Cb'lHHeHHe.

<KI-I, Be 'lII1I1TO pi¥\ m.oe, xaxro xaaexxe no-peso, uiera ce 'TYl<e n0l1Ch21 rypcxa apTJ1J1epl1S111 OK0110
,D,elicTBH"Ta cn~"b npeB3eMaHeTO Ha npeAHHTB n03HLI,HH.

1000

nanaa HaXO,lJ,SInJ1eHrlJ.114I1.

Me>t<,IJ,Y TOBa, Cb npeB3J1MaHeTO H _ i; a npen .HI1T n03J1lJ,J111 11npecnenaaaa Henpl1S1Ten51 l.(e1'1b CaMI1S1cj>OpTOBe noses, 6i;we aese HaCTaHaJ1e neas. Pa3 BIKBallJ,HSlTe ce apTl1nepHHCKI1 60H, paacrpop<TooTO acp-sn-s TypCI<HT;S penoae H YYBCTBYBamara ce orHOCH-renaa HeMO~b aa rypcxera apTHl1epHSI coseure He 6el1rapHTi;, 'Ie OKOHyaTenHaTa no6ej\Cl sese ap-se Ce MHHYTI1 H YaCOBe. H He B1:. eAI1"!.b ce 51IBIBawe Iy6e>t<AeHl1eTO, lie npu enao npOAen>t<aeaae aa AeHCTBJ.151Ta OTb 'ObJ1rapCJ<aTa nexcra, xpenocrs ra uie ce aamorrse J1 nanae KaTO HaneJ1HO yap sm, nJ10Ae. Ho, noxaTO ~a6oBeTi; H BHeW ~1Ti; Ha4anHI1lJ,H ycrrssr-s HaAe>t<,IJ,HOna ce ()pJ1eHTl1paTb:BepXY.fH?J10m6HHeTO, pa36epaTb pa3M-Bpa na ycrrsxa J1 B3eMaTe peWeKMeTO, KOeTO Tpi;6Bawe na naae nenaaero H8 rpane, BpeMeTO HecnHpHo·-ce Tbpl<aJ151We Bb Bi;lIHOCTbTa. Bb Toea OTHoweHlISe Aef-IbTe 12 'MapTe CTaHa 113BeHpeAHo HHTepeceHb H nOY4HTeneHe, fl1aBHO .nopana TOBa, 'le rl1aBHOI<OMaHAYIO' U\HSlTe, KaTO nane 3anoBi;AbTa aa arexa sa npeAHHTi; n03HllHH Ha H3TO'lHHSI Ce1<TOpe, He 61> .Ka3aJ1e CJ1eAe TOBa: uie ce eraJ<YBe 11J.1<PoPTOBS1S1 noses H11H .uie CTOSITe BOHCKHT;' xa eaae n03HIIJ1S1, 06CTpe.nBaHa He cexo OTe Te>t<l<aTa H nOnCI<8Ta ap raJJepHSI Ha HenpHSI'leJ1S1,HO Ha noaesero Mi;cTa H OTe nYWKHT1; H KapTe4HHlJ,HT-B He rypcsere neXOT42 OTe CaMHT;' cj>OpTOBe J1cj>OpTOBHSI n05!Ce.

Tp stiea na 6J1arO,lJ,apHMb Ha Xacam, A>t<eMaJ1b, ye HJ.1e nam, BCI1YKJ.1 TJ.1S1 06mJ.1 BneyaTl1eHJ.1S1, OTb 1<0l1TO Bbnpi;l<J.1 BCJ.1YKO, ace AOCTaTbYHO SlCHO ce 04e(:-TaBa J.1 nCI1X0110rJ.1yeCKOTO HaCTpOeHJ.1e Ha orfipaaara, 11 xpa6pOTO nperaaaaue aa npeAHJ.1Ti; TYPCKJ.1 n03J.1~J.111 a Yl3TOllHJ.1S1cexrop s OTb 6el1rapCKJ.1Ti; H BOH-

F\ fIIe>t<AY Toea, xpenocrura e BCe norrs YAapHT1; Ha arexyaaurara epranepas. 311 TOS!apTHJ1epHHCJ<H oreHb aBTOpeTb HB IIHTHpeHoTo T}'PCI<O <CbllHHetiHe Ha CTp. 344 nauie : nMeBKH MIOCTeXI<HMHH MYXHTJ1 areui HYHHAe. HCTJ1XI<SlMnap AYMaH xannaMi¥\W, 3eMHH Be cexane MtOAXI1W 6HP HHHl1TH XIOI<Mcj>epMil ••• )J.YWMaH ronnep'sm,a WpanHeJ1nepH J.1CTI1XI<5!MJ1a103epHHAe napp 1I~110p. AaHeJlep ronpexnep.x l<anAepHOpJ1ap; eTpacj> 6HP I<i¥\ci.pras TYTYl1MyW fl16H rbOpJ1HHOPAH. MlOleMaAHeH J1HCaH eMl151 TeJlMa3 6ypp ... 6YM ..• lIan ... 'ian ..• ceAanap HWHAl1nHOp. Ll.lexpa :HaTeMH 6J.1p cj>epHSIA arJli¥\J10p. CHSIX AYMtlHnap HYHH,IJ,e 6yryJ17i\HOp~,QHu, T. e.: <POPTOBI15!Te nOSICb Ha xpenocrsra e Be OreHb, yx penJ1eHI151Ta Ci¥\ nOl<pHTI1 Ce ,lJ,HMe, eXTSITe y>t<aCHO 3eM5ITa H He6eTO •.• HenpHSlTel1CI<HTi; urpanaena 6n-BCJ<aTe HaAb yxpenl1eHHSlTa. CHapSl,lJ,I1Ti; BAl1raTb 3eM5ITa; OI<OJ1HOCTbTa 113rl1e>t<Aa nonxs spneae Ha rpenyunca, Henpexxcnaro ce lIYBaTe TPY,IJ,HO H3pa3HMH 3BYllH 6eppe... 6YMe ••. lJ,ane ..• lIane ... rpa,lJ,eTb H3AlIBa rpaype-rs CMepTeHe Bl1l<e aa nOMOmb. YI ce 3a,lJ,YWBawe Be lIepHH 06nallJ.1 AJ.1Mb".
Be 10 saca np. nn. nOJ1J<OBHJ.1J<e arOpCI<H, HayaJlHHl<e Ha 3 ap r anepaara Be Yl3TOYHH5! cexrop s, AOJ<na,QBa, lie apTI111epHSITa aa TYPllHTi; e 3aCTaBeHa OTe CI111HI1S1aurs x oreHb Ha B~i;I<A'\~e ne 3aMbl1 'iH.

6

fhaKaTa

ua

ApHHb HtI'b

anarrse

.o.eHbT"b e ocofieao 6naronpHSlTeHb sa araxara H nopaaa M.lI\r nara, nanaana Ha nonecpaseeuaero. Pt Me>K,QYroaa, 3anOS1;,Qb aa pa3BHsaHe ,QeHCTBHSI38 aTaK8 H8 <POPTOBHSInOSICb He H,QBa. H xacTHT1; nporrsroeaear s rpH>KnHBO na ce aaxpenaaar s aa 3aeTHT1; n03H'-IHI1 H nperrs T1;Xb, KaTO nO'lBaTb YCHneHO H3Y'lBaHe Ha M1;CTHocTbTa H nO,QrOTOBKa aa Sb cnY'laH Ha npO,Qbn>KaBaHe .o.e?icTBHSlTa. fnaBHHSlTb peaepa'u, 3-a 6pl1ra,Qa OTb 4·a ,QHBH3HSI 11 I-a 6pHra,lJ,a OTb j-a ,QHBH3HSI, e npI1Bn1;'leHb KbMb 60HHaT8 JlHHHSI. Flpanpyscaeaurara apranepas Ha HrHaTOBb, Capaanapoe s, Toies-s. Ka6neWKOBb, LfaKbpOBb, He,Q1;n'leSb H np., l<aKTO Ka3aXMe, e Bb nbpBHT1; nHHHH ,QO neXOT8T8, Cb KOSITO otipeayaar's e,lJ,HOr sno, enaa ,Qywa H e,QHO >KenaHHe: na ce sa-

xpenocrara.

HMa nH H1;~O no-noysarenao OTb TOBa? He ce 11H KpHSlrb Bb TOBa csrnacyaeuo ,Q HCTBHe Ha apranepaara 11 nexorara: H <:e6eOTpH'-IaHHeTO, H HCKpeHocTbTa Bb YCHnl1S1Ta, aa KOHTO caao MO>Ke .o.a no-rasa ycrrsxa Bb e,QHO 06~0 ,lJ,1;nO nofienara ? Bb3Topr'bTb BCP1;,Qb 6bnrapCKHT1; BOeHHH MaCI1 e Bb CBOSITaHaH-BHCOKa TOt{1<21.CTpaWHI1S1Tb aH<pHna,QeHb H npae s OrbHb Ha ap ranepasra, KpbCTocaHb H (bCP1;,lJ,OTO'leHb no <PPOHTa, KOHTO npencroeuie na ce aTaKYBa, 6Y,Q11nOpI1BIH1; sa 60p6a 11Ha,Qe>K,QHT1;Bb ycrrsxa iH y nOCne,lJ,HI1S140B1;l<b OTb 6bnrapCI<I1T1; n011KOBe. Cne-reneHI1S1Tb repeas, n0311'-11111, p.lI\,QI1S1, BaHaTHT1; n11eHHH4H, BH>K,Qa0 X HeTO I<al<b 113HeMo~aBa Henpl1S1Te11CKaTa apranepas, BCHl:JI<O, BCH4KO TOBa Cb3,Qasa OTb BC1;KH 60peUb e,QI1Hb rOTOBb repoH H OTb BCtKI1 repoa e~HHb THTaHb. Taxaaa e ncaxonor as ra aa BOHCKHT1; Ha BOHI"Ja: BI1,lJ,I1MUT1; ycrraxa nOB,QHraTb ,Qyxa Bb lI'eOMeTpl1'leCKa nporpecas H onHSlHIIBaTb BOHCKHT1;. BOHHaTa, npena BCH'lI<O, e c611bCKaHe Ha aona. nOpa>KeHHeTO e HeMHayeno ~OMb npecraue Ha,lJ,e>K,lJ,aTa,4e uie ce n06e,Q11 La guerre est, avant tout, un conflit de volontes, La defaite est inevitable des que cesse l'espoir de vaincre KoeTO CbCTaBnSlB8 ObpBHSI npaauarn, Sb Cbl{pOBH~HHuaTa Ha BoeHHHT1; 3HaHHSI. Bosr t, e se-re Bb p.ll\l1,eT1; H B011S1Ta MacHT1;: na ro npoaa Ab11>KaT'b I111H ro cnpar s. Bb xpa6po BO,QeHHT1;nOJ1l<OBe n11aMTH ga >KenaHHeTO na npo,Qb11>KH araxara. TI1S1 nonxose C)I\ KaTO XHOHOTI13HpaHH OTb B1;paTa, se Cb e,lJ,I1Hb CM1;nb CKOKb H Op0611B8 Ha <popTOBaTa 11I1HHSIuie 6JK,Qe 113BbpweHb. Bb T1;Xb roaop suie nH'lHHSI npHMtpb Ha Ha'lanHHl1,HT1; 11Mb. Taers, J\eTO THSI Ha'1a11HI1411<paHaTI14HO B1;pBaxa Bb ycrrsxe, TaMb BOHHH4I1T1; HMb U1;xa nponarn OTb HeCbl<pYWI1Ma e spa Bb nofienara. o1;xa nl1 BCI1'lKH Ha4anHH4a Tal<I1Ba? Y4aCTHHl1,I1T1; uie MoraTb na CH OTrOBOpSlTb CaMI1. HCTOpl1S1Ta aa ce6e CI1 6ene>Kl1, xe 6bnrapCI<HT1; nonxose Bb THli '4aCOBe 61;xa CTpaWHH aa apara.
KaRl> Ha H<l3p"hBa 4JOPTOBHII nORC'b.

araxa ra

.o.YXbTb Ha oT6p8H8Ta nom, orbHSI He apranepaara 11 BH,lJ,eHHeTO Ha 6bnrapCI<HT1; Ha6nl1>KHnl1 nl1Hl111 novae ,lJ,8 ce 3aC1;r8 t{YBCTSI1TenHO. Ha r nasaara n0311411S1aa aenpuarenn xone6aHI1eTO e nOCTOSlHHO. HerOBH BOHHH411 H KOMaH,QI1, ,lJ,PbnBa~11 ce, 61;ra~11 I1nl1 KPI1IO~H ce, 4epTaSlTb KaKb afspera Bb xpenOCTbTa 11 Bb ce6e CI1 ce ry611. WYKPI1 nawa He npennpaena Hl1l<aKBI1 KOHTbpaTaKI1, e,QI1HCTBeHI1T1;, KOI1TO Bb cnyxaa MoraTb ,lJ,a Bb3SbpHaTb HZ! 'IaCTI1T1; My OTHOBO nOpI1BHT1; aa 60p6a. LfYBcTsYBaWf! nl1 TOH Bb MOMeHTa, rne uie ce HaHece peWI1TenHI1S1 ynapt, aa <POpTOB8Ta nI1HI1S1? Hnl1 CM1;T8we, l:Je H3ry6BaHeTO H8 n pennara n03114HSI He aaaseure ouie 4e peurarenaara araxa e ae-re TbH 6n1131<a? OCTaBSIMe BC1;1<11,Q8 CI1 npennonare, KaKTO HCl<a. 3a HaCb BbnpOCbTb ce peuraaa nCI1XOnOrI14eCI<H. WYKPH naura no CI1rrara aa CBOSlTa Ha4HOH8nHa nCI1XOnOrHSI CM1;Tawe -re 6bnraPI1T1;, ,lJ,OB4epaWHI1 T1;XHI1 paa, H1;MaTb HpaBCTBeHaTa MO~b A8 opeB311MaTb CTpaWHHT1; YKpenneHHSI ua Onp-nrs. .0. bnrara 6nol<a,Qa, npeCTI1>KbTb aa Flrrssem, H oc06eHO HaWI1S1Tb Heycntxb npa LfaTan,lJ,>Ka My noncxaaeaxa, 'le 6b11rapI1T1;, npa I1HTepeCI1T1; KOHTO I1Maxa, na na3S1Tb CBOI1T1; CI111I1,He uie ce peurar s Ha TaS! CM1;na CT7f\nKa: na araxysar-s <POPTOBI1S1 noac's Ha xpenocr s ra, Typcxara I<Hl1ra, OTb 1<0SlTO 411TI1paXMe H1;KOI1 penoae, H kOSlTO I1Ma BI1,lJ,b aa AHeSHI1Kb, Bb 4tnH 580 CTpaHH411, naaa 60raTb MaTepl1a11'b aa nOTSbp>KAeHl1e Ha BCI141<0 TOBa. Hanacaaa Cb no-r0111;Mb WOBI1HI13bMb, OTI<011I<OTOe n011e3HO, ras KHHra onacaa npOCTpZlHHO >KI1BOra 11 nyxa Ha rapuaaoae, H Bb HeSi He e TPY,lJ,HO 40B1;l<b na npospe 11 31106aTa, 11 3aSI1CTbra, 11 ,lJ,a>Ke npespeaae+o, Cb 1<0eTO aerop s r-s ce OTHacSi I<bMb CBOSI npOTI1BHl1l<b, 6bnrapCKaTa BoHCKa. H Ha,lJ,1;BaMe ce, 'Ie He uie 6i'f\,lJ,eMb nanexe OTb caMaTa HCTHHa, axo Ka>KeMb, 'le Bb nyxa Ha WYI<PH nawa ,Qb11601<0 ce nerrseure y6e>K,lJ,eHl1eTO, 4e 6bnrapar f He ure araxyaar-s, ,Qi'l>t<e He MoraTb na aral<yaaTb xpenOCTbTa. Tonxosa CI111HO61;we y6e>K,lJ,eHl1eTO, l:Je O,QPI1Hb e enaa aenpeeaeaaeaa xpenocr s: Enapxe raap Ka6Hn sanr 611p MeBl<11 MIOCTaXl<eM,Qbp. Pt xoraro MI1Cb11bTa, 'Ie He cano npe!(HI1T1; no3114HI1, HO 11 <POPTOBI1S1 nOSICb MO>KeWe na 6JKAe aTal<yBaHb, ce SlBSlBawe npem, Hero, TOH ce y r tuuaeeure OTb 4YBCTSYBaHI1eTO CI1, xe nonesce aenpnsren bTb pa3BI1Ba HaCT i'f\narenHH AeHCTSI1S1 HaSC1;Ki'f\,Qe 01<0110SPbCTb Ha xpenocr s+a, TO TOI1 peunrrenem, ycrrsxu Bb MOMeHTa He uie nOCTl1rHe HI1I<)I\,Qe. H ,lJ,bp>KeWe 3AP8BO Bb pxxare CI1 CBOSI pesepe-s, 41;naTa 10-a HI13aMCI<a ,QI1BH311S11 TOnl<OBa aprunepas, 1 y6e,QeHb, "Ie Cb TI1S1 Cl1nH uie 6i'f\Cle Bb n0110>t<eHl1e na orfirrscae BC1;1<11cepaosem, ycrrsx s aa npOTI1BHl1l<a CI1 cpeuiy rpana. Heroaar-s Haya11HH411 aa cexTOPI1, BI1>K,lJ,aHKI1 '{HcneHOCTbTa 11 ,QeHCTBI1S1Taaa npOTI1BHI1Ka npem, nOB1;peHHT1; HMb CeKTOpl1, BC1;I<H oT,Q1;nHo aa ce6e CH, My noxece rrpeaj, neus, 'Ie I1CTI1HCl<aTa araxa uie ce BOAI1 cpeuiy

nOBtpeHHSI My CeKTOpb. R TOBa ouie noaexe xapaure WYKPH nauia All AbpmH peaepsa Bb p~QeTi; CH H ,Qa C"IHTa 1-13TO"lHHSI' cexrop s TOJ1KOBa Bbop~meHb, CHJ1eHb H BameHb, K011KOTO IOmHHSI H CeBepO-3ana,QHHSI cexropa,
Peure aae aa aTaKaTa Mem,QY TOBa, ,QO KbMb nnaane Ha 12 aa ~OPTOBIUI none's. xapra BHCWHTi; 6b11rapcKH Ha"laJ1HHUH. CJ1e,Qb nOCTHrHaTHSI ycni;xb, KaTO ~e J1H He 6i;xa OKOH"IaTeJ1HO peWHJ1H Bbnpoca sa nporrsrusaaeae ,Qei:tcTBHSlTa H saa'spuraexe aa araxara H 3aTOB8 HOBH H8pem,QaHHSI He Hanp8BHX8. 068"1e. reaeparrs fpbH"IapOBb, "IYBCTBYB8ih<H nynca aa 60Sl npa CesepHHSI oT,Qi;nb, HaH-BamHHSI OTb 1-13TO"lHI1S1 cearop-s, 6i;we aexe H8np8sH11b CBOHTi; peanopescieaas sa C8M8Ta 8T8Ka sa RHBa3b6a6a, RH,QmH 1-10ny H KecTeHe11HKb. TSI Tpi;6B8we ,Q8 ce ripenuiecrnyaa OTb enna HaH'CH11Ha apTHJlepHHCK8 nO,QrOTOBKa OTb Qi;naTa 6b1lrapCKa epranepasicxa Maca aa C~U-\HSIcexrop's. 1-1TOH ,QOK11a,QBa TOBa CH peuieaae ua rexeparrs Ba30Bb, KOHTO Sb 10 "I. 30 M. 6i;we noursm, aa HerOBHSI Ha6nlO,QaTeneHb nyaxr-s, H ce YCTaHoBH, araxara ,Q8 no-rae Bb 1 "I. 30 M. C11. n11a,QHe. ETo T8Ka Bcpi;,Qb nopanar s Ha BOHCKHTi;, KllTO "Ie nH ce ry6H BOnara na ce rocnoncrayaa H8,Qb cb6HTHeTo OTb CTpaH8 H8 HaHroni;MHTi; Ha"laJlHHUH. ,lJ,bnmewe nH ce TOB8 Ha Hi;KllKBa TeXHH"IeCK8 ma6H8 rp-snrxa, HanpHMi;pb aa He CBoeBpeMeHHO KOM8H,Qys8He 7 I-111H He ce HCKawe Bb cnyxea na ce noexe OTrOBopHOCTbTa 38 cMi;n8T8 CTi1'\nKa 7 I-1JlH He 6 sure OlLIe Ha3pi;Jlb MOMeHTbTb se aT81<8T8 cnoperrs CXBamaHeTO Ha rnaBHHTi; H8"1anHHUH 7 I-1nH H 6bnr8pCKOTO BI1CWe KOMaHAYBaHe, Kal<TO TYPCKOTO, Bb MOMeHTa CMi;TH8 «penocrs'ra aa HenpeB3HM8eM87 I-1nH, H8H-ceTHe, Hi;K8KbBb TbMeHb rnac's roaop suie Bb Cb3H8HI1eTO H8 oTrOBOpH}1Ti; cpal<TopH7 MOMeHTbT'b nCHXOnOrH"IeCI<H e HaH-I1HTepeCeH'b. Fesepam, B830Bb, CJ1eAb 1<8TOnl1"1HO H8y"lH Bb 10 "1.30 M. np. nn. peureuaero aa reaeparrs fpbH"IapOBb, nonece B'b 11 "1.30 M. : .BOHCI<HTi; c e CTpeMSlTb n a e n s a e r u Bb OAPHHb". Feaeparrs I-1saHoBb, T04HO l<aKTO Xopeauiao HenCOHb npa Tpacp8nrap'b,OTfOSOPH Bb 12 "I. 25 M.: nl-13non3YB8HTe He3868 B H 0 no C T H r H 8 T H SI Y C n i; x b" 6bnrapHSI 0'laKS8 sci;I<H na H3nbJ1HH CSOSI ,Qbnrb: England expects every men will do his duty 11 H8peAH 8T81<8Ta na 6~Ae rtonxpeneaa OTb APyrI1Ti; CeKTOpl1 Bb 1 "I. 30 M. en. nn. Cb uern, ..38 npaanasaae nonexe <taCTI1 aa npOTI1BHl1l<a KbMb CeI<TOpHTi;, a CJil.U,\O H 38 8TaK8 H8 CPOPTOSI1S1nose-s, K~AeTO ce oxasce B'b3MOmHO
H

f\TIlKaTa

HII

Q.o;PHH

69

sa paoora,

TSI HaBpeMe ce KOMaHAYBa H aaapexe ce nonroras 60p6aTa e c'sr nacyeaao YCHJll1e H, Mome 6H, HMeHHO B'b TOBa c srnacyeaae ce c scroa Ql;11aTa CNi.l4HHa aa BoeHHOTO J13KYCTBO.
nO.a,rOTOBKA 3A aTAKa. AYX'bT'b HA rapHH30Ha Ha xpenocrura.

caao

xoraro

)

no-cxopo".

.

0684e, M8nKOTO spexe - "IaCb H Hi;U,\o - KoeTO OCT8B8we .0.0 MOMeHTa aa 8Tal<aT8, H, O<teBI1AHO, TeXHH"IeCKaT8 HeBb3MomHOCTb uaapexe peurenae r o 6bpme na ce npenane .0.0 BCI1"1I<I1Ti; "IaCTH no KaH8JlHI1S1 perrs, c'ssnanoxa enuo pa3BI1THe aa ,QeHCTBI1S1Ta, KoeTO e eCTeCTseHO B'b BCH'lKI1 nO,Q06HH cnysaa. SOHCKaTa Mome na nOCTl1rHe QeJlHTi; H8 enao BoeHHO ,QeHCTBHe~

MemAY TOBa, KbMb 11 xaca aa 60l1HOTO n011e xacraea H3Bi;cTHO 3aTI1WHe. K'bM'b 06i;Ab TYPUHTi; nosear s Aa ce OKOnl1neaT'b, HO uaurara apranepas OTH080 paanp scee Mi;pl<al4Hri; ce <taCTH aa nl1HHSlTa aa q,opToeeTi;. VI, noaesce aprunepasra aaspe ae nony"lH aanoa'sm-ra aa araxara 8'b 1 1/2 4. en. 06i;Ab, T5I OTHOBO noxaa na rpOMI1 C'b 6apa6aHeH'b orbHb aenpaarenCKaTa n03H411S1, a cnen's TOBa OTKpl1 11 nperpaziem, Or'bHb 3aAb 11HHI1S1Taaa cpopTOBeTi;. 1-1 OTb TOBa apene TI1S1apTHnepHHCKI1 oraeoae, 6e3b Bb MOMeHTa na nony-rar's HaHMeHOBaHHSlTa CI1, saexa CBoeTO Mi;cTO Bb aayxare ; Bb Oouiara BOHHaTi; ce aapexoxa ..Trommelfeuer", "hara,sing fire", .barrage "belt of fire" Ie tir d'arret" ..I~ tir de barrage" H np. ' .. OTHOSO HaCTaHa cronea's MOMeHTb aa HaCTNi.n11eHHe cpeuiy cpopr08€Ti;, ofiaxe TaK'bBO He ce pa3BI1Sa no Qi;naTa nI1HHSI. 54. H 56. nonxoee HClCTiV\nBaTb cpeuty Taun, Ta611S1,KOSlTO, ofiase, He e peWHTe11eH'b nYHKTb. 23. nomcs enaa ycrrsaa na ce peaxnea« H 3aeMe CBoeTO H3XOAHO nonosceaae npezrs RHBa3b 6a6a. 10. nOnK'b HaCTNi.nBa no 8CH4I<HTi; npaauna Ha YCTaBa, HO TOH CKOPO pasfipa, "Ie nOJlK08eTi; Bb rraao OT'b Hero H-EMaTb aanoe ans Aa HaCTiV\n· sar s. 32. H 29. nonxoae ocraaar-s, AeTO 6i;xa, 3a~OTO no eAH8 rp sunce Ha 6pHraAHHSlKOMaHAI1pb r s saaaxe, "Ie araxara aa cpoproeer s uie ce npennpaexe npes's aoursra. 1-1reaeparn, Sa30Bb, KaTO He "IYBCT8awe 51CHOxona aa .aeHCTBHSlTa, KOHTO 6i; aanoei;Aanb, B'b KOJle6aHHeTO CI1, .0.811118TaKaTa HCI Ri1Ba3'b 6a6a uie 6Ni.Ae cnonyxnaea, Bb 4 <to 15 M. Aame npenynpenseaure Ha'lallHHl<a Ha IOmHaTa nonoaaaa OTb CBOHTi; BOHCKI1, "Ie Mome ne ce aanoxor, Ti; I1MeHHO na araayaar s KaBI<a3b Ta6HSI He nane-re OTb MapH4a, KoeTO nOKa3Ba, 'Ie B'b 6ypSlTa Ha 60Sl, "IHCTO no TeXHH4eCKH npH4I1HH, TOH He 4YBCTSYBawe snpaso nynca H xona Ha 60p6aTa. MemAY Tosa, aeka XBbp11HMb nornems H BI1AHMb KaKBO craaaure Bb rypcsa crpaua. TYPCKHSlTb as rop-s Ha MHoro n~TI1 UHTHpaHaTa KHl1ra, Xacam, ,D.meManb, cnerrs KaTO onacea roni;MHTi; 3ary6H, AaAeHH OTb TYP4HTi; na npen-orrs n03HQHH, H cnerrs KaTO ncneuea HMeHaTa Ha H-EKOH OTb naAHa11HTi; TypCKI1 ocpHQepH, xaaaa aa cb6HTHSITa OT'b BpeMeTO, Bi;pOSITHO OK0110 11/l xaca npes's AeHSI H C11eAb TOBa, - r n. 35 CTp. OTb "l-1eHH xap6 6awaMb3C1 rexpap reneanep C11eAHOTO: "BCH'tKHT-& tj>poHTose Sb '1'011 MOMetlT'b CJIt nom, Or'bHb. Bexe He ce sy8aTb OTAMHH TonOSHH r'bpMeH<H. !-Ia 113TO'lHHlI tj>POHTb, Koiho e MHoro 6na· ronpHlITeHb 311 8T8K8, lien pHliTenbTb paAOCTIlO HflCTJltnS8. ETa cera TOH cnp s - W8pK AH<y6xecH reapiosa nex MtOca'aA .o.yWM8H Mecpypeli HHnepaop. Hure WHMAH TesKHtj> HTAH. Q6a'te, T011080T1; ouie crpensr» Cb 8ACKH

70

f\TaKaTa

"a

OAPHllb

71
All He ce 6HIITb. HII Me)KAY cneAHIITa TOBII._

orbHb Bb THII BHHII r1l311~a

1'1 He
KOIITO

OCTIIB!!Tb He 3HaSl HMd

HHTO eAHO MHHyTH orb TeneHII

M'liCTO,

KoeTO

CMbPTOHOCIIH CeAeMI(IITllaTB

rne

BCP~Ab 1l011Ae:

BO~HH!.II1T'B HIIWIITa Ha H8 6bnrllpCKaTa

paauece

IIpMHSI MllPTlI, Bb

LJllrllnAlKlI

e

"O~ npe B"Io

MpelKII 3ary6H

oT6pIIHHTenHa T. e. HII s HII w.e 40p~y.

nHHHII. He

Henpl1uenbT"Io

l-IecMtTHI1 Cb

9 ce

11

axepe se-reps ,
Kplll1WaTIl

Ol. 6bnrllpHT't

C)II; 6Hnl1 p860TI1T'B HenpHlITenbT'b, Hllw'Cl1nHO 11 nOA06HH TO HOBI-IHH, Aa Bt.PBII. Hllnllrllwe

oT6nbCHIITH

AO KbMb KIITO

paBHI1HIITII

uie
~e

MHHIITb

10

AeHlIl1

60lKI111TIl b H

noaours

xpe

uie

onp8BlITb. npl1THCHe Tall

cnen
rp8AS HII H!!11

nouece
OTb

CypOBHT'B

IITIIKI1 6bxII

60M61lpllHpIIHeTo AOCTII All Mlioro

Flcaesce
AO TOll w.eMb

neus,
He

renerpaa«
He MOlKewe

MV

ce

rpae

ornperrs
4
npbCllllnH

h

AeHII. CbPTOBII, 6'B

HenpOI-!'UOASlW.H 068OlC,

C(jlHul'lInPHb HII

H3TOOlHI1Kb, npl1

!.IeTO 611lKenllno CIIMaTa HCTHHII TOll npelKHBliBa CII!lPllAI1, H Sb nllAaTb 60H KOH CHllpllAH Bb Hew.IICTHeTO AYWH HaTH HII ETO 06nHB8MKH Bb AeHb

CTOPH_TOBII. AOAe Bb

w.eMb,

H Ole apM"lITa OAPI1HCKl1l1Tb

ce All 0611CIII1M'b ure ycrrse All HH
YKpeneHb

ace

BOHHHlll1Tt,

Ole TOBII

ua noxours ...
npaurae
Bb aTMocq)ep8 XHnllAIo{ ,,'tHIICb HII T'liXb; HIIAb pli\ueT't (nllAHIlnHlI CTOTHHH 06ner· ns •• _ MlOcTecHIl); nyKIlT'b

nose's

AHO Cb

113KJllOOlHTenli0

01 erOlI..Hl1e
YKpenneHHlITII.

(MlOnlin-H'

I1POIIH3HPllHKH

nopaaaeaure WyMHO C'bCKIHie '"'0W.HO MHllllBIITb rpane ... BOi4HH!.II1T-t npa TOil I'IACKI1 H<HBOTb Bb
YT1;x8 MH0311H8 Cb Bb PIIAOCTHHII Cb APyrH Ub naAIlTb P""KII, Tall He OTWellHHK'b 311na H8 HAe8nb y6HTH HaCOOlt:Ha Cb HB lueXHAII KaTO KbMb H a H3TbpnllB8Tb "YlHAHOTO

ce

tlllAb

ce

HIlMl-lpllTb

BOHHHKb) MI1HyTa. H

ynopcrao

HOLl\b e He06xoAHMO na ce peura CJ¥\.Q6aTBa OApHflCKaTa xpeH nOCTb. Bp'suiaue Ha3aAb Hl;Ma. npOTHBHHKbTb rp sdea na 6i'i\Ae cnOMeHb. Hanpem, HH '-IaKa cnasa, Ha3aAb 6e3cnaBHe H CMbpTb. HHe npe>f<HB5IBaMe nOClIeAHHTl; '-IaCOBeHa xpenccr sre OApHHb Bb 1913 r. Me>f<AYTOBa,WYKPH nawa He e ouie peuiam, aa ce6e CH clriA60HOCHHSI Bbnpocb, Ki'r\Ae uie ce aaaece peuiaTenHHS!Tb 6bllrapcKH ynap-s H A8JlH Bb06~e uie ce aaaece TaKbBb. Cnopen-s ~HTHpaHHSITYPCKHaerop's - rn. CT. 370 - H3rJle>f<.Qa. '-Ie TOI1 H ~a6bTb My He 6J.!nH y>f<b HanpaBHnH OCHOBHOnpoy-raane, Ha KOI1 cexrop s uie ce paaaae HCTHHCKaTapeunrrenaa araxa, Cnem, xaro caxara xpenocrs HaH'CHJlHO 6l;xa npHrOTBHnJ.1 ouie OTb MHPHO spene aa nocp sureae enaa arexa cpeuiy CeBePO-H3TO'-lHH5Icex r op-a, TYP~HTt Bb MOMeHT8 HaH-MHoro C}iI\ Bl;PBaJ1H, '-Ie TaS! araxa MO>f<e ce pasaae Ha IO>f<HHSIcexrop s. 1\ na IO>f<HHS!Tbcexrop-s e npHBJlHllanb noae-re BHHMaHHeTOIIa TYPCKOTO KOMaHAYB8He, noaesce, Ka3Ba Xacam, ,D,>f<eMa.'lb:
U

31Hy6H, OCTI!BlIT'b

H!'! 6pYCTBepa
C'b Tpaypb

crrsuuero, aa
Cb pe

nyurxare
KaTO 11

xertpaare
C)II;Ab, 6e3'b

.He OTb KbMb p83npa8~nH,

9

Mllpra 'lC 'lVllH

Bb

6b1lrllpCK8

IItKOH 311 Aa

epllMelKllHBO

MbJlOlIlIlHe. H36t.rBa CHllpliAH

crpeua,
Aa ce

«p-nocrvre
Kt3Bdlb, T. e. C'b H8 1011

npHCTlHH MClKAY 6'bnr~pHlt, IQ>KHHlI

11101 AB8Ma Bb 6bnrllpHTi; we IPPOHT'b

MIOCIOllM8HH

I(OHTO MHlllInH

n1ll'lBb

p. I-IPAII
Mb

CeMltlHI H I(OHTO Ha Mb YCTII 01b OAPHIl'bo OeB~lib

npocropa
ce A8

oropxeaae
38AYWlIB8

eTp8WHHlI HH

T'bMHHHIlTa. Mpl!Kb HAe,

r nena ce
Bc'bKa

T811 KBpTlo1H!l HI! OP)ll;AI-IlIT8

nOpll)Kt.HHeTO.

cnenaoro
OTb KbMb

: ..6bnrapHli;
KapTllnb-Tene, LUe T8KHBIl 38X8aH~Mb

rosopa
HHe OTb

011, IJn13 H. KaTO

YCTa Bb

3eMliTa M'b1l'l8Tb, MOlKe

nOKpHB8 nOMOWb

H Men811xonHSI,

am.xue H Bb36YAI1". Bb AeHCTSHTenHOCTb605lTb e MHOrO nose lie np03aH'-IeHb KaKTO H TypCKaTa apTHnepHSI e MHoro no-60raTO cHa6AeHa Cb CHap5lAH,orxorrxoro 6bnrapCKaTa. Ho 51CHO '-Ie xpenocr sre e e, aarrunno yap sne sa eraxera. l\TaKa H npo6HBb ua f\TaKaTa npea s AeHSI He ce npOH3BeAe. Fe~opToBaTa nHHHR. Hepanb Ba30Sb pasfipa TeXHl-fyeCKHTl; r p surKH Sb KOMaHAysaHeTO. VI Cb npeaanaaanero xa AeHSIce OCPOPMH Bb aerosara nyuia HAeSiTa sa HO~HH5I uiypsrs aa OAPHHb, KOS!TO 6H.Qe onotipeaa OTb reaeparrs VlsaHosb. Bb 8 '-I. H 30 M. se'-le 6l;we paanpareua aanoe snsre sa aTaKBTa aa cpopTosaTa nHHH5I. Cnopem, TaS! aanoe-sns , ae-re naapexe naneaa, aTaK8Ta Tpl;6saure na ce paaaae OTb nonxoaer s Sb ~YPMOSH KonOHH, aaCO'-leHHcpeuiy S!CHO T04HO onpen's neua 06eKTH H Sb 51CHO H onperrsneuo apene. Cb HaH-YCHneHb orbHb OTb u s nara apranepaa no aTdKYS8HHTl; nyuxroee, KOHTO noxsa Cb H3rpl;saHe aa nyaara Sb 10 4. 40 M. H KOHTO rpae 15 MHHyTH, rp sdeaure na ce OTSOPH mlUSI aa nexorara. BCH4KO TOBa, Bbnpl;KH cTpawHHTl; Kone6aHHS!, KaKBHTC cano HBH-Te>f<KHTl;60ese npH4HH5IBaTb Sb nyurara Ha rnaeaar s lIa'-lanHH~H, 6l; 3aMHcneHO npOCTO 11, KaKTO uie BHAHMb, 3aBbpureao onl;cKaso OTb CTpawHHTl; nOJlKOBe aa 6bnrapHS!. Eerie>f<HTH Cli' AYMHTl; Ha reaeparrs Ba30Bb Sb nyax s 6. OTb 3anos-smsra My, KOHTO rnacsrj, : ~Tp stiee na ce nOMHH, 'Ie Ta3H *)
A;ST8 e se AeikrBHlIHl npv 4IlTSnAlKll.

uecenocre,

KOIiTO HIlAeIKA8TIl

9

novu
M•

MIlpT8

T811 HOBHtlB, JlllAOX8 4bopeKKboH

xnauexa
(11.0 flpAa),

ce

ronoue

60M68PAHpflHeTr) 101 nnf'HIIHUH

H 8T8K8Ta 6'l:nr8pl1, Kll3l1xa:

cexrop-s

KOHTO CJr.LUO

cBeAeHHlI.

Flpa

CT81111110TOHa TOBII

11

MllpTa

118CTII'\nnelil-le

cpeury
ETO 8TIIKa_ OCBe. Bb CBloP-

xB8HaTHTi; .118 3alwaAteMb

111IeHHHUH 6bnrClpH M1.crO, IPPOHTIl OTb

.r1oJlY'lHXMe

aanca sn
eHnHHS!

s HenpeMt.lfliO OT'bHb;

c 6a'le.
H8 s,

He 113A'bplK1lXMe OCTIlHIlXMe-.

ApyrapHT'l; Ha

1-1101 OTCTd"lHxa,

00.0.06,'101 CBeA('HHS! 1-1 BC1.KH BOHCKH AOMlIB8Tb nOS'BpeHl1l1 WH ce c ce H 60!!. ~1l6bPKa KOHTo Ha'f8nHHKb

381bMHHX8

cexropw,

o npent.nsuero
tla 'Ie

B HHe: pIlHeHHTl; l13Tpyn.!H.1TI;

HCTHHCK8TIl nO'lHIIX8 Aa

BH)t{AaHKH H'BI(OH TOll npe s«.

~lenpl1l1TelleKIi

H HIlCT)II;nllnHHTt. KOMllHllYtOlUHlI My cexrop-s. ETO TIlKa auaeure.

AeikTBHSI elpMHSlTa,

r sx

HCTHHCK8Ta .IleHb WYKPI1 Ho, lUII6a 'le

IlT8Ka

uie ce
TH~

BOAH

Telle<j:loHI1T-t KOMaHAYIOIlJ,HHb KIlKBO 118 All

BCHOlKH ce nawa HMllwe ua TPb6BIl npaao ce

CK""Cllxa.

np a

CBeAeHllst KOHTO He KS!3HMb 311aIPOPTb IlTIl1<8TIl_ HII AIIR8

H He

H TIlKHBa.

31l6nYlf(AaBIIX

. HanpHMt.pb, CTOI"'We IPpOH rb, ce

H8'l1l1lIlHKbTb y6l"lKlleliHelO, HIl UCH'lKOTO oco6eH')

10'11

AHII1I3HSI AU ce H8npeAb

6eH, 'leHHe flHBII3b n8AHa, OTb

TB'bPAO

H8 1-13TO'lHHII E)a61l, nOHeIKe tla'l8J1HHK8 npea's H3npIITH p-s. ne cexro He till

H3AilAeHHli BIfHMIlHl-1e.

KOHTO 31lCflYlflaBII pa36p8 IOlKHHII 1I0LllbTIl TIIKHDII, noaropua nocrarue ••• IlPH

ETO 18KI'I IHBbPWH

I(penOClbTII

II!'! KOH ct>POHT'h uie
1'16paxHMb OT.Ill;nH peWHTe1lHIITil

IPPOHTb, nOI1CKll!la nOltelHe

ne uia.

KOMeHAllIl1'bTb 1011 ce CH. 80AH ManKa

KpenOCTbT8 Ole Hl;M8 HerOBHS!

CHnl-1. o61l'le IlTaKB enua

orroaopa,
cpew.y CHna.

aanoe-sns,

TOH OTA'iinH

HO Til He cexrop-s 6twe

65

'feeTHT!! A8 naAHfl1lb·

AO Mi;cTOHa3111l'leHHeTO

1-13TO<;IIHII1b-

6.

HIIWIl.

BCH'-IKOTOBa, KoeTO TOKy-~o ~HTHpaXMe OTb Xacain, ,D,>f<eManb, HbMaMe HI1KaKBI1 OCHOBaHI1S1.Qa OCnOpI1Mb. Ho 116e3b Tt311 HOBI1cpaKTH,51CHO xe, noxesce WYKPH nawa rie B3e Ml;PKH na sae, CHnl1 Ha 12 cpeuiy 13 MapTa Vl3To'-lHI1S! I1 CPPOHTb,TO Orb TOBa C caao 06CTOS!TeJlCTBO BH>f<Aa, '-Ie aa Hero peWHTeJlH6Ta TyKb ce araxa, 1<05lTOnpl1CT.i'r\nBaMena ormcaaree, ce 01{83a H3HeHaAa It no paa-rspa CH, H no xapaxrepa CH, 11no apexe, H no MtCTO.

Ih

K

I

Ita

OAPHH ..

73 6bJ1rapCKaTil BOHCKa e ae-re npotiana ~OPTOSHSI OApHHb. nbpBHSlTb xeponrrs-repoq aa nofienara, HeH3BeCTeHb aa acropo ara, Bb CN-14HSIMHrb nansa CMbPTHO cpaae-rs, HO npyra repoa HaHOBO H3AHrsaTb OTb BH' COKOTO Ha ~opTa CJ1aSHaTa60HHa penHKBHSI, 3eJ1eHHSI~eHepb, KOHTO Tpt.6sawe Aa npOAb11>1<Hna H3seCTSIsa H oceersaa aenH'iHeTO aa nOABHra H cnesara aa 6bnrapHSI. 0, ropna '-IaCOBe, KaKSHTO ~eTHpH ronaaa cnezrs TOBa 6bJ1rapCKHSlTb aapom, H3nHTa H npa uiypxa aa TYTpaKaHb, AaJ1H H-BSra ure ce HaMt.pH 6bJ1rapHHb na 3a6paSH aaurara CMHCbJ1b H aaurero KpaCHSO C'bAbp>HaHHe? UJ,e npecrane J1H Ht.Kora cnOMeHbTb aa BaCb na onJ10ASlSa nyxa aa nOKOn-BHHSITa KbMb nogsH3H ?~) LlJ.0 Ci'I'\. KHHH<HHT-B AHKTaTH aa MHpb, I<OHTO HH 06Bbp3saTb Sb BepHrHT-B xa n0J1HTH4eCI<OTOP06CTBO cera, npem, aaurero BeJ1H4He? Fepoar s aa araxara, nOAnOJ1KOSHHKb XPHCTOSb, ce 06S1' asaa KOMeHAaHTb na ~opTa RHA>I<H HOJ1Y H, cnerrs xaro yaCTHT-B ce ycrpoaxa, no-ma na IpyWH na At.CHO H aa n-BBO OT6paHaTa Ha apara. RpTHJ1epHSITa aexe CTpeJ1S1 b THl1a xa ~op· S TOBHSI nOSICb sam, RHA>HH Hony H RHsa3b 6a6a. Bb ~opTa f\A>HH l-lony uexnyear i, H 2-a gpY>l<HHa OTb 53. nOJ1Kb H 4-a ApY>l<HHa OTb 10. nOJ1Kb, KOHTO 6HAoxa senxara H3no113YBaHH OTb 1<0MeH,QaHTaHa 3aSJ1aASlHHSI OpTb • ~
4:!

In CbKpyw~iTenHaTa MOlLtb xa 6bnrapoKlri SOHCrcH H T1;XIIOTO KOM8HAysaHe. Bb SCI1L1KO TOSa OTb 6, ,nrapCKa espana I1Ma, l..!eHHO aoe-tuo 113KYCTBO, .Cb KoeTO 6bnrapI :K~Tb uapom, SCt.-· xora MO>l<e na ce roprrse. Bb onperrsneuoro spexe cpeury 13 MapTa, Cb H3rpt.sa. aa nyaara, aanoxaa HaH-cTpawHaTa KaHOH ana aa aT8KysaHHSI y~acTbKb, a He nO-ManKO H Sb gpyrHTt.. KaTO 'iYAOSHlLtHa H He06HKHoseHHa ~eepHSI oxonoap'scrs Ha xpenocrara. rbpMe>l<HTt. sa orrrs IlHHTt. OPi'l'\.lJ,."'51 sese He ce 4. ysaxa: eAHHb otiurs ,bH reH<b KaTO 6ypSi ce pa3BHSaWe H~.Qb K~ ienocrara. Typcxara n03Hl..\HSI' OTb Taurs. Ta6HSI npe3b f\HBa3b 6a6a, f\HA>I<H Hony .no KeCTeHeJ1HKb He npOTSI>KeHl-le noaexe 0 Tb TpH KI-fnOMeTpa, OTHOSO6twe npepcaeua OT'b nanauus <pyn ICHH rpaaara, a ny~alLtHTt ce WpanHeJ1H 6t.xa. TbH MHoro, 4 e ocs-arnaeaxa !ypcxera n03Hl..\HSI".QOCTeneHbo,lLtOTO HaLUJ.«Tt. J: ,a6pH apTHJ1epHHCKH X Ha6J11olJ,.aTenHH 6aTapeHHH KOMaHgapH.Qa MI )faTb SlCHO na SHH<)J,aTb nonaneaaara H-a CHapSiAHrt.. 6bJ1rapHTt., KaKTO npa KpyM.a. CHMeOHa H KaJ10S1Ha,st.Hose no-pauo, pasaaaaxa CSOSio lLtYPMb Ha On..PHHb. Cl1aSHHTt.. neXOTHH nOI1KOBe aa 6bnrapl1S1 seLIe 6i>xa S'b CSOSiTa CTHXI1S1. .HaCTN-nl1eHHeTo e 6asHo. a OpiY'AI1S1Ta Be4E! noxear's na HaMaJ1S1SaTb CSOSiTa crpenfia nopana CHI1HOTOOt ae.ropeuiaeeue. BeneHHT-B ~eHepl1 6nt.utYKaTb HaAnbH<b no l..\t.I1Hlll H1.TO'-leHb ,<PPOHTb .11 C04aTb Ha apranepaara nJ.tiiJ.tH,i;, AO KOKTO AOCTHraTb IOHapOAHHaTa. Bb 12 ~aca ~aTaKaTa e Sb csoero nbJ1HO, pa3BHi'He. IleXOTHaTa crpenfia OTb TYPCKHTt. nHHHIi e OT,t:l\aBHaOTKpHTa cpeuiy HaCTi'I'\.nSaIl.\HTt. 6bnrapCKH BOHCKI-t. 4aCTHTt. TbprrSlT'b 'iYS<:TSHTenHH, Ht.K"'Ae CTpaWHH, 3ary6H. MOMeH1ibTb e C~60HO<:eHb. EAHO rpenaaae Bb HepeWHTemi'OCTb,~ araxara 611 6wna OT6HTa, H WYKPH nauia Cb xpa6paTd CH BOHCIUl 6H AOCTHrHanb cnaaara ua OCMaHb naura npa nJ1t.eeHb. Ho. nOKont.HHSlTa t-la. TpeTa 6bnrapHSI, y KOHTO nnaerr auie Ci'I'\.lLtHSJ YXb H cxurere A HecnOMHMa SOI1S1, Cb KaKBaTO ce OTnH4Hxa HaLWfTt. npaAt.AH aa n'bpsa H STopa 6bnrapHSI, He rpennaxa. W.ypMbTb Ha RA.D,)f{H BoHCKHTt. 6-sxa nperrs TeneHK.Tt. MpeH<H. Hony. Bb 1 'i. xpa6pHSI nOAnopY4HKbT'b Be nasHOSb Cb 16 AYWH nHOHepH 6-Bwe aexe nosaarrs pespyiueaueTO xa renenara MpeH<a Sb Y4aCTbKa Ha 10. PO~onCKH nOJ1Kb cpeuiy ~opTa t\HAH<H Hony. YYTOSHHSlTb repoa nonKoBHHK~ XPHCTOSb Cb APY>l<HHaTa CH H nopy'-lHKb HHKPB'b CO~pOHHH Cb po'rara CH 6t.xa Sb nbpsHTt. penoae. H Bb 1 ~. 50 M_ HecpaBHHMHT-B IOHal..\H aa 6bnrapHSI ce SAHraTb Ty1<b KaTO eAJ.fHb Ha HO)f{b, XSbPJ1S1Tb ce Sb cTpawHHSI ~OPTb, nOS8J1SfTb Bo. ynopHTb 60H 35 AywH H 06pbll..\aTb Bb 6~ ocraHamtTi; ,yp~H OTb rapHH30Ha Ha roaa naMSlfHO YKpenlleHHe. Bb C,y.~IrtSi '{aco. HaAb CTPaWHHSI ~OpTb H~HrHa'HSlTb 3eneHb ~eHepb H3B.el..\HTt.

noses aa ocraaarrs

craaaure,

na

Bb 4 Lf. 20 M. MaHopb .o.pYMeBb H xanaTaHb Hraaroe's norryxaxa 3anOS-BAb senaara Aa 113J1-B3aT'bxanperrs H yst.H4aSlTb aenpaarencxara n03Hl..\HSIOTb AseTt. CTpaHH aa ~opTa f\HAH<H Hony, H xpa6pHTt. apTHl1epHCTH Cb CBOHTt. 6aTapeH ce nonecoxa aanpem., H3non3YBaHI<H npearaeaaara na npeaansuiara HOlLtb. Tt.xHOTO xpa6po ASHH<eHHe aarrs HaCTN-nHJ1HT-B 4aCTH OTb 23. H 53. norrxoae 6-Bwe eAHO C'b6HTHe. B'bnp-BKH CHJ1HHSI orbHb H nenauiar-s KOHe H xopa, 6aTapeHTt. He rpenaaxa.: a CM-BnOce HOC-BXa aanperrs, KaTO yarraxoxa Cb ce6H CH1130CTaHaI1HT-B HnH pa3K0J1e6aHHT-B BOHHHl..\H, OHTO cp tsutxexa no CSOSI iY'Tb. K n CHnHHSlTb TypCKH nexorea s H KapTe'-leHb orbHb 3aCTaSH 6aTapes ra Ha KanHTaHb IOpAaHOSb rrspaa na OTl<a~H aa 30) xp, OTb f\HA>I<H Hony H na orxpae orbHb. TYKb saexa n03Hl..\HSI H 6aTapeHT-B aa nonnopy-nncs MHlIOSb H KanHTaHb Hsronoau. Typl..\HTt. 6-Bxa CTaHaJ1Hnpasa Bb OKOnHT-B CH H oficrperieaxa xpa6PHT-B 6aTapeH no HaH-0H<eCT04eHb Ha~HHb. CKOPO, 06a4e, T-B 6HAoxa 3aCTaseHH OTb OpN-AHSITa na ce CKpHSlTb Sb posoaer-s H na ce o r rer.n a'r ts. 3a Ki'I'\.COepexe cnaBHOTO OTA-BneHHe aa MaHopb .o.pYMesb noaece 6 O~Hl..\epH, 40 BOHHHl..\HH 72 KOHS! y6HTH H paHeHH, 6e3b, otiaxe, T-B3H >l<epTSH na pa31<0J1e6aSlTb Sb TOS! Sa>HeHb '-IaCb 6e3nog06HHTt. apfHJ1epHcTH. CnasHH c'" 6bnrapCKH 6aTapeH Ha nHHHJlTa Ha cj)opTOBeT1>. *)
rnellaH o. 3. nC-HIITaTbKb H 'lneHb Ha CBeTOTaTCTBeH!lTa CTaTH!! Ha Ha

M.

f\HApeeBb,

nOnKOB'IHl(b

BUCWH5I CbBeTb

3I1naCHHT1>

<Xj>HlIepH.

111

IHI1<1

111I

OAPHHb

7S
tHO If lIC~icTBI1SlTa Ha 2/8 apran. orzrsneaae aa KanHTaHb, HOI,ho Bb xapaep's. rp sraa KbMb <popTa, sa na H3p n03~u,HSl aa 6aTapeSlTCl CH. CKOPO TOH pasopa, -re HHTepD rurr 6 Me}t(AY yxpenneaaar s 61;xa OL1..\e 3aeTH OTb TYPllI1Tl; H xe M BClllOCTbTa ce oficrpensaure carnro, ocotieao OTKbMb KecTeHenHKb. 80 CN;L1..\OTO apeeie TOH satiensaa 6aTapeHTl; OTb 115 oTA1;neHHe na MaHopb ,l],PYMeeb, I<OHTO aese 6txa OTKpHmt orbHb. H sa Toea TOH aanoafsne, rrspsara My npacrur aana 6aTapes Aa saeere n03HlIHSI He nane-ie OTb caaare renenara Mpe>t<a Cb <pPOHTb cpeuiy TOSI <p0PTb. Bropara 6aTapeSl, eOAe~a OTb noAo<pHu,epb XPHCTO Heaoa's, nopana Toea, "Ie 6aTapeHHHSlTb KOMaHAHpb nanaa y6HTb npx HaCT.lI".nneHHeTO, aae n03HlIH~ OTKpHTO Ha rpeoena H HaC04H op xnaa ra aa ceeep s no f\HBa3b Eafia, aenocp sncraeao npenu na n04He caxara araxa OTb 23. neXOTeHb nOJ1Kb xa TOSI nocnene-rs <P0PTo.
III

nI

aa IUiBa3b nO·6aBHo H no-resexo ce pa3BH 60p6aTa 6a6a. ua 23., 53. H 56. nonxoae cpeuiy F\Hea3b 6a6a H 6ml31<HTt Me}t(AHHH, AeTO TYPU,HT1; nOCp1;L1..\HaXa araxara Cb HaH-ron1;MOTO CH ynopcrao, KapTet.{HHSI Tb H nyurese+rs orbHb Ha Typu,Hr1; OTb <popTa KOC1;we HaWHT1; penose H Hacrxnneaaero ce pa3B~1 Cb npOM1;HnHBo ycrrsx's. Bb 4 t.{. H 40 M. np. nn, Ha4eno Ha 23. nonx's 3aCTaBa caMb nonKOBHHKb FlaWHHOBb Cb 3HaMeTO Bb p.ll".Ka_ Cnezrs nOnOBHHb 4aCb nonKbTb e nperrs TenE:!HHT1; Mpe>t<H Ha <popTa, Orb KOHTO Be ... ce noe naaar s rpesoaora H OCB1;TnHTenHH paxeru OTb rypcxa CT~aHa. F\HBa3b 6a6a npe>t<HB1;Ba nocnenuar-s CH MHHYTH_ Flpa F\HA}t(H Hony nexorara H TOKY-L1..\O 113nt3nHT1; TaMb HaWH Opi'l'\AHSl Ha nOAo<pHu,epa HeHoBb nonaraTb BCH4KH CBOH YCHnHSI, 3a Aa noMorHaTb Ha 23. nonx s. IOHawKH separa OTb 'l-» H 8-a pOTH 1-1 Orb 10. norrx i, OTb F\HA}t(11 Vlony ce nOHaCSlTb cpeuiy eAI1Hb penyr s IO>t<HO OTo F\HBa3b 6a6a. 4acbTb e 5 11 H penyr-sr-s nana Bb HaWI1 p.ll".u,e. Bb C"'wOTO epene ce anarar-s cpeuiy F\HBa3b 6a6a nOMeHaTHT1; separa OTo 10. norno, 11 npenaar-s 4aCTH Ha 23. H 53_ nonxose. F\pTl1nepHSlTa Ha Hrnarom, 6e3b <:_nHpb 06crpenaa <popTa, KOHTO ce araxyea, H ortipauara na KOHTO e se-re CnOMeHa H or cnefiaana, Me>t<AY TOBa, cpeuiy 3aBnaAtHHSI y ...aCTbl<b OTb xpafipara 6bnrapCKa nexora TypU,I1T1; oTKpHBaTo orbHb Cb cxopocrpe nHHT1; CH Teml<H nOJ1CKH 6aTapeH OTb pesepea Ha «penocr sra, paanonosceaa Ha n03HlJ,HSl Bb rpana cpewy naopa aa Capas. Ho, T1;311 YCI1JlHSI cpeiuy 6n1;CKaeo 3aBbpwellHSI np0611Bb ua <popTOBHSl nOSICb Ci'l'\ nocnenna 11, KOnl<OTO T1; H na -repras r i, ynopuTHT1; nopaaa aa WYKPH nawa aa orfipaaa, Cl<OPO ce 3aAYwBaTb OTb orbHSI Ha H3n1;3nI1T'S Ha CaMI1Sl <POPTOBb nOSICb 6bJlrapCKH 6aTapeH. npOTI1BHO na TOBa, KoeTO 611 rp'sfiaano na 6i'l'\Ae, TYPU,HT1; TyKb KOHTbpaTal<a cpeury 6bnrapHTt He MO>t<axa H He ce onHTaxa Aa pa3BI1SlTb.
UJ,YPMbTb

Ci'l'\L1..\I1T1; epOH4eCl<H YCI1JlHSI ce pa3BI1r 60p6C'Ta 11 no oCTaHanl1T1; yYaCTblJ,11 Ha H3TOt.{HI1Sl <PPOHTb. 8C1;l<)i'\Ae ce nonarar-s HaH-6narOpOAHI1 YCHnl1S1 06eKTI1T1; na ce nocruruar s, so HHI{)i'\Ae TOBa He Mome na CTaHe Cb OHaSl neCHHHa, Kal<TO Mome na ce nOMI1CnH cera. F\Tal<aTa Ha eaaa xpenocr s He e enaa pa3XOAKa, HI1TO eAHO npHSlTHO pa3Bn1;4eHHe. ,l],t.nOTO e eAHO OTb HaH-l<bpBaBl1T1; H HCl<a CBOHT1; ron1;MH mE;pTBH. Bb onperrsneuoro apexe H yaCTI1T1; Ha IOrb OTb F\HA}t(11 Hony 61;xa HacT.'J'\nl1nH, KaKrO H TH5l cpeuiy TOS! nccnenem, <POPTb H na ceeepo OTb Hero. VI Bb Te>t<I<OTO HaCT)i'\nJ1eHHe cpeuiy ynoparas aenpaarens eAHH Ci'l'\ cnpsa» npem, Ten€HI1Tt. Mpeml1, a npyra Ha 300-500 I<paY1<11 OTb T1;Xb. Ho H TyKb xpenocr sra npexapaa C8011T1; nocnenaa MHHYTH. 8b 7 xeca 32. nonKb 3aBnaA1;Ba <popTa Kypy-Heurxe H, KaTO noerare Ha 29. nonKb, CKOPO 11 nOCneAHI1S1Tb aaene V!)i'\nAb3b Ta6H5l. C.'J'\L1..\OTO aamspurear-i, no-aa ior e 57., 54. H '" 8. non1<0Be, KOHTO C)i'\ HaCOyeHH cpeuiy Torrs Hony H KaBKa3b Ta611S1, H KOHTO C.lI".wO r axa ycrrsaa r t, na OBnaA1;SlTb THSl nOCJleAHH <popTOBe.

RTaKaTa Ha OCTaHanHT~ ~opToBe OTb H3TOQHHRceKTopb.

Cb

aa

Vl3TOYHHSlTb <PPOHTb Ha xpenocrsra e se-re HanbnHO Bb p.ll".u,eTi; xe 6bllrapI1T1;. Bb 8 Y. 30 M. npa 23. nOJll{b H npa 2/3 6pHraAa ce SlBI1Xa 113npaTeHI1T1; OTb WYJ<PI1 nawa napnareeur sopa aa npexpersaeue Ha BoeHHHT1; AeHCT8HSl H sa npenasaae

xpenocr ara,
c""'

Bb TypCKaTCI I<HHre, 1{0SlTO MHoro n)i'\TH u,HTHpaXMe, sa eraxera Ha <POPTOBHSInOSlCb Bb Vl3TOYHI1Sl cexrop s cs: AaAeHH nHCMClTa aa MH03HHa Yl{aCTHHlJ,H TypCI<H o<pHlJ,epH, onHCBawH nHYHHT1; CH BneYClTneIlH5I. Hae we ce OTBJl1;4eMb MHoro H we 3aTbMHI1Mb H3nO>t<eHHeTO CI1, axo TpbrHeMb no T1;Xb, 06a'le, nOne3HQ e na HanpaBI1Mb H'bKOH H3BaAKH, KOHTO ewe nO-A06pe MoraTb ACI OyeplaSlTb xpa6pHT1; AeHCTBHSl H peWHTenHHSI ycn'sx s aa xaWHT1; CClMOOTBep}t(eHH BOHCHI1 Bb ras c.'J'\A60HOCHa HOLUb_ CaMb TypCI<HSlTb aarop-s, KaTO rOBOr;H aa aTaKaTCI Ha H3TO'IHIHl cexropj, H cneuaarnro f\HBa3b 6a6a, 6eneml1, "Ie npea's HOwbTCI 6bnrapHT1;, 113non3yaaHI<H rbHKHTt aa M1;CTHOCTbTa, ce A06ml}t(l1nH xa 300-500 xp, OTb TOSl <POPTb, AeTO cnp'sna, sa Aa ce nOArOTBH ynapa Ha Homo. F\pTHnepHHCKHSlTb orbHb no YKpenJleHHSlTa 3aCTaBHllb ortipaaara ACI He Mome na el1 BAHrHe HanH wYPMa TYPU.HT~

KaKb

nocp

eur-

rnaaara.

"CHnHTi; Ha oT6palHIBatllHII, Ka3Ba Toii, Bci;Ka cexynna HlIManliBlIXlI. Ha H·bl<OH Mi;cTO OTb apTHnepHHCKHlI orbHb reneuara MpClI<a 61; aar pyn aua c s "PbCTb, paax.s caua H npasenena Bb nonoxceuae na Mome AO ce MHHaBa. U;tnHSlTb I1STO'lellb q,POIITb ua OTOpaH<lTa ovexnaure Cb nYWKH Bb ph\ lie uenpaarencxare nCXOTa. Ho, lIenp"SITCnbTb. CKP"Tb, Aamc rnaaar a ne CIl nonuroure. BCH'lKO 'lallawc na ce nCCTHrlle OTb epranepasra - EHTIOH urap« AmyOxe 1\11OAdq,11HHH enne CHnSiX JlYWMall nHIIAeCHHH oeKnI10PAH. <t>eKaTb AywMaH rH3nellMI1W OaW;¥\lia OHne HanAbpMN\HOPAH. Xep urean Tonne HerHAmeJlCIlMeCH oeKnHOPAH ".

RTaKaTa

Hl

OAPHHb

77

6 xe, T051aarop s He e ysaam, aaepeae aa npeB3HMaHeTO aa ') p r F\HAHH1 Horry ouie Bb 1 "1.50 M. OTb 6bllrapHTb, H aa TOBa 81>on HcaHHeTO My ~opTOBeTi; naAaTb eAHOBpeMeHHO. Ho, aa TOaa TOH He e nponycaerrs na oT6ellemH aenaara cnem, ropaar-s penoae, 4e It 6bllrapCKHTi; apTHJ1epHCTH CIi'\ YBi;H"IaJ1H Cb 0PJi\,QH5I aMi;peHOTO npasnao Mi;cTO aa nonecpaacexaero+nyerara H e aa npopasa cnem, araxara H 3aeMaHeTO aa ~opTa F\H,QmH Hony -H "Ie crpenar s 6e3b cnHpb Cb WpanHeJ1HH rpaaara - MeHAaua 60w 5YllaH AYWMaH ronsynap xna 51HaWMIi'\W HaMIOTeHaXH urpanaen naae araop - rn. op. cit. 355 CTp.
~nOpaAH rpana orb CHapsrAH, KOHTO lIenpHIiTenbTb xe spnaure, BCi>KH 'IYBCTBYBaw'! p ",~eTi> H xpaaare CH a spaaaa. nOHe)f{e xenpas rens r-s paSBI1BaWe TOil 60H Cb apr anepas, aaurara BOHCKa Bb RHBaSb 6a68 nOAb HeHIII1sr aHqll-lnaAeHb orbHb ornpen-s Ii OTCTpaHa 6i;1ll'! nonnosceua Ha YHI1~O)f{eHHe. Bb 41/, 'Iaca (8 II. no TYPCKI1) npeau uours ra, aanoxua CHneHb nexoreu-s orbHb. nOnO)f{eHHeTO 6i;llle orracno H anan i>ellle pasCTpo:kTBO. Pen-s H KOMallAa aexe He OCTaHa. R H ynpaaneuaero Ha H3' TO'lHl1ll <pPOHTb OTb Rml We<pI1Kb 6eH lie ce 'IYBcTBYBallle •.. Ha cy' rpaus ra BOHCKHTi> Bb <popToaeTi; Kecrenerraa», RpIl8YAKbOH. 1l)f{eBl13fll1Kb ueox 'KBallO ce OKB3axa nOAb nexoreirs orbHb ornpen's, oraan-s 11 orCTpBHH BCH'IKH ce CMIISlxa•.• Me)f{lI,y TOBa. q,OPTbTb RHBII3b 6a6a 6i>we nanaarrs Bb p wuer-s H1 Henp"S1TenSi. KOHTO 6i>we H3AHrllanb aaaxero CH HdAb Hero! •. Be-re orb CaM:lTO 3aMbn'laBaHe ua ronoeer s 6 awe ce pas6pano, 'Ie lIelI.\aCTl1eTO 6i>lue l\i>na HCTHHa. nYHKTbTb .111HCTHHCKHsr HenpHSITenCKH lI.\ypMb 6i>llle RHBa3b 6a611. XObpneHHTi; CHapllllH no roa <pOpTb uarrsmro r o pa3He6HTriXa. TOH craa a I1CTHH::Ka xacanuaua. Iia RH' Ba3b 6a611 Hi;Ma TO'lKa. KOHO Aa e 6Hfl8 BbHb OTb rpaaar ar-a H urparrlienHI1Ti; nO?a)f{eHHSI. Henpasrenar-s IHnpaSI1 n a nanue RHBaSb 6a6a Cb apr anepas, a lie Cb nexora- rn. op. cit. 356-351 CTp.

n b3aJ1H, "Ie npOCTpaHCTBOTOnpezn, 1eneaar s MpemH 511JlO noKpHTO Cb XHn5l,Q11 TpynOBe. Eb Toea BpeMe POTI1Ti; 11Mb 6HllH 06CTpeJl5lHH OTb CTpaHH, OTb Ai;cHO H OTb Jli;130, H OCTaHaJlH 5e3b naTpOHI1. Ha ,Qi;CHH5I ~JlaHrb Ha porar a Ha AmeJl5l1lb e~eHAH ce pa3BHllb aa KJi\CO apexe 50H aa Homb, cnem, I<OeTO poTIna ce orrernana aa npyra n03HQH5l, xaro aa OTCTJi\nJleHHeTO H3n01l3YBana oCTaHanOTO CB060AHO Mi;cTO. Bb OCTaHa1lJ.1Ti; Cel<TOpH a HMeHHO}OmHH5l C' • ana,QHH5!H eaepo-aanannna ce nonossaxa CJi\~O roni;MH YCl1nH5Ine ce Abp>l<l1 HenpH5!Ten513ApaBO aHramHpaHb, HO Tyl<b npeau BpeMeTO AO xoraro I<Hni;we resoeara 60p5a Ha 1-13T04HI151 ~pOHTb, peuiarenaa ycrrsxa He Mcmaxa na ce noCTHrHBTb. TYPCI<HTi; BOHCI<H xa TH5!Cel<TOpHce Abp>l<axa C~~O Tal<a ynoparo. Ti; npOAbnmHxa 60p6aTa Hi;l<onl<o xace H cnerrs 1<8TO1-13T04HH5!Tb~pCHTb 6i;we se-re nanaam, eb 5bnrapCI<H pzsue. Oc05eHHO I<pbBOnponHTHa 6i; 50p6aTa ae fO>I<HH5Icexrep-s. BOHCI<HTi; Bb TH5! Cel<TOpH saexa nOCJ1eAHHTi; "YPCI<H n03HlIHH I<bMb 10 sace npea-s AeH5l H AOCTHrHaxa AO rrraanara ¢opToea nHHH5l Bb 1 Y. cn. nn., 1<0raTO OTAaBHa 50p5aTa Ha 1-13T04HH5I ~pOHTb 6i;we 3aBbpweHa, H BOHCI<HTi; My Cb pesSi;TH 3HaMeHa 6i;xa HaBni;3nH B'b rpena.
Ycni>~HT'h Bo .u.pyrHT.. CeI(TOpH.

3

Hexa eenxara A06aBHMb, -re npeasexaaero aa ~opTOBe, OTb MHpHO B?eMe npHrOTBaHH Cb Abn50KH pOBOBe, Ae6emf 6pYCTaepa Cb Ka3eMaTH H 51lHHAa»<H, Tpi;5Ba na ce H3BbpWBa He cexo Cb rona aoseoae aa nH"IHO y,QOBonCTBHe aa oT5paH5IIO~H5I, a Tbl<MO raxa l<aKTO cropnxa TOBB HaWHTi; BOHCKH, "Ipe3b eAHO HAeanHO c'sr'nacyeaae YCHnHSlTa aa ap r anepaara, nexorara H nHOHepHTi;. nOpY"lHKb A»<enSlllb e~eHAH, 1<0MaHAylO~b enaa pora OTb 28. HH3aMCI<Hnon«:s, KOSI e saexana OI<OnHTi; IO»<HO OTb F\Hro ea3b 6a5a, 6enemH, -re I<bMb 4 "I. CYTpHHbTa apTHnepHHCI<I1S1Tb orbHb orcrraoaan s, a neXOTHHSlTb ce YCHnHnb. naTpoHHTi; aa porara OT3aAb 611nH nOAaAeHH Bb OKonHTi;. KbMb orbHSI Ha porara ce npHCbeAHHHllb H T051 OTb xepresaera po ra. KbMb TOBa apene nouina npa Hero OT3aAb H OTCTpaHH BOHHl1l1H11 My cb05~l1nH. "Ie 5bnrapHTi; naxnyna Bb OKonI1Ti; 11Mb. 3a na npoa'apa ~aI<Ta, TOH 111<0MaHAHpbTb Ha 3·a pora OTb 10. crpen1<0BI1nomcs H3npBTI1nH no egl1Hb cBoH BOHHHKb KbMb l<a3aHOTO Mi;cTO H ce YCTaHoBHno, "Ie Hal1CTHHa 5bllrapl1Ti; aaena norseHaTHTi; OKOnl1. Bb TOBa spexe Ti; He nonY4111l11 HI1KaKBI1 3anOBi;gH 11,noaesce He Mor nl1 na OTCTJi\nSlTb,peumna na ce mspmaTb Ha Mi;cTaTa CH ,QOCYTpHHbTa. Koraro ce aasopano, safie-

OAPHHb Cb CBOHTi; 423*) OPJ1\AH5I,80.000 CHapsna, 13 000.000 naTpOHH, MHor06poeHb npyr s 60e_.Hb MaTepHanb H CB05l rapHH30Hb OTb 33.000 AYWH anpaaa BOHHHQH,6e3b TH5! KOHTO 6i;xa CH xBbpnHnH BOHHI1Wxara YHI1~OpMa 11 H3nOl<pI-IJlH Bb rpana, H 1<0l1TO Tpt6Ba A6 ce cMi;TaTb ouie TOnl<Oea. Bropara apMH5I Bb BCI141<I1Ti; onepeuaa oxono O,QPI1Hbnane noseve OTb 15.000 y611TH H paHeHI1. CaMO npes-s apexe He uiypxa, r J1aBHOua 13 MapTa, 3ary6l1Ti; Bb3nH3aTb Ha 9.107 AyWH y511TH H paHeHH, OTb I<OHTO7.645 6bJlrapH H 1.462 cbp5H. TI15! sary5H noxaaear's, AO l<al<BI1 BHCOI<Hnperrsna MO>l<ena CTHrHe HpaecTBeHoTo uanpesceuae, aa 1<0eTO 51::JlrapHTi; MoraTb All ce nonnoscar-s. 3ary5H1 i; H H8 cbp5I1Ti;, Mal<apb 01<0; 0 urecrs n)l\TH nO-ManI<O, coxar-s enaaxao H Ti;xHaTlI >l<H1l8eOCTb11 ynoPHTOCTb. rOp,QH MoraTb na 6)1\Aa,.0 nOI<OJli;HH5ITa,I<OHTOH3sbpwHxa TOS!nOABHrb 11 TOB8 BenHI<O Ai;r.o Ha MJi\meCTBO H Ha ce6eOTpauanae. rOPAa MO>l<e na 5~Ae H QtnaTa pOAHHa He 5'bJ1rapHTi; . .0.0 1<0raTO cst,.b uie cBi;ryBa H 5bJlrapCI<a pe-n, uie ce "lyell, HMeTO OAPHHb He uie npecraae na onJlOA5Il3a AYlL'aTa ne 6bJ1rapH5l I<bMb nOABI13H 11cnaea. Taxa CTaHa araxara aa OAPHH'b H Tal<bBb 6i; reHe3HC'bTb H6 HpaBCTBeHI1Ti; CHllH, aa KOHTO ce AbnmH T851eenaxa aoeuaa n06eAa Bb HCTOpH5!Ta Ha 6bllrapHTi;.
O.u.PHHb na.u.HZI. *) To" 6poH B3HM8Me 011, Ta6nH uare Ha CTp. ! 045 C1'h TPYSUI Ha HeTOpH'IeCK8T8 1I0MH~I1": ..BO~H8T8 MelH,[]Y 6'hnrrp"" H T),p~H" 1912·1913 r. TOM... V. Onepeuaar-s OKOJlO OAPHHCIUlTlI xpenocr s".

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful