The I-Jse Media of in LanguageTeachingr


ln "The Useof Mediain LanguageTeachinp" Brintonpresents rationale and an overView media a for of materials equipment and traditionaliy usedin the second/foreign language classroom.To better guide teachersin their use of media,she providesa five-partframewor-k structuringmedia-based for language lessons, accompanied a varietyof sample by lessons that illustrate fr^amework. this

As a tool for language learning/teaching, rnedia have undoubtedly always facilitated the task of language learning for both instructed and noninstructed learners.Just as childr-en learning a firsr or second language grasp the meanine of rvords from the objects that surround them, ncn.narive speakers(both inside and outside the classr-oon'r) make use of the here and no\Ar objeca in the or irnmediate environment (see Hudelson 1984; Pica, Young, and Doughry l9B7; \{Iesche and Ready 1985; Lynch 1996) to process incoming speech. In the second language classroom, the extent to which media are used has varied rvidely, depending on the methodology selected.In some methods, media have figured prominend,v as a force that drives the curriculum. In tire St. Cloud (or audiovisual) method, l'hich n'as developed primarily for the teaching of French as a foreign language (Bowen, Madsen, and Hilferty 1985;Stevick 1976), all language items \\'ereintroduced to learners via contextualized, audior.isual presentations (usually filmstrips or slide shorvs r,r'ithan accompanying soundtrack. The underl,ving approach assumed that language is an acoustic-visualwhole that cannot be separated from its constituent elements. Similarl;', in the Silent Way (Gattegno 1972; Larsen-Freeman 1986; Stevick 1998), the sound-color charts and rods form a central visual component of the method, allowing the teacher to present and

elicit language rvhile at the sanre tinte providing the studentswith tools for the creative consrnlction of language. In other methods, rneclia are r-elcgated more to the design or procedule level.z In Communicative Langtrage teaching (LarsenFreeman 1986, Littlervood l981; see also Savignon'schapter in this volume), fbr example, much emphasis is placed on the need for reallife objects or texts (e.g., r-r-raps, railroad timetables,application iorms) to lend auther-rticiry to the communicative siruatior-r,rvhile in the Natural Approach (Krasl-renand Terrell 1983), magazine pictures are used as all elicitation devicein the listening comprehension and early production stages,and charts, lnaps, and props are used to motivate and enhance communicative interchange in later stages of acquisition. Finally, in experiential approaches to language learning (see Eyring's chapter in this volume), language teaching media are ofren taken out of the hands of the teacher and placed in the hands of the students. such that students involved in project work might be expected to produce a scripted slide shorv or a voice-over video documentary as their final classproduct. Whatever the approach, language teachers seem to agree that media can and do enhance language teaching, and thus in the daily practice of language teaching we find the entire range of media-from nonmechanical aids such as household objects, flashcards, and magazine pictures all the way up to sophisticated mechanical

B r i n t o n , o n n aM ' 2 0 0 1 ' T h e U s eo f M e d i a I n t a n g u a e e D T e a c h i n sI.n C e l c e - M u r c i a , . ( e d . )T e a c h i n g M EnglishAs A Second foru Or ini".

v.i b r i t i o n so { ' a s o c i e t l ' ." at least as related to lauguaue tenchine. thcse individuals are msuming that classroom ntcclia materials are by definition (1) rn cch. easily available (especially in the case of the realia of ever1d21r lil'e). can't use med. a t r c lo t h c r c o n t r . On tl-re strrface.4: The syllabus I teach from is too tightly strucl. statement 3 (the time factor) .rticdia. is tl-ratof the "larse i\.ulcrits ancl cor-r-rltutcl-s (seel S o k o l i k ' s c h a p t e r ..e n:rclc strch statemellts are subscribing to tlle zr{irrcnrcntioned "large M' definition of media. l e t rrs exiuline the tvpes of instrr. mechanical and nonmechanical. of . and rhe like) or props fi-orn daily life (e. I ( e e p i n g t l r i s f a c t i n m i n c l . I would therefore like to suggest that all rhese aiCs.t l ' r e s r e a t l i t e r a t l l r c . r : a c h e Ln t h e i r j o b s . 'fhe most imr"nediate conn()iatiotr o{' the tcn'rr "uredia.. e .ia.ratcrials rny ol'n.e already pointecl out. and/or anxier). These comments.l r l is ir-rto the classroorrr. cereal boxes.'I'rn all tl'rrrn-rbs.o n t t t a t o{"'srnall 1'61111111'6"-i.( C h a s r : r i n 1 9 8 8 ) .rn ical (an d tl-rerefore unavailable. The lallacies that underlie statementb 3 ti-rrough 5 are somewhat more difficult to refute. That is. let us lirst cxanrine the underlying fallacies of the altclve statelneltts. ittrrcher papef verb charts.aicls strch as r. Horver er-. fall roughly into the follorving "categories": Stalencnl 1. horvever. unu. classroom media need be none of the above-they can be nonmechanical.g. u'ith cullurc. cLlstoms ar-rdhabits the o f a p e o p l e . making the task of langtrage learning a more rneaning{irl a n d e x c i t i r .\lntrtntttl. I . commercially' available and teacher-r-rlade.a s s i s t i l u 1 .s " . ar-rdof slossr. made by colleagues regardine their inability or unu. ureclia zrs r n e a l t s r n a n i ' c l i { f e r e n t r i . Certainl)'. i t i s g er n t u n c h e r c to differentiate benveen "lar-ge M nteciia" ancl" "small iii.rctiorralrnedia used i n t i " r cl u n g u a g e c l a s s r o o n .Ju. o t . travel pamphles. presents a somewhat viable argument against ltsing nedia. . teacher-prcldr-rced rather than commercial. I overhear snatches of'conversation in classroom halluays or at pr o{bssional gatherings that disabuse me of this notiou.r qo l l e . unthreatening to both teachers and stlrdents. as I har. of urcchanical paraphernalia.stas rve often clifferentiate the teaching of " i a r g e ( . and reasonably priced (or often even fi-ee).. a I givcn skill arca strch as composition or r-ead insi ar'lclthcr-cf<tr-e doll't need to Lrsemedia. should be part of our definition of language teachins media. ir-r shcr-t..illir-rgness to use arrciiovisuirlaids ir-r their classrooms.rher-eis Iirtle eviclence that such glossr' :rudiovisual aicls are any more effectir.' teacl'r aclvirnced levels (altematively. tcac]tcrs.I r . Sla l u nr n l -5. calnpaign iilrttons.e.ield. if one disregards the manv attractive commercially available media materials tl-rat teachers can select from (see Apper-rdix B for a parrial lisr of these) and assumes that statement 2 also holds true in a MEDIA: A DEFINITION .\'!atr. A R A T I O N A L EF O R T H E U S E OF MEDIA IN LANGUAGE TEACHING I often assume that the l^easons nhy we sirould use media rvhen teaching second or foreign languagesare self-evidentto experiencedclassroom 450 Unit V SkillsforTeachers . ' 6 s | 1 1 1 1 .iclco c. nonrlechanical aicls (e.. All to<t fiequentll'. a n .i .e than teacher-made.nrcnl2: My scltool clistrict has no budget for mcclia.g. bumper stickers) rhar have been adapted for classroom teaching purposes.-provoking) and (2) commercial (:ud thcrefrrre costly and inaccessible)." C)ertainl1. I believe. can be dcalt rtitit summarily by realizine that those who har. polished audiovisrral aicis-rvitir all tlre meclia anxictv tl-ial tlrcse can conjure lrp in teacher-s. J'he lirst tr\ro statements.i n l l t i s r r r l u r n e) . b r i n g i n i r t l r e o n t s i c l eu . paper plate l-rand puppers. .\lrtlennnl J: I irave no timc to pr-epare media rr.. i r r g st r l d i i f r : r r : n t n e o n l r ' . glossy anci noneloss1.itrecl tO allclw lbr media materials to be ltrotrqht inlo the clzrssroon. ancl. In fact.f rnedi:r"-of technoloqical innovations in lanuu:rge teaching. Ilcfilrc ltroceedine u'ith a rationale for rrsing rtrcciia in the langr_rageclassr-oom.

reinforcing for students the direct relation between the language classroom and the outside world.or a collection of menus from local restauraltts for a lesson on food items). Reid 1987. rhar language skills are not isolated entities.. Since the learning styles of students differ (Oxford 1990.The folloi. and they can provide contextualization and a solid point of departure for classroom actirrities. as a culminating activity. Thus. ht fact. I believe. and Ferlral:s rnore imnortantll'.rnifi. They thus create a contextualized situation within which language items are presented and practiced. media help us to motivate students by bringing a slice of real life into the classroom and by presenting language in its rnore complete commrrnicative context.recl'cling thesesanremateriirls rvith different student audiences (and even fclr difl'erent reaching purposes). media provide us with a way of addressing the needs of both visual and auditory learners.. grounded in the very definition of language. Audiovisual materials provide students with content.teachers can expose their students to multiple input .sources. and that as language we _teachers need to build bridges benveen skills.vofi which is realized in renns of the teacher'scontinuously. all concerning the same controversial topic) followed by an interview assignment in which students poll native speakersfor their opinions on this topic and. see also Oxford's chapter in this volume).students expect to lind media inside the classroom as well. while decreasing the risk of the students' becoming dependent on their teacher's dialect or idiolect. those who hold the view expressed in statement 5 are neglecting the fact. Skehan 1989.ving statementssummarize the rationale for using media in the language classroom: I Given the role media play in the world outside the classroom. rve can structure multiskill thematic unitsa requiring students to process information from a variety of The Use of Media in Language Teaching sources (e.3 Statement 4. meaning. is often far greater tlian the amolrnt of tirne investedin more traditional classroom lesson planning (see Jensen'schapter in this volume). However. held misunderstanding of media as "extraneolls" to normal lessonactivities. Media thus serve as an important motivator in the language teaching process. they can help students process information anci free the teacher from excessiveexplanation. this statement overlooks the reality that any lesson preparation is time-consuming. is based on a comrnonll.9. a video documentary and letters to the editor. Adciitionally.i I given case. this pa. rhe use of media designed with a parricular srudenr population and teaching objective in mind can often help to economizethe teaching task. For example.'situatiolt.This is achierad in the sense that the media appeal to students' senses and help them process information (Hartnett 1985).g. 451 ') . Finally. a political cartoon. thus reinforcing the teaching point and saving the teacher unnecessaryexplanation. In facr. By bringing media into the classroom. rather than taking up additional classhours.In other words. Media can also provide a density of information and richness of cultural input not othen^rise possible in the classroom. proponents of this view fail to recognize that media can form a viable point of departure for achieving lesson objectives. the preparation of teacher-made media materials does demand an investment of time and energ'y above and beyond that of normal lesson planning. In short.d context in which the teaching of tarious skills is effectively integrated around media. tl-lestatement ignores the "payoff' that can result from the hours spent preparing or assemblingsirnple classroommedia materials (e. Wenden and Rubin 1987. Media materials can lend authenticity to the classroom situation. they can also enrich their language learning experiences. and guidance. lrite a paper summarizing the opposing points of view on the topic. and that many media materials (such as the preparation of vocabulary flashcards or the selection of magazine pictures to elicit and practice a given language point) do not require exhaustive amoultts of tirne. We can do so by creating u . The role that input plays in language learning is virtually uncontested (Krashen 1987). a set of prespecified role assignmenls prepared on index cards to set up a rolepla.

their availability. Despite these expanding horizons.) dominating the responses. In attempting magnetboard or ovet"head the range of media availto provide an ovendeu'of best able to classroornteachers today. that belong in this category npically include: cltr-toons. media and shifting allegiance to the newe! more technological innor'ations. thev carn'rvith thern a larger degree of "psychological reality" in that they can bring the outside n'orld in all its cornplexities iuto the classroom. if we had asked the average second or foreigrr language teacher to designate those media tl-rat they felt were appropriate for the teaclring of languages./urenus flasl'icardsr/iudex rrallcltarts..With reference to schema theory (Schank and Abelson1977)./ blackboalds/ line drawings rr'hiteboards objectsT/realia n-ragnetboards/ flanr-relboards/ PamPhlets/ brochttres.and interactive video.5 Technical Media Altl-rough these forrns of n-rediaare costlier and less ttset-friendlythan the uoutechuical media. since studentsin todar''slanguage classes tend to sttrround themselves u'ith technology in their dailv lives. rve find 'todaythat rather than abandoning the more trzditional. lanne\\'techSrage teachersare simply incorporating into their repertoire of teaching aids. scrolls board gaines PtlPPets r'rervspapers/ rnoiiuted pictures/ photi-rs lrrrgazilles CLASSROOMMEDIA: "AN OVERVIE\^/ At the height of the audiolingual era./ pegboalds cards fl)'ers.their and their user-friendliness.that range of responses even largeq as the ever-expanding horizons of technology present us with exciting new adrances such as computer-assisted instr-uction./ film projector opaque projector slide projector computer language lab cornputer lab multimedia lab center self-access In considering this group. satellite transmission. research suggests that media provide teachers u'ith a means of presenting material in a time-efficient and compact manner. In fact. we rvould no doubt have received a fairll'large range of responses. u'ould be needlessto say. whether the mecliaconstifttte software (consumable media Unit V Skillsfor Teachers 462 . and of stimulating students' senses' thereby helping them to Process infonnation more readilv (Mollica 1979). which proposes that we approach new information by scanning our banks for related knowledge' -"*oty media can help students call up exrsting schemata and therefore maximize their use of prior background knowledge in the language learning process. Today. it is per-haps to use the trzditional classification of "noutechnical" and "technical" media. as listed belon'. with nology many using sophisticatedvideo and computer technologies (see Sokolik's chapter in this volume) alongside the lesssophisticated (but tried and tme) projector.Items accessibilin. they may gro\\' to expect it in the languageclassroomas n'elI. Other of advantages the forms of media included in this categorl'are their lotv cost.or funding is limited. Items that belong in this category tlPicallY include: record player audiotape player/ recorder CD plaver/recorder radio telerision video player/ recorder telepl-rone/ teletrainer overhead projector filmstrip. it is important to make a fervfurther distinctions-namely. Nontechnical Media advantagesin setTl-riscategory presents ol--'''iotts tings rvl-rere electricity is unreliable' technical resourcesare scarce.posters. with the blackboard and other simple classroomaids along with the audiotape medium (and the ubiquitous language laboratorl. eqtripment operatioll manuals lnaps. or small m. Finally.

where the teacher ensures comprehension of the item or items presented. each medium leavesits own imprint on the teaching/ learning process.ed simply as extraneous to the lesson. stick figures. it is not surprising that language teachers are overrvhelmed The Use of Mediain Language Teaching 453 .'e(s). we can see hou' even this simple medium can function effectivelyar rhe rarious stages of a lesson. the writing assignment. for example. and implementation of media-based materials do not differ radically from the kinds of guidelines n'e find mentioned more universally regarding lesson planning and textbook evaluation(see. media-based materials should not be vier. then. 1) rightfully notes. In tl-re practice stage. the blackboard can be used to storyboard student ideas in a groupproduced narrative or to cluster and map student concepts as they are being developed. we must also consider the purposes for which these media are being used-i. they should be planned as carefully as the lesson itself and should form a central (if not tlu central) component of the lesson-one that is interwoven with the other lessoncomponents.guidelines for use are in order.g.e.r. whether the materials are commercially produced or teacherproduced. A FRAMEWORK FORSTRUCTURING MEDIA LESSONS The framework presented belowT is intended to put the application of media to language teaching into a unified perspective and to assistteachers in better structuring media lessons. or the richness of authentic input that film or the Internet can offer.ailability and immediacy of feedback that the black/whiteboard can supply.. Suffice it to say. time lines. Thus. As Penfield (1987. and whethcr they are authentic or not. I've divided up the tvpical "lesson" into five stages: (1) the infortnation andmot'iuation stage.Jensen's and Byrd's chapters ir-rthis volume).or the speaking task.i I items) or hardware (equipment). Ultimately."Clearly. "roo ofren [media] are neglected because teaclters are not always certain horv to adapt these rich and complex learning materials to studertts' needs and language competencies. Rather. To include a description of the possibleuses ot all the above forms of media is beyond the scope of this chapter. adaptation. their teaching important a role in the selection and use of audioaisualmedia ir-r the classroomas they cio in rirose of conventional print media. GUIDELINES OR USING F MEDIA IN THE CLASSROOM Given the range of classroom media (both harduare and software) discr"rssed above. such issuesas the appropriateness of the materials for the target audience. to aid in presentation.e..6 \4b must also consider rvhether they are being used alone or together with other media in a multimedia environment. maps. or to provide feedback (as in the case of audio. In the presentation stage. that each form of media presents unique advantages-be it the ar. such as the reading text. (3) the focussiage.where the students practice the tasks and are provided with guided opportuniries ro manipulate items until they feel comfortable and confident. p. by tl-re choices available ro them. to provide practice or stimulate coulmunicative interaction. and the pre-/postprocedures to be nsed all pla. In fact. Horvever./videotaping student oral products for subsequentdiscussionand evaluation).where the topic and relevant background information are presented. their: technical and pedagogical quality. and it is up to the teacher to decide which one to select in order to teach a given point. Finally. Further. and other line drawings can function as contextualizers for a giren activit)l Firrally. the economy of time that pre-prepared overiread transparencies or a Powerpoint presentation can provide the teacher. the blackboard can be used for'verb paradigms. the blackboard. or as contingenq/ plans. in the communication stage. while matrices or grids written on the blackboard can serre as elicitation tools. to take but one example.. (2) the input stage. and this point cannot be stressed enough. development. guidelines for the selection. or orher graphic or visual cues to elucidate a teacl-ringpoint.In constmcting this franework.

rvhich studentsare given opportunities in to offer personal comments or share experiences relating ro the given context. an interview. Studentsyiovide peer feedbackto others. Teachermodels language items/proceduresltasks 2. 2.. Teacherpresentslelicits concepts 5. Transferstage l. Teacher functions 4. Studentspractice items/tasks conlext in a.sta. Teacherpresents/elicits content ffr ||r. Teacherpresents/elicits structures presents/elicits 3. teachers need to be aware that the above points in the framework outline olttions availabie to teachers in designing and implementing media lessonsand are not intended to represent procedures that must be foilowed lockstep. 3.a of student speech. Fieldtrip V. a ciassdiscussion. for Media Lessons . Classdiscussion 2. E^^. lnformation and motivation stage ll. Sharing personal experience 6. lnput stage L Teacherpresents/elicits vocabulary 2.usingcontext set by mediamaterials as a point of departure a. Note also that media can play a role at any or all of the five stagesof the lesson. Notetaking b. and (5) an optional feedbac!. l. Studentsinteract. lnformation transfer c. Task-based 4. of 4.^ I LrLUs --^-^ JLd. Teachertapesthe activity. Feedback stage l. Figure A Framework Structuring l. Pair work/small-groupwork lV.anC that a variety of media might be used in the various stagesto complement each other and to achieve the designated teaching objective. Studentsli: en to/view the tape. Role play/sociodrama b.. Teacherprovidesfeedbackto studenrs.(4) the more communicativr:ly oriented transfer slage. Informationtap activiry which audio or video in recordings of students are used to guide the assessment the students' pcrformance (e.g. Follow-up writing assignment of 5. a role play. Studentsmanipulate language/content/tasks a.8 Figure 1 presentsthe fiamenork. Drill b. 5. Elicitation 3. Game assignment 3. Problernsolvingacrivity c.E€ In applying this framework. Studentsperform a self-assessment their performance. a group problem solving activity). I.

a-1..2." 4.].3] ln 1rr. 7.S A M P L EM E D I A L E S S O N S The following sample lessons. for Media: Mounted magazine picture of woman holdingan ugly lamp (see Figure2).holidaytime). 6.].. requestan exchange an unwanteditem.."r[1".]. descriptiveadjectivet tll. Teacher introduces the magazine pictureof the uglylamp (seeFigure2). students are videotaped [v. lampshade. lf appropriate (e. writing.2. r { t $ i:::. students may want ro shareinformation ibout'whai they I are givingto friends or wish to receive [l]."il1"*1. as follow-up writing practice. 2. Teacherintroducesthe concept of gift givingand receiving. the teacher '3' The studenb and teacherexamine and asks questionswhich elicit more implicitvocabulary l. law. 5.] and receivepeer [v4.eNote that numbers in brackets indicati the relevant parts of the framework that irave been applied in designing each lesson.students write a lecer to the giver of the gift thankinghim or her [1V.3..'.1 ana structures (present progressive.g.].].4.ud:lF_ practicethe sequence givingthe gift.a.inating activiry studenrsbring in unwanteditems they havereceived and sharetheir reactions receiving to thesegifrswith their classmates [1V5.] rore-praying the situation [1v.elic_ iting explicit vocabulary(e.t.selected to illustrate a range of available media.4.elderly relative). the picturemore closely.2.6r1gu i'. and the ranguage necessary 9n : . demonstrate how the framework in Figure 1 can be applied in making decisions about media use for languagc teaching purposes. vocabulary. a subsequentday.frlwn) itt.g.. and receiver). presented[11. Time: Procedures: l.the context is recycred.] andieacher [v5] . bow. tii : The Use of Mediain Language Teaching 465 rJ l ..] and structures [ll.c.'(sister_inil1. and of ' r -""'o '-' -"expressing thanks[lll.2.i:r'' feedback.i"*. Thev then watch the video footage [v."]vhe1e do you thinkAunt Harriet mrglt havl bought the lamp?"(she mighthavebought it from a thrift shop/garale. For example:'yVho do you ihink gavethe womair thii gift?. Skills: Speaking. t .. To provide studentswith the language neededto expresspreasure/ displeasure. pairs (gift g"iv".z. for returningunwanteditemsttoa store and requesting. Teacher presents language functions relevant to giving and receiving gifts and provides srudentswith guided practice fl1.2..] practiced and [lll. openingit.a. intermediatelevel EFLstudents. sample Lesson r: The "Ugry Lamp" (magazine picture) Audience: Teaching objective: Beginning-level adult students enrolled in an intensive language/visa program.r. 2 classperiods (r hour each)prusfoilow-up(r5 minutes). r.].1.. For homework..

for Teachers .advancedstudents in intensivelanguage 466 Unit V Skills.g.. The Ugly Lamp enrolled in EAP courses at the university./i/K .. students (e.l'<)\ s'A Figure2..

: . Using the pattern provided. 5.with each group receivingone advertisementfor a computer software or hardware item.!r:. ' ar . sentencestructure. ' :t:].. : The Use of Mediain Language Teaching AA7 .].d..2. Studentsare next divided into small groups of three or four students.}'.t::. on a subsequent the teacher can recyclethe materialin a more game-like day.toinclude[Vl.Teacherdistributes photccopies of a computer hardware or software advertisement..the teacherthen writes the agreed-upondefinition on the board under the headingsindicatedabove.1.This Processcontinuesuntil all groups haveseen all ads and a studentsin eachgrouPhavehad a chance write appropriate to sentences with definitions for each product.rk"d ao pur the items together to form sentencedefinitions.: from categoriesX..Atthe end of this time period. :i':tlal l . atmosphereilV. : With the help of the teacheri studentsnow pool their answers.c.].contain the necessary information for studentsto draw from in writing their definition.t andZ on separatestrips of paper and .lp i..:..Errors in spelling.].Together.The ad should. The teacherwrites this definition the blackboard on the fl|. 7.3.2.] 4..erc.They decidefor themselvesthe most usefulinformation.].. ' .]. either by giving srudentsnames of fictional products and havingthem compete to write the "best" definition of the product or by having students playa "sorr and unscramble" gamein which they are giv"n ri""a-. bgetheri students construct a complete sentence definition of the product. [Note:This advertisement adverrisements should be carefullyselectedso that there is no overt sentencedefinition of the product..stressing previously studiedformula for definitions.:.however..b.the classmembers identif the item beingadvertisedand locateany information relevant to writing a concise senience definition of the product and the subsequent [lll. rhe groups passtheir ads to another group. in the followingexample: as A(n) 1x1 a(n) is that [z] [Y] IX] SPECIFIC TERM Software Bridge m GENEMLCLASS is a software program lzl CHAMCTERISTICS that convertsdocumenm from one word-processing program to another without losing formatting specifications.1 .can be dealt with at this stageby elicitingpeer :: correction.with each group receiving new ad..each group of studentsworks for roughly four or five minutesto constructa sentencedefinitionof the product [lll..

Common complaints reviewedp.They are to compare these products usingthe grid format ancireport back on their findingsto the classon the following day flV.l. etc. f ' . Studentsdiscuss (side effectsexperienced. ' : : ' i : ' l ' : .. speaking. information remedies.prugSll:.g. Beginning. expandtopic-related of Packages/containers over-the-counter drug preparations (". 2.]. Studentsare dividedinto smallgroups of four or five and OTC products are distributedto eachgroup. t t : " " Audience: Teaching Objective: Media: Skills: Time: Procedures: " "' or adult/communityeducationstudents. " " ' l .. of To developan awareness the availability. '"' " ' : :.3.] a warts.3. 5 .g.. (l 2 classper'iods hour each).intermediate-level use.b. As a follow-up. l . to tion skills.]. fever 8. 468 forTeachers Unit V Skills .Sample Lesson 3: Over-the-counter. 6. cold medications).g.]. t : 1 . cold sores. go to the drug store and finrj three blisters. headache. constipation) (e. Teacherintroducesconcept of over-the-counter(OTC) drugs.]. : . are the 3 . alleigy. .each student is assigned symptom (e. previousexperiences they havehad with OTC drugs 7. arrd Reading. grid (seeFigure3). increasereadingfor specificinformavocabulary. headache vocabulary. 4. : : .) [V5.. Teacherintroducesinformationgrid and demonstrates procedure studentsare to follow via the example(Sudafed) fl1.]. Once all student groups have completed the task.Termsin the grid are explained [.elicits from students information on the types of OTC products they typicallyuse [].: 1 1 1 . and potential misuseof to over-the-counterpreparations. they share their resultswith the classat large.l.l.heartburn) and told to products intended to remedy this condition.. Studentswork in groupsto transfer informationinto the grid pl.

-q $sJ <<) $ -.9 L u o c) &.-tl F d'= aJ >{- o p L o I I d_ (.lil] 'i tl i \r) 8eS tilE $p Hilt" P€ i .I dE .c aJY >l aJf * 9- .) o ri q) L.r r CA-? v r* s-x + !!-9 le'o i L (! +1 -tU U bo o \ -6 L .: E : F f) q -! . e! ?€:+ 2€ g.n{fr f .Y - :'5 ' 'f. dl s- .E o F $ t Y r-* 5-: .9p Ll- The Use of Media in Language Teaching . .

]. people.2. with the teacher elicitinga definition of cultural stereotypingfrom the students I ilv. Teachervideotapesthe srudent activity [v. 470 Unit V SkillsforTeachers .2. B.studentssharetheir postcards and the culturalstereotypedepictedwith the rest of the class.].c. Teacherelicits cultural stereotypes Americansand organizes of these on the blackboard under the headings "Posirive" "Negative"111. Time: Procedures: Teacher introduces the activityby discussing postcards generaland the kinds in of postcards that peoplesendto their friendswhen they are on vacation[1.s. | . To increase of awareness culturalstereotyping.l.].].1.4].4.. 7. I class period(l hour) plusfollow-up(10*15minures).]. or He she hasstudentsview the tape [v.1. 3 .] for subsequentplayback.].].manila a a folder) to separate students. writing. Students are askedwhat kindsof postcards they havesent home sincearriving in the United States.g. 5 .with the stucient A receiving a postcard from a given country. students are askedto bring in postcards from their country (alternately: postcardsfrom the United States)and sharefurther information ilv. they discuss the performances and give each other feedback[V. one depicting Durch girl wearingwooden shoeswith a a windmill and tulips in the background) may be shown to promore discussion. 2. StudentB then attemptsto discoverthe identityof the country [V.Sampie Lesson 4: Postcard Description Activity (photographic postcards from various countries) l2 Audience: Teaching Objective: Recently arriveciinternational studentslivingin the ESLconrext (anylevel).9. Media: Picturepostcards depicting stereotypical images countries(one for each pair of of students). once all studentshavecompletedthe task. is studentA's lt task to describe this postcard ptudent B. 6. its and its culture. | . They erect a barrier betweenthem so StudentB cannot see studentA's postcard.4]. who they ha. As a sent theseto. cuituralawareness.Depending classleveland focus. 4. l. barrier (u.4. serveas a discussion to stimulus for impressions formed of the United States. and Students discuss the possibleharm of cultural stereotyping and share some srereotypesheld about their own cultures[V. Teacherexplains/models paired activity:Studentsare to form pairs. and wirar kindc nf mase'ooc they havewritten on them fl.A model postcard(e. on rhey may be askedas well to write a brief paragraph definingcultural stereotypes[1V. Follow-updiscussion ensues the general on topic of groups. Skills: Speaking.without mentioning nameof the to rhe country illl. notebook.

In groups. in 2.They sharethis with the class then Personrequesting and compare it with the actualanswerwritten by the advicecolumnisttlv. To exposestudents authenticEnglish.l. work on answering preparedquestions groups[lll..]. counseiors. difficultvocabulary discussed is [ll. Teaching Objective: Media: Advicecolumn ( to help rhem gain insights into issues which concern Americans.Sample Lesson 5: Radio Psychiatrist (phone-in broadcast taped off-air) I I Audience: High-intermediate advanced to international studentsenrolled in an intensive languageinstituteor other visa program.l.2.]. 5. optionally.].e. 8.c. and one or more studentscan playthe role of the advicegrver. After a brief introductionto the topic of the tapedphone-incall. Studentslisten to the expert's advice (again.2. listening.] activity. provide them with a forum for problem solving to activities. audiotape phone-inradio psychiarrist of show (possibly Pre-PrePared slightlYedited).3.4].] the and write rheir "answer"to the advice[1V.4. one student playsthe role of the advice seeker.3. 3. For each role play. i.the students may listen to this segmentof the tape more than once and may also :'.Ann Landers) topic of audiotape on (mountedon index cards).rt ing studentshow peoplewho are experiencingpersonalproblemscan get advice[1.] in or role-playilv. with situations preparedby the reacher.As necessary. to and topicalvocabularyis discussed l.g. As in step 3 above. more than once if necessar:y) and subsequently discuss whether they feei ihis advicewill be of assistancerto tlre caller. in 6. Dependingon classlevel. Time: 2-3 class periods(l hour each)..].b.4. Procedures: l.2.]. psychoiogistslpsychiatrists)l Studentsare askedto namespecific situaticns which peoplemightseekthe adviceof a psychiatrist. speaking. advicecolumns. 7. The Use of Mediain Lansuage Teaching 471 . advanced EFLstudentsin the secondary or postsecondary context. 4.' The first halfof the advicecolumn is distributed students. studentscan participate a problem solvingtlv.They comparetheir own advicewith that of the expert tlv. the caller'sexplanationof the problem. fl.l.students are then askedto formulate their own answer to the predicament and to predictrhe answerthat the expert will give [1v.b.on a third day. studentsdiscuss problem[lll.t+ Skills: Reading. In the subsequent classperiod. Teacherintroducesthe lessonuy .srudents listen to the first half of the call-i.].what forums are available (e.the teacher introducesthe topic of radio talk showsand asksstudentswhat kindsof talk showsthey are familiarwith [1.c.]. l.

Time: Procedures: *tro giu".judge)." a broadcast actual of recorded off-air. 6. up Class the basicpoints of the case. Skills: Listening. 472 Unit V Skillsfor Teachers ..or a florist who deliveredthe wrong flowers to a wedding)and preparethe studentsfor a role-play situationin which students take various roles (witnesses.3. tlv.(Thesevisitsshouldbe scheduled advance the teacher. vocabulary.those who havesharetheir impressionsof it [V. or High-intermediate advanced in situations and to introduce listening comprehension authentic To increase vocabularyitems.2.5.) 8. and 2 classperiods( | hour each). On a subsequent the teachermay presentstudentswith varioussituations day. plaintiff. discuss or the testimonyof the witnesses [V.a dry cleaner who damaged someone'sexpensivedress.1. . Students view a selectedcase(broadcasts "People's of Court" typicallyconsist of two cases) to the point where the judgeretiresto makea decision. the role of smallclaimscourt within this U. culture.].g.. 5 . provide a format for problem solving.relevant and plaintiff. defendant. 4.judicialsystem[.] and by then placedin a viewingfacilityso that students can reviewtheir performances outsideof class.Studentsare giventime to practicethe role playprior to performingit IV.l. l.l.S.2. Studentsperform the role play.l.a. (off:air videotape)ts Audience: Teaching Objective: youngadult or adult ESLstudents. speaking.] to a small an claimscourc. Followingthe field visit.and studentssharetheir is irnpiessions |. vocabulary(e. 2.]. judge. A follow-upto the video role playcaninclude actualsite visit [V.] and explains system$. [ familiarize specialized studentswith one aspectof the Americanjudicialsystem.1.the in by courts are usually gladto accommodate.].defendant) is presented fl. of smallclaimscourt proceedings.9. a brief introduction to the L The lesson is introduced by the teacher. The program"People'sCourt" is explained. Media: Videotape "Peoplet Court. which is videotaped the teacher [V.5. Studentsare asked if they have ever watched this program.].] 7.6. preciict what the iudgewill decide ilv.Sampie Lesson6:"People'sCourt" .judge the argumentsof the members consider plaintiffand defendant. They may wish at this point to suggest how the litigants could haveimprovedtheir arguments.b.a debriefing session held. which might be heard in small claimscourt (e. Students of with then view the remainder the tapeand comparetheir decisions that of the judge.

DrscusstoN QUESTTONS l.There is consequently no single medium 'ideal for language teaching' as is so ofren claimed.What was the obiective of the lesson? What aids did the teachir use? Think of additional aids that would have improrred the'similar to the one described in this article for over-the-countermed. a number of language teaching methods and approaches (both traditional and innovative) have been discussed. 65) notes. when they help you ro reinforce the points you n'ish to make or set1. In closing. Collect packaged food items that you harre around ). teaching style Availabiliq' of software and hardrvare Physical circumstances of the classroom.experiences.eas contextualization. use rnedia to involve students more integraliy in the learning process and to facilitate language learning by making it a more authentic. Can you think of specific teaching applicatior-rs for these for-rnsof media? 4. Observe an ESL class. The following are factors that should be considered when incorporating instmctional media into our language teaching goals: r I Type of skill/concept to be presented Student preference: the age.' the framework for designir-rgmedia lessons discussed in this chapter. home. p. Keep in mind that the purpose of the grid is to pro'uide stndenLs rvith guidance in selecting food items and to train them in reading package labelsfor specific information. Be prepared as well to discussyour selection criteria. are part of the underlying philosophy)? In which methods/ -approachesdo media play a more peripheral role? 9 Exainine the rationale given in this chapter for the use of media in language teachir-rg.But above all. Elsewhere in this volume. the text and come prepared to discuss the role that media play in these methods. Drarv up a list of the advantages ancl disadvantages of each. Bring this material ro classand share with othersyour ideason how you would use it. familiarity. as Wright (1976.our teaching task and serve as a source of input. review these sectionsof At The Use of Mediain Language Teaching . when they expedite y.ication. Drau'ing on the suggestions given in Byrd's chapter in tl'risvolume. develop a list of criteria for selecting and evaluating media materials.our household and design a suruival level grid actir. meaningful process. availability and teacher cre Liiry/adaptabiliry will play major roles in deterrnining to rvhat extent media l'ill be used and u'hich media will be selected. and learning styles of the students concerned Teacher prefbrence: facility rvith equipment.ords.pesof media thel' cal select?\Arhyor n'hy not? SUGGESTED CTIVITIES A l . I encourage you to think creatively about waysto incorporate media inro your language teaching and I reiterare the follorving useful guidelines: Use media materials rvhen variety is called for. instructional media come in an almost infinite variety of forms and can play equally varied roles. Which reasolts clo you feel are most convincing? Can you think of any others? Select three items from rhe list of technical media and threc iterrrs fi:om those listeci under non-technicalmedia that you are likely to Llsein the langr-rage classroom. are ccrtain teachersol' teaching situations limitecl to the q. I Select a picture or series of pictures from a magazineand appl./adroitness u'ith the given medium./ lab I I However. In which methods/approaches do you feel that media play a central role (i. Is there a feasibilityfactor involved ir-rthe use of audiovisual media? In other n. u/e should also keep in mind that "language teaching is a collective title for a variery of activitiesundertaken by different people in ver] different circumstances. and/or when they help you to individualize instruction and appeal to the varieq' of cognitive stylesin your classroom.CONCLUSION As outlined above." Ultimately.e.. interests. J.

ure refers to the specifictechniques emploi'ed. eds. I I This icleaancl il'. authenric and peclagogical)have t.e Classroont. 5. 1991.esign.s fo. l0 This idea u'as provided by Doug Beckrvith and is used rr'ith his pern"rission. Janet Goodwin.1. (1997b. Mclntosh. Murphei'.ure. Pictures for i. Schleicher. pp. and Murphy and Stoller (folthcoming) for a disctrssion of sr. 15 Used rvith the permission of Paula Van Gelder. Conn nu. u. and L. Ur. frorr. to refer to llaterials that rverc nol produced for language teaching ptrrposes per se. Addison-Weslel'. That chapter replaced hvo in the lst edition-"An Audiovisual lr4ethod for ESL" by James Heaton and "Language Teaching Aids" by Marianne Celce-Murcia (Celce-N4urcia. desigrzrefers to the form and function of the materials and activities used in the classroom. 1979. ed.and L. 38-48. Oxford: Oxforcl University Press. P. I strongly suggest that teachers share rvhich o. l4 According to rhe guiclelinei established for oFair recording b1' nonprofit educational institutions. Carnbridge: Cambridge Universitv Press. ENDNOTES This chapter is a revision of the one that I u'rote for the 2nd edition of this text (Celce-l{urcia . Alexandria. Il[usic anci Sorzg. Linarvati Sidarto. ir4A: atia g. institute a materials library. pp. and \{esche (i989).and proced.ed (Penfield 1987).McAlpin (1980). 8 These stages are adapted fi"our Edelhoff (1981). and B..llnoach..'i'' This framcn'ork is looseh. and to Chrisrine Holten. Ne.ease the materials development burden and furtl-rer increase the above-mentioned payoff...ulAqy5 in Using Autlrcntic Alaterials in Lenming.r which I have borrowed liberalltr I am also grateful to Marianne Celce-Murcia for her suggestionscoll-. E. T. see Brinton er al. . and Susan Ryan for tl-reir additional input. cerning revisions to this chapter.t. Upon conclusion of this period. Both tvpes of materials (i. Teaching l-istening Comprehensiott. d. Penfield. ed. 1990. Snon'. ) Far fr-our exhar. Mike Silverman. Pally (2000). J. 1992. Carnbridge: Cambridge Universiq' p1"s55. (1997a) and Brinron et al. 474 Unit V SkillsforTeachers . I I have chosen to highliglrt tcacher?roduced nredia lessonsratl'ler th:rn comnrer.onr a franrertork for using magazine pictrrresin the larrguage classroomdeveloped b1... the ofil-air recording rrrtrstbe erasedor destro). 307-315). 1984. this list is sirnply inrended to sive an idea of thc rzurgco[ media that al-enpically cncouutered in the iangtrage classr-oor:r. I aur grateful to both autllors for their ideas.cialn-raterials since the latter are ustralll.rsrive.adapted fr. designates the underlying theories of language learning in a given methodology. 12 This idea rvas provideC by Karer-rO'Neal and is rused rvith her perrnission.Lnxgu. and fn'oced. I refer here to the distinction made bi' Richards and Rodgers (1987) in their use of the rerrns apltroach. 1987. Tomalin.Jean Turner and are used rvith her permission.. 1989.llnttlir hele in its br-oadsellse. I\4. 454-472).F U R T H E RR E A D I N G The following sourcescontain a u'ealth of inforrration for classroom teachers on the use of instructional media for language teaching purposes: LarimeE R.. Stempleski. since this can further.S. Irideo Action: in fucilteslor Using Vidcoin Langua. The tr/[edia: Calnlyst. a broadcast program ma1. and even collaborate in audiovisual materials wer-eprovided br'. SeerEclelhoff(1981) Brinron. recorded oFair and rctained by the educational institution for a period of trp to 45 calendar dayaafter the date of recording. For samples of thematic turits that successfulll.rchmtrltiskills thematic unils. accornDanied rvith teacherguidelines.nic e L angu age L t:u r n i?'L Read i n g. VA: TESOI-.gitinrate use in the language classroom. 1999. l3 This idea u'asprovided by \A/endySaul and Atsuko Kato and is used with their permission.ornpun1. () I trse tlre terrn au.gehnclrirzg Nen' York: Prentice Hall. A. Wright.integr-ate media in a thematic col-ltext.e..

to Reading.. Harlow. M. Morc Index Card Gamesand Actiuities for Engtish. 1990. Geddes. CA: Jag Publications. Berkeley. Lo n don : Ii ". More Comicsand Conuersation: (Jsing Humor to Elicit Conaersation and. Ballard.. 1987.. Cotnicsand Conuersation: [Jsing Humot' to Elicit Conuasation and. E. Video in the Language Clasiroom. 1984. 1974. The Use of Media in Language Teaching Mejia. VisualIntpact: AeatiueLanguage Learning Through pictur. Bring tlrc Lab Bcttk to Life. 1986. and C. R. Anderson. Brattleboro. CA:Jag publicationsl 1991. Bassano. M. lgBB. 1993.S.prctures in Action. P. M. 1985. A. -. As.. S.Amhersq Ny: Creative Edge. C. UK: Addison \Alesley Longman.p. D. S. 1991. 19g2. ed.-. and J. MA: Addison-Wesley. Shaw.Iv{arkham. Brattleboro. $de. Halnvard.I -g. VT: pro Lingua Associites. Griffee.or to Elicit Conuersation and Deaelop Vocabulary./Heinemann. tr. Dnelo. Oxford: Oxford University press.APPENDIX A The materials listed below are useful teacher reference texts that contain additional suggestions for using instructional media to teach second languages. J. VoaI ul"ory. tl t Jones. Sturtridse. Ontario: pippir-r. DneloO Vocebulary. A. lg8b.J. 1993. R. D. serieseds. Studio Ciry. \"b1r. Language Learners.. A. Grundy.Oxford: Oxford Unir. Kennedy Xiao. Genser. George Allen and Ur-rrrin.J. A. l. Sturtr-idee.J. ed.Critchley. Allan. Educational Solutions. ed. ar-rd i. Visual Materials yoi ne Language Tbacher. Fuchs. H.J. Planning arid Usittg tlrc Bleckboard. Elyt P. N. Oxford: Pergamonpress.l9B0. 102 Vay TbachabkFitms. and T. New york: Educational Solutions.New York: prentice Hall. EssJx. J. lgg0.Brattleboro. de \/er. Studio City.jnvolucri. Sitent Woy Materials (Cuisenairerods. Studio Ci ry..hurtr. UK: Longman. lgg2.1980. Ayron. UsingtheMagutboarcl.). Hill.. Video. VT: pro Lingua Associates. 1g93. 1985. Clark. 3. and G. 1984. Natspapers. PracticalLanguage'fearz ng.rne. Brattleboro. Englewood Cliffs. The Magnetic Way into Language. Chalk Thtks. 1992. 19g7. Wntcha Gonna Learn From the Comics? How to (Jse Comics to Tbaclt Lorguages.Drauing Out. B1. C. Cxford: Oxford Universitv press. M. _ 19Bl 6. D. T. ActionEngtishpictures. pictures.A: Jag -. Ashkenas. lgg2.J. Mugglestone. Lynch. Index Card Games for ESL.M.. 2. M. Video in LarzguageTbaching. I bB2. CA: Alemanv press. and H. 4. and C. Lavery. This list is not intended to be an exhausti-ve one.ersitypress. Cooper. l!9tog'at)hic Slidesin Language Tbaching. _Wright. Tba&ingEngtishuith Vd. A. \{l: pro Linzua Asociates.eo. 47q .. NJ: prentice Hall. Ivforgan. and [4. Songsin Action. Cambridge: Cambridge Universirypress. lg82. puchta. Geddes. Listening. R.. 'fechnolog. 1994. Crznmer. Lonergan. and G.istison. sound-color. New york: Prentice Hall. APPENDIXB The materials listed below are useful audiovisual packagesthat are comrnercially available for the teaching of English as a Second Language.M. G.M. 7 . etc. 19g0.sisted Tbactring Tbcltniques. London: Longman. Nau Comicsand Conuersation: Using Hum. Shapiro. Using tlrc Ouerlrca projecor.. Steinberg. Duncan. 100(t pictures for Tbachsrs Copt. CA: Command performance Language Institute. The Magazine picture Library. Using Blachbornd Drauing. McAtpin. and M. Frauman-Prickel. D. c publ icatio ns. 1976. Laroy lgg2. fidels.Famiku: 10 Card Games -fo. Hayward.. Gerngross. CA: Alemany press.IusiiatOpmings: Using Musir in tlu Language Clasnoori. and T. but rather to give an idea of the range of materials available. and T. 2000.. \T: pro Lingui " Associates..London: Longman. t 985.. p... Chr.

Volumes I-[V. What's Photographs Language the Story:Sequential for Practice. 1984. Walton-onThames.. 475 Unit V SkillsforTeachers . 1981. 'l-itrouglt Video Minrc Speak Easy: English London : Longman. A. Grunbaum. MA: Addison-Wesley.Cambridge: Cambricige University Press. Winters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Pr css. Rodgers. and A. NY: Longman. A. 1995. anC C. New York: Longman. and E. S. Tinnenbaum. M. NY: Longman. Picture Stories:Language and. and Logical Sequences for Lan. F.. Nelson. E. K. Pronunciation Card Games. Yedlin. Sounds Intrigdng.A. M. Reading. Pronunciation Gam.guage Acquisition. R. Hancock. Operations in English: 55 Natura. 1999) .erson. White Plains. and J. Maley. VT: Pro Lingua Associates. ig83. Lexicarry: An lllustrated Vocnbulary Builder for Seccnd Language. Literacy Actiuities for Beginners. Double Aclion Picture Cards.Harrap's CommunicationGames: A Collection of Games and Actiaities fo. F. VT: Pro Lingua Associates. New Yor'k: Cambridge University Press. and F. L.. Sketches. 1993. See h-Say It. 1990. L.. Duff. R. UIL Nelson Harrap. Smith.White Plains. Maley. Ligon. l99l. 1979. Waltonon-Thames. and T. 1984. Brattleboro.J. More Picture Storics: Language and Problzm-Posing Actiuities for Beginzers.. 1990. Y. Morari. 1975. Reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1980. Thnnenbaum. Ligon. P. MA: Addison-\4/esley. \/T: Pro Lingua Associates. J. T:hz Mind's Eye. Silr. G. Markstein. Duff. and D. Elementary Students of Engli^sh.. Brattleboro. UIt Nelson Harrap. Sounds Interesting.. IntermediateCommunicationGames: A Collection of Gamzs and Actiaitizs for Low to Mid-Internt ediate Studcnts of Engli. Brattleboro. Henry. 1981. Jacot. Grellet.

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