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REVIEW UNIT 1: BIOCHEMISTRY — SAMPLE QUESTIONS A. Sample Multiple Choice Questions
Complete the multiple choice questions to review this unit. 1. Which of the following is an example of a hydrogen bond? (1990:9) a. The peptide bond between amino acids in a protein b. The bond between an oxygen atom and a hydrogen in the carboxyl group of a fatty acid. c. The bond between Na+ and Cl- in salt d. The attraction between a hydrogen of one water molecule and the oxygen of another water molecule. e. The bond between carbon and hydrogen in methane 2. A feature of organic compounds NOT found in inorganic compounds is the presence of (1994:10) a. ionizing chemical groups b. electrons c. carbon atoms covalently bonded to each other d. oxygen e. hydrogen bonds Questions 3-7. Choose an item from the list below that is best associated with the following statements. (1994:86-90) A. Glycocalyx B. Cholesterol C. Triglyceride D. Phospholipid E. Protein 3. Carbohydrate-containing layer at the surface of the plasma membrane 4. The major component of the fluid bilayer of a plasma membrane 5. Carrier molecule in the plasma membrane 6. Steroid affecting the fluidity of the plasma membrane 7. ATP synthase (synthetase) in the inner mitochondrial and chloroplast membrane 1 of 4 Developed by Kim B. Foglia • www.ExploreBiology.com • ©2010
8. The bonding of two amino acid molecules to form a larger molecule requires a. the release of a water molecule b. the release of a carbon dioxide molecule c. the addition of a nitrogen atom d. the addition of a water molecule e. an increase in activation energy 9. Which of the following best characterizes the reaction represented below (1999:14) A + B + energy → AB a. hydrolysis b. catabolism c. oxidation-reduction d. exergonic reaction e. endergonic reaction 10. Which of the following can be used to determine the rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions (1994:37) a. rate of disappearance of the enzyme b. rate of disappearance of the substrate c. rate of disappearance of the product d. change in volume of the solution e. increase in activation energy
2 of 4 Developed by Kim B. Foglia • www.ExploreBiology.com • ©2010
B. Sample Free Response Questions
Make an outline of the information you would include in each of these essays 1. 2003B:3 Water is important for all living organisms. The functions of water are directly related to its physical properties. a. Describe how the properties of water contribute to TWO of the following transpiration thermoregulation in endotherms plasma membrane structure
b. Water serves as a reactant and a product in the carbon cycle. Discuss the role of water in the carbon cycle. c. Discuss the impact of one human activity on the water cycle.
2. 2002B:3 The physical form of cells and organisms is often influenced by special structural polymers. Choose one polymer from each of the following three pairs of polymers: Pair 1: tubulin . . myosin Pair 2: cellulose . . chitin Pair 3: messenger RNA . . transfer RNA
For each of the three polymers you have chosen, describe its a. structure, and b. role in a cell or organism.
3. 2001:4 Proteins — large complex molecules — are building blocks of all living organisms. Discuss the following in relation to proteins. a. the chemical composition and levels of structure of proteins b. the roles of DNA and RNA in protein synthesis c. the roles of proteins in membrane structure and transport of molecules across the membrane
3 of 4 Developed by Kim B. Foglia • www.ExploreBiology.com • ©2010
Be sure to state the hypothesis that was tested here. b. Describe a controlled experiment that could have produced the data shown for either temperature or pH. b. 4 of 4 Developed by Kim B. Describe THREE types of chemical bonds/interactions found in proteins. include a discussion of the relationship between the structure and the function of this enzyme. a. Discuss how the structure of a protein affects the function of TWO of the following. 2008:1 The physical structure of a protein often reflects and affects its function. Explain the genetic basis of abnormal hemoglobin.Name _____________________________ AP Biology 4. How do (1) temperature and (2) pH affect the activity of this enzyme? In your answer. describe the role in determining protein structure. For each type.com • ©2010 . as well as a discussion of how structure and function of enzymes are affected by temperature and pH. Abnormal hemoglobin is the identifying characteristic of sickle cell anemia. a. The following results were obtained. 2000:1 The effects of pH and temperature were studied for an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.ExploreBiology. muscle contraction regulation of enzyme activity cell signaling c. Explain why the sickle cell allele is selected for in certain areas of the world. 5. Foglia • www.
DNA base-pair substitution b. Which of the following statements best expresses the concept of punctuated equilibrium? (1990:51) a. kin selection 1 of 4 Developed by Kim B. geographic isolation d.ExploreBiology. physiological isolation 4. The differences in cricket calls among sympatric species of crickets are examples of (1990:51) a. Which of the following is most often associated with the elaborate courtship rituals conducted by many birds? (1990:14) a. frameshift mutation 3.Name _____________________________ AP Biology Period _________ Date ______________________ REVIEW UNIT 6: EVOLUTION — SAMPLE QUESTIONS A. Under competition for identical resources. one of the two competing species will be eliminated or excluded. habitat isolation b. Random mating ensures that the proportions of genotypes in a population remain unchanged from generation to generation. d. Small variations gradually accumulate in evolving lineages over periods of millions of years. 1. e. species recognition b. Evolutionary changes consist of rapid bursts of speciation alternating with long periods in which species remain essentially unmodified. feeding response 2. This change represents which of the following mutational events? (1990:32) a. c. altruism e. behavioral isolation e. Stability is achieved when selection favors the heterozygote. temporal isolation c.com • ©2010 . b. Foglia • www. DNA base-pair addition d. migration c. chromosomal deletion e. Sample Multiple Choice Questions Complete the multiple choice questions to review this unit. while both types of homozygotes are at a relative disadvantage. The replacement of glutamic acid by valine at a specific position in the beta chains of hemoglobin leads to sickle cell anemia. d. DNA base-pair deletion c.
which of the following is closest to the frequency of the dominant allele in this population? (Assume Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.04 b. 40% c. Foglia • www. Evolution is a gradual process that occurs over long periods of time.Name _____________________________ AP Biology 5. (1994:49-50) 8. there is a high incidence of “blue skin”.16 Question 8–9. All of the “blue-skinned” residents can trace their ancestry to one couple. Assume Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. 32% 9.06. heterozygote advantage 2 of 4 Developed by Kim B. natural selection 7. In a certain flock of sheep.ExploreBiology. c. b. More individuals are born than will survive e. Variation occurs among individuals in a population. 0. 96% d. Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variation d. 6. mutation b. 64% d.com • ©2010 . What percentage of the population is homozygous for white wool? a. a condition that results from a variation in the structure of hemoglobin. The unusually high frequency of “blue skin” in the area is an example of (1999:44) a. 0. 64% e. 4% b. 4 percent of the population has black wool and 96 percent has white wool. 20% b. 0.36 e. sexual selection e.06 c. 80% d. Which of the following principles is NOT part of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection? (1999:53) a. what percentage of the population is heterozygous for this trait? a. 80% e. 0. If black wool is a recessive trait.) (1999:54) a. 0. genetic drift c. If the frequency of the allele for this condition is 0. In a small group of people living in a remote area.94 d. Individuals that possess the most favorable variations have the best chance of reproducing. 20% c. In certain Native American groups. albinism due to a homozygous recessive condition in the biochemical pathway for melanin is sometimes seen. who were among the original settlers of this region.
Discuss how TWO of the following have modified biologists' interpretation of Darwin's original contributions.Name _____________________________ AP Biology B. using an appropriate example for each. 3 of 4 Developed by Kim B. mutation adaptive radiation polyploidy population bottlenecks growth of the human population b. 2004:2 Darwin is considered the "father of evolutionary biology. which implies the common descent of all species Occurrence of gradual changes in species Natural selection as the mechanism for evolution a. b. For EACH of the four contributions listed above. Sample Free Response Questions 1. a. discuss its impact on the diversity of life on Earth. For each process or phenomena you selected in (a). Explain THREE of the following processes of phenomena. 2003B:4 Biologists are interested in preserving the diversity of living organisms on the planet. Darwin's ideas have been enhanced and modified as new knowledge and technologies have become available.ExploreBiology. Foglia • www." Four of his contributions to the field of evolutionary biology are listed below. discuss one example of supporting evidence. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium Punctuated equilibrium Genetic engineering 2.com • ©2010 . The nonconstancy of species Branching evolution.
Explain the theory of evolution by natural selection as presented by Darwin. Foglia • www. etc. Convergent evolution and the similarities among species (ecological equivalents) in a particular biome (e. taiga. a. Each of the following relates to an aspect of evolution by natural selection. 2001:2 AP Biology Charles Darwin proposed that evolution by natural selection was the basis for the differences that he saw in similar organisms as he traveled and collected specimens in South America and on the Galapagos Islands.ExploreBiology. b. Explain three of the following.. Natural selection and heterozygote advantage 4 of 4 Developed by Kim B. etc. fixed-action-pattern.g.Name _____________________________ 3. tundra.com • ©2010 .) Natural selection and the formation of insecticide-resistant insects or antibioticresistant bacteria Speciation and isolation Natural selection and behavior such as kinesis. dominance hierarchy.
Animalia 1 of 5 Developed by Kim B.ExploreBiology. A microscopic.com • ©2010 . bean plant E.Name _____________________________ AP Biology Period _________ Date ______________________ REVIEW UNIT 7: BIODIVERSITY — SAMPLE QUESTIONS A. Family D. Fungi C. Phylum 4. Foglia • www. Genus E. unicellular organism that has a cell wall impregnated with silicon and is important as plankton in a food chain belongs to which of the following groups? (90:06) A. All members of which of the following groups have the greatest number of characteristics in common? (90:29) A. Protista C. ferns E. corn plant D. Eubacteria B. moss C. Plantae D. leaves with parallel venation. An organism that is eukaryotic. pine B. diatoms C. Order C. cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) D. brown algae 2. A plant that has a stem with scattered vascular bundles. Sample Multiple Choice Questions Complete the multiple choice questions to review this unit. mosses B. 1. and seeds with a single cotyledon is probably a (90:20) A. Class B. liverwort 3. heterotrophic. multicellular. and lacks cell walls belongs to which of the following? (90:30) A.
Name _____________________________ AP Biology 5. Coniferophyta (conifers) 7. Chrysophyta (golden algae) C. the animal is most likely to be (94:06) A. are multicellular C. A dominant gametophyte with independent sporophyte C. skin as a gas exchange system. Bryophyta (mosses) B. an earthworm D. Pteridophyta (ferns) E. Mosses are characterized by which of the following? (90:59) A. A dominant sporophyte with large dependent gametophyte E. Anthrophyta (flowering plants) D. a snail B. are heterotrophic D. a grasshopper E. A dominant sporophyte with independent gametophyte D. A dominant sporophyte with gametophyte reduced to a few cells 6. A dominant gametophyte with dependent sporophyte B. Foglia • www. Vascular plants with spores borne in sporangia on the underside of leaves are characteristic of which of the following plant groups? (94:05) A. and a closed circulatory system. Members of the kingdom Fungi generally differ from members of the kingdom Plantae in that fungi (94:15) A. a planarian C. a jellyfish 8.ExploreBiology. are eukaryotic 2 of 5 Developed by Kim B. If an invertebrate possesses nephridia as an excretory system. are both aquatic and terrestrial E. have cell walls B.com • ©2010 .
Coelomate .. Which of the following pairs of terms best describes this organism? (94:113) A. segmented E.. mature form is five-part radial Lined with tissue derived from mesoderm not evident spiny exoskeleton secreted by the dermis and covered with a thin epidermis marine 9. Coelomate. Mollusca C. Pharyngeal slits. Protostome . metazoan C. Chordata B.. cleavage is radial Immature form is bilateral. (99:87. deuterostome B. ventral heart (99:89) 14. Mollusca E. jointed appendages (99:88) 13. exoskeleton. Chordata 11. Acoelomate .com • ©2010 . Annelida D. parazoan 10.91) A. Nematoda C. Bilaterally symmetrical. Pseudocoelomate . Usual mode of reproduction: Type of fertilization: Embryology: Symmetry: Body cavity: Segmentation: Skeleton Habitat: Sexual External Blastopore contributes to the formation of anus.Name _____________________________ AP Biology Questions 9 & 10 refer to the data below concerning a newly discovered organism. Internal calcareous skeleton. Echinodermata E. dorsal hollow nerve cord (99:87) 12.. Diploblastic . deuterostome.. Foglia • www. Annelida B. Echinodermata Questions 11–15. Arthropoda D. water-vascular system (99:90) D. The following questions refer to the list below. unsegmented 3 of 5 Developed by Kim B.ExploreBiology. Into what phylum should this organism be placed? (94:114) A. endoskeleton derived from mesoderm. deuterostome.
Hair tufts protruding from ears E. many body segments (99:91) 16. B. Species P and T do not share a common ancestor. Naked (hairless) tail B. Species S evolved from species R. E. Closed circulatory system. Body hair 4 of 5 Developed by Kim B. D. Foglia • www. Species S is more closely related to species T than to species R. Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the cladogram above? A. Species P and Q are equally related to species T. Three toes on hindfeet C. protostome. Enlarged incisors D. Species Q and R make up a monophyletic group. The table shows selected characters used to determine relationships among four species of mammals.com • ©2010 .Name _____________________________ AP Biology 15. 17.ExploreBiology. Which of the following characters is unique to Neomysticena? A. C.
Foglia • www. 5 of 5 Developed by Kim B.Name _____________________________ AP Biology 18.ExploreBiology.com • ©2010 .
Foglia • www. B. which of the following carbon compounds would be utilized as an energy source by heterotrophs? (90:36) A. During the carbon cycle. All of the following are density-dependent factors that limit animal populations EXCEPT (90:08) A. predation C. D. The production of large numbers of offspring within very short periods of time ensures the survival of some prey populations. E. A rise in the population of prey is often followed by a rise in the population of predators. They eat only plants. Sample Multiple Choice Questions Complete the multiple choice questions to review this unit. carbon dioxide E. B. They are fewer in number than are primary consumers. food competition E. carbonic acid C. They contain the greatest total biomass in the system.com • ©2010 . weather B. carbon monoxide 3.ExploreBiology. The population of predators most often eliminates the population of prey. birthrate 2. They are eaten by primary consumers. All of the following statements concerning characteristics of predator-prey relationships are correct EXCEPT: A. Camouflage is an adaptation that protects prey. D. mortality 1 of 8 Developed by Kim B. C.Name _____________________________ AP Biology Period _________ Date ______________________ REVIEW UNIT 10: ECOLOGY — SAMPLE QUESTIONS A. Which of the following is true about secondary consumers in an ecosystem? (90:31) A. D. E. 4. 1. They are smaller and weaker than are primary consumers. organic molecules D. C. calcium carbonate B. A rise in the population of predators is followed by a decrease in the population of prey.
arctic tundra D. large daily temperature variations (90:94) 10. Over 10 inches of precipitation per year. (99:80) 11. E 2 of 8 Developed by Kim B. herbivores E. desert 6. In the nitrogen cycle. extremes of hot and cold throughout the year.Name _____________________________ AP Biology 5. long. carnivores A. taiga C. the transformation of gaseous nitrogen into nitrogen-containing compounds is performed primarily by (90:35) A. C D. This biome has the greatest diversity of species.com • ©2010 . seasonal temperature variations. tropical rain forest B. bacteria C. maintained by periodic fires (90:93) 9.ExploreBiology. dominant vegetation is gymnosperm (90:92 modified) 8. Foglia • www. temperate grassland E. green plants D. cold winters and short summers. fungi B. Permafrost. (99:01) A. A B. Less than 10 inches of precipitation per year. D E. temperatures range from approximately -50°C to +25°C. Lack of water common in summer. a growing season of 60 days or less (90:91) 7. Which point on the curve in the diagram above best represents the carrying capacity of the environment for the population shown. B C.
refer to the food web below. mouse E. Most carnivores function at more than one trophic level. Trophic levels above this number contain too many individuals. Energy is lost from each trophic level. Which of the following best explains why there are seldom more than five trophic levels in a food chain? (94:11) A. regardless of position. The organic and inorganic materials in all the organisms in the diagram will eventually return to the environment by the action of (90:108) A. producers C. snake D. All of the organisms except grass are consumers. Which of the following organisms is most likely to be located at the apex of the pyramid of biomass? (90:106) A. D. The grasshopper is an herbivore. grass B. 3 of 8 Developed by Kim B.com • ©2010 . decomposers B. grasshopper C. Top carnivores are too few in number to prey effectively. top carnivores 15. hawk 13. Foglia • www.ExploreBiology. Only two trophic levels are depicted. The ecosystem contains too much biomass.Name _____________________________ Questions 12–14. primary consumers D. All of the following statements about the diagram are correct EXCEPT: (90:107) A. B. E. D. C. secondary consumers E. B. (90:106-108) 12. The grass is a producer. E. AP Biology 14. C. The mouse and grasshopper are at the same trophic level.
1:1 0.75 : 1 Country 2 1:1 0. Which of the following best approximates the ratio of males to females among individuals below fifteen years of age? (94:110) Country 1 A.5 : 1 1:1 0.5 : 1 1:1 4 of 8 Developed by Kim B. The illustrations below show the age and sex of the human populations in Country 1 and Country 2. approximately what percentage of the individuals were younger than fifteen years of age? (94:109) A. 17.75 : 1 0. Foglia • www.5 : 1 0.Name _____________________________ AP Biology Questions 43–46. The percentages in the different age classes are shown by the relative widths of successive horizontal bars. B. D. 42% D. and the sexes are represented separately.com • ©2010 . (94:109-112) 16. 21% C. E. C.75 : 1 0. In Country 1.ExploreBiology. 10% B. It cannot be estimated from the graph. The ages are grouped by 5-year classes. 52% E.
If. the death rate be reduced drastically C. because there appears to be about a 10-year cycle of sharp declines in size D. about 15 years be added to the life expectancy of each person E. stable B. stable after 1850 under the effects of density-dependent regulating factors 5 of 8 Developed by Kim B. then initially the population would be expected to (94:111) A.ExploreBiology. since fluctuations in population size occurred after 1850 B. decelerating 21. increase in the oldest age classes E. each couple produce fewer children than the number required to replace themselves D. density-dependent D. The graph indicates that the sheep population most likely is (99:118) A. arithmetic E. The type of population growth represented by that portion of the graph line enclosed in the bracket is most accurately termed (99:117) A. headed for extinction because of the population explosion about 1930 C.Name _____________________________ AP Biology 18. Foglia • www. exponential C. infant mortality declined and the birth rate remained the same. (99:117–120) 20. infant mortality be reduced to about half the present level B. shifting from K-selected strategy to an r-selected strategy E. in Country 1. increase in the median age classes 19. Over the next 10-15 years. stabilize at the illustrated level for all age classes D. be even more concentrated in the young age classes C. The graph below shows changes in a population of wild sheep that were introduced to the island of Tasmania in the early 1800s.com • ©2010 . growing in excess of its carrying capacity. regulated by density-independent factors. the stabilization of Country 1’s population at its current size would require that (94:112) A. couples have an average of only 3 children Questions 20–21. be more evenly distributed among the age classes B.
2006:2 According to fossil records and recent published observations. Explain why invasive species are often successful in colonizing new habitats. c. b. Discuss the energy flow through an ecosystem and the relative efficiency with which it occurs. Discuss the impact of the following on energy flow on a global scale Deforestation Global climate change 6 of 8 Developed by Kim B. Predict the population density of species C in 2014. Provide a biological explanation for your prediction. d. b.com • ©2010 . The population size of each species has been regularly monitored as shown in the graph above.Name _____________________________ AP Biology B. 2007:4 The energy flow in ecosystems is based on the primary productivity of autotrophs. Describe the effect that the introduction of beetle species C has had on the population density of species A and species B. 2. Foglia • www. Propose an explanation for the pattern of population density observed in species C. Sample Free Response Questions 1.000 years. a.ExploreBiology. In 1964 a third species of leaf-eating beetle (species C) was accidentally introduced on the island. a. Propose an explanation for the patterns of population density observed in species A and in species B. two species of leaf-eating beetles (species A and B) have existed on an isolated island in the Pacific Ocean for over 100.
2004:4 AP Biology Organisms rarely exist alone in the natural environment.com • ©2010 .ExploreBiology. identify the participants involved in the symbiosis and describe the symbiotic relationship.Name _____________________________ 3. if any. that each participant receives from the relationship. 4. b. Plant root nodules Digestion of cellulose Epiphytic plants Anthrax AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) Choose FOUR of the above and for each example chosen. 2007:3 Compared with other terrestrial biomes. 7 of 8 Developed by Kim B. and identify the trophic level of each organism. and b. discuss the specific benefit or detriment. c. soil composition. Discuss the evolutionary significance of each difference. and annual precipitation limit productivity in deserts. Describe a four-organism food chain that might characterize a desert community. a. Discuss how temperature. Explain one anatomical difference and one physiological difference between species A and B that account for the CO2 uptake patterns shown. deserts have extremely low productivity. Describe the results depicted in the graph. The following are five examples of symbiotic relationships. Foglia • www. a.
In an experiment. Explain the difference between gross and net primary productivity.ExploreBiology. 8 of 8 Developed by Kim B. Explain your prediction.com • ©2010 . a. in the early spring. for water samples taken from different depths of a freshwater pond in a temperate deciduous forest. d. c. 2008:2 Consumers in aquatic ecosystems depend on producers for nutrition.Name _____________________________ 5. net primary productivity was measured. Foglia • www. AP Biology b. including a description of the relative rates of metabolic processes occurring at different depths of the pond. Explain the data presented by the graph. Describe a method to determine net and gross primary productivity in a freshwater pond over a 24-hour period. Describe how the relationship between net primary productivity and depth would be expected to differ if new data were collected in mid-summer from the same pond.
The nucleolus functions in the production of (1994:12) A. ribosome D. nucleus C. chloroplast B. Both contain endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies E. Golgi apparatus B. enzymes 4. Sample Multiple Choice Questions Complete the multiple choice questions to review this unit. mitochondria D. Both can reproduce on their own outside the cell C. Both contain ribosome that are identical to ribosomes of the eukaryotic cytoplasm 3. ribosomes C. All of the following cell components are found in prokaryotic cells EXCEPT (1990:17) A.Name _____________________________ AP Biology Period _________ Date ______________________ REVIEW UNIT 2: CELLS & CELL DIVISION — SAMPLE QUESTIONS A. cell membrane D. Foglia • www. microtubules C. Which is a characteristic of mitochondria and chloroplasts that supports the endosymbiotic theory (1994:10) A.com • ©2010 .ExploreBiology. ribosomes E. Both have bacteria-like polysaccharide cell walls B. Both contain DNA molecules D. DNA B. mitochondrion 1 of 6 Developed by Kim B. The organelle that is the major producer of ATP and is found in both heterotrophs and autotrophs is the (1990:7) A. 1. Golgi apparatus E. endoplasmic reticulum 2. nuclear envelope E.
plasmodesmata D. middle lamellas B. osmosis E.ExploreBiology. intracellular digestion C. transpiration D. protein synthesis 7. Cytoplasmic channels between plant cells which are most similar to gap junctions between animal cells are called (1990:64) A. active transport C. tight junctions E. Foglia • www. conduction B. carbohydrate storage E. If plant cells are immersed in distilled water. ATP synthesis B. Which of the following is the primary role of the lysosome (1990:46) A. lipid transport D. desmosomes 2 of 6 Developed by Kim B. facilitated diffusion 6.com • ©2010 . the resulting movement of water into the cells is called (1990:34) A. tonoplasts C.Name _____________________________ AP Biology 5.
Which of the following best describes the conditions expected after 24 hours? (99:115) A. 10. A glucose test on the solution in the bag will be negative. A net movement of water into the beaker has occurred.Name _____________________________ Questions 114–116. a potato slice were placed in the beaker of distilled water. The bag will contain more water than it did in the original condition. B. instead of the bag. E. It would gain mass. It would absorb solutes from the surrounding liquid. E. The molarity of the solution in the bag and the molarity of the solution in the surrounding beaker are the same. Water potential in the bag will be greater than water potential in the surrounding solution. The initial concentration of glucose in the bag is higher than the initial concentration of starch in the bag. C. 9. The cells of the potato would increase their metabolic activity. If. C. The contents of the bag will have the same osmotic concentration as the surrounding solution. B. After 3 hours.116) AP Biology 8. It would lose water until water potential inside the cells is equal to zero. 3 of 6 Developed by Kim B.ExploreBiology. as shown at right. The bag is not selectively permeable. Foglia • www. which of the following would be true of the potato slice? (99:116) A. The following questions refer to an experiment in which a dialysis-tubing bag is filled with a mixture of 3% starch and 3% glucose and placed in a beaker of distilled water. (99:114. It would neither gain nor lose mass. B. Starch molecules will continue to pass through the bag. C.com • ©2010 . D. From the initial conditions and results described which of the following is a logical conclusion? (99:114) A. D. E. glucose can be detected in the water outside the dialysis-tubing bag. but starch cannot. The pores of the bag are larger than the glucose molecules but smaller than the starch molecules. D.
ExploreBiology. explain why seawater could decrease crop production. c. Foglia • www. The concentration of NaCl in mg/L in the water outside the bag was measured at 40-second intervals. explain your predictions. Fifteen milliliters (mL) of 0% NaCl were put into a bag formed of dialysis tubing that is permeable to Na+. On the axes provided. 2002:4 The following experiment was designed to test whether different concentration gradients affect the rate of diffusion. 1% NaCl.Name _____________________________ AP Biology B. draw and label three additional lines representing the results that you would predict for the 0% NaCl. Farmlands located near coastal regions are being threatened by encroaching seawater seeping into the soil. In this experiment. 4 of 6 Developed by Kim B. four solutions (0% NaCl. 1% NaCl. graph the data for the 5% NaCl solution b. The same was done for each NaCl solution. and 10% NaCl) were tested under identical conditions. CONCENTRATION IN mg/L OF NaCl OUTSIDE THE 5% NaCl BAG Time NaCl (seconds) (mg/L) 0 0 40 80 120 160 130 220 320 400 a. and 10% NaCl solutions. Each bag was submerged in a separate beaker containing 300 mL of distilled water. The results from the 5% bag are shown in the table below. Include a discussion of water potential in your answer.com • ©2010 . Using the same set of axes. and water. Cl–. In terms of water movement into or out of plant cells. 5% NaCl. Sample Free Response Questions 1.
c. a. b. Identify THREE macromolecules that are components of the plasma membrane in a eukaryotic cell and discuss the structure and function of each. muscle contraction fertilization of an egg chemiosmotic production of ATP intercellular signaling 4.Name _____________________________ 2. Describe the structure and function of TWO eukaryotic membrane-bound organelles other than the nucleus. Describe the function of TWO of the following and discuss how each differs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. DNA cell wall ribosomes c. Answer two of the following. 2007:1 Membranes are essential components of all cells. Explain how membranes participate in THREE of the following biological processes. AP Biology a. Provide three examples of adaptations found in various prokaryotes. 2004B:1 Prokaryotes are found throughout the biosphere. 5 of 6 Developed by Kim B. b. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have some non-membrane-bound components in common. 3.com • ©2010 . a.ExploreBiology. b. Explain how these three adaptations have ensured the success of prokaryotes. Explain the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cell and discuss an example of evidence supporting this theory. Discuss how prokaryotes early in Earth’s history altered environments on Earth. 2006:1 A major distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the presence of membranebound organelles in eukaryotes. Foglia • www. Discuss three ways in which prokaryotes continue to have an ecological impact today.
ExploreBiology.Name _____________________________ 5. b. as well as a discussion of how structure and function of enzymes are affected by temperature and pH. 6 of 6 Developed by Kim B. The following results were obtained. Be sure to state the hypothesis that was tested here. a. Foglia • www. 2000:1 AP Biology The effects of pH and temperature were studied for an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Describe a controlled experiment that could have produced the data shown for either temperature or pH.com • ©2010 . How do (1) temperature and (2) pH affect the activity of this enzyme? In your answer. include a discussion of the relationship between the structure and the function of this enzyme.
know how to use formula when given & how to interpret results • • degrees freedom (1 less than number of classes of results) less than p=. pleiotropy (dwarfism. determining if observed results are significantly different from expected results b.Name _____________________________ AP Biology Period _________ Date ______________________ REVIEW UNIT 4 & 5: HEREDITY & MOLECULAR GENETICS — “TOP TEN” A. Meiosis 2 separates sister chromatids: produces 4 sex cells 2. polygenic (skin color) 5. Different versions of same gene are called alleles a. Meiosis 1 separates homologous pairs: reduction division • crossing over in Prophase 1 b. Top “10” — If you learned anything from this unit. sex linked (mainly X-linked: color blindness. epistasis (coat color). DNA & RNA a. C : G b.05. heterozygous c. single helix 1 of 3 Developed by Kim B. phenotype vs. test cross 4. co-dominance (blood type).ExploreBiology. homozygous vs. Non-Mendelian inheritance a. Chi-square analysis a. hemophilia). genotype 3. Foglia • www. double helix • A : T. Meiosis produces haploid gametes a. you should have learned: 1. monohybrid crosses • • • • • • Aa x Aa = 3:1 ratio Law of Segregation AaBb x AaBb = 9:3:3:1 ratio Law of Independent Assortment determine genotype of individual showing dominant phenotype unknown (A_) x aa (homozygous recessive) b. then difference can be due to random chance alone & null hypothesis is accepted 6. DNA: ACTG nitrogen bases. dominant vs. Mendelian inheritance a. RNA: ACUG nitrogen bases. incomplete dominance (pink flower color). dihybrid crosses c. giantism). recessive b.com • ©2010 .
Regulation of genes a. Central Dogma a.ExploreBiology. Biotechnology a. sticky ends. redundancy in code universal code (single common ancestor) 8. DNA RNA protein trait b. Foglia • www. Techniques 2 of 3 Developed by Kim B. coli) possible because of universal genetic code restriction digest: restriction enzymes. ligase. insertions.com • ©2010 . genetic change b. transcription (DNA mRNA) • • • • • • • • in nucleus RNA polymerase copies coding strand & produces mRNA in cytoplasm codons on mRNA read by ribosome matched to anticodons of tRNA AP Biology c. lacZ screening gel electrophoresis: DNA moves in an electrical field (negative positive). operons • • • • prokaryotes cluster of genes for enzymes in a pathway controlled by repressor protein repressible operon (synthesis pathway = tryp operon) vs. transcription factors • • 9. inducible operon (digestive pathway = lac operon) eukaryotes proteins which enable bonding of RNA polymerase to gene b. Scientists can modify an organism’s genome by inserting foreign DNA • • • • • bacterial transformation (human insulin gene in E.Name _____________________________ 7. Mutations a. amp selection. fuel for evolution = variation. gene duplication. point mutation. deletion 10. translation (mRNA protein) tRNA carries amino acids to mRNA & ribosome assembles polypeptide chain start codon (Met) & stop codons. sticky ends transformation: restriction enzymes. small pieces move further b.
LB+amp plates c. Experimental 3 of 3 Developed by Kim B. and understand: a. Labs 1. How to interpret gel electrophoresis results in restriction analysis d. How to calculate Chi square values 2.Name _____________________________ PCR: DNA amplification RFLP: DNA fingerprinting Sanger sequencing: Human Genome Project AP Biology • • • B.com • ©2010 . Bacterial Transformation & Restriction Analysis Be sure to review the procedures and the conclusions. Controls vs. and understand: a. Foglia • www. How to set up a similar experiment b. Genetics of Organisms (Fly Lab) Be sure to review the procedures and the conclusions. How to determine genotype of individuals through crosses b.ExploreBiology. How to interpret transformation results on LB vs.
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