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AXIAL-FLOW MACHINES

further concepts

Euler Turbine Equations Axial Flow Gas Turbines Axial Flow Compressors Losses / Zweifel Free-Vortex Flow Blade Stresses

Re: Peng Ch. #8 & #7

Stator

Rotor

Stator

TURBINE STAGE

STAGE

V1
W1
U
V2
W2

STATOR

ROTOR

STATOR

AXIAL TURBINE

W 2

V 2

V 1

W 1

100
percent reaction
0
U
stator
rotor

TURBINE STAGE FLOW ANGLE TERMINOLOGY

ALPHA (α) ~ STATOR ANGLES

BETA (β)

~ ROTOR ANGLES

AXIAL DIRECTION
V1
W1
0 o
V2
W2

Negative

Angle

U

STATOR

Positive

Angle

ROTOR

STATOR

Watch out for notation!

Euler Turbine Equation(s)

Torque

T = m ( V U1 r 1 – V U2 r 2 ) / g c

Power

W = m

( V U1 U 1 – V U2 U 2 ) / g c

Energy per unit mass

ΔE = W / m = ( V U1 U 1 – V U2 U 2 ) /g c

ΔE = Δh = change in specific enthalpy

Right end: ‘free wheeling’ , runaway condition. No torque on rotor….no power …no use.

Left end:

Lots of torque but rotor velocity goes to zero. Since power = torque x angular velocity = 0

Parsons Turbines (R N = 50% ) each with φ = ½

V 2

W 2
V 1
U

V 2

W 2
V 1
U

W 1

W 1

MAXIMUM UTILIZATION

Work per unit mass = W / m = U (V U1 - V U2 )

For maximum work per unit mass:

V U2 = 0

i.e. V 2 is in axial direction only

MAXIMUM UTILIZATION

Work per unit mass = W / m = U (VU1 - VU2 )

W2
V1
W1
V2 = Vx
U
S
R

10

α
V2
W2
V1
W1

U

MAXIMUM UTILIZATION AXIAL TURBINE

(W/m) = 2U 2 / g c

V2 = Vx = Va = axial direction

cos α = 2U / V1

EXAMPLE

An axial-flow turbine has a mean diameter of 40 cm and a flow coefficient (φ = V a /U) of one-half. Flow enters the stator in the axial direction with a velocity of 50 m/s and exits the stator with a nozzle angle (α, measured between V 1 and U) of 17 degrees. The fluid flows through the stage with constant axial velocity and produces an output torque of 1600 Nm.

a)Sketch the velocity vector diagram for this stage.

b)Calculate the power output of the turbine stage.

c) What is the degree of reaction?

V 2 = 50

W 2
V 1
α = 17 o

W 1

U

SOLVING FOR VELOCITY VECTORS:

Φ= Va/U = ½

V U1 = 50 tan 73o = 164 m/s

W U1 = V U1 – U

U = 100 m/s

V U1 = 164 m/s

V 1 = 171 m/s V U2 = 0

W U2 = U = 100 m/s W 2 = 112 m/s W 1 = 80.85 m/s

EULER EQNS:

Torque = m (V U1 R 1 – V U2 R 2 )

m = 1600 / (164)(0.2) = 49 kg/s

Power = m (V U1 U 1 – V U2 U 2 )

= (49)(164)(100) = 800 kW

DEGREE OF REACTION:

V U1 + V U2

R = 1 –

2U

= 1 – (163 + 0) / 2(100) = 0.28 = 28%

COMPRESSOR STAGE

STAGE

V1
W1
U
W2
V2
V1

STATOR

ROTOR

STATOR

AXIAL COMPRESSOR

V 1

V 2
W 1

W 2

100

stator

percent reaction

U

0

rotor

~50% reaction, not a great design

High Reaction Axial Compressor
V 1
V 2
W 1
W 2
100
percent reaction
0

stator

U

rotor

Low reaction axial compressor
V 2
V 1
V 2
W 1
W 2
100
percent reaction
0

W 2

stator

U

rotor

Turbine and Compressor Performance

Unrecoverable Pressure Losses

Allied Signal ASE120 Gas Turbine Engine Phoenix, AZ Designed for cogeneration, emergency power and mechanical drive. ~35% thermal efficiency

~10 MW

NOx ~ 10-25 ppm

m-dot~34kg/s Texhaust ~500oC

Weight ~ 5,000 lb

16,000
Power
8,000
-20
Inlet Air Temperature ( o C)
50
Output Power (hp)

(NOT RELATED TO UNRECOVERABLE PRESSURE LOSSES LECTURE) ASE120 engine performance as a function of inlet air temperature

Notice that maximum output power decreases about 50% when the air let increases from ~ -20C to +50C (~16,000hp to 8,000 hp)

Unrecoverable Pressure Losses

Profile drag (and fluid friction) across blades

Annular skin friction

Secondary drag / losses

Tip leakage

Seal leakage

IDEAL TURBINE
V2
V1
W2
W1

U

S

R

IDEAL
ACTUAL

C U

Actual performance is always less than the ideal theoretical performance due to un-recoverable losses

Turbine Performance: Turbine Flow ~ Nozzle Flow

P = ½ρC 2 / g c

m = A 2ρ∆Pg c ½ C D

“discharge coefficient”

C D = C D

Turbine performance follows the general behavior of ideal flow through a nozzle…Tot max delP ~ den x sq vel (Eqn W 2.12) Incompressible flow, conservation of energy-ss, no change in PE P = P o – P st = total – static = dynamic pressure Don’t forget gc when using USCS units.

Notice the total maximum pressure drop ~ density x velocity 2

Mass flow ~ flow area x rho x delP

CD ~ discharge coefficient: correction coefficient for ‘real fluids’ with viscosity, friction losses. Usually empirically based, rooted in experiment.

C D =

2F D

ρV 2 A

In addition to classic profile / skin friction drag… VIBRATIONS: fluttering / vortex shedding esp. problem w/ thin blades…fans, some compressors

Flow Separation over Compressor Rotor Blades

FLOW

High Reaction

(no separation)

Low Reaction

(separated flow)

Separation leads to COMPRESSOR LOSSES STALL …losses in efficiency.

Separation leads to losses in pressure, enthalpy

It is very complicated to accurately predict the conditions in which B.L separation occurs.

Therefore, empirically-based ‘rules-of-thumb’ have been developed.

As we’ll see, flow separation can be minimized with a ‘cascade’ of

i.e.

form flow passages

ANNULAR SKIN FRICTION LOSS

s = spacing

C D ~ 0.02 (s/h)

h

Due to boundary layer formation within the annular flow passage. Empirical correlation.

SECONDARY DRAG / LOSSES

End wall boundary layers are convected inward along the suction side of the blades. Secondary currents are set up in a plane transverse to the flow, dissipating energy. Results in un-favorable flow redistribution, competing vortices, and loss in stagnation pressure. Can be a significant fraction of total P-loss. These currents also take place in the wake regions down stream from the trailing edges of the blades.

C D = 0.018C L 2

The constant 0.018 stems from a complex relationship between flow acceleration, aspect ratio (h/c), spacing & pitch. RE: Logan Ch 6 Because the trailing vortices are similar to wing vortices, it is expected that the corresponding drag is proportional to the LIFT COEFFICIENT C L .

Wilson Text Effect of aspect ratio (h/c or h/b) on secondary losses.

TIP LEAKAGE

TIP LEAKAGE
C D”’ = 0.29 (k/h)C L 3/2

The difference in pressure on the two sides of the moving blades results in leakage around the tip.

Shroud reduces leakage ~50% k=clearance gap = f(T, rpm, loading) h= blade length C L =lift coefficient

32

LOSSES FROM SEALS

GENERATOR
LPT1
LPT2
HPT

Pressure changes across casing boundaries are another source of losses.

Each place where the rotor penetrates a pressure boundary needs a seal.

Typically LABYRINTH SEALS.

LABYRINTH SEALS

LABYRINTH SEALS

C D = f(P, h, ρ, D, ….)

Clearances change with thermal expansion, radial stresses, axial stresses, fluid loadings, rotor flex, rotor unbalance, startup/shutdown transients,…. Rotor alignment is critical for rotor seals.

UNRECOVERABLE PRESSURE LOSSES

(PROFILE, SKIN FRICTION & SECONDARY)

COMPRESSORS, PUMPS & FANS

χ =

ΔP stage = ρ U 2 φ ψ χ
=
φχ
η stage =
ΔP actual / ΔP ideal
(R - φδ) / (φ+ δR)
+
(1 – R - φδ) /
(φ + δ(1 – R))
rotor
stator

φ = flow coefficient = C x / U

R =degree of reaction

δ = drag to lift ratio

U = rotor velocity

ΔP = pressure gain

LOGAN P115

38

δ = drag to lift ratio = C D / C L

= (C D + C D’ + C D” + C D”’ + C D”” ) / C L

EXAMPLE:

Axial compressor with Rn=50% and the

velocity vectors shown. The lift and drag coefficients are the same for the rotor and stator and are 1.4 and 0.1, respectively. C D includes all losses. Calculate the stage pressure rise and required energy input if the entering air has a density of 1.2 kg/m 3 . Each square corresponds to 50 m/s x 50 m/s

50 m/s
V1
V2
W1
W2
U
stator
rotor

EXAMPLE (con’t)

ΔP stage = ρ U 2 φ

ψ

Vx

VU2 = 250 m/s

= 150 m/s

+

χ = ΔP actual

(1 – R - φδ) / (φ + δ(1 – R))

(0.5+0.071(1-0.5))

U = 300 m/s VU1 = 50 m/s

ψ = (VU1 – VU2)/U = (50-250)/300 = -2/3 (neg=compressor)

φ = Vx/U = 150/300 = 1/2

δ = drag/lift = 0.1/1.4 = 0.071

χ (R - φδ) / (φ+ δR)

=

χ (0.5-0.5x0.071)/(0.5 + 0.071x0.5) + (1-0.5-0.5x0.071)/

=

χ (0.46/0.54) + (0.46/0.54) = 1.7

=

EXAMPLE (con’t)

ΔP stage = ρ U 2 φ

ψ

χ= ΔP actual

ΔP actual = (1.2)(300) 2 (0.5) (0.66)(1.7) = 60.6 kN/m 2

= 60.6 kPa

η stage = ΔP actual / ΔP ideal = φχ = (0.5)(1.7) = 0.85

ΔP actual / ΔP ideal = 0.85 = 60.6 kPa/ΔP ideal

ΔP ideal = 71.3 kPa

Energy per unit mass (Euler Turbine Equation)

[W /m] ideal = ( V u1 U 1 - V u2 U 2 ) / g c

=(300)m/s [50-250]m/s = -60 kJ/kg

[W /m] actual = [W /m] ideal / η stage

= (-60)/(0.85) = -70 kJ/kg

FLOW SEPARATION

de Haller Number: dH

dH = W exit / W in = W 2 / W 1

dH > 0.72 No Separation

Swiss engineer Established criterion for flow separation in compressor cascades (for compressor cascades, RE: Wilson, Ch#4 p.182)

But…also sometimes applied to turbine blades as well using V1 & V2

De Haller: dH = W exit / W in > 0.72 no separation dH = W2 / W1

COMPRESSOR
V1
V2
W1
W2
U
S
R

De Haller: dH = W exit / W in > 0.72 no separation dH = W2 / W1

COMPRESSOR
V1
V2
W1
W2
U
S
R

Increase W2, Increase dH, decrease potential for separation?

Pressure Rise Coefficient

C pr = (P st,ex – P st,in )/(P o,in – P st,in )

= rise in static pressure / inlet dynamic pressure

For an ideal compressor

C pr =

C pr < 0.5

1 – (W ex / W in ) 2

Consider each stage of a compressor as a compressor

The pressure rise at each stage can only increase so much,

Limits on pressure rise

Cpr ~< 0.5

VELOCITY VECTORS SUMMARY

Axial Flow Compressor and Turbine

DEGREE OF REACTION

R n = h rotor / h stage

= (h2 – h3) / (h1 – h3)

= P rotor / P stage

= (P2 – P3) / (P1 – P3)

= 1 – (Vu1 + Vu2) / 2U

Vu2
Vu1
V2
V1
W2
W1

(Text eqn 5.8)

Zweifel’s Correlation OPTIMUM SOLIDITY

Stator

Rotor

Stator

Lift and Drag Forces

F L =

F D =

C L

C D

(ρAV 2 ) / 2g c

(ρAV 2 ) / 2g c

Comments on LIFT and DRAG forces:

Lift and drag forces are difficult to model exactly due to complex flow phenomena including: viscous effects, boundary layer separation, etc.

Hence, ‘empirically determined correction coefficient’ is typically used.

C L and C D are lift and drag coefficients, usually determined empirically.

C D typically accounts for both pressure and skin friction drag.

‘A’ is some characteristic area.

‘V’ is some representative velocity: free stream, average or mean velocity, etc.

Isolated Flat Plate

C L = 2πsinβ

β

C

Lcas =K(C L )

C

K=cascade coefficient = f(beta, s/c) S= pitch or spacing C = chord

S

BLADE SPACING / SOLIDITY (σ = c / s)

Is there an option spacing?

s

c

Low solidity Losses by separation

 s = pitch or spacing c = chord

High solidity ~No separation Losses by skin friction

1
β

β

2

C L = 2(s/b)cos 2 β 2 (tan β 1 - tan β 2 )

σ = c/s = solidity

Wilson 7.4

NOTE ERROR IN PENG’S TEXT: PAGE 227

Zweifel (Peng Text, Ch 8 p 227) (Brown Boveri, Swiss, 1945)

C L,op ~ 0.8

EXAMPLE

The spacing (pitch) between turbine or compressor blades influences the machine’s performance.

α = - 30 o
Flow in
U
c = 12 cm
b = 10 cm
Optimum
Spacing
β = + 60 o
Flow out

(a) Determine the optimum blade spacing, s = ?

Zweifel Correlation

(b/s) opt = |(2/C L,opt ) cos 2 α ex [tanα in – tan α ex ]|

= |(2/0.8) cos 2 (60 o ) [tan (-30 o ) – tan (60 o )]|

= 1.44

thus, s = b/1.44 = 6.94 cm

 Wind: 1-24 Water: 3-30

Gas / Steam:

11-110

Rotors usually have an even number of blades (for balance)

Stators usually have an odd number of blades (for vibration)

VORTEX FLOW

UF 6 Axial Compressor

A tornado is nature’s efficient vortex flow. Characteristic of air / gas at higher velocities (200+ mph ~ 300 ft/s ~ 100 m/s) It pumps air from the higher pressure ground to overhead cloud.

We can capture that flow characteristic in the design of axial compressor (and turbine) blade design that encourage free vortex flow.

Velocity Distribution

R
Free Vortex (irrotational)
r > R
V u = ωR 2 /r
V u r = constant
Forced Vortex (rotational)
r < R
V u = ωr
V u r n = constant
P atm
R
-P

Minimum pressure is in center of eye. The entire field pressure is sub-atmospheric pressure (AKA Under-pressure)

F c
v
θ
r

ω

= dθ/dt =

Uniform Circular Motion

F = ma

F c = ma c = mv 2 /r

F c = centripetal force (in +) a c = centripetal acceleration v = tangential speed = v u

θ = angular position (rad) ω = angular velocity (rad/s) a c = centripetal acceleration (m/s 2 )

time for one revolution

2

=

2r/v

v/r

=

a c = d 2 θ/dt 2 = v 2 /r

Radial Pressure Forces on Fluid Element (F=PA)

P + dP

P + ½ dP
P + ½dP
P
dr
r
Fc

For Radial Equilibrium: The radial components of the pressure forces (F=PA) must be balanced by the centrifugal force on the fluid mass.

For Radial Equilibrium F radial = F c + F P =0

Free-Vortex Flow:

V u r = constant

TIP

HUB

Vu1
Constant axial velocity
Axial V2 = maximum utilization
C u r = const
r∆V u = const

TIP

HUB

Don’t want hub to fall below 0% rxn

TIP (RXN)
HUB (IMP)

Station A is entry to nozzle / stator Station B is entry to blade / rotor Station C is exit from blade

Nozzle blade is twisted to give overall free vortex flow. The Blade is straight. Nozzle sets up flow in radial decreasing velocity profile….upon passage over uniform rotor blade, re- establishes uniform vel profile.

Illustrates other losses: Wall friction losses (skin friction) and tip- clearance leakage (P sB > P sC )

Euler Turbine Equation(s)

Torque

T = m ( V u1 r 1 - V u2 r 2 ) / g c

Power

W = m

( V u1 U 1 - V u2 U 2 ) / g c

Energy per unit mass

W / m = ( V u1 U 1 - V u2 U 2 ) / g c

TURBINE
V2
V1
W2
W1
U
S
R
W ~ V u1 U 1 - V u2 U 2
V2
V1
W2
W1

isochromatic fringes on three-dimensional

“frozen”

photoelastic model of gas turbine blade hub.

Forces acting on turbine & compressor blades

Fluid forces: Lift & Drag

Centrifugal forces

Thermal forces / stresses

Fluid forces: Lift & Drag Of special interest are the tangential components of the lift and drag forces since these forces directly affect the power and efficiency.

Produce bending forces / stresses due to changes in fluid pressure and momentum.

Total Drag force = pressure drag (form drag, shape drag) + Viscous Drag (viscous drag)

Due to complex flows, losses occur. Excitation and vibrations may result from fluctuating pressure gradients.

Centrifugal forces

Produces radial & bending stresses (bending when centroids of all cross sections do not lie along a radial line) Limits the design length and rpm Easiest force to model

Thermal forces / stresses When its not at a uniform temperature, thermal stresses arise.

Lift and Drag Forces

V m

AXIAL

LIFT

DRAG

V 1

V 2

Lift and Drag Forces

 F L = C L (ρAV 2 ) / 2g c F D = C D (ρAV 2 ) / 2g c

Comments on LIFT and DRAG forces:

Lift and drag forces are difficult to model exactly due to complex flow phenomena including: viscous effects, boundary layer separation, etc.

Hence, ‘empirically determined correction coefficient’ is typically used.

C L and C D are lift and drag coefficients, usually determined empirically.

C D typically accounts for both pressure and skin friction drag.

‘A’ is some characteristic area.

‘V’ is some representative velocity: free stream, average or mean velocity, etc.

Isolated Flat Plate

C L = 2πsinβ

β

C

Lcas =K(C L )

C

K=cascade coefficient = f(beta, s/c) S= pitch or spacing C = chord

S

Fluid Forces: Vibration & Excitation

Upstream variations in the flow can lead to blade vibrations. Can lead to ‘high frequency’, ‘high cycle’ fatigue.

Vibration & Excitation

Campbell diagram illustrating example of natural frequencies of a rotor blade.

Centrifugal forces on the blade causes the blade to stiffen, ‘centrifugal stiffening’ and increase the natural vibration frequency with rotor rpm.

CENTRIFUGAL STRESS ON STEAM TURBINE BLADE

CASING
HUB
HUB
h
R
r

F = ma

F c = m(ω 2 r) = ρAh(2πN/60) 2 [(R + r)/2]

Centrifugal Stress (σ = F/A) on Uniform Blade

σ max = ρh (2πN/60) 2 (r + R) / 2g c

Maximum Stress at Hub of Blade

σ max, hub = ½ ρ (U tip ) 2 [1-(R hub /R tip ) 2 ]

EXAMPLE: Centrifugal Stress

Given:

ρ ~ 8,000 kg/m 3 ~ 650 lbm / ft 3

Uniform density and cross-section

h= length of blade = 20 inches = 1.67 ft N= rate of rotation = 1800 rpm r= hub radius = 1.5 ft

σ max = ρh (2πN/60) 2 (r + R) / 2g c

σ max = 19,400 psi

If a blade ‘broke loose - liberated’, how high could it go? N = 1800 rpm

K.E

P.E.

½ m V 2 = mgH

V = centroid velocity

=2π(r+h/2)N/60 = 440 ft/sec = 645 mph

H = ½ V 2 /g = 3,006 ft

Thermal Stresses

σ=Eε ∆L/L= α∆T

“thermal & corrosion protection”

Materials:

NiCrAlY alloy ( nickel, chromium, aluminum, yttium)

Zirconia (ceramic, ZrO 2 )

Alumina (Al 2 O 3 )

Silicon carbide

HOW COATINGS ARE APPLIED

Electroplating

Plasma spray

Vapor-phase deposition

Electron beam depositio

FOR THERMAL AND CORRESION CONTROL

SUBSTRATE

BOND COAT
TOP COAT
HOT COMBUSTION GASES
OPERATING TEMPERATURE
SUBSTRATE MELTING TEMPERATURE
TEMPERATURE

HIGH TEMPERATURE MATERIALS

MATERIAL

~MELTING TEMPERATURE

o F

o C

Nickel Nickel-Chromium Alloy

Cobalt – Chromium Alloy

2650

2100 – 2300

2400 – 2550

1450

1150 – 1260

1315 – 1400

 Titanium 3035 1668 Titanium-6Al-4V Alloy 3000 1650

For most metals used in blades, creep becomes significant at about one-half the melting point.