ON THE MEAN VALUE OF SMARANDACHE CEIL FUNCTION

Ding Liping
Department of Mathematics, Northwest University
Xi’an, Shaanxi, P.R.China
Abstract. For any fixed positive integer n, the Smarandache ceil function of order
k is denoted by N

→ N and has the following definition:
S
k
(n) = min{x ∈ N | n | x
k
} (∀n ∈ N

) .
In this paper, we study the mean value of properties the Smarandache ceil func-
tion, and give a sharp asymptotic formula for it.
1. Introduction
For any fixed positive integer n, the Smarandache ceil function of order k is
denoted by N

→ N and has the following definition:
S
k
(n) = min{x ∈ N | n | x
k
} (∀n ∈ N

) .
For example, S
2
(1) = 1, S
2
(2) = 2, S
2
(3) = 3, S
2
(4) = 2, S
2
(5) = 5, S
2
(6) = 6,
S
2
(7) = 7, S
2
(8) = 4, S
2
(9) = 3, · · · . This was introduced by Smarandache who
proposed many problems in [1]. There are many papers on the Smarandache ceil
function. For example, Ibstedt [2] and [3] studied this function both theoretically
and computationally, and got the following conclusions:
(∀a, b ∈ N

)(a, b) = 1 ⇒ S
k
(ab) = S
k
(a)S
k
(b),
S
k
(p
α
1
1
p
α
2
2
. · · · .p
α
r
r
) = S
(
p
α
1
1
). · · · .S
(
p
α
r
r
).
In this paper, we study the mean value properties of the Smarandache ceil func-
tion, and give a sharp asymptotic formula for it. That is, we shall prove the
following:
Theorem. Let x ≥ 2, for any fixed positive integer k, we have the asymptotic
formula
¸
n≤x
S
k
(n) =
x
2
2
ζ(2k −1)
¸
p
¸
1 −
1
p(p + 1)

1 +
1
p
2k−3

+O

x
3
2
+

.
Key words and phrases. Smarandache ceil function; Mean value; Asymptotic formula..
*This work is supported by the N.S.F.(10271093) and P.N.S.F of P.R.China
Typeset by A
M
S-T
E
X
1
2 DING LIPING
where ζ(s) is Riemann zeta function,
¸
p
denotes the product over all prime p, and
be any fixed positive integer.
This solved a conjecture of [4].
From this theorem we may immediately deduce the following:
Corollary. For any real number x ≥ 2, we have the asymptotic formula:
¸
n≤x
S
2
(n) =
3x
2
π
2
ζ(3) +O

x
3
2
+

.
2. Some Lemmas
To complete the proof of the theorem, we need the following famous Perron
formula [5]:
Lemma. Suppose that the Dirichlet series f(s) =

¸
n=1
a(n)n
−s
, s = σ+it, converge
absolutely for σ > β, and that there exist a positive λ and a positive increasing
function A(s) such that

¸
n=1
|a(n)| n
−σ
(σ −β)
−1
, σ → β + 0
and
a(n) A(n), n = 1, 2, · · · .
Then for any b > 0, b +σ > β, and x not to be an integer, we have
¸
n≤x
a(n)n
−s
0
=
1
2πi

b+iT
b−iT
f(s
0
+ω)
x
ω
ω
dω+O

x
b
T(b +σ −β)
λ

+O

A(2x)x
1−σ
log x
T || x ||

,
where || x || is the nearest integer to x.
3. Proof of the Theorem
In this section, we complete the proof of Theorem. Let
f(s) =

¸
n=1
S
k
(n)
n
s
,
Re(s) > 3.
ON THE MEAN VALUE OF SMARANDACHE CEIL FUNCTION 3
By Euler product formula [6], we have
f(s) =
¸
p

1 +
S
k
(p)
p
s
+
S
k
(p
2
)
p
2s
+· · · +
S
k
(p
k
)
p
ks
+· · ·

=
¸
p

1 +
p
p
s
+
p
p
2s
+· · · +
p
p
ks
+
p
2
p
(k+1)s
+· · · +
p
2
p
2ks
+· · ·

=
¸
p

1 +
1
p
s−1
1 −
1
p
ks
1 −
1
p
s
+
p
2
p
(k+1)s
1 −
1
p
ks
1 −
1
p
s
+· · ·

=
¸
p

1 +
1 −
1
p
ks
1 −
1
p
s
1
p
s−1
1 −
1
p
ks−1

=
ζ(s)ζ(s −1)ζ(ks −1)
ζ(2s −2)
¸
p

1 −
1
1 +
1
p
s−1

1
p
ks−1
+
1
p
s

where ζ(s) is Riemann zeta function.
Taking s
0
= 0, b = 3, T = x
5
2
in the Lemma, we have
¸
n≤x
S
k
(n) =
1
2iπ

3+iT
3−iT
ζ(s)ζ(s −1)ζ(ks −1)
ζ(2s −2)
R(s)
x
s
s
ds +O(x
3
2

),
where
R(s) =
¸
p

1 −
1
1 +
1
p
s−1

1
p
ks−1
+
1
p
s

.
To estimate the main term
1
2iπ

3+iT
3−iT
ζ(s)ζ(s −1)ζ(ks −1)
ζ(2s −2)
R(s)
x
s
s
ds,
we move the integral line from s = 3 ±iT to s =
3
2
±iT. This time, the function
f(s) =
ζ(s)ζ(s −1)ζ(ks −1)x
s
ζ(2s −2)s
R(s)
has a simple pole point at s = 2 with residue
x
2
2
ζ(2k −1)R(2). So we have
1
2iπ

3+iT
3−iT
+
3
2
+iT
3+iT
+
3
2
−iT
3
2
+iT
+

3−iT
3
2
−iT

ζ(s)ζ(s −1)ζ(ks −1)x
s
ζ(2s −2)s
R(s)ds
=
x
2
2
ζ(2k −1)
¸
p
¸
1 −
1
p(p + 1)

1 +
1
p
2k−3

.
Note that
1
2iπ

3
2
+iT
3+iT
+
3
2
−iT
3
2
+iT
+

3−iT
3
2
−iT

ζ(s)ζ(s −1)ζ(ks −1)x
s
ζ(2s −2)s
R(s)ds x
3
2
+
From above we immediately get the asymptotic formula:
¸
n≤x
S
k
(n) =
x
2
2
ζ(2k −1)
¸
p
¸
1 −
1
p(p + 1)

1 +
1
p
2k−3

+O

x
3
2
+

.
This completes the proof of Theorem.
4 DING LIPING
Acknowledgments
The author express her gratitude to her supervisor Professor Zhang Wenpeng
for his very helpful and detailed instructions.
References
1. F. Smarandache, Only problems, not Solutions, Xiquan Publ. House, Chicago, 1993,pp. 42.
2. Ibstedt, Surfing on the Ocean of Numbers-a few Smarandache Notions and Similar TOPICS,
Erhus University press, New Mexico,USA., 1997.
3. Ibstedt, Computational Aspects of Number Sequences, American Research Press, Lupton USA,
1999.
4. S. Tabirca and T. Tabirca, Smarandache notions journal 13 (2002), 30-36.
5. Pan Chengdong and Pan Chengbiao, Goldbach conjecture, Science Press, Beijing, 1992, pp. 145.
6. Tom M. Apostol, Introduction to Analytic Number Theory, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976.

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