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Robbie Lyman

ral2177

March 23, 2012

8.14—3. Find the points (x, y) and all the directions for which the directional derivative of f (x, y) = 3x2 + y 2 has its

largest value, if (x, y) is restricted to be on the circle x2 + y 2 = 1.

The directional derivative of f (x, y) at a point a = (x, y) in the direction of v = (z, w) is f (a + hv) − f (a) 3(x + hz)2 + (y + hw)2 − (3x2 + y 2 ) 6hzx + 3h2 z 2 + 2hwy + h2 w2 = lim = lim , h→0 h→0 h→0 h h h lim which is equivalent to lim 6hzx + 2hwy + lim (3z 2 + w2 )h = 6zx + 2wy. h→0 h

h→0

Since this is a directional derivative, we have v = 1, which implies z 2 + w2 = 1. Further, since we have x2 + y 2 = 1, 6zx + 2wy will have its maximum where z and x are maximised and have the same sign, namely in the i direction at (1, 0) and the −i direction at (−1, 0). 8.14—4. (practice) A diﬀerentiable scalar ﬁeld f has, at the point (1, 2) directional derivatives +2 in the direction toward (2, 2) and

−2 in the direction toward (1, 1). Determine the gradient vector at (1, 2) and compute the directional derivative in the direction toward (4, 6).

Let a = (1, 2). The gradient of f at a is grad f (a) = (D1 f (a), D2 f (a)). Since the derivative at (1, 2) toward (2, 2) is equivalent to f (f ; a)y, with y = (1, 0), we have by deﬁnition D1 f (a) = f (f ; a)y = 2. The derivative at (1, 2) toward (1, 1) is equivalent to f (f ; a)y, with y = (0, −1). Because f is diﬀerentiable at a, we can calculate the directional derivative f (f ; a)y with any direction y as a dot product with the gradient, that is f (f ; a)y = grad f (a) · y. Choosing y = (0, −1), then, we ﬁnd grad f (a) · y = (2, D2 f (a)) · (0, −1) = −D2 f (a). Therefore, since f (f ; a)y = −2, D2 f (a) = 2, and the gradient vector at (1, 2) is (2, 2) or 2i + 2j. Moving towards (4, 6) from (1, 2) can be expressed as y = (3,4)/ f (f ; a)y = grad f (a) · y = (2, 2) ·

(3,4)

. In this case we obtain

(3, 4) 14 = . (3, 4) 5

1

mark T in the appropriate square if the statement in row (x) always implies the statement in column (y). y. But since neither x nor x + tv are ﬁxed. (d) All the ﬁrst-order partial derivatives of f exist in a neighborhood of a and are continuous at a. (a) f is continuous at a. b and c such that the directional derivative of f (x. each partial derivative of f exists. Since this holds for h arbitrarily close to 0. I didn’t care to type up the table twice. −1). as h approaches 0. we can express the derivative with respect to any vector y at a point x in B(a) as a dot product: f (x. t)). That is each limit lim f (a + hek ) − f (a) h h→0 exists. we must have each partial derivative Dk f (a) equal to 0. 8. Letting g(t) = f (x + tv) and keeping t small enough that x + tv is still in B(a). But since f (x) ≤ f (a) for each x in B(a). −1) has a maximum value of 64 in a direction parallel to the z-axis. 8. g (θ) = 0.14—10. every directional derivative f (x. For example.14—5. (b) f is diﬀerentiable at a. they can be any points in B(a). the derivative is 2b − 2c. f (a) must be O. (practice) Find values of the constants a. y) = f (x) · y. Assume f is diﬀerentiable at each point of an n-ball B(a). (NB. the limit must be negative or 0 when h is positive and positive or 0 when h is negative. and thus f (x) = f (x + tv).8. 30. b) Since f is diﬀerentiable. y) exists for every y in Rn . prove that f is constant on B(a). y) and x + θy is in B(a).) 2 . (c) f (a. One such value for a. At (1. Since f (x) is O for each x ∈ B(a). Consider the following six statements about a scalar ﬁeld f : S → R. −2). z) = axy 2 + byz + cz 2 x3 at the point (1. In a table like the one shown here. The derivative of f parallel to the z-axis is by + 2czx3 . where S ⊆ Rn and a is an interior point of S. mark T in the second square of the ﬁrst row. (a) If f (x) = O for every x in B(a). prove that a) Since f is diﬀerentiable in B(a). 2. b and c could be (0.14—11. if (a) always implies (b). we use the mean-value theorem to show that g(t) − g(0) = g (θ) (with θ ∈ (0. But since g (θ) = f (x + θy. f (a) = O. Since the gradient is composed of the partial derivatives. Thus f is constant on B(a). (e) f (a) = O. (b) If f (x) ≤ f (a) for all x in B(a). The main diagonal has already been ﬁlled in for you. v) with v = λy and v = 1 is 0 at each x ∈ B(a). (f ) f (x) = x − a for all x in Rn . 2.

0). y. x) · (0. b) Since a · b = a b cos θ. (b) Find the cosine of the angle θ between V (x. y. y. cos θ → −1/ √ 2. y. y. z) normal to the surface z= x2 + y 2 + (x2 + y 2 ) /2 3 at a general point (x. 0. y. the planes will be. x 3 . 1 (0. 1) = −(x2 + y 2 ) /2 . r(t) = 2 − x2 j + (t + t3 )k. z) and b = (0. if the gradients of the spheres are perpendicular. Setting their dot product equal to 0. The gradients are f1 (x. V must be orthogonal to r (t) to be normal to the surface. z) = (0. V (x. 0. 0. we obtain f1 (x.17—10. (a) Find a vector V (x. y. 2 2 √ a) A parametric representation for the surface is. y.a b c d e f a T T T T T b T T T c T T T T d e f T T T T 8. V (x. 1). though any scalar multiple works. y. Since the gradient vector of each sphere is perpendicular to the tangent planes. z) = 2xi + 2(y − 1)j + 2zk. 8. z) = (1 + 3x2 + 3y 2 )(xi + yj) − (x2 + y 2 )1/2 k. z) = 0 = 4x(x − c) + 4y(y − 1) + 4z 2 0 = 4x2 − 4xc + 4y 2 − 4y + 4z 2 c= x2 + y 2 − y + z 2 . y. z) → (0. z) = 2(x − c)i + 2yj + 2zk f2 (x. z) and the z-axis and determine the limit of cos θ as (x. 0). y. z) · f2 (x. 0. y. z) → (0. t t2 − y 2 i + r (t) = t t2 − y2 i+ √ t 1 j + k + 3t2 k = (x2 + y 2 ) /2 (1/x i + 1/y j) + (1 + 3x2 + 3y 2 )k. t 2 − x2 A vector orthogonal to this is V (x. 0). 0. let a = V (x. So 1 9x4 + 18x2 y 2 + 6x2 + 9y 4 + 6y 2 + 2 cos θ = − As (x. Find a constant c such that at any point of the intersection of the two spheres (x − c)2 + y 2 + z 2 = 3 and x2 + (y − 1)2 + z 2 = 1 the corresponding tangent planes will be perpendicular to each other. y. y. z) = (9x4 + 18x2 y 2 + 6x2 + 9y 4 + 6y 2 + 2)(x2 + y 2 ). 0. z) of the surface.17—4. 1) = 1. (x. choosing t = x + y .

Since f (x.17—12. ∂Y /∂t. f (0. t). t) deﬁne u as a function of s and t. −a). 0. 0. t). ∂Y /∂s. 0). a). show that f must assume equal values at the points (0. a) and (0. c). we can write g(a) − g(0) as g (c). 0.22—3. y). say u = F (s. with c ∈ (0. D1. and f (x. g (c) = hc 8. 0). y.2 f (0. x Since any point on the intersection satisﬁes both sphere’s equations. t). show that ∂2F ∂f ∂ 2 X ∂2f = + 2 2 ∂s ∂x ∂s ∂x2 2 ∂X ∂x +2 ∂X ∂Y ∂ 2 f ∂f ∂ 2 Y ∂2f + + 2 ∂s ∂s ∂x∂y ∂y ∂s ∂y 2 2 ∂Y ∂s . (a) Use an appropriate form of the chain rule to express the partial derivatives ∂F/∂s and ∂F/∂t in terms of ∂f /∂x. 0. D2. z) is parallel to xi + yj + zk. we can solve for z and set the equations equal: z = 3 − y 2 − (x − c)2 z = 1 − x2 − (y − 1)2 3 − y − (x − c)2 = 2 2 1 − x2 − (y − 1)2 3 − y − (x − c) = 1 − x2 − (y − 1)2 2 − 2y + 1 = −2xc + c2 y= So 3 + 2xc − c2 2x 2xc = 3 + 2xc − c2 c= c2 = 3 √ c=± 3 3 + 2xc − c2 2 8. D2 f (0. Let f be deﬁned as follows: f (x. (c) Find similar formulas for the partial derivatives ∂ 2 F/(∂s∂t) and ∂ 2 F/∂t2 . 0) = 0. z) is always parallel to xi + yj + zk. 0. Since g is diﬀerentiable.24—2. y. at some point (0. Let g(t) = f (0. y = Y (s. Since f is diﬀerentiable. y) = (0. The equations u = f (x. 0). ∂f /∂y. y) = y x2 − y 2 x2 + y 2 if (x. (b) If ∂ 2 f /(∂x∂y) = ∂ 2 f /(∂y∂x). we have c= y .1 f (0. ∂X/∂x. Compute the following derivatives where they exist: D1 f (0. 8. 4 . 0). t). the directional derivative along the z-axis exists and thus g (t) exists and is equal to ∂f/∂z(0. y) = f (x) · y. x = X(s. If f (x. 0).But since x2 + (y − 1)2 + z 2 = 1 is equivalent to x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 2y.

2 (a) Calculate ∂g/∂u.8.24—7.24—12. (You may assume equality of mixed partials. y) to g(u.) (b) If f (x. r3 = 3A · rB · r A · B − . y) 2 = 2 for all x and y. v). ∂g/∂v. determine constants a and b such that 2 2 a ∂g ∂u −b ∂g ∂v = u2 + v 2 . Let r = xi + yj + zk and let r = r . show that (a) A · (b) B · 1 r A· =− A·r . r5 r3 1 r 5 . and ∂ 2 g/(∂u∂v) in terms of partial derivatives of f . If A and B are constant vectors. y = 1 (u2 − v 2 ) transforms f (x. The change of variables x = uv. 8.

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