Egyptian Archaeology
VOLUME 6 0 1974



An additional note on 'Cylindrical Amulet Cases'. p. by Henry G. . by J. . Smith C. by I . Smith. and related studies in the United Kingdom. Frend . Skeat. . Lond. . J LEMS OF ATTRIBUTION . 1972 . E. T w o MONUMENTS OF THE TIAS . 258. . G. JOHN WINTOUR BALDWIN BARNS . V . Ray. PAGE 1 H. . 239 243 BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS : T h e ideographic use of ^ in a group of Old-Kingdom names. by Abd-elMohsen Bakir. Scanlon . A. S. 2 5 1 . by H. 854. Adams . p. FAULKNER: AN APPRECIATION BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RAYMOND OLIVER FAULKNER EXCAVATIONS IN THE SACRED ANIMAL NECROPOLIS AT NORTH SAQQARA. W. John Romer Robert Hari . . Current research for higher degrees in Egyptology. C. Kitchen Eleanor Guralnick . THE PITS OF FUST AT : PROBLEMS OF CHRONOLOGY . . Martin and W. Was there a coregency of Ahmose with Amenophis I ? by Giinther Vittmann. 2 5 2 . . S. . A RECONSTRUCTION OF THE TRIADS OF KING MYCERINUS NBTY IN OLD-KINGDOM TITLES AND NAMES POLYGAMY IN EGYPT IN THE MIDDLE KINGDOM ? . . . Edwards. 1 9 7 2 . 2 5 5 . . A N EARLY AMETHYST VASE . p.n-fsdm sentence? by Mordechai Gilula. p. . by Geoffrey T . A tm. T h e collapse of the Meidum pyra­ mid. . 94 100 106 114 119 . . . . A. V. . Fischer. M. NAKHT-THUTY—SERVITOR OF SACRED BARQUES AND GOLDEN PORTALS THE CHRYSAPHA RELIEF AND ITS CONNECTIONS WITH EGYPTIAN ART FRAGMENT OF A TEMPLE ACCOUNT ROLL SOME REFLECTIONS ON THE HISTORY OF PHARAONIC EGYPT . . . . . . Joan Crowfoot Payne Wendy Wood Henry G. H. 249. George T . 250. . . J Martin Plumley and W. . Y. . Nial Charlton 34 140 142 161 168 !75 189 200 206 212 A COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF'S ORDER FROM SAQQARA . p. Martin W. Fischer . V . p. A progress report. . Ogden.W I Z Z QASR IBR!M. 2 5 6 . . T h e archives of the Sacred Animal Necropolis at North Saqqara. D . H. . William Kelly Simpson Oleg Berlev . Pharaoh Nechepso. 247. E. . . p. A Note on P. . A N INSCRIBED AXE BELONGING TO THE ASHMOLEAN TUTHMOSIS I AND THE B l B A N E L . by J. C. . p.M O L U K : SOME PROB­ 15 3° 60 79 82 . . Coptic. Turner W. John Barns . . A CONTEMPORARY OF KING SEWAH-EN-RE< . 2 5 9 . . . S. U N SCARABEE INEDIT D'HATSHEPSOUT A COMMEMORATIVE SCARAB OF AMENOPHIS I I I THE DEDICATORY AND BUILDING TEXTS OF RAMESSES I I IN LUXOR TEMPLE : I : T H E TEXTS . Davies . . p. . . . Spaull Geoffrey T . Reymond . . 2 6 1 . E . . . A further re-appraisal of the terms: Nhh and Dt. A TEXT OF THE BENEDICITE IN GREEK AND OLD NUBIAN FROM KASR E L . p.3 : PRELIMINARY REPORT THE PODIUM SITE AT QASR IBRIM . Davies 5 00 RAYMOND 0. by T . . . . . . . . S. Davies. .CONTENTS EDITORIAL FOREWORD . William Kelly Simpson Mahmud Abd El-Razik Jaromir Malek K. E.

H . R. . Historical and Biographical . The Four Greek Hymns of Isidorus and the Cult of Isis . J. . J. . . . . 281 . . . Spaull C . 282 . Lloyd Alan B. W . Hathor Quadrifrons . .. . . Martin Geoffrey T . . . tr. Afroasiatic. 267 269 269 270 270 272 Geoffrey T . ed. Spaull C . Amarna. Uphill by . . S. The Town Councils of Roman Egypt Other Books Received . . . . S. . John Baines . . C . A. . Turner J. . 1300 B. . T . . SIMPSON. H . . Reviewed Griffiths E. POLOTSKY. Hathor and Thoth . 2 7 6 . H . R. S. . . A. K. . . Catalogue of Egyptian Antiquities in the British Museum. Wooden Model Boats JULIA SAMSON. . . C . . VANDERLIP. J. . BJÖRKMAN. . Lexikon der Ägyptologie B. . . Kings at Karnak . Die Felsengräber der Qubbet el Hawa bei Assuan.C. Spaull . . . SPULER. M. K. . . R. . J. F . ed. . J. M . . I. KEEP. K. SALEH. J. . . Collected Papers . S. . . C . David Thomas . . H . . G. Kate . Gwyn Gwyn Gwyn Gwyn Griffiths Griffiths Griffiths Griffiths . WENIG. 284 285 287 290 292 294 297 298 301 J. . Uphill Geoffrey T . . H . . E. . H . . . . . . J. The Human Remains from the Tomb of Tutrankhamün . . . Dixon J. The Literature of Ancient Egypt . . PIERCE. . A. . Tait . . . HELCK and E. HUSSELMAN. . ed. H . M. Egyptian Religion . . MORENZ. . 276 . . H . . rev. Rea . J. Gwyn Griffiths Alan B. 277 278 279 280 280 . .und Völkernamen in hieroglyphischen und hieratischen Texten . Handbuch der Orientalistik. .. . . . K. . . Les Antiquités égyptiennes de Zagreb . . . Spaull David M. Martin Mostafa El-Alfi . DERCHAIN. . The Cambridge Ancient History. Papyri from Karanis . Didorus Siculus Book I. . BOWMAN. S. Spaull C . . John Baines . S. A. SHELTON. REVIEWS CONTENTS PAGE W . . K. FILCE LEEK. C . c. A. V. ed. . Gwyn Griffiths J. . EDWARDS et al. . . . J. . S. FAULKNER. . . Martin .. . . Three Demotic Papyri in the Brooklyn Museum . City of Akhenaten and Nefertiti: Key Pieces from the Petrie Collection . . GROENEWEGEN-FRANKFORT. Lloyd E. GLANVILLE. II. Bosse. ed. II. . . 2 8 1 . 2 6 6 . C . W . I. . . . OTTO. Part I S. ANNE BURTON. FRASER. . Rea . . Religious Ritual at Abydos. Literatur . . . . F . . R. HODGE. The Woman in Egyptian Art . Papyri from the Michigan Collection . . . PH. A Survey . . . . S. H . . . EDEL. . . . R. • . . Ramesside Inscriptions. P. S. Vol. . G. . Arrest and Movement E . . Afrikanische Orts. 282 . ed. ZiBELius. . . M. . J. P. . Spaull C . E. . DAVID. BLEEKER. . . . . . 264 265 Ägyptologie. M o u R S i . A Commentary P. . E. E. O. KITCHEN. . . Ptolemaic Alexandria . II . Die Hohenpriester des Sonnengottes von der Frühzeit Ägyptens bis zum Ende des Neuen Reiches . .

see Hassan. 1927. and a-c. 683-4. Mastabas. 32. fig. 111.wt{i) nfr.s-Cnh III. Similar examples of graphic metathesis are presented in the following tabulation which shows the feminine ^ centred below a pair of signs. 183. Giza Necrop. only lacking <=> (Illus. Boston MFA 30. iv. fig. Tomb chapel of Mr.1456 (Htfi-hr. Grabd. I. 4 BMFA 34 (1936).s-^nh III. some cases also involve the graphic transposition of a tall narrow sign (d-f) or honorific transposition (g). 1. cf. Reisner. CG 1506). Cairo J. 3. Mastabas. 158. 88. iv. e-g) or to the second sign (d. 1 The references are as follows: a-b: Sethe. 225. Giza. pi. BMFA 25 (1927). Bothmer in 1958. 11. 2 False door of Queen Nbt (fig.s II). 116 and i n . near whose pyramid her mastaba is located. h). fig. Saq. 193. des reines. 4 \ \ Tomb chapel of Mr. and I am obliged to him for the use of it. 5. 118. 196. 5 Mariette. 54935 (Mr. Simpson. for this information I am indebted to Dows Dunham and Wm. ^ Mariette. another example. 74 and 140. fig. 2 On the north wall of room C (loc. fig. my copy (not a facsimile) derives from a photograph taken by Bernard V. Sarcophagus. is almost identical. f: Murray. Hist Giza Necrop. pi. 141. 25). 8 1 .3 Statue. d: Reisner. Ne-user-re*. 69 [3]). 11. . 20. Giza. fig. 57 (b). in. p. Giza. Kgs. 62. p. on the west wall of the same principal room. 163. 131. Die altdgyptischen Pyramidentexte. pi. 67. 1). fig. 55 Reisner. 64. iv. vi. Zaki Saad. g: Hassan. 109. Jequier. 193. 46. 31. 1. who are preparing a final publication of the tomb.s-^nh III). Giza. e: Hassan. p. False door of Queen Nbt (fig. 1). fig. ASAE 40 (1941). h: Hassan. 3 Presumably the wife of King Wenis.I Borchardt. c: Hassan. pi. Hist. pt. fig. fig. where the title under consideration is not mentioned. 16. July 9. Inscriptions. pl. and the feminine ^ may belong to the first of the two signs above it (as in the present case. fig. London News. Mast.(94) NBTY IN OLD-KINGDOM TITLES AND NAMES By HENRY G. 109. K. Giza. Pyrs. 23. 1. FISCHER ONE of the recurrent elements in the titularies of Old-Kingdom queens shows the following variations: De Rouge. 65 (b) and CG 1414 (for the normal writing of i.

. False Door of Queen Nebet.FIG. I .

smtwt Nbty Also to be found in Sethe. she who joins) him who is beloved of the Two Ladies' (or less probably) 'consort of the beloved (masc. If tnrt-f were a legitimate variant of \ (j (j.8 ^ n exceptional example of sm?(wt) Nbty mrt-f (F) does in fact occur at the end of the Fifth Dynasty. 216. and (with smrt Hr). hmt-nswt mrt-f. if it originally had such a meaning. Deir el Bahari. which permitted the replacement of Nbty by the king's name in the Middle Kingdom and the similar replacement of Nbty by Hr in the Eighteenth Dynasty. figs. 207-8.g. on the left side. Hatshepsut: Naville. cit. It does not seem likely that variant D ends with the epithet \ (j 1}^ J^ 'aimee du roi'. in which one would expect smtwt mryt rather than mryt smtwt. (Nbty) smtwt mry B. this title has been assimilated to the following one. fig. 3 1 ^ ) . pp. nor does his interpretation of \ (j f\fitvariant E. as it does in Mr. without the usual honorific transposition. 119. 42. in which case the translation is 'consort (lit. in 2 ^ \ * I) (j^> Junker.6 The feminine ending of mryt does not appear in any of the Old-Kingdom examples however. and cf. 'revered with his father. one might conversely expect \f)(] to appear as a variant in some writings of the titles that normally show mrt-f. along with the addition of the suffix pronoun to mryt. and this omission is the more remarkable because the feminine t generally does appear in {^ (var. 17-18. to take the form ^ . the epithet of a Fourth-Dynasty prince: imfh hr it-f nswt. In the case of variant D one must then append '(scilicet) the king'. iv. following the titles ^5 a n ^ l^PflT. Reisner. 8 E. The Middle-Kingdom example of \ (] ( <=> probably represents a reinterpretation of the J older form. 1). and identical in meaning to the latter. iv.sink's titulary.) Two Ladies'. 6 . and this translation is certainly applicable to the later examples which they quote. 11. loc. Giza. 76-7. as he assumes. 7 As. on the false door of Queen Nbt.9 The variations in the sequence of smiwt mry Nbty may be summarized as follows. 48. ASAE 24 (1924). the absence of the feminine ending would seem particularly remarkable in the majority of cases where the passive participle is written in full as ^ ( (] or ^ (] (j P Moreover. whereas the opposite side of the same monument shows the normal form smt(wt) mry Nbty (fig. the most probable explanation is that. 11. FISCHER In his article 'La titulature des reines des dynasties memphites'. Urk. 2. like Erman and Naville before him. 64). the king' (Hassan. Gauthier.^ ^ reading were mryt. The variable sequence of words also raises some objections to Gauthier's interpretation. 11. |J|>.96 HENRY G. dating to the Twelfth and Eighteenth Dynasties: Nofret. for example. Giza. 9 For this addition cf. takes \ \ \ to mean 'beloved'. fig. iv. with honorific transposition indicated by parentheses and brackets: A. The one solution that most comfortably suits all the Old-Kingdom writings is to take \ (j () as a masculine participle referring to the king. queen of Sesostris II: CG 382. pi. 225. one would expect J this adjunct.

14 The interpretation that has been proposed for the Old-Kingdom examples of mry Nbty is borne out by some Middle-Kingdom evidence that is somewhat earlier than the Middle-Kingdom titles quoted earlier. the writing § H occurs in the vertical inscriptions of this chapel. ASAE 42 (1943). This occurs above the entrance (BMFA 25 [1927]. and pi. 35 and pi. pis. Kees. 12 Two examples. Giza. cit.s-<nh11 west wall. but rather as an admissible variation in which Nbty is the equivalent of mry Nbty. 14 below).^ $ " I T ( ° ^ * " " ^ 0 ff* R° g^> Inscriptions. 120. beloved of the two crowns'.NBTY IN OLD-KINGDOM TITLES AND NAMES 97 C. GrdselofFs further interpretation of wrt hts as 'educatrice' (p. following Helck. the son of the two crowns'15 and sometimes ^ ^ 4 ^ \ \ \ J QQ 'Seat of Horus.10 Another queenly title. it seems likely that a reterence to the king is again to be recognized in these cases. it does not seem to be J ^ . 18 a ( ^ | ^Z7^ZP) and takes wrt hts to mean 'la grande des princesses (nubiles)* (pp. loc. Tracht 27. the group T . 1. pis. Particularly in the case of Nbty. MDAIK 16 (1958). that another of Mr. 11 GrdselofT. 118) is difficult to follow despite his ingenious interpretation of (1 as the determinative of ts-mdh in Pyr. 111. main chamber. however. of same12 Hassan. pi. 15 Lacau and Chevrier. 77. 62). smtwt (Nbty) mry D. 3). 612-14) lists the occurrences and concludes. (Nbty [mry]) smtwt The omission of mry in one example (B) is probably not to be regarded as an error. while at other times this designation represents the king himself. 55. fig. The name of the shrine of Sesostris I at Karnak sometimes appears in the form ^ j ^ ^ ^ H 'Seat (wtst) of Horus. wrt hts occasionally shows variations with the addition of Nbwy or Nbty: entrance of chapel of Mr.16 Irrespective of the foregoing considerations. representing the king himself. Staehelin. Kaplony (Inschriften der dg Friihzeit. 13 Although this example is not intact. 194-5. n. 185. which occurs frequently in archaic inscriptions. 34). One might also compare two examples which append the name of a specific king: ^*IJ ( p | < = > ^ J» e u . while the more usual writing {1S^* occurs in the horizontal ones. on p. that this represents a personal name. the first word might also be translated 'great in respect to' (cf. 34. cf. finds a parallel for this in Emery. furthermore wrt hts occurs repeatedly in the inscriptions of the same person. 12146 (p. Untersuchungen zur dg. but since fits' may represent a quality ('perfection* ?). 114-15). 10-11. 18. 18). 16 Op. 438 he compares other names compounded with nbwy (rather than nbty). It should be noted. it is clear that Nbwy and Nbty sometimes literally refer to the 'Two Lords' and 'Two Ladies' who represent an entity that is independent of the king (notably in Pyr. 12 and 13.13 Although the precise meaning 01 hts remains uncertain. Wrjwrt may indeed mean 'the greatest of (a group of persons)'. 147. it might be 10 Cf. same+wsfltf E. 112. fig. Hemaka. cf. s-fnh's titles shows a variant that appends the name of the god Thoth: \ ^ % > ? ^ (followed by ^ P \ \ £ j wrt-hst Dhwty lit. 1038C73 H 14 . while smfwt nbty is absent. 'great-of-praise(s) of Thoth* or possibly 'greatest of those whom Thoth praises'. n. Une Chapelle de Sesostris Ier.

26). 20 Wb.22 Nfr-htt recalls a term for the crown. 233. 21 From Hassan. £ & BM 839. pi. zoSd. it also alludes to the relationship between these divinities and the king.i. 'priest of Nekhebet. ending with another closely related title—'director of hairdressers' (fig. that Nbty necessarily refers to the two crowns in the latter case. but that does not mean. 257 [4]. 19 The white crown alone is mentioned in the Old-Kingdom personal name | ^ . Meir. cf. 189 (25. goob). . priest of Wedjoyet'. M®*LP (PN * 4 2 3 t23])> evidently means 'The Two Ladies > are upon her father'. vi. If it refers to the female divinities as such. 39-40 and pi. 281. 11. 16. 21). 20196. 6. Faulkner. \<*£$2 4 1 + * 4 J ® <the white crown serpent (hdt-wtt) which is in El Kab' (Pyr. The second name. 29. Giza. 264 [10]). fig. 85. II. also the title § p — J <=* which Gunn translates 'Carrier of the raw-diadem (?) of Uto' (Firth-Gunn. Teti Pyr.17 In the case of Old-Kingdom feminine names which are compounded with Nbtyy the use of this term is ambiguous. One is M ^ \ ^ > which Ranke translates: 'es glanzt der. 18 For the numerous cases in which Nbty may refer to the king. 2. 134. indeed.21 The double priesthood evidently has much the same meaning as the Twelfth-Dynasty title 1 i ^ i ^ * H ? > 'p r i e s t of the white and red crown of Upper and Lower Egypt' (Firth-Gunn. 9. 20186. des Reinesy pi. and cf. Middle-Kingdom texts sometimes use Widty (det. 129 and quotations given by Naville. this mode of reference is certainly adopted because it involves a pair of divinities that are female. 7). 2. 11. 180 (12.18 but the first is attested by at least two examples. ZAS 36 (1898). Concise Diet. this has been translated T w o Ladies. 185-6). of course. Pyrs. In one example the three titles are presented in series. Hieroglyphic Texts. 1.98 HENRY G. 5). either of which might appropriately be the subject of hci. however. d'£g. 7536. Teti Pyr. PN 1. and pp. as attested in a title of princesses and queens dating from the Twelfth Dynasty down to the first half of the Eighteenth: 17 This question is also raised by the occurrence of ^ £ among the epithets of the Twelfth-Dynasty official Wh-htp (Blackman and Apted. 9-10. Cent. 2). 26). pi. 190 (1. 190 [1]). iv. if it refers to the king. Gem. Nbty is not otherwise known to refer to the double crown prior to the New Kingdom. as in ^^F^*—*fL ' ^ s c r o w n *s upon him' (Pyr. Cent. 43) and CT VI. at the same time. fig. Giza.20 It seems more than coincidental.19 According to the Worterbuch. Blackman. Probably the second interpretation is more appropriate as a rule. FISCHER considered whether a nisbe-form is involved. der Konig) liebt' (PN I. 8 (Neit. ^ ^ CG 20518. cf. 23. 2). 7 [1950]. both of which refer to Nbty as an entity other than the king. 425 (30). 134). Meir. Teti Pyr. vi (ZAS 90 [1963]. see Ranke. 2196a). 297 (24). 13). 22 This point favours the interpretation of y lJT* as 'support of the red (crown)' on the false door of a 'keeper of the royal headdress' who is apparently somewhat later than Dyn. 'he whom the Two Ladies love' must refer to the king or an unidentified god. that two Fifth-Dynasty 'keepers of the headdress' (try nfr-fot) are. the other titles are held by Rc-zvr: op. this recurs (as ffloP alone) in the Middle Kingdom (Weill. 259 (1). nfr-hdt. 82). ^ | ^ (PN 1. 117).. or He of the Two Ladies' (ibid. 302 (24) and ^ g ^ ^ Brooklyn 64. and the nws-diadem is also mentioned in Jequier. cit. In neither case can Nbty represent the king. in. 148. Rev. and nbty must then allude to the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. den nb-tj (d. 423 (22). the writing of which would be indistinguishable from the feminine dual on which it is based. n. Hassan. 20683. 16. pi. the relative form mrr Nbty might be compared with the participial mry Nbty in the title mentioned earlier. Firth-Gunn. and in this particular context the first alternative is much more likely. 89. this is paralleled by the name ^ £ $ ^ Q * (PN 1. Since mrr is masculine.

A (9). Scarabs. The meaning may be 'the two crowns. 206. FIG. No conclusive answer can be given. created an ambiguous or misleading impression. facing p. 3. x. and by myself in ZAS 90 (1963). fig. 204. 24 23 . with name of Chephren. 25 The pair of crowns also assume this form on at least three cylinder seals of the Old Kingdom. pi. name of Rec-neferef (not Djedkarec). The restoration of this sign explains why the height of the white crown is so compressed. have caused the old title smtwt mry Nbty to be reinterpreted as strnwt mryt Nbty so that it now meant * beloved one who joins the two crowns'. the second crown is mistakenly omitted on p. But it should be emphasized that no such distinction was normally made between the king and the dual entity represented by the two crowns and by the two goddesses associated with them.'25 Examples are assembled and discussed by Brunton. 99-110. ASAE 49 (1949). Giza. 11. requiring an exceptional distinction to be made between Nbty and the king. 'she who joins the Two Ladies'. his beloved'. 9 (5. it fails to explain why mry should have been added to the title smswt Nbty in the first place. 3 If this last point is admitted. however. and its restoration explains a gap that ill suits the spacing of the surrounding inscriptions. for this addition can hardly have been intended to eliminate an interpretation that was reinstated by changing mry to mryt. by an assimilation of meaning.1748. Petrie.23 The frequent use of this title in the Middle and early New Kingdom suggests that it may. pi. in each case followed by ^ ^ J J : Reisner. adornment of the forehead*. Hassan. but it seems possible that the circumlocution was introduced because smtwt Nbty. In any case it does not seem possible to equate hkr and shkr as Junker proposes in Gtza. 1). 228. Walters Art Gallery 57. although eventually Nbty was taken to embody the king: 'she who joins the Nbty. 39. which is clearly to be restored as indicated by the dotted lines.24 Here the two crowns apparently serve as determinative for nb-s in the epithet of a FifthDynasty woman who was in charge of the harim and of the diversions which it afforded the king: 'One who beholds the beauty of her (double-crowned) lord. Mycerinus. with name of Sahure c . This point is strikingly illustrated by the epithet shown in fig. 80.8.NBTY IN OLD-KINGDOM TITLES AND NAMES 99 C^ | | *£ 'she who joins the white crown'. 2 FIG.