0 Up votes0 Down votes

124 views93 pagesMar 28, 2012

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

124 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Literature Review Example
- Centrifugal Compressor Degree of Reaction
- 334.00-11 The turning Gear.pdf
- Z__TIIJ Spring 2012 v12 n2 (Paper 7)
- Steam Turbine
- Turbo Machinery
- 0941
- MAR 851 - Advanced Marine Engines & Power Plants NEW(2)
- Wang 2016
- 0033 (Tumer, I).pdf
- Variable Pitch Wells Turbine
- 44.Question Bank-mee322 (1)
- A320V250
- PW 4100 Part I
- Renew Able Energy
- 1)Effect of Engine Speed on Intake Valve Flow Characteristics of a Diesel Engine
- 92951777-Turbines-Ppt.ppt
- Gas Turbine Technology Evolution_ A Designers Perspective_Koff 2004_Nocomments.pdf
- 1325
- TC-0303_rev01

You are on page 1of 93

AXIAL-FLOW MACHINES

further concepts

Euler Turbine Equations Axial Flow Gas Turbines Axial Flow Compressors Losses / Zweifel Free-Vortex Flow Blade Stresses

Re: Peng Ch. #8 & #7

1

Axial Turbine Cascade

Stator

Rotor

Stator

2

TURBINE STAGE

STAGE

V1

W1

U

V2

W2

STATOR

ROTOR

STATOR

3

AXIAL TURBINE

W 2

V 2

V 1

W 1

100

percent reaction

0

U

stator

rotor

4

TURBINE STAGE FLOW ANGLE TERMINOLOGY

ALPHA (α) ~ STATOR ANGLES

BETA (β)

~ ROTOR ANGLES

AXIAL DIRECTION

V1

W1

0 o

V2

W2

Negative

Angle

U

STATOR

Positive

Angle

ROTOR

STATOR

Watch out for notation!

5

Euler Turbine Equation(s)

Torque

T = m ( V _{U}_{1} r _{1} – V _{U}_{2} r _{2} ) / g _{c}

Power

W = m

( V U1 U 1 – V U2 U 2 ) / g c

Energy per unit mass

ΔE = W / m = ( V _{U}_{1} U _{1} – V _{U}_{2} U _{2} ) /g _{c}

ΔE = Δh = change in specific enthalpy

6

Right end: ‘free wheeling’ , runaway condition. No torque on rotor….no power …no use.

Left end:

Lots of torque but rotor velocity goes to zero. Since power = torque x angular velocity = 0

7

Parsons Turbines (R _{N} = 50% ) each with φ = ½

V 2

W 2

V 1

U

V 2

W 2

V 1

U

W 1

W 1

8

MAXIMUM UTILIZATION

Work per unit mass = W / m = U (V _{U}_{1} - V _{U}_{2} )

For maximum work per unit mass:

V _{U}_{2} = 0

i.e. V _{2} is in axial direction only

9

MAXIMUM UTILIZATION

Work per unit mass = W / m = U (VU1 - VU2 )

W2

V1

W1

V2 = Vx

U

S

R

10

α

V2

W2

V1

W1

U

MAXIMUM UTILIZATION AXIAL TURBINE

(W/m) = 2U ^{2} / g _{c}

V2 = Vx = Va = axial direction

cos α = 2U / V1

11

EXAMPLE

An axial-flow turbine has a mean diameter of 40 cm and a flow coefficient (φ = V _{a} /U) of one-half. Flow enters the stator in the axial direction with a velocity of 50 m/s and exits the stator with a nozzle angle (α, measured between V _{1} and U) of 17 degrees. The fluid flows through the stage with constant axial velocity and produces an output torque of 1600 Nm.

a)Sketch the velocity vector diagram for this stage.

b)Calculate the power output of the turbine stage.

c) What is the degree of reaction?

12

V _{2} = 50

W 2

V 1

α = 17 o

W 1

U

13

SOLVING FOR VELOCITY VECTORS:

Φ= Va/U = ½

V _{U}_{1} = 50 tan 73o = 164 m/s

W _{U}_{1} = V _{U}_{1} – U

U = 100 m/s

V _{U}_{1} = 164 m/s

V _{1} = 171 m/s V U2 = 0

W _{U}_{2} = U = 100 m/s W _{2} = 112 m/s W _{1} = 80.85 m/s

EULER EQNS:

Torque = m (V _{U}_{1} R _{1} – V _{U}_{2} R _{2} )

m = 1600 / (164)(0.2) = 49 kg/s

Power = m (V _{U}_{1} U _{1} – V _{U}_{2} U _{2} )

= (49)(164)(100) = 800 kW

DEGREE OF REACTION:

V U1 + V U2

R = 1 –

2U

= 1 – (163 + 0) / 2(100) = 0.28 = 28%

14

COMPRESSOR STAGE

STAGE

V1

W1

U

W2

V2

V1

STATOR

ROTOR

STATOR

15

AXIAL COMPRESSOR

V 1

V 2

W 1

W 2

100

stator

percent reaction

U

0

rotor

~50% reaction, not a great design

16

High Reaction Axial Compressor

V 1

V 2

W 1

W 2

100

percent reaction

0

stator

U

rotor

17

Low reaction axial compressor

V 2

V 1

V 2

W 1

W 2

100

percent reaction

0

W 2

stator

U

rotor

18

Turbine and Compressor Performance

Unrecoverable Pressure Losses

Allied Signal ASE120 Gas Turbine Engine Phoenix, AZ Designed for cogeneration, emergency power and mechanical drive. ~35% thermal efficiency

~10 MW

NOx ~ 10-25 ppm

m-dot~34kg/s Texhaust ~500oC

Weight ~ 5,000 lb

19

16,000

Power

8,000

-20

Inlet Air Temperature ( o C)

50

Output Power (hp)

(NOT RELATED TO UNRECOVERABLE PRESSURE LOSSES LECTURE) ASE120 engine performance as a function of inlet air temperature

Notice that maximum output power decreases about 50% when the air let increases from ~ -20C to +50C (~16,000hp to 8,000 hp)

20

Unrecoverable Pressure Losses

Profile drag (and fluid friction) across blades

Annular skin friction

Secondary drag / losses

Tip leakage

Seal leakage

21

IDEAL TURBINE

V2

V1

W2

W1

U

S

R

22

IDEAL

ACTUAL

∆C _{U}

Actual performance is always less than the ideal theoretical performance due to un-recoverable losses

23

Turbine Performance: Turbine Flow ~ Nozzle Flow

∆P = ½ρC ^{2} / g _{c}

m = A 2ρ∆Pg _{c} ^{½} C _{D}

“discharge coefficient”

C _{D} = ∑C _{D}

Turbine performance follows the general behavior of ideal flow through a nozzle…Tot max delP ~ den x sq vel (Eqn W 2.12) Incompressible flow, conservation of energy-ss, no change in PE ∆P = P _{o} – P _{s}_{t} = total – static = dynamic pressure Don’t forget gc when using USCS units.

Notice the total maximum pressure drop ~ density x velocity ^{2}

Mass flow ~ flow area x rho x delP

CD ~ discharge coefficient: correction coefficient for ‘real fluids’ with viscosity, friction losses. Usually empirically based, rooted in experiment.

24

PROFILE DRAG ACROSS BLADES

C _{D} =

2F _{D}

ρV ^{2} A

In addition to classic profile / skin friction drag… VIBRATIONS: fluttering / vortex shedding esp. problem w/ thin blades…fans, some compressors

25

Flow Separation over Compressor Rotor Blades

FLOW

High Reaction

(no separation)

Low Reaction

(separated flow)

Separation leads to COMPRESSOR LOSSES STALL …losses in efficiency.

Separation leads to losses in pressure, enthalpy

It is very complicated to accurately predict the conditions in which B.L separation occurs.

Therefore, empirically-based ‘rules-of-thumb’ have been developed.

As we’ll see, flow separation can be minimized with a ‘cascade’ of

blades…

i.e.

form flow passages

26

ANNULAR SKIN FRICTION LOSS

s = spacing

C _{D}_{’} ~ 0.02 (s/h)

h

Due to boundary layer formation within the annular flow passage. Empirical correlation.

27

SECONDARY DRAG / LOSSES

End wall boundary layers are convected inward along the suction side of the blades. Secondary currents are set up in a plane transverse to the flow, dissipating energy. Results in un-favorable flow redistribution, competing vortices, and loss in stagnation pressure. Can be a significant fraction of total P-loss. These currents also take place in the wake regions down stream from the trailing edges of the blades.

28

Secondary Flow in Blade Passages

C _{D}_{”} = 0.018C _{L} ^{2}

The constant 0.018 stems from a complex relationship between flow acceleration, aspect ratio (h/c), spacing & pitch. RE: Logan Ch 6 Because the trailing vortices are similar to wing vortices, it is expected that the corresponding drag is proportional to the LIFT COEFFICIENT C _{L} .

29

Wilson Text Effect of aspect ratio (h/c or h/b) on secondary losses.

30

TIP LEAKAGE

TIP LEAKAGE

C D”’ = 0.29 (k/h)C L 3/2

The difference in pressure on the two sides of the moving blades results in leakage around the tip.

Shroud reduces leakage ~50% k=clearance gap = f(T, rpm, loading) h= blade length C _{L} =lift coefficient

31

32

LOSSES FROM SEALS

GENERATOR

LPT1

LPT2

HPT

Pressure changes across casing boundaries are another source of losses.

Each place where the rotor penetrates a pressure boundary needs a seal.

Typically LABYRINTH SEALS.

33

LABYRINTH SEALS

34

35

LABYRINTH SEALS

C _{D}_{”}_{”} = f(∆P, h, ρ, D, ….)

36

Clearances change with thermal expansion, radial stresses, axial stresses, fluid loadings, rotor flex, rotor unbalance, startup/shutdown transients,…. Rotor alignment is critical for rotor seals.

37

UNRECOVERABLE PRESSURE LOSSES

(PROFILE, SKIN FRICTION & SECONDARY)

COMPRESSORS, PUMPS & FANS

χ =

ΔP stage = ρ U 2 φ ψ χ

=

φχ

η stage =

ΔP actual / ΔP ideal

(R - φδ) / (φ+ δR)

+

(1 – R - φδ) /

(φ + δ(1 – R))

rotor

stator

φ = flow coefficient = C _{x} / U

ψ = blade loading coefficient = ΔC _{u} / U

R =degree of reaction

δ = drag to lift ratio

U = rotor velocity

ΔP = pressure gain

LOGAN P115

38

δ = drag to lift ratio = ∑C _{D} / C _{L}

= (C D + C D’ + C D” + C D”’ + C D”” ) / C L

39

EXAMPLE:

Axial compressor with Rn=50% and the

velocity vectors shown. The lift and drag coefficients are the same for the rotor and stator and are 1.4 and 0.1, respectively. C _{D} includes all losses. Calculate the stage pressure rise and required energy input if the entering air has a density of 1.2 kg/m ^{3} . Each square corresponds to 50 m/s x 50 m/s

50 m/s

V1

V2

W1

W2

U

stator

rotor

40

EXAMPLE (con’t)

ΔP stage = ρ U ^{2} φ

ψ

Vx

VU2 = 250 m/s

= 150 m/s

+

χ = ΔP actual

(1 – R - φδ) / (φ + δ(1 – R))

(0.5+0.071(1-0.5))

U = 300 m/s VU1 = 50 m/s

ψ = (VU1 – VU2)/U = (50-250)/300 = -2/3 (neg=compressor)

φ = Vx/U = 150/300 = 1/2

δ = drag/lift = 0.1/1.4 = 0.071

χ (R - φδ) / (φ+ δR)

=

χ (0.5-0.5x0.071)/(0.5 + 0.071x0.5) + (1-0.5-0.5x0.071)/

=

χ (0.46/0.54) + (0.46/0.54) = 1.7

=

41

EXAMPLE (con’t)

ΔP _{s}_{t}_{a}_{g}_{e} = ρ U ^{2} φ

ψ

χ= ΔP actual

ΔP _{a}_{c}_{t}_{u}_{a}_{l} = (1.2)(300) ^{2} (0.5) (0.66)(1.7) = 60.6 kN/m ^{2}

= 60.6 kPa

η _{s}_{t}_{a}_{g}_{e} = ΔP _{a}_{c}_{t}_{u}_{a}_{l} / ΔP _{i}_{d}_{e}_{a}_{l} = φχ = (0.5)(1.7) = 0.85

ΔP _{a}_{c}_{t}_{u}_{a}_{l} / ΔP _{i}_{d}_{e}_{a}_{l} = 0.85 = 60.6 kPa/ΔP _{i}_{d}_{e}_{a}_{l}

ΔP _{i}_{d}_{e}_{a}_{l} = 71.3 kPa

Energy per unit mass (Euler Turbine Equation)

[W /m] _{i}_{d}_{e}_{a}_{l} = ( V _{u}_{1} U _{1} - V _{u}_{2} U _{2} ) / g _{c}

=(300)m/s [50-250]m/s = -60 kJ/kg

[W /m] actual = [W /m] ideal / η stage

= (-60)/(0.85) = -70 kJ/kg

42

FLOW SEPARATION

de Haller Number: dH

dH = W _{e}_{x}_{i}_{t} / W _{i}_{n} = W _{2} / W _{1}

dH > 0.72 No Separation

Swiss engineer Established criterion for flow separation in compressor cascades (for compressor cascades, RE: Wilson, Ch#4 p.182)

But…also sometimes applied to turbine blades as well using V1 & V2

43

De Haller: dH = W _{e}_{x}_{i}_{t} / W _{i}_{n} > 0.72 no separation dH = W2 / W1

COMPRESSOR

V1

V2

W1

W2

U

S

R

44

De Haller: dH = W _{e}_{x}_{i}_{t} / W _{i}_{n} > 0.72 no separation dH = W2 / W1

COMPRESSOR

V1

V2

W1

W2

U

S

R

Increase W2, Increase dH, decrease potential for separation?

45

Pressure Rise Coefficient

(compressor cascade)

C pr = (P st,ex – P st,in )/(P o,in – P st,in )

= rise in static pressure / inlet dynamic pressure

For an ideal compressor

C _{p}_{r} =

C _{p}_{r} < 0.5

1 – (W _{e}_{x} / W _{i}_{n} ) ^{2}

Consider each stage of a compressor as a compressor

The pressure rise at each stage can only increase so much,

Limits on pressure rise

Cpr ~< 0.5

VELOCITY VECTORS SUMMARY

46

Axial Flow Compressor and Turbine

47

DEGREE OF REACTION

R n = ∆h rotor / ∆h stage

= (h2 – h3) / (h1 – h3)

= ∆P rotor / ∆P stage

= (P2 – P3) / (P1 – P3)

= 1 – (Vu1 + Vu2) / 2U

Vu2

Vu1

V2

V1

W2

W1

(Text eqn 5.8)

48

Zweifel’s Correlation OPTIMUM SOLIDITY

Axial Turbine Cascade

Stator

Rotor

Stator

49

Lift and Drag Forces

F _{L} =

F _{D} =

C _{L}

C _{D}

(ρAV ^{2} ) / 2g _{c}

(ρAV ^{2} ) / 2g _{c}

Comments on LIFT and DRAG forces:

Lift and drag forces are difficult to model exactly due to complex flow phenomena including: viscous effects, boundary layer separation, etc.

Hence, ‘empirically determined correction coefficient’ is typically used.

C _{L} and C _{D} are lift and drag coefficients, usually determined empirically.

C _{D} typically accounts for both pressure and skin friction drag.

‘A’ is some characteristic area.

‘V’ is some representative velocity: free stream, average or mean velocity, etc.

50

Isolated Flat Plate

C _{L} = 2πsinβ

β

Cascade of Blades

C

_{L}_{c}_{a}_{s} =K(C _{L} )

C

K=cascade coefficient = f(beta, s/c) S= pitch or spacing C = chord

S

51

52

BLADE SPACING / SOLIDITY (σ = c / s)

Is there an option spacing?

s

c

Low solidity Losses by separation

s |
= pitch or spacing |

c |
= chord |

High solidity ~No separation Losses by skin friction

53

54

55

1

β

β

2

C _{L} = 2(s/b)cos ^{2} β _{2} (tan β _{1} - tan β _{2} )

σ = c/s = solidity

Wilson 7.4

NOTE ERROR IN PENG’S TEXT: PAGE 227

56

Zweifel (Peng Text, Ch 8 p 227) (Brown Boveri, Swiss, 1945)

C L,op ~ 0.8

57

EXAMPLE

The spacing (pitch) between turbine or compressor blades influences the machine’s performance.

Shown below is a cascade of blades for an axial compressor.

α = - 30 o

Flow in

U

c = 12 cm

b = 10 cm

Optimum

Spacing

β = + 60 o

Flow out

(a) Determine the optimum blade spacing, s = ?

Zweifel Correlation

(b/s) _{o}_{p}_{t} = |(2/C _{L}_{,}_{o}_{p}_{t} ) cos ^{2} α _{e}_{x} [tanα _{i}_{n} – tan α _{e}_{x} ]|

= |(2/0.8) cos ^{2} (60 ^{o} ) [tan (-30 ^{o} ) – tan (60 ^{o} )]|

= 1.44

thus, s = b/1.44 = 6.94 cm

58

AXIAL TURBINES NUMBER OF BLADES

Wind: |
1-24 |

Water: |
3-30 |

Gas / Steam:

11-110

Rotors usually have an even number of blades (for balance)

Stators usually have an odd number of blades (for vibration)

59

VORTEX FLOW

Radial Equilibrium

Tornado

UF _{6} Axial Compressor

A tornado is nature’s efficient vortex flow. Characteristic of air / gas at higher velocities (200+ mph ~ 300 ft/s ~ 100 m/s) It pumps air from the higher pressure ground to overhead cloud.

We can capture that flow characteristic in the design of axial compressor (and turbine) blade design that encourage free vortex flow.

60

Velocity Distribution

in a Tornado

R

Free Vortex (irrotational)

r > R

V u = ωR 2 /r

V u r = constant

Forced Vortex (rotational)

r < R

V u = ωr

V u r n = constant

R = “eye” of tornado

61

62

Pressure Distribution in a tornado

P atm

R

-P

Minimum pressure is in center of eye. The entire field pressure is sub-atmospheric pressure (AKA Under-pressure)

63

F c

v

θ

r

ω

= dθ/dt =

2∏ radians

Uniform Circular Motion

F = ma

F _{c} = ma _{c} = mv ^{2} /r

F _{c} = centripetal force (in +) a _{c} = centripetal acceleration v = tangential speed = v _{u}

θ = angular position (rad) ω = angular velocity (rad/s) a _{c} = centripetal acceleration (m/s ^{2} )

time for one revolution

2∏

=

2∏r/v

v/r

=

a _{c} = d ^{2} θ/dt ^{2} = v ^{2} /r

64

Radial Pressure Forces on Fluid Element (F=PA)

P + dP

P + ½ dP

P + ½dP

P

dr

r

dθ

Fc

For Radial Equilibrium: The radial components of the pressure forces (F=PA) must be balanced by the centrifugal force on the fluid mass.

65

For Radial Equilibrium ∑F _{r}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{a}_{l} = F _{c} + ∑F _{P} =0

Free-Vortex Flow:

V _{u} r = constant

66

TIP

HUB

67

Vu1

Constant axial velocity

Axial V2 = maximum utilization

C u r = const

r∆V u = const

TIP

HUB

Don’t want hub to fall below 0% rxn

68

69

TIP (RXN)

HUB (IMP)

70

Station A is entry to nozzle / stator Station B is entry to blade / rotor Station C is exit from blade

Nozzle blade is twisted to give overall free vortex flow. The Blade is straight. Nozzle sets up flow in radial decreasing velocity profile….upon passage over uniform rotor blade, re- establishes uniform vel profile.

Illustrates other losses: Wall friction losses (skin friction) and tip- clearance leakage (P _{s}_{B} > P _{s}_{C} )

71

Euler Turbine Equation(s)

Torque

T = m ( V _{u}_{1} r _{1} - V _{u}_{2} r _{2} ) / g _{c}

Power

W = m

( V u1 U 1 - V u2 U 2 ) / g c

Energy per unit mass

W / m = ( V _{u}_{1} U _{1} - V _{u}_{2} U _{2} ) / g _{c}

72

TURBINE

V2

V1

W2

W1

U

S

R

W ~ V u1 U 1 - V u2 U 2

V2

V1

W2

W1

73

FORCES & STRESS ON BLADES

isochromatic fringes on three-dimensional

“frozen”

photoelastic model of gas turbine blade hub.

74

Forces acting on turbine & compressor blades

Fluid forces: Lift & Drag

Centrifugal forces

Thermal forces / stresses

Fluid forces: Lift & Drag Of special interest are the tangential components of the lift and drag forces since these forces directly affect the power and efficiency.

Produce bending forces / stresses due to changes in fluid pressure and momentum.

Total Drag force = pressure drag (form drag, shape drag) + Viscous Drag (viscous drag)

Due to complex flows, losses occur. Excitation and vibrations may result from fluctuating pressure gradients.

Centrifugal forces

Produces radial & bending stresses (bending when centroids of all cross sections do not lie along a radial line) Limits the design length and rpm Easiest force to model

Thermal forces / stresses When its not at a uniform temperature, thermal stresses arise.

75

Lift and Drag Forces

RADIAL

V m

AXIAL

LIFT

DRAG

V 1

V 2

76

Lift and Drag Forces

F |
(ρAV |

F |
(ρAV |

Comments on LIFT and DRAG forces:

Hence, ‘empirically determined correction coefficient’ is typically used.

C _{L} and C _{D} are lift and drag coefficients, usually determined empirically.

C _{D} typically accounts for both pressure and skin friction drag.

‘A’ is some characteristic area.

‘V’ is some representative velocity: free stream, average or mean velocity, etc.

77

Isolated Flat Plate

C _{L} = 2πsinβ

β

Cascade of Blades

C

_{L}_{c}_{a}_{s} =K(C _{L} )

C

K=cascade coefficient = f(beta, s/c) S= pitch or spacing C = chord

S

78

79

80

Fluid Forces: Vibration & Excitation

Upstream variations in the flow can lead to blade vibrations. Can lead to ‘high frequency’, ‘high cycle’ fatigue.

81

Vibration & Excitation

Campbell diagram illustrating example of natural frequencies of a rotor blade.

Centrifugal forces on the blade causes the blade to stiffen, ‘centrifugal stiffening’ and increase the natural vibration frequency with rotor rpm.

82

CENTRIFUGAL STRESS ON STEAM TURBINE BLADE

CASING

BLADES

HUB

HUB

h

R

r

83

Centrifugal Force on Uniform Blade

F = ma

F _{c} = m(ω ^{2} r) = ρAh(2πN/60) ^{2} [(R + r)/2]

Centrifugal Stress (σ = F/A) on Uniform Blade

σ _{m}_{a}_{x} = ρh (2πN/60) ^{2} (r + R) / 2g _{c}

Maximum Stress at Hub of Blade

σ max, hub = ½ ρ (U tip ) ^{2} [1-(R hub /R tip ) ^{2} ]

84

EXAMPLE: Centrifugal Stress

Given:

ρ ~ 8,000 kg/m ^{3} ~ 650 lbm / ft ^{3}

Uniform density and cross-section

h= length of blade = 20 inches = 1.67 ft N= rate of rotation = 1800 rpm r= hub radius = 1.5 ft

σ _{m}_{a}_{x} = ρh (2πN/60) ^{2} (r + R) / 2g _{c}

σ _{m}_{a}_{x} = 19,400 psi

85

CENTRIFUGAL FORCE: “Liberated Blade”

If a blade ‘broke loose - liberated’, how high could it go? N = 1800 rpm

K.E

P.E.

½ m V ^{2} = mgH

V = centroid velocity

=2π(r+h/2)N/60 = 440 ft/sec = 645 mph

H = ½ V ^{2} /g = 3,006 ft

86

Thermal Stresses

σ=Eε ∆L/L= α∆T

88

BLADE COATINGS

“thermal & corrosion protection”

Materials:

• NiCrAlY alloy ( nickel, chromium, aluminum, yttium)

• Zirconia (ceramic, ZrO _{2} )

• Alumina (Al _{2} O _{3} )

• Silicon carbide

89

HOW COATINGS ARE APPLIED

Electroplating

Plasma spray

Vapor-phase deposition

Electron beam depositio

90

BLADE COATINGS

FOR THERMAL AND CORRESION CONTROL

SUBSTRATE

BOND COAT

TOP COAT

HOT COMBUSTION GASES

OPERATING TEMPERATURE

SUBSTRATE MELTING TEMPERATURE

TEMPERATURE

91

HIGH TEMPERATURE MATERIALS

MATERIAL

~MELTING TEMPERATURE

^{o} F

^{o} C

Nickel Nickel-Chromium Alloy

Cobalt – Chromium Alloy

2650

2100 – 2300

2400 – 2550

1450

1150 – 1260

1315 – 1400

Titanium |
3035 |
1668 |

Titanium-6Al-4V Alloy |
3000 |
1650 |

For most metals used in blades, creep becomes significant at about one-half the melting point.

92

93

- Literature Review ExampleUploaded byAmirul Asyraf
- Centrifugal Compressor Degree of ReactionUploaded byNihanth Wagmi
- 334.00-11 The turning Gear.pdfUploaded byOleg Shkolnik
- Z__TIIJ Spring 2012 v12 n2 (Paper 7)Uploaded byehmed
- Steam TurbineUploaded byV Dhinakaran
- Turbo MachineryUploaded byShashi Bhushan Patel
- 0941Uploaded byeslamnagy
- MAR 851 - Advanced Marine Engines & Power Plants NEW(2)Uploaded byViolet Pelly
- Wang 2016Uploaded byСемен Кольцов
- 0033 (Tumer, I).pdfUploaded bynicolas
- Variable Pitch Wells TurbineUploaded byBotan Antonio
- 44.Question Bank-mee322 (1)Uploaded byPrashant Awasthi
- A320V250Uploaded bymadinaec
- PW 4100 Part IUploaded byMohamed Adam
- Renew Able EnergyUploaded byJawad Sandhu
- 1)Effect of Engine Speed on Intake Valve Flow Characteristics of a Diesel EngineUploaded byfitriasyraf
- 92951777-Turbines-Ppt.pptUploaded bysuneel kumar rathore
- Gas Turbine Technology Evolution_ A Designers Perspective_Koff 2004_Nocomments.pdfUploaded byArthur Dias
- 1325Uploaded byArthurmaga
- TC-0303_rev01Uploaded bytempalb81
- HT65EA~1Uploaded bybalajivj15
- lubricants-06-00021-v2Uploaded bySatbir Singh
- Mekonen PDFUploaded byAkatew Haile Mebrahtu
- Ppgj Mec Cal 032 012 Lime Dilution Tank Package (t 3210)Uploaded byFauzy
- sheatpoweer-steam turbine22.docUploaded bySafaa Hameed Al Nasery
- 2019-4.2-TurbinesUploaded byAbilash murali
- Cpmax PB5 Unwuchtanalyse EUploaded byCarlos Enrique Cumpa Vieyra
- Description of LiftUploaded bySubbu Suresh
- How Airplanes Fly. a Physical Description of LiftUploaded byJuli Ramírez López
- Drag Coefficient Prediction for Model RocketsUploaded byBeer_Baron

- STEAM TURBINE.pdfUploaded byKVV
- EndNoteX9 for ResearchersUploaded byAklilu Baheta
- Developing Renewable Energy Supply in Queensland Australia- A Study of the Barriers Targets Policies and ActionsUploaded byAklilu Baheta
- Gas TurbinesUploaded byAlan Sala
- BiomassUploaded bySaurabh Mishra
- Jurnal TeknologiUploaded byAklilu Baheta
- Computation Thermodynamic Properties of Super Heated WaterUploaded byAklilu Baheta
- chapter5_2Uploaded byDigonto Chowdhury
- CFD SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OFUploaded byAklilu Baheta

- Section Analysis-LC 150x50x18x3.0mmUploaded byRachelle Quilala
- Tensile Test of Steelwork BS & EnUploaded byTony Lai
- Fans TheoryUploaded byjbharghav
- Iveco NEF Engine (N60 ENT M40) Service Repair Manual.pdfUploaded byjksmemms
- Penstock TaquesiUploaded bydelucchiroberto
- HIT Rebar Fatigue EnUploaded byDoby Yuniardi
- Fqp 16.11.18 Vol-i -BoilerUploaded byashis chatterjee
- Simulador SensorUploaded bystaff055
- Dutta 2018Uploaded byMario Calderon
- 35Uploaded bySongül Bayındır
- Part 2 R410A V4+ Selection Procedure 380~415V,50Hz,3N(Combinable)Uploaded byNico Nico
- Glass to Metal Sealing OverviewUploaded bybusybusybusy
- Katalogue BearingUploaded bySayapJibril
- SHB_28Z3_en_1000178347_2_0Uploaded byAlberto
- Pilling Requirement to EC 2Uploaded byraymond sabado
- 08_SeismicDesignOfStructuresWithViscousDampers.desbloqueadoUploaded byFrancisco Héctor Bañuelos
- Aeroflow Catalogue v 10Uploaded byJosh Mad Scientist Chiefalo
- OEP TopicsUploaded byChemical Engg.
- 4.10 - Desilting Basin - Flushing Sluice Gate and Hydraulic .docUploaded bysrigirisetty208
- resumeUploaded byMadhur Madaan
- final paperUploaded byapi-242443660
- Selection and design of vapour liquid separator By Manish V. Shah mvshah027@yahoo.com http://hc-mvs.devhub.com/ UK Fellow Charter EngineerUploaded bymvshah108
- Thomas and Hsu Shear Flow Zone in Torsion of RC MemberUploaded byyyanan1118
- e5814-0-12-13_AC-LN_WebUploaded byDenis Jimenez
- ST 2DUploaded bysaul
- (01)HydroVertical.pdfUploaded byBang Mat
- Air AssistedUploaded byandy131078
- Supercharging and TurbochargingUploaded byTrain Placement Cell
- Cooling System Design Specification Notes.docUploaded bydanena88
- 6_InchChipper-7Uploaded byAleš Hanžekovič

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.