MONOGRAPHS

ABHRAKA
(Biotite Mica)

1.

Definition

:

Abhraka is Biotite mica, a ferro-magnesium silicate K (Mg Fe)3 X(Si3AlO11) X (OH)2}. It is a black variety of mica group of minerals. Ghana, Vyoma, Abhra, Niścandra, Vyomaka, Vajra, Vajrābhra, K¨¾´ābhra

2.

Synonyms: 2.1 Sa¼sk¨ta :

2.2

Names in other Languages: Bangali Abhraka English Mica Gujarati Abhraka Hindi Abhrak, Abarak Kannada Abhraka Malayalam Abrakam Marathi Abhraka Tamil Abragam, Karuppu Appirakam (S.F.I.) Telugu Abbarakam Urdu Abrak Siyah (N.F.U.M.)

3. 4.

Broad Classification: A Phyllo-Silicate Origin and occurrence: Abhraka occurs in igneous rocks in pure form as well as in metamorphic rocks as schists and gneisses. It occurs in ore form in pegmatites but pure mineral in sheet-form can be made available through sorting in pegmatite bodies. It is found in all igneous terrains of the earth’s crust. In India, it occurs mostly in the mica belts of Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Jharkhand. The main deposits in these states occur at Ajmer, Bhilwara, Tonk and Pali in Rajasthan, Kalichedu, Thalpur and Gudur in Andhra Pradesh, Koderma and Giridih in Jharkhand. Other known occurrences are in the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala and West Bangal. 5. Physical properties: (Definition/Explanation of technical terms and Methods of Determination as given in Appendix –1). Nature Colour Streak Cleavage Fracture Lustre Tenacity : : : : : : : Platy (separable in thin layers) Greenish black Greenish black Perfect Uneven Splendent Flexible 1

Transparency Hardness Sp. Gr. 6.

: : :

Translucent 2.5 to 3 2.6 to 3

Optical Properties: Anisotropic, Biaxial Negative, small 2V and strong birefringence. Refractive Index: ηα 1.565-1.625; ηβ 1.605- 1.696; ηγ 1.605-1.696 (Appendix-2). Chemical Properties: 7.1 Effect of Heat: Hold a piece of Abhraka by forceps and heat it over a burner flame in its outer zone (about 10000). It swells almost double in volume. Colour changes from black to silver moon while, water is released.

7.

7.2

Solubility: Take about 1 g finely powdered (150 mesh) sample of Abhraka in 250 ml beaker. Add 50 ml sulphuric acid. Stir the solution. It decomposes leaving skeleton of silica (distinction from other micas which are not affected by sulphuric acid). Assay: Should contain not less than 50% silica (SiO2) when analysed by gravimetric method (Appendix-3.1.3). Heavy metals and Arsenic: Should not contain more than the stated limits for the following: - Lead = 45 ppm, Arsenic = 3 ppm, and Cadmium =2 ppm (Appendix-3.2). Other Elements: May contain the following within ± 20% of the stated limits:- Iron = 6%, Aluminium = 5%, Magnesium = 9% and Potassium = 5% (Appendix-3.1 & 3.2).

7.3

7.4

7.5

8. 9.

Śodhana: Shall not be used in formulation without subjecting it to śodhana. Abhraka is always used in the form of bhasma, the therapeutic uses, dose and other details of which are given in the monograph of bhasma.

2

AKĪKA (Agate) 1. 2. Definition: Akīka is a silica mineral (SiO2). It is the banded form of Chalcedony. Synonyms: 2.1 Sa¼sk¨ta 2.2 : Akīka

Names in other Languages: English Quartz, Chacedony Hindi Akīka Punjabi Mank, Akīka Urdu Aqeeq (N.F.U.M.)

3. 4.

Broad Classification: Crypto crystalline Silica Mineral Origin and occurrence: Akīka occurs generally in pure form. It occurs all over the earth’s crust in igneous as well as metamorphic rocks. Wherever cavities are developed, silica is deposited and the material becomes Akīka. Banding in Akīka is due to interrupted deposition of silica in cavities. It is a very common semiprecious ornamental stone. Akīka occurs mainly as fillings in the voids in the Deccan Trap rocks. The most important occurrence of Akīka in India is Rajpipla area and further west between the mouths of river Tapti and Narmada in Bharuch district, Gujarat. Other occurrences of economic importance are known at Amaravati, Aurangabad, Buldhana, Chandrapur, Jalna, Nasik and Pune in Maharashtra, beds of Krishna and Godavari rivers in Andhra Pradesh, Rajmahal and Sahebganj in Bihar, Dhar and Mandsaur in Madhya Pradesh and Jamnagar, Kutch and Surat in Gujarat.

5.

Physical Properties: (Definition/Explanation of technical terms and Methods of Determination as given in Appendix–1). Nature Colour Streak Cleavage Fracture Lustre Tenacity Transparency Hardness Sp. Gr. Fluorescence : : : : : : : : : : : Banded form White White Not present Conchoidal Waxy Brittle Sub- translucent 6 to 7 2.5 to 2.65 Remains dark when observed after irradiation with near UV light of 365 to 400 nm

3

6.

Optical Properties: Akīka is uniaxial, positive, showing birefringence between crossed nicols, with refractive indices between 1.530 and 1.555 with ηw 1.544 and ηe 1.553 (Appendix-2). Chemical Properties: 7.1 Reaction with acids: Take about 5 g finely powdered (150 mesh) sample of Akīka in a test tube. Add 10 ml dilute hydrofluoric acid. It dissolves completely in hydrofluoric acid. (Care should be taken in handling hydrofluoric acid). No other acid has any reaction or effect on Akīka. 7.2 Assay: Should contain not less than 95% Silica (SiO2) when analysed by gravimetric method (Appendix-3.1.3). Heavy metals and Arsenic: Should not contain more than the stated limits for the following:- Arsenic = 190 ppm, and Cadmium = 1.6 ppm (Appendix-3.2).

7.

7.3

8. 9.

Diagnostic property: Bands of Akīka are typically parallel to each other. Śodhana: Shall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana. 9.1 Śodhana: [Ref. Rasatantrasāra Siddha Prayoga Sa¬graha, Part-1, page 73] i) ii) Akīka Gulāba Jala or Arka Vedamuśka or Go-dugdha : 1 part

:

Q.S

Method: Heat Akīka till it becomes red-hot and dip in Gulāba Jala or Arka Vedamuśka or Go-dugdha for 21 times. 10. Akīka is used in the form of pi¾°ī or bhasma, the details of which are given in the monograph of pi¾°ī or bhasma.

4

F. Gairika is associated with magnetite. Based on their colour. Banaskantha. Red ochre and Yellow ochre. Kaavi Geru (Teen-e-Rumi) (N. Chittorgarh and Sawai Madhopur in Rajasthan. Madhogarh and Mandla in Madhya Pradesh and Udaipur.U.I. 5. Satna. In India.2 Kāsāyakkal. Kemmannu Kavimannu Gerū. Bellary and Bidar in Karnataka.) Kavirāyī. This mostly earthy variety of hematite mineral is also known as Reddle. an oxide of Iron (Fe2O3). Kāvi. Gerumitti Hojātha. Sonakāva Geri Seemaikkaavikkallu. Kāvikkal (S. Anhydrous ironoxide is red ochre (Gairika) and hydrated iron oxide is yellow ochre. Jamnagar and Kuchchh in Gujarat.M. Sonāgeru Geru.1 Sa¼sk¨ta 2. Gwalior. Kailashpur. Jabalpur. Gairika is a natural mineral pigment found with other iron-titanium oxide minerals in igneous and metamorphic rocks as accessory mineral. Broad Classification: Oxide Origin and occurrence: Basically a hematite mineral. It sometimes contains minor amount of titanium and magnesium. Synonyms: 2.GAIRIKA (Red Ochre) 1. Alwar. there are two types of ochres found in the country i. Nature : Massive clayey 5 . Jajoo. 4. Definition: Gairika is Red Ochre. Reddle Geru.F.e. Kaavi. Gairika occurs as an alteration product of other iron minerals or by degradation of highly ferruginous rocks in the form of weathered residual concentrations. Gairika (Red ochre) is widely distributed. : Names in other Languages: Bangali English Gujarati Hindi Kannada Malayalam Marathi Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu Girimā°ī Ochre. Bikaner. Physical properties: (Definition/explanation of technical terms and methods of determination as given in Appendix –1). Svarnagairika 2. Gairika deposits are chiefly found in Rajpur. Other known occurrences are in Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal. It is generally found mixed with clay and other impurities.) 3.

8. Magnetism can be felt using a horse-shoe magnet (Appendix-3.4).1. Other elements: May contain the following within ± 20% of the stated limits:. Chemical Properties: 6.S for Bhāvanā i) Gairika ii) Go-dugdha Method: Prepare fine powder of Gairika and Bhāvanā of Go-dugdha should be given three times with sufficient quantity.pipe flame.1 Śodhana: [Ref: Rasaratna Samuccaya 3/49] : : 1 Part Q.2).5 7.4 6. 6.5 but much softer in earthy variety 2. Śodhana: Shall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana.5 to 6. Heavy metals and Arsenic: Gairika should not contain more than the stated limits for the following:. 6. 6.2).Colour Streak Fracture Lustre Tenacity Transparency Hardness Sp.1 : : : : : : : : Reddish brown Reddish brown Uneven Earthy Brittle Opaque 5.9).7 Effect of Heat: 6.3/1.1. Ka¾āya Gu´a Snigdha. Gr. Gairika has the following attributes: 8.1% Magnesium and 1% Titanium (Appendix-3. 6.3 Solubility in Acid: Soluble in hydrochloric acid.Lead = 6 ppm.2 6. Assay: Gairika should not contain less than 16% Fe or not less than 21% Fe2O3 when analysed by gravimetric method (Appendix-3.2 Does not easily fuse in a blow .3. Arsenic = 2 ppm and Cadmium = 2 ppm (Appendix-3. Viśada Vīrya Śīta 6 . dry and use for therapeutic purposes. 7.1 Properties and Actions: Rasa Madhura.1 Gairika becomes magnetic on heating.1 & 3.1.

Udara roga (diseases of abdomen) 9. Raktapitta (bleeding disorder). Tutthādi lepa. Kaphajit 8. Important Formulations: Ku¬kumādi taila. vi¾a vikāra (disorders due to poison). ka´²ū (itching). Vra´a Ropa´a.2 Therapeutic Uses of śuddha Gairika: Netra roga (diseases of eyes). Kāmadudhā rasa (Mauktika yukta) 7 . Bh¨¬garāja taila.500 mg of śuddha Gairika. dāha (burning sensation). 10. Balya.Vipāka Karma - Madhura Pitta-Nāśaka. hikkā (hiccup). Laghu Sūtaśekhara rasa. Mahā Jvarā¬kuśa rasa. Rakta pradara (Menorrhagia or Metrorrhagia or both). Dose: 250 . Netrya. vamana (vomiting). Jvara (fever).

M. Elemental Gandhaka.U. Valī. which is contaminated with sand or clay. Native Gandhaka. the deposits of Gandhaka are very much limited. is purified by melting in oven or by distilling in closed vessels. 2. It also occurs around thermal springs. Physical properties: (Definition/explanation of technical terms and methods of determination as given in Appendix–1). The only known occurrence is that of Tsokar Lake. Leh district in Jammu and Kashmir. 5. Daityendra.F.I. Kantakam (S. a non-metallic solid element.) 3. Gandhaka is frequently associated with gypsum and limestone.GANDHAKA (SULPHUR) 1. in salt dome cap-rocks and in sedimentary sequences that contain sulphates along with organic materials like bituminous limestone. 4. Mexico and USA. There is no mining for Gandhaka in India. Broad Classification: Native element Origin and occurrence: Native Gandhaka occurs in the craters and crevices of extinct volcanoes where it has been deposited as a direct sublimation product from volcanic gases. Sugandhika Names in other Languages: Assami Kibrīt Bangali Gandhaka English Sulphur Gujarati Gandhaka Hindi Gandhaka Kannada Gandaga Malayalam Gandagam Marathi Gandhaka Punjabi Gandhaka Tamil Kandagam.1 Sa¼sk¨ta 2. Naya Nangal and Bhatinda in Punjab and Oil Refinery at Mathura in Uttar Pradesh. Definition: Gandhaka is sulphur (S). Synonyms: 2.F. There are huge deposits of elemental Gandhaka burried underground in certain parts of the world especially Poland.) Telugu Gandhakam Urdu Kibreet (Gandhak) (N. is recovered commercially as a by-product from fertilizer plants at Panipat in Haryana.2 : Bali. Sugandhaka. bitumen and such foreign matter. however. Nature Colour Streak Cleavage : : : : Crystalline lumps Sulphur yellow Yellowish white Poor 8 . Gandha. In India.

1 Properties and Actions: Rasa Madhura. but soluble in carbon-disulphide.1 Śodhana: [ Ref: Rasām¨tam-2/3] i) Gandhaka ii) Go-dugdha or Bh¨¬garāja rasa : 1 part (Pl.95 to 2. 6.1. 6.S Method: Take fine powder of Gandhaka in a ladle. Gandhaka partially melts with evolution of brownish sulphur fumes.1 : : : : : : Conchoidal Resinous Brittle Translucent 1. Chemical Properties: 6. Gr. Tikta. 6. Gandhaka has the following attributes: 8. when analysed by gravimetric method (Appendix-3. Assay: Should contain not less than 90% Sulphur. Collect on cooling to room temperature. Sara.8). wash with plenty of luke warm water.1.Fracture Lustre Tenacity Transparency Hardness Sp. 8. Ka¾āya Gu´a U¾´a.10 Effect of Heat: 6. Snigdha Vīrya U¾´a Vipāka Ka°u 9 .2).1 On burning a small quantity in a crucible.2 Gandhaka melts at about 1100 where as it burns at 2700 in air with a bluish flame yielding sulphur-di-oxide (SO2). Ka°u. prepare the fine powder and preserve for further purpose. add little amount of gh¨ta. 7.5 to 2.5 1. melt and pour in to the vessel which contains go-dugdha or bh¨¬garāja svarasa.4 7.1.) : Q.2 Solubility: Insoluble in water as well as any acid. 6. Śodhana: Shall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana. Heavy metals and Arsenic: Should not contain more than the stated limits for the following: Arsenic = 1 ppm and Cadmium = 2 ppm (Appendix-3. dry.3 6.

Ku¾°hahara. Candrakalā rasa.Karma - Rasāyana. Dose: 125 mg . 10 . Vātahara. Netra roga (diseases of eyes). Dīpana. Pittala. Kaphahara. K¨mihara. Kapha roga (disease due to kapha do¾a). Vi¾ahara. Important Formulations: . Cak¾u¾ya.1 g of śuddha Gandhaka. Therapeutic Uses of śuddha Gandhaka: Ka´²ū (itching). Medhya. Vāta roga (diseases due to Vāta do¾a) 9. Āmaśo¾ahara. Visarpa (erysepales). Sūtajit. Garavi¾a (slow/accumulated poison). 10. 8. Dadru (taeniasis). Gandhaka rasāyana. Sūtendravīryaprada. Plīhā roga (splenic disease).2. Taru´ārka rasa. K¾aya (pthisis). Ku¾°ha (diseases of the skin). Kāsa (cough). Śvāsa (Asthma). Pācana.Mahāgandhaka va°ī. Balya. Pañcām ¨ta parpa°ī. Rasa parpa°ī. Āmavāta (rheumatism).

4. extensive sedimentary deposits interbedded with limestone. 2H2O) mineral. There are some other occurrences also reported in the states of Gujarat.1 Sa¼sk¨ta 2.1. Prakasam and Guntur in Andhra Pradesh and Bikaner. Barmer. large 2V. Himachal Pradesh.520.524. It occurs generally in pure mineral form.F.) 3. Chirodī Hindi Godanti Marathi Godantī. 11 . ηγ. Ghāpa´a. Optical properties: Anisotropic. Gypsum Gujarati Godantī.I.2 : Godanta Names in other Languages: English Selenite. Śiragola Tamil Karpura Chilajattu (S.5 6. In India. 5 Physical properties: (Definition / explanation of technical terms and methods of determination as given in Appendix –1). Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Synonyms: 2. Nature Colour Streak Cleavage Fracture Lustre Tenacity Transparency Hardness Sp. red shales and clay stones etc. Definition: Godantī is Selenite (CaSO4. biaxial positive. Jammu and Kashmir. 2. Refractive index : ηα.M.530 (Appendix–2). : : : : : : : : : : Crystalline showing elongated tabular crystals Greyish white White Perfect Even Silky Sectile Translucent 2 2 to 2. Jaisalmer. Major production of Godantī comes from these two states only.) Telugu Hara sothamu Urdu Godanti (N. Nagaur.U. Broad Classification: Hydrous calcium sulphate Origin and occurrence: Godantī occurs as evaporates. significant occurrences of Godantī are at Nellore.1. Gr.F.GODANTĪ (Selenite) 1. ηβ. 1. Ganganagar and Pali in Rajasthan. weak birefringence.

3 8. Assay: Should contain not less than 20% Calcium (Ca) or 30% calcium oxide (CaO) when analysed by gravimetric method (Appendix-3. Add 10 % barium chloride solution drop wise. Add 10-15 ml dilute hydrochloric acid and boil. The resulting solution gives white precipitate of barium sulphate. Chemical Properties: 7. 12 .2 7.5). 7. the details of which are given in the monograph of bhasma. Heavy metals and Arsenic: Should not contain more than the stated limits for the following: Lead = 6 ppm. Godantī is used in the form of bhasma.2). Śodhana: Shall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana.1.5 g powdered sample in a test tube.1 Test for sulphate radical: Take about 0. 9.7. Arsenic = 1 ppm and Cadmium = 4 ppm (Appendix-3.

Khammam in Andhra Pradesh. 3. 2. in-situ deposits and placers. Jhujhunu.GOMEDA (Garnet) 1.5 3. Bangalore and Mysore in Karnataka and Ajmer. 4. it is found as heavy detrital residue in sediments. in-situ occurrences of Gomeda exist in many parts of the country e.5 to 4. Definition: Gomeda is Almandite {Fe3Al2 (SiO4)3}. one of the garnet group of minerals. Physical properties: (Definition / explanation of technical terms and methods of determination as given in Appendix –1). whereas. Gr. Sikar. In India. Bhilwara. of argillaceous parentage. Synonyms: 2. Hassan.g. It occurs as primary mineral also in igneous rocks such as micapegmatites of Bihar. mostly in schists and gneisses. Nature Colour Streak Cleavage Fracture Lustre Tenacity Transparency Hardness Sp. Varieties of Gomeda are valued as semi-precious stones.1 Names in other Languages: Bangali Gomeda English Garnet Gujarati Gomeda Hindi Gomeda Marathi Gomeda Telugu Gomedikamu Broad Classification: Silicate of iron and aluminium Origin and occurrence: Gomeda occurs in two forms. crystalline limestone and metamorphosed basic and other igneous rocks. 5. occur in beach sands of Kerala.0 No fluorescence when observed after irradiation with UV rays of 365 to 400 nm 13 . It occurs as in-situ deposits in metamorphic rocks. Tamil Nadu and Orissa. Singbhum in Jharkhand. Sirohi and Tonk in Rajasthan.0 to 7. In placer form. The placer deposits. Fluorescence : : : : : : : : : : : Crystal Reddish brown White Not present Sub-conchoidal Vitreous to resinous Brittle Translucent 7. Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan.

10. Distinction from Manikyam: Mā´ikya gives a fiery red fluorescence in near UV rays of 365 to 400nm.1 Shall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana. 14 . Optical properties: Isotropic Refractive Index: η = 1.4). uniaxial and negative. boil in Nimbū svarasa for 3 hours. Mā´ikya is anisotropic.1 Assay: Should contain not less than 35% SiO2.1).Calcium = 0. [Ref: Rasa Tara¬gi´ī-23/123] : : 1 Part Q. Chemical Properties: 7.2 7. Heavy metals and Arsenic: Should not contain more than the stated limits for the following: .90) (Appendix–2. Magnesium = 0. the details of which are given in the monograph of pi¾°ī or bhasma.3 8. On cooling to room temperature. whereas Gomeda does not fluoresce under the same condition.Mercury = 7 ng/g.83 (range 1. collect Gomeda.S for Svedana 9.2).2). dry and use for therapeutic purposes.1 & 3. 7. 10% Alumina (Al2O3) and 5% Iron (Fe) when analysed by gravimetric method (Appendix-3.] Method: Prepare small pieces of Gomeda.10 %.6. Gomeda is used in the form of pi¾°ī or bhasma. Arsenic = 2 ppm and Cadmium = traces (Appendix-3. Śodhana: i) Gomeda ii) Nimbū svarasa [Fr.10 % and Manganese = 11% (Appendix-3.75 to 1. Śodhana: 9. 7. Other Elements: May contain the following within ± 20% of the stated limits:.

of rocks rich in magnesium. it occurs abundantly in Udaipur and Dungurpur districts. Some serpentine occurs as large rock masses generally referred to as serpentinites. Hajrul-behr (N. either during metamorphism or by late-stage hydrothermal action at temperatures below 4000. 1.546 to 1. Karnataka. Optical properties : Bi-axial.7 6.2 Names in other Languages: English Serpentine.I. containing olivine. : Jaharamoharā 2. Broad Classification: Hydrous magnesium silicate Origin and occurrence: Jaharamoharā results from the alteration. 5.5 to 2. Physical properties: (Definition / explanation of technical terms and methods of determination as given in Appendix -1). Magnetite usually accompanies this alteration. This is also known as Green Marble in trade. Green Marble Hindi Jaharamoharā Telugu Śālagrāma śilā Urdu Zahar Mohra. Nickel in minor amount is generally present in Jaharamoharā. Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh. Gr.JAHARAMOHARĀ (Serpentine) 1. Nature Colour Streak Cleavage Fracture Lustre Tenacity Transparency Hardness Sp.F. soapy feel Blackish green Colourless Perfect Conchoidal Greasy Tough Translucent 3. Jaharamoharā occurs mostly in metamorphic terrains of Rajasthan. Fad Zahr Madani.5 to 5 2.554 (Appendix.) 3.1 Sa¼sk¨ta 2. : : : : : : : : : : Crystalline. 4. 15 . Hajr-us-sum.2). Iron and Aluminium may also be present. coarse grained.M. weakly birefringent with R. Synonyms: 2.U. In India. A little amount of Calcium. pyroxene or amphibole. Definition: Jaharamoharā is Serpentine. negative. a hydrous silicate of Magnesium [Mg6(Si4O10)X(OH)8 ]. Jharkhand. In Rajasthan.

1 Śodhana: [Ref.S Method: Heat Jaharamoharā till it becomes red hot and dip in Go-dugdha or Āmalakī rasa for 21 times. the details of which are given in the  monograph of pis°ī. 7.15 % Nickel when analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Appendix-3.Arsenic = 2 ppm and Cadmium = 3 ppm (Appendix-3.1. 7.2.2.3 Heavy metals and Arsenic: Jaharamoharā should not contain more than the stated limits for the following: .2.2). Part-1. Rasatantrasāra Siddha Prayoga Sa¬graha.2 Should contain not less than 30 % Silica (SiO2).1). 7. The sample gets decomposed and gives off a little water. Shall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana. Page 73 ] i) ii) Jaharamoharā Go-dugdha or Āmalakī rasa : : 1 part Q. 16 . not less than 5% Ferric oxide (Fe2O3) and not less than 5% calcium oxide (CaO) when analysed by gravimetric method (Appendix -3.2. 7. Śodhana: 8. Heat the test tube at around 5000.4 8.6). Chemical Properties: 7.2. Other elements: May contain the following within ± 20% of the stated limits:.2 Assay: 7.0. 9.1 Should contain not less than 30% magnesium oxide when analysed by gravimetric method (Appendix-3. Jaharamoharā is used in the form of pis°ī.2).1 Effect of Heat: Take about 1 g powdered sample of Jaharamoharā in open test tube.7.

It is a wide-spread oxide mineral found in earth’s crust in ore form.U. Other known deposits with hematite aspredominent mineral occur in the states of Bihar. Mayurbhanj in Orissa and Noamundi. Gore Pahar and Biwabathan in Jharkhand. Goa. Kānta Lauha occurs mainly at Guntur in Andhra Pradesh. Aahan (N.I. Notoburu. Shimoga and Kudramukh in Karnataka. Cumbaka patthar Tamil Kantham (S. Ayaskāntamu Urdu Faulad.) 3.F.F. Physical Properties: (Definition / explanation of technical terms and methods of determination as given in Appendix –1). Broad Classification: Oxide Origin and occurrence: Kānta Lauha occurs in igneous as well as metamorphic rocks as accessory mineral.1 Sa¼sk¨ta 2. Names in other Languages: English Magnetite Gujarati Nātīsa Hindi Cumbaka.) Telugu Sudantu rāyi. 5.5 to 6 5 to 6 17 . Definition: Kānta Lauha is an Iron ore containing magnetite.Gr : : : : : : : : : : : Lump Greyish black Reddish black None Uneven Metallic Brittle Opaque Magnetic in nature 5.M. Kāntāyasa 2. 4. Salem and Tirucirappalli in Tamil Nadu. a ferric oxide (Fe3O4) mineral. Synonyms: 2.2 : Kānta. Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Kāntaka. Nature Colour Streak Cleavage Fracture Lustre Tenacity Transparency Magnetism Hardness Sp. In India.KĀNTA LAUHA (Iron Ore) 1. Kānta Lauha is commonly associated with hematite (Fe2O3). Mandi in Himachal Pradesh.

Acid Insoluble: Take about 1 g of pre-dried finely powdered (150 mesh) sample of Kānta Lauha in 250 ml beaker.1. 18 .4 7. It should not be more than 13 % of the initial weight of the sample. Heavy metals and Arsenic: Kānta Lauha in ore form should not contain more than the stated limits for the following: . 8.1 & 3. the details of which are given in the monograph of bhasma. Other Elements: Kānta Lauha in ore form may contain the following within ± 20% of the stated limits:. Cool. Kānta Lauha is used in the form of bhasma.Arsenic = 2 ppm and Cadmium = 7 ppm (Appendix-3.2). Chemical Properties: 6.2). Add 50 ml dilute hydrochloric acid. Stir the solution and cover the beaker with a watch glass.2 6. Heat on the hot plate at 1500 and digest for two hours.3 6. 6.1 Assay: Kānta Lauha in ore form should contain not less than 60% Iron (Fe) when analysed by gravimetric method (Appendix-3. filter in buchnar funnel.4).6. Manganese = 500 ppm and Silver = 5 ppm (Appendix-3.Zinc = 95 ppm. wash with water and ignite at 9000. Weigh the residue. Śodhana: Shall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana.

F. results from the decomposition of pyrites in the zone of oxidation and is found in small quantities wherever pyrite occurs.U. 19 .) Hydrous ferrous sulphate 3. Kāśīśa is commonly associated with chalcanthite. 4.2 : Names in other Languages: Bangali Hirākas English Ferrous Sulphate.1 Sa¼sk¨ta 2.) Telugu Annabhedi Urdu Hira Kasees. Annabedi Malayalam Turusi. Nature Colour Streak Cleavage Fracture Lustre Tenacity Transparency Hardness Sp. Copper as or melanterite mineral. Pu¾pakāśīśa 2. 7H2O) also known as Green vitriol. Synonyms: 2. Mostly. gypsum and other hydrous basic sulphates. Taste : : : : : : : : : : : Massive lumps Greenish white White None Uneven Earthy Brittle Translucent 1.M.97 Sweetish. Zaj-e-Asfar. Broad Classification: Origin and occurrence: Kāśīśa. a secondary mineral.95 to 2 1. Kāśīśaka. Gr. Definition: Kāśīśa is Ferrous Sulphate (FeSO4. Turus Marathi Hirākas Tamil Annabedhi.I. commercially manufactured Kāśīśa as a chemical is used for Ayurvedic formulations in the country.KĀŚĪŚA (Ferrous Sulphate) 1. It occurs widely as efflorescence on the walls and timbers of mine workings. Green vitriol Gujarati Hīrākasī Hindi Kasīs. Annapeti (S. astringent taste 5. Tutia-e-Sabz (N.90 to 1. HīraKasīs Kannada Kaasisa. Physical properties: (Definition / explanation of technical terms and methods of determination as given in Appendix –1).F.

On strong heating in a crucible. [Ref: AFI-Part-I. Other elements: May contain the following within ± 20% of the stated limits:. Heavy metals and Arsenic: Kāśīśa should not contain more than the stated limits for the following: . Śodhana-6] : : 1 Part Q. Appendix-II.1 Effect of Heat: 6.2).1 Heated before blowpipe. Śodhana : 7. Chemical Properties: 6. if any.3 6. 6.2 Reaction with barium chloride solution: White precipitate of barium sulphate appears on addition of barium chloride solution in Kāśīśa solution. Weigh the residue. dissolved in purified water.1.2.1 Śodhana: i) Kāśīśa ii) Bh¨¬ganīra (Bh¨¬garāja) [Pl.1.S.4 6. Efflorescence: Kāśīśa is efflorescent in dry air. A brown glassy fused mass results.1.] 20 . Stir the solution till Kāśīśa powder stops dissolving.2 6. for Bhāvanā 6. Add 50 ml purified water to it. Kāśīśa looses water with evolution of SO2 gas giving pungent smell of burning sulphur.6.Arsenic = 2 ppm and Cadmium = 2 ppm (Appendix-3. Solubility in water: Take about 10 g accurately weighed fine (150 mesh) powder of Kāśīśa in 250 ml beaker. It should not be more than 5% of the initial weight of the sample. Shall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana. Put the beaker in the sun light till the solution gets completely dried up.9 & 3.3).1 & 3. the Kāśīśa crystals rapidly oxidize and become coated with brownish yellow mass.1.5 6.3 6. solubility of Kāśīśa in purified water should not be less than 95%. Assay: Kāśīśa should contain not less than 25% Iron. Kāśīśa becomes magnetic as felt by a horse-shoe magnet. That is. Take about 5 g fine powder each of Kāśīśa and borax.Copper (Cu) 188 ppm when analysed by Atomic Abosrption Spectrophotometer method (Appendix-3.1.2).4 6. Heat the mixture in a crucible.6 7. On exposure to moist air. not less than 15% Sulphur and not less than 45% SO4 (Appendix-3.

Gu´a U¾´a Vīrya U¾´a Vipāka Ka°u Karma Vāta-Kaphahara. 8. Netrya. vi¾a roga (disease due to poison).1 Properties and Actions: Rasa Amla. Pitta Apasmāra (Epilepsy due to Pitta do¾a). Plīhāri va°ikā 21 . Dose: 60 – 250 mg Important Formulations: Rajahpravartinī va°ī. Mūtrak¨cchra (dysuria). Śle¾ma roga (disease due to kapha do¾a) 8. Ka¾āya.2. Repeat the process for three times. Śvitra (Leucoderma / Vitiligo). Keśya Rañjana. 9. Kāśīśa has the following attributes: 8. Kāsīsādi taila. Pā´²u (anaemia).Method: Powder kāsīsa. Śa¬kha drāvaka. Gudabhra¼śa (prolapse of rectum). Plīhāv¨ddhi (splenomegaly). Rakta vardhaka Therapeutic Uses: ka´²ū (itching). K¨¾´īkara´a. Netra roga (disease of eyes). K¨mi (Helminthiasis/ worm infestation). add quantity sufficient bh¨¬garāja svarasa and grind till complete moisture gets evaporated. Sa¬kocaka (Astringent). 10. Visarapa (Erysepales). Keśya. Balya. Tikta. Kāsīsādi gh¨ta. Rajah pravartaka. Aśmarī (calculus).

Palakkad and Kannur in Kerala and Singhbhum. Khariya. an aggregate of minerals and colloidal substances commonly known as Clay. Cuddapah. Chinglaput. Bikaner. Keonjhar and Mayurbhanj in Orissa.1 Names in other Languages: Bangali Kha²i. Definition: Kha°ikā is Kaolinite (Al2 (Si2O5) (OH) 4). Bhagalpur. Udaipur. Synonyms: 2. Ramanathapuram and South Arcot in Tamil Nadu. gondwana shales and sand stones as bedded deposits. Physical properties: (Definition / explanation of technical terms and methods of determination as given in Appendix –1). phyllites and schists. Barmer and Sawai Madhopur in Rajasthan. gneisses. 4. Kha²i Marathi Kha²u Telugu Sima sunnamu. Ernakulam.Gr : : : : : : : : : : Lumps (whitish to occasionally coloured layers) with greasy feel and earthy odour Whitish. It occurs in pure mineral form as lumps consisting of very small particles. Phula Kha²i English Clay Gujarati Kha²i. 22 . Most significant occurrences are Ajmer. Purulia and Darjeeling in West Bangal. Birbhum. Kha°ikā occurs at several places in different states. Sudhā Broad Classification: A phyllo-silicate of aluminium Origin and occurrence: Kha°ikā occurs associated with pre-cambrian granites. Santhal. Nature Colour Streak Cleavage Fracture Lustre Tenacity Transparency Hardness Sp. Kha°ikā is formed by the decomposition of other aluminosilicates (feldspars) either by weathering or by hydrothermal activity. pegmatites. Cuttak. Bankura. Ranchi and Gaya in Jharkhand. Godavari area. 3. Chittorgarh. Trivendrum. occasionally tinted White Not observable None Vitreous Brittle Translucent 2 to 3 2 to 3 2. Kha²imā°ī Hindi Kha²iya. In India. Vishakhapatnam and Nellore in Andhra Pradesh.KHA¯IKĀ (Kaolinite) 1. Koraput. 5.

Most particles are stained a deep blue (distinction from talc.2).4.4 6. Other Elements: May contain the following within ± 20% of the stated limits:. None or occasionally very few particles are coloured red (distinction from bentonite. 21/210] Method: Wash in sufficient quantity of purified water. No gas or bubbles evolved (distinction from chalk). Heavy metals and Arsenic: Kha°ikā should not contain more than the stated limits for the following: .3 6.78% with negligible amount of Manganese (20 ppm) and Chromium (250 ppm) (Appendix-3.4. where all particles are stained deep red). Śodhana: Shall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana.6. Distinctive Properties: 6. Chemical Properties: 6. Magnesium = 0.4. 7.1 & 3. filter through a clean cloth and use for therapeutic purposes.1 Take a small quantity of Kha°ikā powder on a micro slide. Place a small quantity of Kha°ikā powder in a watch glass and add a few drops of dilute hydrochloric acid. Drop a cover slip and examine under medium or low power.1 Assay: Kha°ikā should contain not more than 50% Silica (SiO2) and not less than 30% Alumina (Al2O3) when analysed by gravimetric method (Appendix-3.2 Take a small quantity of Kha°ikā powder on a micro slide. Arsenic = 2 ppm and Cadmium = 7 ppm (Appendix-3.4.4 7. 6. The water should spread through the powder.1).2). which gets easily dispersed without forming a gel (distinction from bentonite and other clays that would swell and form a gel around the edge). 6.2 6. Mix with safranin solution (1% w/v in 70% alcohol). Drop a cover slip and examine under medium or low power. Now add a drop or two of purified water to the edge of the cover slip and allow the water to flow under the cover slip.32%.Lead = 15 ppm.3 6. Mix with one or two drops of alcoholic methylene blue solution (1% w/v in 95% alcohol). 23 . which is not stained blue). Place a small quantity of Kha°ikā powder (150 mesh) on a micro slide and put a cover slip on to make a dry mount.Calcium = 0.1 Śodhana: [Rasa Tara¬ginī.

Properties and actions: Rasa Tikta.3 9.1 g of śuddha Kha°ikā for both internal & external use 9. Dose: ½ . Kha°ikā has the following attributes:8. Anupāna: To be taken along with cold water.8.1. Netra roga (diseases of eyes).2 8. Vra´a ropa´a. Svedādisrāvahara Therapeutic Uses of Śuddha Kha°ikā: Śotha (inflammation).1. 10. Atīsāra (diarrhoea) External use: Tvak roga (skin disease). Madhura Gu´a Śīta Vīrya Śīta Vipāka Madhura Karma Pitta śāmaka. Mukh-danta roga (disease of mouth and tooth) and Dāha (burning sensation) 8. Kapha-dāha-raktado¾aghnī. Important Formulations: Daśana sa¼skāra cūr´a (for external) 24 .

Man²ūra of similar quality may occur at other places also in the country where smelting of copper ore was carried out in the past.M. Irumbukittam (S. Zang-e-Aahan (N. S.8 5. Nature Colour Streak Cleavage Fracture Lustre Tenacity Transparency Magnetism Hardness Sp. Definition : Ma´²ūra is a metallic oxide-cum-silicate of iron. Loha kī°a. Jhunjhunu (Rajasthan). Synonyms: 2. Si¬gha´aka Kannada Loha kitta Malayalam Ierumbin Kittam Marathi Ma´²ūra Tamil Manturam. Lohamala. : : : : : : : : : : : Rough lumpy masses.1 Sa¼sk¨ta 2.5 3 to 3.F. boulders or aggregates at the areas where smelting activity is carried out for the extraction of copper and iron.F. exhibiting voids Black Black None Conchoidal Dull Brittle but hard Opaque Non-magnetic 6 to 6.I. Pb.) Telugu Loha kittam Urdu Khabus-ul-Hadeed. Zn. 4. Gr.) Metallic oxide-cum-silicate 3. Man²ūra is known since ancient times in India and occurs in over 500 years old slag dumps near village Singhana (Khetri). Ki°°a.U. Iron is the main constituent of Man²ūra followed by Silica with minor amounts of Cu. Loha Ki°°a 2. Cd and Au. It occurs as lumps. 25 . Broad Classification: Origin and occurrence: Man²ūra is the by-product of the metallurgical process during extraction of Iron (Fe) and Copper (Cu) from their respective ores. Physical Properties: (Definition / explanation of technical terms and methods of determination as given in Appendix –1). generally having the composition Fe2SiO4 and commonly called Slag. Ag.2 : Names in other Languages: English Slag Gujarati Ma´²ūra Hindi Ma´²ūra. distt.MA³±ŪRA (Iron Slag) 1.

1. Man²ūra is used in the form of bhasma. 26 .6.1 Assay: 6.3 7.1 Man²ūra should contain not less than 30% Iron (Fe) when analysed by gravimetric method (Appendix-3. 6. Zinc = 50 ppm and Silver = 7 ppm (Appendix3. 6. Man²ūra should show not less than 80% fayalite (Fe2SiO4) when studied through XRD method (Appendix. Chemical properties: 6. Śodhana : Man²ūra shall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana.13).Arsenic = 6 ppm and Cadmium = 8 ppm (Appendix-3.3).1.45%.Copper = 0.4).1 Man²ūra should contain not less than 30% Silica when analysed by gravimetric method (Appendix-3.1. 8. the details of which are given in the monograph of bhasma.1.2).1.3 6. 6.2). Other Elements: May contain the following within ± 20% of the stated limits:.2 Heavy metals and Arsenic: Man²ūra should not contain more than the stated limits for the following: .2.

Pure Rajata may contain Svar´a (Au) up to 10% with trace amounts of Cu and sometimes Pt. It is available in market in the form of ingots.1 Sa¼sk¨ta 2. All galena (lead ore) deposits of Zawar. Sargipalli in Orissa. the ores are concentrated and smelted. occasionally 99% pure. Raupya. It occurs with sulphides. much of the total Rajata production has been obtained as by-product of gold refining. Deri-Basantgarh and Rampura-Aghucha in Rajasthan. It is found associated mainly with lead and zinc and to some extent with copper and gold. Rūpyaka. It is obtained from its ores mainly by amalgamation with mercury or by cyanidation if present in a finely divided state. Broad Classification: Metal Origin and occurrence: Rajata occurs in nature in the free state. Zangamarajupal. Sb. Native Rajata occurs in the earth's crust in two principal ways: (i) (ii) as small amounts in the oxidised zone of ore deposits and as deposits from hydrothermal solutions. Native Rajata is much rare in occurrence than native Svar´a but is widely distributed in small amounts. Rupe Telugu Vendi 3. Rūpyamala : Names in other Languages: Bangali Rūpā English Silver Gujarati Rūpum. Bi. Hesatu-Belhathan in Bihar and Pauri-Garhwal in Uttaranchal invariably contain Rajata. But largely Rajata is derived from smelting of Lead.RAJATA (Silver metal) 1. there are no Rajata deposits as such. Rūpya. Rajpura-Dariba.2 Candra. 4. calcite. 2. Rūpā Latin Argentum Marathi Cāndī. As and Hg. 27 . If not finely divided. In recent years. Synonyms: 2. gold and other metals. Definition: Rajata (Ag) is a silver. Tāra. barite. Bandalamotu and Nallakonda in Andhra Pradesh. Cāndī Hindi Cāndī. In India. but generally containing copper. zeolites. Zinc and Copper ores which are argentiferous. fluorite and quartz.white metal available in the form of ingots.

7. Shall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana. Solubility: Soluble in nitric acid. turning greyish black due to tarnishing White None Hackly Metallic Sectile. Arsenic and 6. A dense white curdy precipitate of silver chloride is produced. (Appendix-3.1 6.3 6.5. nuggets and feather like dendrites Silver white.5 Other Elements: May contain the following within ± 20% of the stated limits:. Physical properties: (Definition / explanation of technical terms and methods of determination as given in Appendix –1).1).Copper = 1.5 to 3.2 6. Śodhana: Rajata is used in the form of bhasma. Assay: Rajata should contain not less than 98.0 10.Gr : : : : : : : : : : Granular. 28 . Chemical Properties: 6. Sulphur = traces and Gold = 0.2. This precipitate is soluble in ammonia. S.40 %. In Rajata Mercury. Lead.4 6.5% Silver (Ag) when analysed by A.001% (Appendix3.1 Reaction with Acids: Prepare solution of Rajata in nitric acid and add hydrochloric acid to it. Nature Colour Streak Cleavage Fracture Lustre Tenacity Transparency Hardness Sp. 8. ductile and malleable Opaque 2.2).1 to 11. Heavy metals and Arsenic: Cadmium should be absent. A.1 & 3. the details of which are given in the monograph of bhasma.

2 Salty 29 .98 to 2.540 to 1. Definition: Sāmudra Lava´a is a halite mineral. described as Sea salt (NaCl). clay. are Thuthukkudi (Tuticorin) in Tamilnadu. Physical properties: (Definition / explanation of technical terms and methods of determination as given in Appendix –1). Taste 7. in these pans. 2.) Telugu Samudrapu Uppu 3. Cambay in Gujarat and Sambar Lake in Rajasthan. anhydrite. sand stone and calcite etc. known as source of Sāmudra Lava´a in India. Sāmudra Lava´a occurs in association with gypsum. Samudri Namak Kannada Hojatha Marathi Mī°ha Tamil So¨¨uppu. Some commercial saltpans.I. Optical properties: Isotropic with R. 1.5 1.2 : Sāmudra. Nature Colour Streak Cleavage Fracture Lustre Tenacity Transparency Hardness Sp. 4.1 Sa¼sk¨ta 2.544 (Appendix-2) : : : : : : : : : : : Crystalline coarse grained aggregates White / off white None Perfect cubic Conchoidal Vitreous Brittle Transparent 2. Sāmudraka Names in other Languages: Bangali Karakaca English Sea salt Gujarati Mī°hu Hindi Pā¬gā. Uppu (S.I.F.SĀMUDRA LAVA³A (Sea Salt) 1. Synonyms: 2. Broad Classification: Halite Origin and occurrence: Sāmudra Lava´a is formed as extensive irregular beds due to evaporation of seawater in saltpans along seashores in India. Gr. poly halite. 6. Pā¬gānona.

Add a freshly prepared 5% w/v solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) in purified water.13).10). A white precipitate of silver chloride (AgCl) forms.7. Dose . Mahāśa¬kha va°ī.2. Laghu. Avidāhī. Balya 8. Śūlaghna. Rucikara.2 When heated through blowpipe.3 7. Galaga´²a (goiter).1 Sāmudra Lava´a should contain not less than 35% Sodium (Na) when analysed by flame photometry (Appendix-3.2 Reaction with silver nitrate: Take 5 g Sāmudra Lava´a and dissolve it in purified water.1. Kalyānaka gu²a 30 . Ī¾at Pittala. Kaphahara. Dīpana. Blow a burner flame through blowpipe over the Lava´a. Nārāya´a cūr´a.2 Sāmudra Lava´a should contain not less than 58% Chlorine (Cl) (Appendix-3. 7. 10. Pā´²u (anaemia). Jīr´a carma roga (chronic skin diseases).1. Chemical Properties: 7. Snehana. The colour of the flame becomes deep yellow indicating the presence of sodium. 8.4. Arsenic = 4 ppm and Cadmium = 4 ppm (Appendix-3. Kledana. gives the usual blue chlorine flame (Appendix-3. H¨dya.1 Effect of Heat: 7.3. Bhedī. 7. 7. 7. to this Lava´a solution.1 Properties and Actions: Rasa Lava´a Gu´a Snigdha. Pācana. Pratiśyāya (coryza) 9.2 Therapeutic Uses: Ajīr´a (dyspepsia). Assay: 7.According to formulation Important Formulations: Lava´a Bhāskara cūr´a.4 Heavy metals and Arsenic: Sāmudra Lava´a should not contain more than the stated limits for the following: . Sāmudra Lava´a has the followng attributes: 8.3.1 Take a crystal of Sāmudra Lava´a on a porcelain plate. drop by drop. Sāmudra Lava´a crackles and decrepitates and on addition of copper oxide to it.1.3).Lead = 12 ppm. Śo¾a (cachexia). Sāmudrādya cūr´a.2). U¾´a Vīrya Nāti U¾´a / Nāti Śītala Vipāka Madhura Karma Vāta-hara.

) 3. Kālā Suramā Marathi . 5.I. Sargipalli in Orissa and Gorubathan in West Bengal.SAUVĪRĀ¿JANA (Lead Ore) 1. Surmā rayi Urdu . Ambaji in Gujarat. Chalcopyrite and pyrite may co-occur in small amount.Suramo Hindi . Silver in minor quantity is always associated. Bandalamottu and Zangamarajupal in Andhra Pradesh. Aghucha. Synonyms: 2. Deri . Iron. veins or lodes. It occurs mostly in pure cubic crystal form and also in ore form associated with rock mass.Vangam (S.Suramā. Broad Classification:Sulphide 4.Sauvirā®janamu. In India.Suramā English .F. Trace amount of Arsenic.) Telugu .Surmah Siyah. Sang-e-surma (N. Sauvīrā®jana occurs mostly at Zawar. their host rock generally being limestone. Physical Properties: (Definition / explanation of technical terms and methods of determination as given in Appendix –1).Galena. Gold. Sauvīrā®jana invariably occurs in association with sphalerite (ZnS). Origin and occurrence: Sauvīrā®jana occurs in metamorphic as well as sedimentary rocks in the form of disseminations. Lead ore Gujarati .1 Sa¼sk¨ta 2. producing more than 90% lead ore in the country. Mining of Sauvīrā®jana from most of these areas is carried out by Hindustan Zinc Limited (A unit of Vedanta). Rajpura-Dariba.Suramā Tamil . K¨¾´ā®jana : Names in other Languages: Bangali . 2.U. Bismuth and Antimony is also reported in Sauvīrā®jana.Basanthgarh and Gugra in Rajasthan. Definition: Sauvīrā®jana is a lead ore containing galena (PbS) mineral. Cadmium. Kohal Isphahani.2 Nīlā®jana. Nature Colour Streak Cleavage Fracture Lustre Tenacity Transparency : : : : : : : : Usually lumps and heavy cubic crystals Grey Grey Cubic Even Metallic Brittle Opaque 31 . dolomite and other calc-magnesium rich rocks.F.M.

Add 10 ml dilute hydrochloric acid and heat.5 7.2. 6.3.3. 6.2). It evolves brownish fumes. 6.1 Sauvīrā®jana in ore form should contain not less than 50% Lead (Pb) when analysed by A. 8. greater Sp.Copper = 70 ppm.4 Heavy metals and Arsenic: Sauvīrā®jana in ore form should not contain more than the stated limits for the following: . as detected by its odour of rotten eggs.1).1.2). Śodhana-3] : 1 part : Q.4).2. Effect of Acids: 6.3. 6.2 Sauvīrā®jana in ore form should contain not less than 10% Sulphur when analysed by gravimetric method (Appendix-3.2.8). Gr. S.3 Assay: 6. A.) 32 .10 ppm and Zinc = 20 ppm (Appendix-3. It evolves hydrogen sulphide (H2S) gas.2.3 6. emits sulphurous fumes and on continued heating yields a globule of metallic lead (Appendix-3. Śodhana: Shall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana. 6. (Appendix-3.Arsenic = 2 ppm and Cadmium = 22 ppm (Appendix-3. 6.2). A.4. Chemical properties: 6. Appendix-II.1 : : 2 to 3 7 to 8 Charcoal Test: When heated on charcoal through blow pipe.1 Take about 5 g of finely powdered (150 mesh) Sauvīrā®jana in a test tube.Hardness Sp. Sauvīrā®jana in ore form should contain not less than 500 ppm Silver (Ag) when analysed by A. Gold = 0. for mardana 8.S.Gravity and darker colour of Sauvīrā®jana distinguish it from Śroto®jana (Sb2S3). i) A®jana ii) Bh¨¬garāja drava (Pl.2 6. Other Elements: Sauvīrā®jana in ore form may contain the following within ± 20% of the stated limits:. S. Sauvīrā®jana fuses easily.1 Śodhana: [ Ref: AFI-Part-1. Distinction from Śrotonjana: Cubic cleavage. Add 10 ml dilute nitric acid and heat.1 & 3.2 Take about 5 g finely powdered (150 mesh) Sauvīrā®jana in a test tube. (Appendix-3.

Nayanām¨tā®jana (for external use). rajorodha (obstruction of menstrual flow). Ka¾āya. vi¾a do¾a (disorders due to poison). Bhasma of Sauvīrā®jana: Raktapitta (bleeding disorder).2 Therapeutic Uses 9. 9.2.Method: Powder the A®jana.1 Properties and Actions: Rasa Tikta. Rajorodhaka 9. 33 . Dose: 60-125 mg of the bhasma *Precaution: It should not be used for more than three days in Raktapradara. Ka°u Gu´a Snigdha Vīrya Śīta Vipāka Madhura Karma Grāhī. Śuddha Sauvīrā®jana (External): Netra Roga (diseases of eye) 9.2. 11.2. Important Formulations: Irimedādi taila (for external use). Raktapradara* (menorrhagia or metrorrhagia or both) 10. add quantity sufficient bh¨¬garāja drava (svarasa) and grind till the contents get dried completely. Vra´a Śodhana. Sauvīrā®jana has the following attributes:9. Hikkā (hiccup).1. Ropa´a.

and occasionally with bismuth.34 % Cu. In India. quartz-diorite and granites and their metamorphic equivalents.e. It occurs in 2 types of deposits.1 Sa¼sk¨ta 2. Most of the Svar´a that occurs in the earth's crust is in the native state.4 parts of copper in thousand. with which it is probably mechanically mixed. Ka®cana Names in other Languages: Bangali Sonā English Gold Gujarati Sonu Hindi Sonā Latin Aurum Marathi Sone Telugu Bangāram 3. The name electrum is applied to natural Gold with 20% or more Silver. Hira´ya. Svar´a occurs very widely diffused in nature. Chigargunta (Chittor district) in Andhra Pradesh and Kozhikode and Cannore districts in Kerala. The purity or fineness of Svar´a is expressed in carats or parts per thousand (1000). but commonly contains 85-95% Au. commonly with pyrite and other sulphides.2 : Hā°aka. Occurrences of Svar´a have 34 . Suvar´a. The primary deposits of Svar´a occur in intrusive rocks having composition of diorite. Large quantity of Svar´a is obtained from sulphides. Broad Classification: Metal 4. (i) in hydrothermal veins and (ii) in placers. Placers of Svar´a occur as rounded or flattened grains and nuggets. the balance being usually silver for the most part. Definition: Svar´a (Au) is a yellow metal available in the form of ingots. the deposits of primary Svar´a occur mainly in Hassan and Chitradurga districts in Karnataka. chiefly in the free state. 99. but invariably alloyed with some proportion of Rajata or Tamra. mercury and other metals. Synonyms: 2. That means. Origin and occurrence: Svar´a is present in the earth's crust and in sea water to the extent of about 4 parts in a hundred million. Kanaka. Hema.9 parts per thousand (i. 2.99 % Au) is termed as 24 carat Gold.SVAR³A (Gold metal) 1. Native Svar´a has been known to contain as much as 99.6 parts of gold and 83. The 22 carat Gold (the standard for Gold coin and jewellary) contains 916. 22 carat Gold contains 91. in many cases in association with other heavy and resistant minerals. and gold-silver telluride. Svar´a of hydrothermal origin occurs mostly in quartz veins. Gold containing 999.66 % Au and 8.80% gold (Au).

Shall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana.5 to 3. 35 . 9.3 when contains alloying elements like Silver or Copper 6.1 Solubility: Insoluble in any single acid (hydrochloric acid. 7.2 6. (HCL) as by-product. 6. Heavy metals and Arsenic: In Svar´a Mercury. Śodhana: Svar´a is used in the form of bhasma. dendrites and nuggets Golden yellow Bright yellow None Hackly Metallic Very malleable and ductile Opaque 2.2. Nature Colour Streak Cleavage Fracture Lustre Tenacity Transparency Hardness Sp.1 Svar´amāk¾ika and Vimala both are brittle and soluble in nitric acid which is not in the case of Svar´a. 5.6 to 18. 1:3) Assay: Svar´a should contain not less than 99.3 8. : : : : : : : : : : Granular.99% Gold (Au) when analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectorometer (Appendix-3. Chemical Properties: 6. Vimala has higher hardness (6-6.Gr.0 (readily scratched by knife) 19.30.6 & 3.10).5) compared to other two.2 7. It is available in market in the form of ingots. varies from 15. the details of which are given in the monograph of bhasma.recently been discovered in the states of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. Arsenic and Cadmium should be absent. Main producer of Svar´a in country today are Hutti Gold Mines Co. Distinction from Svar´amāk¾ika and Vimala 7. Physical properties: (Definition / explanation of technical terms and methods of determination as given in Appendix –1). The streak of Svar´a is yellow while Svar´amāk¾ika gives greenish black streak. (HGML) and Hindustan Copper Ltd. Ltd. Lead. sulphuric acid or nitric acid) but soluble in aqua-regia (HNO3: HCl.3 7.2.

Nature Colour Streak Fracture Lustre Tenacity : : : : : : Massive. Silver. large deposits of Svar´amāk¾ika occur mainly in Khetri. Tāpya 2. Svar´amakhi Urdu Miss Sokhta (N.SVAR³AMĀK½IKA (Copper Ore) 1. 5. Broad classification: Sulphide Origin and occurrence: Svar´amāk¾ika.U. Jhunjhunu in Rajasthan. More than 90% production of this ore in the country comes from these areas only. 3. Gold.M.) Telugu Māksīkamu. veins or lodes as fracture and cleavage fillings. Definition: Svar´amāk¾ika is a copper ore containing Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) mineral. Singhbhum in Jharkhand. Sonāmākhī Hindi Sonāmākhī. patches. Distt.F. Hemamāk¾ika. sphalerite and galena minerals. Synonyms: 2.I. Svar´amāk¾ika generally occurs in association with pyrrhotite. Distt. Kannada Dhātumaksika Malayalam Makkirakallu Marathi Daga²ī. stringers. Sonāmukhī Tamil Ponnimilai (S. Kurnool and Guntur in Andhra Pradesh and Rangpo in Sikkim. In India. Mining of Svar´amāk¾ika from these 3 areas is carried out by Hindustan Copper Limited (A Govt.) 2. of India Enterprise). Arsenic. Occurrence of 100% pure Svar´amāk¾ika in abundance is not common because it is always associated with host rock in the form of disseminations. Sonāmakkhi. Nickel and Cobalt in trace amounts.1 Sa¼sk¨ta : Dhātumāk¾ika. 4. streaks. in ore form. occurs mainly in metamorphic rocks of pre-cambrian age. Distt. Small deposits. Māk¾ika. however. smooth Golden yellow Greenish black Uneven Metallic Brittle 36 . occur in Chitradurga and Hassan in Karnataka. pyrite. Physical Properties: (Definition / explanation of technical terms and methods of determination as given in Appendix 1). Malanjkhand.F. Copper ore Gujarati Māksīka. are always present in Svar´amāk¾ika.2 Names in other Languages: English Chalcopyrite. Balagaht in Madhya Pradesh and Ghatsheela.

Reaction with Acid: Take nitric acid in a test tube. Arsenic = 1 ppm and Cadmium = 3 ppm (Appendix-3. a fragment of Svar´amāk¾ika fuses to a black mass without swelling which is strongly magnetic.1.3 6.Gold = 0.1 Svar´amāk¾ika in ore form should contain not less than 5% Copper (Cu) (Appendix-3. Śodhana: Shall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana. which has hardness 66. 8.2).4.2 Svar´amāk¾ika: greenish black streak.2. Take 1 g of finely powdered sample in a dry test tube. The solution becomes bluish black.3.5 7. Distinction from Vimala 7. 7.3.9 & 3.4 Heavy metals and Arsenic: Svar´amākşika in ore form should contain not more than the stated limits for the following: . as felt by a horse-shoe magnet (Appendix-3. 9. 6. Vimala: brownish black streak 7.7 Charcoal Test: When heated on charcoal. 37 . Other Elements: Svar´amāk¾ika in ore form may contain the following within ± 20% of the stated limits:.Transparency Hardness Sp. the details of which are given in the monograph of bhasma. Svar´amāk¾ika is used in the form of bhasma.2). 6.Lead = 70 ppm. Silver = 48 ppm and Zinc = 800 ppm (Appendix-3.1 & 3.4 to 3.1 : : : Opaque 3 to 4 3.2 Svar´amāk¾ika in ore form should contain not less than 20% Iron and 12% Sulphur when analysed by gravimetric method (Appendix3.3 Copper content in Vimala is negligible.1). Assay: 6. 6. add 10 ml of the nitric acid to it and heat.70 ppm.5.2 6.1 Golden yellow colour and softer than Vimala (pyrite).2). Heat to boil for 5 minutes and cool to room temperature.Gr 6. Chemical Properties: 6.4).

which comes out of floatation cells as froth.e. The minor amount of pine oil and sodium ethyl xanthate. 3. Lead. 2. 38 . Hence. it retains its overall mineralogy as well as other properties. Arsenic. will totally go away during further processing (i. Zinc. Malanjkhand in Madhya pradesh & Ghatsheela in Jharkhand. during which pine oil (@ 28 g per tonne of ore ground) and sodium ethyl xanthate (@ 35 g per tonne of ore ground) are added to the flotation cells. The dried fine powder of 200 mesh size is termed as Concentrate and the process is called beneficiation. large quantity of Sāndrita Svar´amāk¾ika is produced by Hindusthan Copper Limited at Khetri in Rajasthan. 3. which remains after śodhana. Nickel and Cobalt. Substantial amount of water (@ 2. Beneficiation is done by crushing and grinding of Svar´amāk¾ika and subjecting its slurry to froth floation. it also contains trace but comparatively higher amount of Gold. will be nothing but Sāndrita Svar´amāk¾ika containing higher content of its ingredients.SVAR³AMĀK½IKA -S¡NDRITA (Copper Concentrate) 1.1 Preparation of Sandrit Svar´amāk¾ika: The Sāndrita Svar´amāk¾ika is produced by crushing and grinding of Svar´amāk¾ika ore lumps to 200 mesh size powder.5 M3 per tonne of ore ground) is added during grinding of copper ore to make the material a slurry. It is important to note that even after processing. There is a little increase in the content of other major ingredients also. Definition: Svar´amāk¾ika-Sāndrita is a copper concentrate containing Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) mineral with minimum 12 % copper content. Broad classification: Sulphide Origin and occurrence: There is no natural occurrence of Sāndrita Svar´amāk¾ika in India or in the world. This slurry is subjected to froth floation process. śodhana) by the pharmacies. It is a processed material in the form of fine powder. The only difference is increase in copper content to more than 12 %. Like Svar´amāk¾ika. (Svar´amāk¾ika-Sāndrita. The pine oil acts as frother whereas sodium ethyl xanthate as collector. In India. is referred as Sāndrita Svar´amāk¾ika in the rest of the monograph). This process enriches the copper content of the slurry just by discarding the gangue material from it. is dried through hot air driers. Silver. which was added during floatation process. herein after. The enriched slurry. the material.

4).20% (Appendix-3. Nature Colour Lustre Sp. Sāndrita Svar´amāk¾ika is used in the form of bhasma.Gr : : : : Fine powder Greenish black with yellow tinch Dull-metallic 3.2 Sāndrita Svar´amāk¾ika should contain not less than 25% Iron and 28% Sulphur when analysed by gravimetric method (Appendix3. Sāndrita Svar´amāk¾ika fuses to a black mass which is strongly magnetic.2.Gold = 0.2 5.2). Other Elements: Sāndrita Svar´amāk¾ika may contain the following within ± 20% of the stated limits:.40 ppm.8 to 4. Chemical Properties: 5.1).3.1 5. 5. Assay: 5. Physical Properties: (Definition / explanation of technical terms and methods of determination as given in Appendix 1). the details of which are given in the monograph of bhasma.1 Charcoal Test: When heated on charcoal. as felt by a horse-shoe magnet (Appendix-3.1.4.2). 7.5 6.4 Heavy metals and Arsenic: Sāndrita Svar´amāk¾ika should contain not more than the stated limits for the following: Arsenic = 100 ppm and Cadmium = 5 ppm (Appendix – 3. add 10 ml of the nitric acid to it and heat. Śodhana: Shall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana.9 & 3. 5.1 & 3. Silver = 50 ppm and Zinc = 0.3 5. 5. Heat to boil for 5 minutes and cool to room temperature. The solution becomes bluish black.4.3. 39 . Reaction with Acid: Take nitric acid in a test tube.2). Take 1 g powder of Sāndrita Svar´amāk¾ika in a dry test tube.1 Sāndrita Svar´amāk¾ika should contain not less than 12% Copper (Cu) (Appendix-3.

Definition: Tāmra is the end product of the metallurgical process of Copper ore. Ravi 2.F. Native Tāmra is comparatively less pure than electrolytically refined Copper. 4. Broad Classification: Metal Origin and occurrence: Tāmra. occurs as irregular platy dendrites. Silver.2 Names in other Languages: Bangali Tāmā English Copper Gujarati Trāmbu. Miss.M. sheets or rods of Copper which is produced by an electrolytic process. Physical properties: (Definition / explanation of technical terms and methods of determination as given in Appendix –1). which contains 99. in native form. Iron. Native Tāmra as well as electrolytically refined Copper generally contain trace amounts of Gold. Śulva.Tāmraka.1 Sa¼sk¨ta : 2. can be bent by hand Copper red Copper red None Hackly Metallic Malleable Opaque 40 .TĀMRA (Copper Metal) 1. Electrolytically refined Tāmra is produced mainly in smelter/ refinery plants at Khetri in Rajasthan and Maubhandar-Ghatsheela in Jharkhand. It is available in the form of wires. wires or rods. Śulvaka. crystals and compact mass and is most commonly associated with basic extrusive igneous rocks. Arsenic. Such occurrences are very limited. Nature Colour Streak Cleavage Fracture Lustre Tenacity Transparency : : : : : : : : Plates. Tāmbu Hindi Tāmbā Kannada Tāmbra Latin Cuprum Malayalam Chembu Marathi Tāmbe Tamil Chempu (S. Sūrya. Zinc. Bismuth and Antimony. where Copper ore occurs in abundance.U.F.I. Synonyms: 2. Sūryasakhā.50% to 100% Cu.) Telugu Rāgi Urdu Nuhas.) 3. Tāmba (N. 5.

3 6. 6. Chemical Properties: 6.9 & 3.0 8 to 9 Reaction with acids: Take about 5 g of finely powdered (150 mesh) Tāmra in a borosil test tube. It gets completely dissolved in the acid giving a blue solution.1 : : 2.Lead = 5 ppm. Add 10 ml nitric acid.1.2).2. Śodhana: Shall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana. Arsenic = 1 ppm and Cadmium = 5 ppm (Appendix-3. Other Elements: May contain the following within ± 20% of the stated limits:.4 7. 41 . Heavy metals and Arsenic: Tāmra should not contain more than the stated limits for the following: .Zinc = 25 ppm.1 & 3. Silver = 10 ppm and Gold = 135 ppb (Appendix3.5% Copper (Cu) (Appendix-3. 6.2).2). Add an excess of ammonia to this blue solution.2 6. Assay: Tāmra should contain not less than 99. 8.5 to 3. The colour of solution changes to deep azure blue. Tāmra is used in the form of bhasma. Gr.Hardness Sp. the details of which are given in the monograph of bhasma.

¯A«KA³A (Borax) 1. 4. 2. Suhaga (N. hot springs and in dried up shallow basins (Playa) or saline lakes. which are refined to produce ¯a¬ka´a and boric acid. sulphates.U. Non-exploitable occurrences of ¯a¬ka´a are known in Surendranagar district in Gujarat and Jaipur and Nagaur districts in Rajasthan. Broad Classification: Origin and occurrence: ¯a¬ka´a occurs as deposits from volcanic emanations (fumaroles). ¯a¬ka. Economically workable deposits of ¯a¬ka´a are not yet discovered in India. which is accompanied by some chemical and mineralogical transformations to give rise to ¯a¬ka´a (borax).) Borax (Sodium borate) 3. however. Tincal Gujarati Ta¬kana Khāra.F. since early times. Definition: ¯a¬ka´a is Borax mineral (Na2B4O7. also known as Tincal. An evaporite mineral. Saubhāgya Names in other Languages: Bangali Sohāgā English Borax.) Telugu Veligāram Urdu Tankar. carbonates and other borates like ulexite and colemanite. The origin of ¯a¬ka´a involves simple concentration and evaporation. where it occurs today also.I.1 Sa¼sk¨ta 2. 10 H2O). was being obtained from salt lakes in Leh district of Jammu and Kashmir and Tibet.2 : ¯a¬ka´aka.F. It occurs mostly in the waters of various saline lakes in the salt deposits that have been formed through evaporation of such lakes. Synonyms: 2. Khadiyo Khāra Hindi Suhāgā Kannad Biligāra. 5. ¯a¬ga. Physical properties : (Definition / explanation of technical terms and methods of determination as given in Appendix –1). it occurs associated with halites.M. Small quantity of ¯a¬ka´a. Belgār Malayalam Pongaaram Marathi Ta¬ka´a Khāra Punjabi Sohāgā Tamil Venkaram (S. and the domestic need is met by imports of crude borates. Nature Colour Streak Cleavage : : : : Crystalline lumps White White Poor 42 .

2.65 to 1.1.1 ¯a¬ka´a should contain not less than 35% B2O3 (Boron trioxide) (Appendix-3. ηβ. 7. 1. Gr. 7.5 Heavy metals and Arsenic: ¯a¬ka´a should not contain more than the stated limits for the following: .7 Sweetish alkaline Optical properties.2. Śodhana: Shall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana.4.5 1.14). with ηα. 43 . Taste 6.gives colourless solution in cold condition and on boiling dissolves completely.1.2 It colours the flame yellow due to sodium and when moistened with sulphuric acid and alcohol.469 and ηγ.Fracture Lustre Tenacity Transparency Hardness Sp.2).4 ¯a¬ka´a should contain not less than 15% Sodium (Na) (Appendix3. 7. gives a green flame due to boron (Appendix-3.1 With hydrochloric acid .2 With sulphuric acid .447.2.2 Reaction with acids: 7. 7.1 Heated on a burner flame using blowpipe. 1.3). : : : : : : : Conchoidal Vitreous Brittle Translucent 2 to 2.2 7. 1.gives yellow colour solution in cold condition and on boiling dissolves completely. 8.4. Assay: 7. Biaxial. 7. ¯a¬ka´a bubbles up and fuses to a clear glassy bead.1 Effect of Heat: 7.3 Solubility in water: ¯a¬ka´a is completely soluble in purified water producing an alkaline solution as tested by a red litmus paper turning blue.2.13).4. 7.472 (Appendix-2) Chemical Properties: 7.Arsenic = 5 ppm and Cadmium = 4 ppm (Appendix-3. 7. Negative.

Appendix-II. Saubhāgya va°ī. Balya. Candrām¨ta rasa. Śvāsa (Asthma). U¾´a. collect when completely dehydrated.2 10. 9. Tribhuvanakīrti rasa. Mū²hagarbhapravartaka Therapeutic Uses: Kāsa (cough). Tīk¾´a. Ādhmāna (flatulence with gurgling sound).1 Śodhana: [Ref: AFI-Part-I. Dīpana. Dose: 125 . Sthāvara vi¾a (poisoning by plant or mineral).8. Vāta roga (diseases due to Vāta do¾a). 44 .250 mg Important Formulations: Ānandabhairava rasa. Vra´a (wound/ulcer) 9. Sāraka Vīrya U¾´a Vipāka Ka°u Karma H¨dya. Strī pu¾pajanana. Kapha nissāraka. ¯a¬ka´a has the following attributes: 9.1 Properties and Actions: Rasa Ka°u Guna Rūk¾a. Icchābhed¤ rasa. Śodhana-19] Method: Prepare coarse powder of ¯a¬ka´a and fry over heat source. 11. Sāraka.

In India.1 Sa¼sk¨ta 2.) Hydrous cupric sulphate 3. 5H2O). blue stone or chalcanthite mineral. is uncommon. Melatutu Urdu Tutia.I.TUTTHA (Copper Sulphate) 1.F. Also.5 2. copper vitriol. also known as blue vitriol. Synonyms: 2. Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand. 5. Gr. Definition: Tuttha is copper sulphate (Cu SO4. it is found in the zones of weathering of Copper lodes. Tūtiā Kannada Mayuruthutha Malayalam Mayilthuththam Marathi Moracūda Tamil Mayil thuththam. 4. Blue vitriol Gujarati Morathuthu Hindi Nīlā Thothā.12 to 2. natural occurrence of Tuttha. Broad Classification: Origin and occurrence: Tuttha occurs with other hydrated sulphates of copper and iron in the oxidized form near surface zones of copper sulphide ore deposits.2 2. A little amount of Tuttha can be seen near copper mines in Rajasthan. Kabood (N.F. Physical properties: (Definition / explanation of technical terms and methods of determination as given in Appendix –1). in abundance. commercially manufactured Tuttha as a chemical is used for Ayurvedic formulations in the country. Mostly. often on the walls of abandoned mine workings. Tuntiyā English Copper Sulphate. Nature Colour Streak Cleavage Fracture Lustre Tenacity Transparency Hardness Sp. : : : : : : : : : : Crystalline lumps Berlin or sky blue Colourless Poor Conchoidal Vitreous Brittle Translucent 2 to 2. : Tutthaka Names in other Languages: Bangali Tunte.M.) Telugu Mailu tuttham.U.30 45 . Turken (S. It is found generally deposited with mine purified waters.

1.1.5 6.2.1 On heating.6.1 Śodhana: [Ref: AFI-Part-I. partially evaporates giving brownish mass.6 7. 6. Appendix-II.1. Put the beaker in sun light till the solution gets completely dried up.That is. 6. Śodhana-21] [Ht. Assay: Tuttha should contain not less than 20% Copper (Appendix3. for bhāvanā Q.1 Effect of Heat: 6. Stir the solution till Tuttha powder stops dissolving. it yields metallic copper as observed by its copper red colour.2).4). solubility of Tuttha in purified water should not be less than 90%.4 6.1.S. Heat on charcoal with sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and carbon. for bhāvanā Q.Iron 4 % when analysed by gravimetric method (Appendix-3.2 Solubility in purified water: Take about 10 g accurately weighed fine (150 mesh) powder of Tuttha in 250 ml beaker.3 6. Heavy metals and Arsenic: Tuttha should not contain more than the stated limits for the following: . Weigh the residue. The process of levigation is to be repeated in all other liquid media i. Tuttha should contain not less than 15% Sulphur and not less than 50% SO4 (Appendix-3.3).Wd] [Rt. Chemical Properties: 6.e.4 6.2). 7.1. Arsenic = 4 ppm and Cadmium = 97 ppm (Appendix-3.1 & 3. Śodhana .] [P. It should not be more than 10% of the initial weight of the sample. 46 .S. Tuttha gives off water.] : : : : 1 Part Q.2 6.1. Ma®ji¾°hā Kvātha and Varā Kvātha individually for seven times each.3 Heating with sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) gives black fused mass.Shall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana. Repeat the process for seven times. if any. observed as droplets on the upper internal wall of the tube (Appendix-3. Other elements: May contain the following within ± 20% of the stated limits:.S. add quantity sufficient Rakta Candana Kvātha and grind till complete moisture gets evaporated.9 & 3.5).4. Add 50 ml purified water to it.Lead = 226 ppm. Heat in closed tube. 6. for bhāvanā i) Tuttha ii) Rakta Candana kvātha iii) Ma®ji¾°hā kvātha iv) Varā [Triphalā] kvātha Method: Powder Tuttha.

Jātyādi gh¨ta. Madhura Laghu. Cak¾u¾ya. Nityānanda rasa. Tvak roga (skin disease). Vāmaka. Arśa (piles). Garavi¾ahara. Ku¾°ha (diseases of the skin). Śīta Ka°u Kaphapittahara. Therapeutic Uses: K¨mi (helminthiasis/worm infestation). Nā²ī Vra´a (sinus). K¨mighna 8. Ka´²ūghna. Balya. Śvitra (Leucoderma /Vitiligo). Du¾°a vra´a (non-healing ulcer) 9. Vra´a (ulcer/wound). Trido¾aghna.30 mg Important Formulations: Jātyādi taila. Śūla (pain/colic).8. Bhedana. Sara U¾´a. Dose: 15 . Rasāyana. Prameha (increased frequency and turbidity of urine). Ka¾āya. Mahā vi¾agarbha taila.2. Netra roga (diseases of eyes). Medoroga (obesity). Śūlaghna. K¾ārakarmakara. Rucikara. Kāsīsādi gh¨ta 47 . Tuttha has the following attributes: Properties and Actions: Rasa Gu´a Vīrya Vipāka Karma Ka°u. Śvāsa (Asthma). 10. Arśoghna. Amlapitta (hyperacidity). Lekhana. Var´ya. Aśmarīhara.

Synonyms: 2. : : : : : : : : : : Crystalline prismatic Black Colourless None. In Rajasthan. Ajmer and Rajsamand districts.65 to 1. ηo 1. cassiterite. commonly in radial crystal form. Gr. dichroism present. sodium aluminium borosilicate of the formula [(Ca. it mainly occurs in Udaipur. 3. spodumene. Origin and occurrence: Vaikrānta occurs in granite pegatites. negative. 4. Nature Colour Streak Cleavage Fracture Lustre Tenacity Transparency Hardness Sp.66. strong birefringence. Al6)X{B3 Al2 Si6X(O. Vaikranta may be found associated with topaz. prismatic faces strongly striated vertically and crystals rounded to barrel shaped Uneven Vitreous Brittle and often rather friable Translucent 7 to 7. mostly in schists and gneisses.2 6. Na)X(Mg. Bhilwara.5 3 to 3. Definition: Vaikrānta is Tourmaline. by rotating the stage of microscope (Appendix-2). In India. with change in colour when a fragent is oriented at two positions. 48 .69.OH)30}] 2.1 Names in other Languages: Bangali Cūniviśe¾a English Tourmaline Gujarati Taramari Hindi Turamuri Marathi Turamali. ηe 1. Physical properties: (Definition / explanation of technical terms and methods of determination as given in Appendix –1). Bihar and Karnataka. It also occurs in metamorphic rocks. Toramali Telugu Vaikrantamu Broad Classification: Complex ring silicate of boron and aluminium. Vaikrānta is a wide spread mineral and used also as a Gemstone.63 to 1. Jharkhand. fluorite and apatite. it occurs in igneous and metamorphic terrains of Rajasthan. Optical properties: Uniaxial. as seen in parallel polarized light (uncrossed). Vaikrānta is a common detrital heavy mineral in sedimentary rocks. right angle to each other. 5.VAIKRĀNTA (Tourmaline) 1.

Heated before blowpipe. 7.1 Pyroelectricity. Śodhana: Shall not be used in formulations without subjecting it to śodhana.Lead = 11 ppm.1 Vaikrānta should contain not less than 6% B2O3 when analysed by ICPA method (Appendix-3.4 Heavy metals and Arsenic: Vaikrānta should not contain more than the stated limits for the following: .3 Reaction with acids: Vaikrānta does not decompose by any acid. Arsenic = 4 ppm and Cadmium = 2 ppm (Appendix-3. the details of which are given in the monograph of bhasma. 8.1. Vaikrānta swells up and does not fuse easily.When heated at one end.14). 7.1 Effect of Heat: 7. Assay: 7.7. 7.3.2). Chemical Properties: 7.1).2. not less than 30% Alumina (Al2O3) and not less than 30% Silica (SiO2) when analysed by gravimetric method (Appendix-3.3. Vaikrānta is used in the form of bhasma. Vaikrānta crystal attracts small bits of papers at the other end. 49 . 9.2 7.2 Vaikrānta should contain not less than 12 % ferric oxide (Fe2O3).

BLANK PAGE 50 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful