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SEPERATION OF CORE LOSSES OF 1-PHASE TRANSFORMER AIM: To separate the core losses of a given single phase transformer. APPARATUS:
1. 2. 3. 4.
Voltmeter Ammeter Watt meter Rheostat
( 0-300)V (0-5)A 300V/5A L.P.F 570Ω/1.2A 290Ω/2.8A 18Ω/12A (0-9999)RPM
THEORY: Due to rotations of iron core of the armature in the magnitude flux of the field poles there are some losses taking place continuously in the core known as iron losses or core losses. The iron losses consists of 1.Hysteresis losses. 2.Eddy current losses. HYSTERESIS LOSS: This losses is due to the reversal of magnetization of the armature core passes under N&S of the rotation pole alternately. The core under goes one complete cycle of magnetic reversal after passing under one pair of poles. If P is the number of poles , N is the armature speed in RPM then frequency of magnitude reversals in f=PN/120
The losses depends up on the volume and grade of iron ,maximum value of flux density Bmax and frequency of magnetic reversals. For normal flux densities,hysteresis losses is given steinmetz formulae, according to this formulae. Wh = η B 1.6max V watts V = volume of the core in m3 η = steimmetz hysteresis coefficient. These losses can be minimized by detected proper magnetic materials which has low hysteresis losses. EDDY CURRRENT LOSS(We): When the armature core rotates it also cuts the magnetic flux , hence an emf is induced in the body of the core according to the law of electro magnetic induction this emf through small sets up large current in the body of the core due its small resistance this current is known as eddy current . We = K B 2max f2 t2 v2 watt Where Bmax =Maximum flux density. f =Frequency. t = Thickness of material. v = Volume of armature core. It is seen from above that this loss varies directly as the squire of the thickness of laminations, Hence it should be kept as small as possible.
PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 2. Keep the motor armature rheostat in maximum position and motor field rheostat in minimum position. 3. Switch on dc supply to the motor. 4. Start the motor with the help of 3-point starter. 5. Adjust the speed of the motor to rated value with the help of motor field &armature rheostat. 6. Now switch on the supply to the excitation of alternator circuit and adjust the alternator field rheostat to rated voltage which is suitable to Lv side of transformer. 7. Calculate the speed of different frequencies are 55HZ,52HZ,47HZ,45HZ etc. 8. Note down the readings of the voltmeter,ammeter,wattmeterand measure the speed. 9. Now vary the motor armature rheostat until the motor speed to reduce to required value . 10.Again calculate the speed at different frequencies. 11.Note down the readings of voltmeter, ammeter, and wattmeter for different frequencies. 12.Keep the rheostat to initial position and switch off the supply of the excitation of the motor. CALCULATIONS: Wi = Af+Bf2 Wi/f = A+Bf Wi = Core losses or iron losses. Af = Hysteresis losses. Bf2 = Eddy current losses. N = 120f / p, poles = 4 Hysteresis losses Wh = Af
Eddy current losses We = Bf2 Core losses = Wh + We
I V N amps volts rpm
W W/F V/f watts Watt/hz Volt/hz Wh
PRECAUTIONS: 1.Avoide loose connections. 2.Take the readings with out parallax error. 3.Double check the circuit before giving the supply. 4.The motor armature rheostat in maximum position and motor field rheostat in minimum position.
Instead the motor is run with out any external mechanical load on it.Φ SLIP RING INDUCTION MOTOR AIM: To conduct no load and blocked rotor test on 3-ø slip ring induction motor and find efficiency . 3. NO-LOAD TEST : The practice . The speed may be assumed synchronous speed.NO LOAD &BLOCKED ROTOR TEST ON 3.slip for a 3-ø slip ring induction motor. The speed of rotor would not be synchronous but very much near to it . 5. Voltmeter Ammeter Watt meter ( 0-600)V (0-10)A 600V/10A 150V/20A (0-9999)RPM 415/0-470V 4. 2. So that for all practical purpose. The data necessary to draw the circle diagram may be found from no-load and blocked rotor test. not possible to run the induction motor synchronous speed. APPARATUS: S. Tacho meter 3-ø variable THEORY: The performance characteristics of an induction motor are derivable from a circular locus.NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY 1. .
Wo = √3VLIocosΦo cosΦo = Wo / √3VLIo BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: It is a short circuit test. As the motor is running light load. The total power will be Wo. 3. Hence total power input will be different of two wattmeter readings W1&W2. Core due to friction and windage. If the normal voltage is applied to the stator.Stator core loss. Current Io by ammeter and voltage by volt meter. then ISN = Is X V/Vs Power factor on short circuit is found from Ws = √3Vs Is cosΦs cosΦs = Ws /√3Vs Is . Small stator cu loss + small rotor loss.The no-load test is carried out rated voltage. No-load „Wo‟ to the rotor consists of .5. 2. The power factor would be low i. In this rotor is blocked mechanically and then we applied armature voltage till the ammeter shows the rated current.e less than 0. 1. The input power is measured by two wattmeter‟s.
PROCEDURE: NO LOAD TEST: 1. Note down the readings of no load voltage. Note the readings of voltmeter. 3. no load current and wattmeter readings. MODEL CALCULATION: NO LOAD TEST: WO = W1 +W 2 cosΦo = Wo / √3VLIo BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: Wsc = Ws /√3Vs Is Short circuit input current ISN = ISC x VO/VSC Short circuit input power WSN = √3 VO ISN cosΦsc Output power = Full load output power/ power scale . 2. Connect the load at the output terminals. 2. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. 4. Ammeter and wattmeter. By varying the 3Φ Auto transformer. Vary the 3Φ Auto transformer until the ammeter reads the rated current. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram. for the no load test load is not applied on the rotor pulley. BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: 1. apply the rated voltage. 3. 4.
The motor armature rheostat in maximum position and motor field rheostat in minimum position. 3.Double check the circuit before giving the supply.Take the readings with out parallax error.NO Isc(Amp) Vsc(Volts) W1(Watts) W2(Watts) W1+ W2 PRECAUTIONS: 1.NO IO(Amp) VO(Volts) W1(Watts) W2(Watts) W1+ W2 BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: S. RESULT: .TABULAR FORM: NO LOAD TEST: S. 2. 4.Avoide loose connections.
Tacho meter THEORY: It is a direct test on a induction motor .81 (S1 -S2) r N-M Output power = Tsh 2πN/60 = 2πNT/60 Watts. Let S1 . Voltmeter Ammeter Watt meter ( 0-600)V (0-10)A 600V/10A UPF (0-9999)RPM 4.S2 are readings of balances .BREAK TEST ON 3-Φ INDUCTION MOTOR AIM: To plot the various performance characteristic curves of a 3-Φ induction motor by conducting the break test on it. The net pull on band due to friction at the pulley is (S1 -S2) lag Wt or 9. In this load applying a brake to the pulley mounted on the motor shaft. 2. The motor is run & the load on the motor is adjusted till it carries its full load current . 3. N = motor of pulley speed in rpm. The brake band is fixed ith the help of the belt with spring balance . One end of the belt is fixed spring balance S1 &other is connected to spring balance S2. Shaft torque Tsh = 9.81(W1 -W2) If r = Radius of the pulley in meters. APPARATUS: S. Input power = VI Watts.NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY 1. .
% Slip = Ns . 7.81(S1-S2) r n-m Power factor cosΦ = cos[tan-1 √3(W1-W2)/ (W1+W2)] Efficiency = output/ input x100 Output power = 2ΠNT/60 Input power = W1+W2 %Slip = NS-N/NS . Calculate torque and efficiency and after calculations graph is plotted between speed.Slip: The difference between synchronous speed Ns 7 actual speed N of the motor expressd as a 5 of N is called slip.power factor. 4. 6.wattmeter. voltmeter. Gradually applying the load on motor pulley step wise increases. Supply is switched off after removing the load on motor pulley. Increase the load up to full load current of the motor and take of ammeter. Make sure that motor is at the no-load . 3.slip.N/ Ns x100 Torque: It is proposal to product of armature current and flux. voltmeter.wattmeter. spring balance and speed of motor for each load. 3-Φ supply is given to stator by closing TPST switch and start the motor with the help of star-delta starter.torque. Take the readings of ammeter. Ta ά Ia Φ PROCEDURE: 1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. efficiency to output. MODEL CALCULATION: Torque = 9. 8. 5. 2. spring balance and speed of motor for each load.current.
Take the readings with out parallax error. RESULT: .NO V I N Spring volts amp rpm balance W1 W2 Input T P.The motor armature rheostat in maximum position and motor field rheostat in minimum position.Double check the circuit before giving the supply. 4.Avoide loose connections.f %Slip (W ) nm Output cosΦ (W) S1 S2 kg kg η PRECAUTIONS: 1. 3. 2.TABULAR FORM: S.
Voltmeter (0-300)V ( 0-600)V (0-5)A (0-10)A 3KW 2. 415V/0-470V THEORY: This is a connection in which conversion of power 3.Φ to 2.Φ is accomplished with the help of two transformers since it was first proposed by Charles scott. Let the teaser transformer secondary supply a current I2T at unity power factor . Other transformer 86. Ammeter 3. It is frequently referred to as scott connection. . One end of teaser primary is joined to the center tap on primary.65 tap and is known as teaser transformer . APPARATUS: S. Load 3-Φ auto transformer 4.NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY 1. One of the transformer has center tap both on primary winding is known as the main transformer. If we neglect magnetizing current Io then teaser primary current.Φ TRANSFORMER AIM: To study Scott connection and compare currents in the primary and secondary by drawing vector diagram in balance load and un balanced.SCOTT CONNECTIONS BY USING TWO 1.
9.Calculate primary current (I1) by consisting of secondary current (I2) at different loads and compare with readings obtain by phase diagram and calculations. 8. record ammeter and voltmeter readings of primary and secondary. 7. For the balanced loads apply equal resistance loads across main and teaser transformer secondary. These are given bellow. Auto transformer output voltage is adjusted to supply rated voltage of 415v to the primary of main and teaser transformer. MODEL CALCULATION: K = V2/V1 I2T = P/COSθ V . Record ammeter and voltmeter readings of primary and secondary. 3. One part is that which is necessary to balance the main secondary current I2M . I2M = I2M x N2/ N1 PROCEDURE: 1. 10. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram . Repeat above step by applying un equal loads at different points. 4. 5.I1T = I2T x Transformation ratio = I2T x N2/√3 N1 /2 = 2/√3 x I2T = 1. Repeat the process in step wise up to rated load current of transformer. 2. 1. The total current I1M in each half of the primary main transformer consists of two parts . Its value is. For un balance loads apply .15 x I2T Where K= N2/ N1 = Transformation ratio of main transformer. 6. Switch on the 3-Φ power supply by closing TPST switch .
15 = K IR = I1T = 1.15 K I2T IB = IY = I1M = √( K I2M )2 +(1/2 I1T) 2 UNBALANCED LOADS: Line current IA = I B = √ I1T2 + ( ½ IM)2 K of teaser transformer . K = 1.BALANCED LOADS: Line current IA = I B = √ I1T2 + ( ½ IM)2 K of teaser transformer .15 K I2T IB = IY = I1M = √( K I2M )2 +(1/2 I1T) 2 .15 = K IR = I1T = 1. K = 1.
RESULT: .Double check the circuit before giving the supply.Take the readings with out parallax error.NO VL(V) IR(A) IY(A) IB(A) I2T(A) I2M(A) V2T(V) V2M(V) PRECAUTIONS: 1. 2.Avoide loose connections.TABULAR FORM: BALANCED LOADS: S.NO VL(V) IR(A) IY(A) IB(A) I2T(A) I2M(A) V2T(V) V2M(V) UNBALANCED LOADS: S. 3.
2A 290Ω/2.NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY 1. Rheostat 4. % Regulation = Eo – V/V Synchronous impedance method: . Tacho meter THEORY: Regulation : It is clear that with change in load there is a change in terminal voltage of an alternator . The voltage regulation of an alternator is defined as the change in voltage when full load is removed divided by rated terminal voltage .8A 18Ω/12A (0-9999)RPM 3.REGULATION OF 3-Φ ALTERNATOR BY SYNCHRONOUS IMPEDENCE & MMF METHOD AIM: To find the regulation of 3-Φ alternator by synchronous impedance &MMF method. Voltmeter Ammeter ( 0-600)V (0-10)A (0-5)A 360 Ω/1. APPARATUS: S. 2.
Calculate Xs = √Zs 2. In this method following procedure steps are involved . Find IFT = √If 12 + If 22 ± 2 If 1 If 2 Cos(180-(90+Φ) Take the corresponding readings voltages for IFT 4.It is a straight line passing through the origin. 1. It is a straight line passing through the origin both these curves are drawn on common base of field current . Similarly Sc is drawn from the short circuit data . E1 = Zs I1 Zs = E1 (open circuit)/ I1 (short circuit) 3. % Regulation = Eo – V/V x100 Mmf method: It is also known as ampere turns method . Occ is plotted from given data . Occ is plotted from given data . % Regulation = Eo – V/V x100 . Eo = √ (V CosΦ + IRa )2 + (V SinΦ +I Xs)2 5. 2. Similarly Sc is drawn from data.In this method also utilize the oc & sc data.Ra2 4.In this method following procedure steps are. 3.It is also known as emf method . 1. 2.
2. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Draw the open circuit characteristics graph between field current (If) and phase voltage (Eph). 5. Note down the readings of ISC & If up to rated current . Armature resistance is find out by using multimeter. Start the dc shunt motor (prim mover) by closing DPST switch & 3-point starter. By adjust the rated field current to zero by drawing the field rheostat.PROCEDURE: OPEN CIRCUIT TEST: 1. 5. SHORT CIRCUIT TEST: 1. note up to rated line voltage &field current . Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 2. 6. In this method stator winding is short circuited through ammeter.V/V . 7. 6. 4. 3. A dc shunt motor is used as an prime mover to the alternator . 4. A 220V dc supply is given to field winding as shown in circuit diagram. Draw the graph between ISC & If . MODEL CALCULATION: EMF METHOD: Impedance Zs = V1/I1 Reactance Xs = √ZS2 . By increasing the field rheostat of alternator . 3. Effective resistance Rac =1.6 xRdc.RAC2 EO = √(V cos θ + IR)2 + (Vsinθ + I XS)2 % Regulation = Eo . 8. By increasing the field rheostat & note down If and short circuit current (ISC).
MMF METHOD: EPH = V + I a Ra cosΦ If = √If12 + If22 + 2 If1 If2 cos (180-(90+ θ)) TABULAR FORM: OC TEST: S.NO If(Amps) EPH(Volts) .
Take the readings with out parallax error.Avoide loose connections. RESULT: .NO If(Amps) EPH(Volts) PRECAUTIONS: 1.The motor armature rheostat in maximum position and motor field rheostat in minimum position. 4. 3. 2.Double check the circuit before giving the supply.SC TEST: S.
Which contain four main parameters. wattmeter 150V/5A LPF 150V/20A UPF THEORY: The performance of a 1-Φ transformer can be calculated on the basis of its equivalent circuits. 2.These parameters can be easily determined by two tests . 1. Short circuit test.OC &SC TEST ON 1-Φ TRANSFORMER AIM: To find the regulation and efficiency of a given 1-Φ transformer by conducting oc & sc tests. Open circuit test: . The equivalent leakage reactance Xo as referred to primary (or secondary). Voltmeter Ammeter ( 0-150)V (0-20)A (0-2)A 3. The equivalent resistance R01 as referred to primary (or secondary R02) .NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY 1. Open circuit test. 2. APPARATIS: S.
leakage reactance (X01 or X02) & Total resistance (R01 or R02) of the transformer as referred to the winding in which the measuring instruments are placed. W =V1 IO CosΦO CosΦO = W / V1 IO Iµ = IO Sin ΦO Iw = IO COS ΦO Xo = V1/ Iµ Ro = V1/ Iw Short circuit test: 1. One winding of the transformer which over is convenient but usually high voltage winding is left open and other is connected to its supply of normal voltage & frequency. Which are recorded by the wattmeter. 2. This is an economical method for determining the following. Wattmeter .1. This loss is used in calculating the efficiency of a transformer. In this test the one winding is usually the low voltage winding is solidly short circuited by a thick conductor. With normal voltage applied to the primary normal flux will be set up in the core . 4. voltmeter & ammeter are connected in the low voltage winding in the present case. 2. The purpose of this test is to determine no load loss or core loss & no load Io which is helpful in finding Xo Ro. 3. 4. Hence normal iron loss will occur . . If W is the wattmeter reading then. 3. Copper loss at full load . Equivalent impedance (Z1 or Z02) . 5.
4. 7. Since in this test the applied voltage is a small percentage of the normal voltage . Give the supply by closing DPST switch &adjust output voltage of the autotransformer equal to rated LV winding. efficiency & % regulation on 1-Φ transformer for given load &power factor.5. First make the auto transformer output voltage zero & HV open.The full load copper loss or I2 R loss for the whole transformer i. SC TEST: 1. no-load voltage (Vo) & no-load current (Io). 2. . 2. First make the auto transformer output voltage is zero. Hence core losses are small with the result that the wattmeter reading represent . Take the readings of power . Note down readings of wattmeter . 3. 4. the mutual flux is also a small percentage of its normal value. Calculate the parameters of equivalent circuit . 5. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. short circuit current & short circuit voltage. 6.e both primary and secondary copper loss. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. If Vsc is the voltage required to calculate rated load currents then Z01 = VSC/I1 W = I12 R01 R01 = W/ I12 X01 = √ Z012 – R012 PROCEDURE: OC TEST: 1. 3. Adjust the auto transformer output voltage such that rated current flows in HV side.
R 02 2 R01 = R02 /K2 X01 = X02 /K2 Efficiency η = X KVA CosΦ/ X KVA CosΦ + Wi + X2 Wcu X 100 % Regulation = I2 (R02 CosΦ + X02 SinΦ)/ V2 X 100 .MODEL CALCULATIONS: OC TEST: CosΦo = WO/VO IO SinΦo = √1.Cos 2 Φo RO = VO / IO CosΦo XO = VO / IO SinΦo K = V2/V1 SC TEST: Z02 = VSC /I SC R02 = WSC / ISC 2 X02 = √Z02 2 .
NO VO (Volts) IO (Amps) WO (Watts) SC TEST: S.NO VO (Volts) IO (Amps) WO (Watts) .TABULAR FORM: OC TEST: S.
Double check the circuit before giving the supply.Take the readings with out parallax error. 3. RESULT: . 4.The motor armature rheostat in maximum position and motor field rheostat in minimum position.PRECAUTIONS: 1.Avoide loose connections. 2.
Voltmeter (0-600)V ( 0-150)V (0-5)A (0-20)A 150V/5A 150V/20A 415V/0-470V 2.NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY 1. APPARATUS: S. It provides data for finding regulation & efficiency under load condi tons and is employed only when two similar transformers are available .SUMPNER”S TEST ON PAIR OF 1-Φ TRANSFORMERS AIM: To determine the efficiency & regulation of a 1-Φ transformer at different loads by conducting sumpner‟s test. When the primary of two transformers are connected in parallel across the same supply switch “S” open the wattmeter W1 reads core loss of the both transformer . One transformer is loaded all the other hand both are connected to supply .The power taken from the supply the supply is that necessary for supplying the losses of both transformer and are negligible loss in the control circuit. Ammeter 3. THEORY: This test is also known as back to back test. wattmeter 3-Φ auto transformer 4. .
observe that the readings of voltmeter across the switch “S‟ is zero or not. 2.Secondary‟s are so connected that their potentials are in opposite direction to each other. PROCEDURE: 1. The voltmeter reading s across the switch it will read zero . 8. 7. But it reads other value than switch OFF the power supply & reverse the terminals of the transformer. 4. Core loss & copper loss of each transformer is calculate by dividing by 2. If it reads other value than switch OFF the power supply and reverse the any one of secondary of transformer terminals. Apply rated voltage on primary side with help of auto transformer. 6. Note down the voltmeter & ammeter readings of both primary secondary.Applying rated voltage all primary side with the help of auto transformer . Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 5. The readings of two watt meters will directly give the iron & copper loss of both transformer. Hence W1 reads the core loss and W2 reads full load copper loss . Calculate regulation of each transformer. 3. Now close the switch by increase 1-Φ variac from zero position up to attaining rated secondary current from the secondary circuit. MODEL CALCULATIONS: CosΦo = WO/VO IO IW=IO CosΦo Iμ = IO SinΦo .
RSC 2 Efficiency η = X KVA CosΦ/ X KVA CosΦ + Wi + X2 Wcu X 100 .RO = VO / IW XO = VO / Iμ R02 = RSC = WSC / ISC 2 ZSC = VSC /I SC X02 = XSC= √ZSC 2 .
TABULAR FORM: S.The motor armature rheostat in maximum position and motor field rheostat in minimum position. 2.Double check the circuit before giving the supply. 3.NO VO(Volts) IO(Amps) WO(Watts) VSC(Volts) Isc(Amps) Wsc(Watts) PRECAUTIONS: 1. 4. RESULT: .Avoide loose connections.Take the readings with out parallax error.
NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY 1. Tacho meter (0-9999)RPM THEORY: In this test the value of Xd & Xq can be determined by synchronous machine given by a separate prime movers at a speed slightly less that synchronous speed. Voltmeter Ammeter ( 0-150)V (0-5)A 3. APPARATUS: S.2A 4.e applied across the armature terminals under this condition the relative velocity between field poles & rotating armature . . 2. The field winding is left open & balance voltages of reduced magnitude around 25% of rated value & rated frequency i.DETERMINATION OF Xd & Xq BY SLIP TEST AIM: To determine the values of Xd & Xq by conducting slip test on 3-Φ salient pole transformer. Rheostat 18Ω/12A 570Ω/1.e slip speed .Flux is equal to the difference between the synchronous speed and rotor speed Ns – N i.
Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.e slip <1) 4. Switch OFF supply after adjusting variac & rheostat to its original position. 2. By varying armature or field rheostat adjust the prime mover speed less than the synchronous speed. 5. 50V . Take minimum & maximum values of voltage and current values . At this instant the ratio of armature terminals voltage per phase to corresponding armature current per phase to given axis.At this instant the applied terminals voltage per phase divided by corresponding armature current per phase gives at this reactance. Give the 25% of full load voltage to stator terminals by varying 3. By using the DPST switch give the supply to the motor.Φ variac. MODEL CALCULATIONS: Xd = Vmax/ ph / Imin X q = Vmin / ph / Imax TABULAR FORM: . 3. Repeat the experiment by changing applied Ac 3.At one instant when the peak of armature flux wave is in line with field poles or direct axis‟s the reluctance offered by the small air gap is minimum . The reluctance offered by long reluctance is maximum . 6.Φ voltage at 100V. Xd = Vmax /Imin After one quarter of slip cycle the peak value of the alternator flux adder all the entire poles or q-axis‟s of the field poles. 7.(i.70V. PROCEDURE: 1. Find Xd & Xq of the machine.
NO Vmin(Volts) Vmax(Volts) Imin (Amps) Imax (Amps) PRECAUTIONS: 1.Double check the circuit before giving the supply. 3.The motor armature rheostat in maximum position and motor field rheostat in minimum position. 4.S. RESULT: .Avoide loose connections. 2.Take the readings with out parallax error.
One winding of the transformer which ever is convenient but usually high voltage winding is left open and the other is connected to its supply at normal voltage & frequency .Φ induction motor by conducting no load blocked rotor test on it. Ammeter 3. APPARATIS: S. A wattmeter W and voltmeter V & all ammeter are connected .NO LOAD & BLOCKED ROTOR TEST ON 1-Φ INDUCTION MOTOR AIM: To find the parameters & equivalent circuit of a 1. wattmeter 300V/10A LPF 150V/20A UPF THEORY: No load test: Purpose of this test is to deter mine no load loss or core loss at no load current Io which is helpful for finding Xo & Ro. Voltmeter ( 0-300)V (0-150 ) V (0-15)A (0-10)A 2.NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY 1. WO = VO IO COS ΦO COS ΦO = WO / VO IO Magnetizing component Iµ = IO Sin ΦO Xo = VO/ Iµ .
4. Both values are used in construction of circle diagram. Power factor on short circuit. This test is used to find 1. Note down the no load current & power in ammeter & wattmeter. 3. 3. 2.Working component Iw = IO COS ΦO Ro = VO/ Iw Blocked rotor test: It is also known as short circuit test . Give the 1. Before giving supply . Short circuit current with normal voltage applied to stator . Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Before giving supply tightly fix the rotor with the help of belt. 2. Note down the readings of voltmeter . 3. Total leakage reactance X01 of the motor as referred to primary . BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: 1. remove the load on the motor. 4. Total resistance of the motor R01 as reforod to primary. ammeter & wattmeter. MODEL CALCULATIONS: NO LOAD TEST: CosΦo = WO/VO IO IW=IO CosΦo . 4. 2. PROCEDURE: NO LOAD TEST: 1.Φ supply to the motor circuit and by varying the auto transformer give the rated voltage in the voltmeter. Give the supply to circuit & varying the ammeter & up to attaining rated current in the circuit. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
S = Ns – Nr /Ns XO/2 = R2' /2(2-S) = X 2' /2 = TABULAR FORM: NO LOAD TEST: S.NO VO(Volts) IO(Amps) WO(Watts) .R 1 X1 = X 2' = XSC /2 Slip.Iμ = IO SinΦo RO = VO / IW XO = VO / Iμ BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: R02 = RSC = WSC / ISC 2 ZSC = VSC /I SC X02 = XSC= √ZSC 2 .RSC 2 R2' = R01 .
2.Double check the circuit before giving the supply. 3.BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: S.NO VSC(Volts) Isc(Amps) Wsc(Watts) PRECAUTIONS: 1.Take the readings with out parallax error.Avoide loose connections. RESULT: .The motor armature rheostat in maximum position and motor field rheostat in minimum position. 4.
APPARATIS: S. Wattmeter 600V/10A UPF 600V/10A LPF 230V/60watts 250V/3kw 4. THEORY: When the power input to the motor is constant the armature current increases . When the excitation is either decrease or increase from the normal value . Under lagging power factor the synchronous motor takes lesses field current for a given armature current as compare to the field current under leading power factor.V AND INVERTED V CURVES AIM: To draw the V and inverted V curves of a given synchronous motor. 2. .NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY 1. The graphically relation between the armature current Ia and the excitation current If curves resembles the shape of V & therefore known as the V-curves of synchronous motor . It is from that the current drawn by the motor is minimum at unity power factor is either leading or lagging . Lamps Load 5. Voltmeter Ammeter ( 0-600)V (0-5)A (0-10)A (0-20)A 3.
A rated Dc supply is given to the Dc shunt motor is started with the help of 3-point starter. Adjust the excitation of synchronous motor such that the voltmeter V1 connected across armature terminals should be equal to the bus bar voltage. It is known as inverted V curves of synchronous motor. Adjust the speed of the motor to a rated value by adjusting its field rheostat. 10. . 3.when synchronization occur that is all the 6lamps bright at one time & dark at another time. 4. Adjust the speed of the Dc motor slightly such that the dark period of lamp should be more at this condition DPST switch closed.Now .The relationship between power factor &field current . 5. 2. PROCEDURE: 1. The curve resembles & shape as inverted V curve . 7. 6. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 12. 8. The synchronous motor is acting as a synchronous generator un till its operation .By changing the excitation (If) the readings of ammeter & wattmeter readings are taken. 9. Observe the reading of voltmeter that is the voltage of bus bars between the lines.By this synchronous generator will convert to synchronous motor & synchronous Dc motor is converted into Dc generators. Exciting field winding of synchronous motor by the Dc supply to this circuit by closing the DPST switch2. The synchronous motor voltage is meet by voltmeter. the supplied Dc motor is taken OFF. 11.
MODEL GRAPHS: TABULAR FORM: S.NO If(Amps) W1(Watts) W2(Watts) IA(Amps) CosΦo .
Double check the circuit before giving the supply.PRECAUTIONS: 1. 2. 4.Take the readings with out parallax error.The motor armature rheostat in maximum position and motor field rheostat in minimum position. 3. RESULT: .Avoide loose connections.