Rethinking the Nation-State: The Many Meanings of Sovereignty Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy by Stephen D.

Krasner Review by: Josef Joffe Foreign Affairs, Vol. 78, No. 6 (Nov. - Dec., 1999), pp. 122-127 Published by: Council on Foreign Relations Stable URL: . Accessed: 24/03/2012 16:02
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In international less understood politics. And For to bear all naked truths to envisage circumstance. they talk about states and term carries at that of sovereignty. do what who famously the third definition John Keats' can be found in told the intractableMelians strong they that "the "Hyperion": can and the weak at Stanford University. "supreme power"?as s poem "Oenone. least three meanings in it denotes First. 1999. all calm That 264 pp.95). power? Not has it. sovereignty. we eignty are left with two basic." A second meaning remedy Alfred of the word from denotes or autonomy.50 (paper. to a "life to sovereign In a way power. Stoic state of mind." is not holy writ. Joffe. it is of course easy to as a into sovereignty poke large holes central about tenet of traditional international realist thinking politics. Supreme even the United States. it certainly word Americas cannot treat the rest of the world in the manner of the Athenians. $16.Review Essay Rethinking the Nation-State of Sovereignty The Many Meanings Josefjoffe Sovereignty: Stephen Princeton by Organized Hypocrisy." in similar vein. freedom And constraint. Robert Burton. the "last remaining superpower. is the top of sovereignty. KRASNER. everyday meanings for the word: or think when their supreme power and autonomy is how most people This independence. tongue as a tobacco cheek. as the self-restraint" only knowledge. $49. praises "sovereign to all diseases. Josef is Editorial and Associate [122] . In that case." Lord Tennyson self which celebrates "self-reverence. Princeton: University Press. and more no is concept than misused aside the poet's sense of sover Setting as a serene. The in everyday language. independence. visiting Payne Lecturer Munich of the S?ddeutsche Zeitung in Page Editor and Columnist at Harvard University's Olin Institute for Strategic Studies. D.

security.. monads" Leibniz's "windowless that states are like to escape taught that the only way a state of the state of nature. we would one a real state.N. not has to be such a locus. But and currencies this has have always for resources. if at all. In fact.. coali their case.W." is fourfold. Germany. from really war. support. recalls G. call an entity without November/December 1999 [ 12 3 ] a cuts away." source of authority. Krasner's most recent surfaces. that the dominant model politics?the construct?is It follows through institutions treaties. and confederations. constraints). Nations "able to make is is must Nation-State the To begin. Even if they their autonomy have always compromised on others in countless tions. was for men "to confer all their power and may will. Thus it seems to follow such thing as sovereignty. that he one man strength upon . "Domestic calls "final Sovereignty: OrganizedHypocrisy!. rarely it comes is even more true when This to autonomy. But there States. Washington and coax other nations. unto one reduce all their wills had enforced to that the to be a supreme authority law and adjudicated then. a most welcome appearance. Jean Bodin. in aworld of almost 200 Council. nor is nothing does the loss of control prove anything War about More sovereignty itself. across their borders. in federal republics like polities?even the United States where power iswidely shared. depended or not forced to do so.Rethinking the United suffer what they must. convince. countries. goods. perpetual REWRITING Here work.. Associated them most that there is no further of international realist or balance-of-power as useful as a you unicycle: can ride on it. Western Hobbes tradition of political philosophy. the second vernacular No nation of sovereignty. which by assuming billiard balls: hard-shelled. as Krasner ." argues." exists in all it. are Krasner's next interesting three definitions of sovereignty. ways: (with alliances. makes Right Stephen RULES D. and not even North Korea autonomous one's own (literally. His FOREIGN AFFAIRS- . but not very well. meaning an island." So there new under the sun here. highly polished units without bonding propelled and only by their internal dynamics." of globalization. "control" with "authority. What sover "interdependence in pat eignty" expressed phrases is eroding because such as "state sovereignty he labels is usually Krasner Such bromides. only can it coerce or ignore them.. international "by capital markets were more open before the First World than they are now. he rightly makes short shrift of the commonplace idea that sovereignty means from external freedom influences. deeply all. "Domestic is perhaps the weightiest of sovereignty" strongly with and Jean Hobbes. Krasner through of conceptual confusion tangle by sorting out the many ways in which we use and misuse classificatory the term scheme "sovereignty. sovereignty. If sovereignty is compromised in myriad so is the conventional that model ways. laws"). to a supreme court in the United China or Israel. pollutants. Thomas it is rooted in the Jacques Rousseau. confuse Of course the flow over states are losing control of people. a life of to doomed collision. always been the some measures. Living consult." There that refers conflict. The locus of final authority from the politburo in may vary widely. it usually feels compelled to ask for the Security approval of the U." When States goes to war.

Those sovereignty of acceptance must to seize power and who claim do be accorded states? the by other implying that their claim is right and a proper actor on the world just. in Krasners legal normative is part of the comes the principle cuius regio." Reduced it is the of nonintervention. "Westphalian sovereignty" what we should mean when we say as we concede "sovereignty"?as long a that there is large "ought" concealed core.. We to treat the concept's ought other states as hard-shelled their entities as well territoriality to noninterference. of has been the history tional politics [124] FOREIGN AFFAIRS-Volume N0. the case.." This has content than does even Kim nized hypocrisy. word. there was already a heavy whiff of in theWestphalian and Potsdam Versailles dose of international air: a massive super arrangements Plus ?a of Germany. sovereignty" reveals.6 78 . that has never been by as in vision over the future internal back in 1648." and right he is. for states have when domestic in the stopped interfering affairs of other states?especially of Hobbes' (although sovereignty" or North Koreas Leviathan internal know when Jong II cannot live by brute force alone but needs How do we legitimacy "international we as well). and Osnabr?ck M?nster on one another's domestic powers agreed to stop intruding is true politics. legal see it? Krasner clout. they had the appropriate But Krasner also sets up something as a closer look at theWest actually designed cuius regio. princes leaving about 300 Empire. is Still.. Empirically. were of the peace. stage. control mestic badge it is not enough territory. landmass Closely are a "sovereign"?whether like Kuwait city-state related to "international puny or or a vast in the affairs of the interference right of Sweden even gained Holy Roman Empire." which he labels the "Westphalian It rests on two principles: "territoriality and the exclusion of external actors from domes to one tic authority structures. change. is Krasner legal s last definition. and II. religio was tests: "Is a state the following proposes recognized by other states? Is it accepted as a juridical equal? Are its representatives compromised from the startby the principle of religious tolerance. in exclusive charge of their the history of interna Since Thucydides. Krasner never calls this a system of "orga It also reaffirmed taxonomy "international higher "domestic sovereignty. turfs. The two victors France and guarantors and Sweden. sovereignty" model. system phalian To begin with. all states that fulfill the criteria powerful. More important the realpolitik of the settlement. etus a straw man. Although those 300 sovereigns were the top dogs in their were bound to state churches. So 300 years I ofWorld Wars like Canada. principle is a bit of a sovereignty" "Westphalian For it suggests?wrongly?that misnomer. that the ruler s faith religioj meaning became the official denomination of his eins state. the granted entitled to diplomatic immunity?" In other words. a formal right of participation in the Imperial Diet (asKrasner actually points out elsewhere before the settlements in his book).Josefjoffe "Domestic logic Next a sovereignty" of statehood. at the end of the Thirty the European Years' War. It the territorial states of the in that the peace recognized of the member sovereignty Holy Roman respecting their right of course. To be a must be so certified. political entity In this respect. respect they of the freedom of worship and conscience was their religious minorities.

was living even andAustria. "domestic sovereignty" example. on Cuba (the Platt Amendment imposed States). we accept their right to juridical equals.minority law." notes Krasner. and rightly so. in 1815. How best to under of so-called sovereign has changed? Krasner's states? protection such as Poles treaties were was on. This leads to something of a paradox: "The very fact. On the outside. pledged to noninterference to the problem is this: If Westphalian is "organized hypocrisy. and to whom. notes. recent United human amatter just it also involved Add rights of coercion contract taxonomy. billiard-ball on a state- FOREIGN AFFAIRS November/December [125] . How do we problem a is both normative wield concept that to this the more conventions of the and empirical. there is in theUnited States." Under all states are model." theMagnificent Krasner which. a exhaustive survey of how it has well-nigh been done?when. invasion of Panama) or the protection of the Soviet common wealth (the Brezhnev doctrine)." sovereignty still can we understand theworld in its terms?His response Krasner is ambivalent. stand aworld What." does it all mean? Krasner's legal sovereignty" as do treat other states. and convention. if anything. where. problems of drug by the United running (the 1989 U. states. representation to them alone do we in the United Nations. METHOD So what? IN THE MADNESS Krasner's is not real project but theory. provided for the exemption of foreigners from Ottoman taxation and to be tried under the laws of for them their home Later countries in Vienna in consular courts. "international is also for real. that "rulers could freely sign such agree ments [limiting their domestic sovereignty] is an affirmation legal of their international the fact. Except only do they ignore that in the crunch (if they have the "ought" also undercut the wherewithal). by to enter into other states as competent international So what to accords. of international law to go with apparatus not it. president there is aTreasury Depart commander. minority to ethnic groups extended in Prussia. for from inflicting their nasty habits on hapless subjects.S. [of noninterference] enduring but violated. So the breach of the Westphalian model or never imposition. grant the authority contracts and conventions. Rulers powerful states have justified ofWestphalian principles by alternative norms such as the principles have been inmore violations invoking to penetrate their hard shells inmyriad conventions conclude such as ways. We a who is the supreme a Nations. As Krasner puts it. in other sovereignty"?of that "they are recognized words. After World War I. by allowing others and Krasner's book provides intervention. in national The list is endless. is not easily cracked. faults the realists for standing and sovereignty-centered 1999 this system. embedded Russia. as signed in 1538. They principle voluntarily. ment that alone may print bills and mint coins. by. which by shouldered voluntarily seek to constrain rulers reality. that describes both the "ought" and the "is?" On the inside of is clearly states. They I of France and Suleiman the one Francis illegitimacy of revolutionary regimes (the Holy the provision of national security Alliance). vast or measly.Rethinking Nation-State the and there is a vast and nonintervention. sign we But the issue becomes tricky when turn to "Westphalian sovereignty.

is. Krasner aptly the great French historian Fernand than the mighty set. today.will profit handsomely from his Game last. the end of national monetary Braudel: "The empire of this huge firm vaster Charles V and Philip II. how or obsolete century to about 50 percent has the state been rendered moribund? obsolescence Indeed.Josefjoffe foundation while that foundation the fact that ignoring and always has been. The International Corporation. he politely applies scorn even more his analytical liberally who the "new worlders"?those correcting as a novel and see globalization radical phenomenon.. Take increased said to undermine are capital flows. Waltz. are not drawn to the battle which Krasner renders Black Death one-third fourteenth The a most that claimed the lives of population point in the is that century. rather have actually risen of Europe's with impressive analytical insight in his second chapter. is that of the European There no the fact that its members gainsaying have voluntarily (but not truly relinquished sizable chunks of sovereignty alienated) is instance and autonomy. that European tandem. "The the degree to in inimical. verdicts of the European of British something that cannot be said of the United States Germany. Charles P. ed.1 International flow as a fraction of gdp? It rose rapidly crumbling (although without ever disin tegrating)." International himself too much of a realist) to plant his conventionalists theory. Given peacetime has soared from government spending about 10 percent of gdp in the nineteenth today. and 2001will spell the end of the of 11 states. 6 78 . iQ70." He empire of out are almost interesting and integrationists today is Union. One dramatic monetary That was in January. which state. launched union." Although the forces that have titled "Not he starts out globalization than being by (again) castigating the realists for ignoring undermined since the days and autonomy sovereignty of Francis and Suleiman. Cambridge: mit Press. case institution can make sovereignties? were present Nations. how can we even posit in the face of the relentless of state entities 200. see in particular the figures supplied by the intellectual father of all neorealists. Not at the multiplication even 50 such creation there The alists of the United most today of change from the past and the extent to have been markets which global capital fully integrated have often been overrated. flag among international But Krasner the new until 1914. quarter invested overseas? policy. interesting and state activity. or izationists. quotes was the foremost the German multinational of its Fuggers. 1 On [l2?] FOREIGN AFFAIRS-Volume No. interdependentists. Kindleberger." in Kenneth N. in his seminal piece "TheMyth of International Interdependence." Take time. the conclusion of Chess. on which aswe know that the sun never in the nineteenth wealth or was points a century. relations be they global migration? Itwas at its highest level in the latter part of the nineteenth and early part of the twentieth century. constructivists. sovereign minting prerogatives courts accept the national European Court of Justice. Those who of the schools. not reaching "earlier levels for some countries until the 1980s. is too smart (or is of trade top traders. then dropped until the mid 19408. the world's this. The spread aids and recall the of disease? Forget institutionalists.

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