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A320 Line Training Summary, Air Berlin

Revision 4.1 by CMD Urs Oetiker, TRE, Station Zrich

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IMPORTANT
The information in this document will provide you with a collection of basic organized material gathered from official Air Berlin sources regarding the operation of the A320. This A320 Line Training Summary is a document which you may use in your training as a work of reference. It is not intended for operational use, meaning that it shall not be used in-lieu of original operational documentation during commercial operation.

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Introduction

The trend of modern aviation dictates that we are operating in an enviormnent that is increasing in both technical complexity and is governed and monitored closely in legal and procedural frameworks. So, as well as good stick and rudder-skills, we must also become proficient in the technical management of the aircraft and adhere rules and regulations stipulated by the company and the authorities. If we can combine these factors and provide a safe, economical and comfortable experience for the crew and passgeners then we have attained our goal. The technical and operational information needed to operate in this environment is contained in several documents with which the pilot must be familiar. It is not necessary, nor is it advisable, to know these books by heart. However, the crew must know the structure of the documentation and be able to consult, understand and apply the relevant text/schematics in a timely manner. The purpose of this summary is to give the trainee an overview of the most fundamental topics that are needed to operate the Airbus A320 family. It provides condensed information as found in the Air Berlin documentation and also describes accepted methods for operating in daily work within the company. This summary provides references to the following documentation: OM(A) The Operations Manual Part A is a document which stipulates accepted practices by which Air Berlin must adhere. It covers many areas; from the description of the organizational structure of the company all the way to weather conditions required for an approach. It covers mainly issues of operational rather than technical nature. The main Chapter of interest for the flight crew member is OM(A) Chapter 8. FCOM 3.3 (a subchapter of FCOM 3, see below) has been specially modified by Air Berlin to suit its dark and silent flight-deck philosophy. It is the only part of the FCOMs that is modified by Air Berlin. FCOM The Flight Crew Operations Manual is provided by the aircraft manufacturer. It provides technical guidelines and information that relate to the operation of the aircraft. The FCOM is separated into 4 parts. The FCOMs are delivered by Airbus and do not contain company company-specific information (except FCOM 3.3, see above). FCOM 1 System Description FCOM 2 Flight Preparation FCOM 3 Flight Operations FCOM 4 FMGS Pilots Guide

FCTM The Flight Crew Training Manual is a document published by Airbus and is advisory in nature. It provides only basic information regarding practical operation of the aircraft. A320 Instuctor Support This document provides Instructors with additional background information on the A320 operation, in procedural and technical terms. There is a strict hierarchy with which the documentation is to be used within Air Berlin. Any information in the OM(A) overrides FCOM 3.3, followed by the FCOM and finally the FCTM and A320 Instructor Support. Use this summary during your training to prepare for your next flights. By doing so, you provide yourself and the instructor more time to dedicate to areas which may need more focus. The initial training will provide you with the ability to operate the aircraft safely and economically. Remember that safety has highest priority therfore:
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Attain in-depth knowledge of the procedures Attain a good understanding regarding the technical apects of the aircraft Strictly adhere to Standard Operating Procedures Plan and fly in a conservative manner

If you have any questions relevant to training issues do not hesitate to contact your instructor or the Department Training. The A320 Line Training Summary is revised at irregular intervals depending on the number and significance of changes within the official documentation. If the reader finds any deviations from official policy or finds outdated/incorrect information, please contact: Name: Urs Oetiker Function: TRE, Station Zrich e-mail: uoetiker@freesurf.ch Mobile: +41 78 707 5661 For the latest update of the summary check following webpage: http://home.ggaweb.ch/uoetiker/ All that remains to be said is: good luck!

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Table of Content
1 General Principles..................................................................................................................... 11 Becoming an expert in Aviation.............................................................................................. 11 Procedures and Techniques .................................................................................................. 12 Systematic method of operation............................................................................................. 13 1.3.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 13 1.3.2 Working with packets ................................................................................................... 15 1.4 Cross-Cockpit Communication .............................................................................................. 17 1.4.1 General ........................................................................................................................ 17 1.4.2 Closed Loop................................................................................................................. 17 1.5 Fly , Navigate, Communicate ................................................................................................. 18 1.1 1.2 1.3 Fuel planning ............................................................................................................................. 19 Pre-flight planning work distribution ....................................................................................... 19 Legal requirements ................................................................................................................ 20 2.2.1 Planning minima for destination aerodromes and alternate aerodromes.................... 20 2.2.2 Alternate Planning........................................................................................................ 20 2.2.3 Conversion of Reported Meteorological Visibility to RVR ........................................... 22 2.2.4 Interpretation of given meteorological information....................................................... 23 2.2.5 Profit tankering............................................................................................................. 24 2.3 Tactical aspects ..................................................................................................................... 25 2.3.1 General ........................................................................................................................ 25 2.3.2 HILDAW ....................................................................................................................... 26 2.1 2.2 Briefings ..................................................................................................................................... 28 RNAV - and conventional waypoints..................................................................................... 28 3.1.1 Structure....................................................................................................................... 28 3.1.2 Coding of NavDataBase (NDB) ................................................................................... 28 3.2 Self programmed waypoints................................................................................................... 30 3.2.1 Place, Bearing, Distance.............................................................................................. 30 3.2.2 Place Bearing, Place Bearing ............................................................................... 31 3.3 General Briefing ..................................................................................................................... 32 3.4 Departure Briefing .................................................................................................................. 32 3.5 Take off Briefing ..................................................................................................................... 32 3.6 Landing Briefing ..................................................................................................................... 33 3.1 4.1 Use of automation ..................................................................................................................... 34 Recommendations for optimum use of automation ............................................................... 34 4.1.1 General ........................................................................................................................ 34 4.1.2 Interfacing with automation .......................................................................................... 34 Exterior Inspection (Walk Around) .......................................................................................... 36 General................................................................................................................................... 36 Walk Around........................................................................................................................... 36

5 5.1 5.2 6

Loading....................................................................................................................................... 40 6.1 General, methods, procedures and responsibility for preparation and acceptance of the weight and balance sheet........................................................................................................... 40 6.2 Definitions (weights and centre of gravity) ............................................................................. 40 6.3 Aircraft weights....................................................................................................................... 41 6.4 LPC load sheet....................................................................................................................... 42 6.5 Conventional load sheet, manual calculation......................................................................... 43 6.5.1 Fuel index table............................................................................................................ 44 6.5.2 DOW / DOI A320 for conventional Load sheet............................................................ 44 6.6 Last minute changes procedure............................................................................................. 45 6.7 Standard Weight Values ........................................................................................................ 46
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Resetting of computers and C/Bs .......................................................................................... 47 Tripped C/B reengagement in flight ....................................................................................... 47 Computer reset....................................................................................................................... 47 7.2.1 On ground .................................................................................................................... 47 7.2.2 In flight.......................................................................................................................... 48 7.2.3 BSCU reset (in-flight and on ground)........................................................................... 48 7.3 ECAM advisories.................................................................................................................... 49 7.1 7.2 8.1 8.2 Stabilized approach .................................................................................................................. 50 Definition ................................................................................................................................ 50 Philosophy of stabilized approach ......................................................................................... 50 Landing technique .................................................................................................................... 51 Final approach........................................................................................................................ 51 Flare ....................................................................................................................................... 51 Crosswind landing.................................................................................................................. 52 Tail strike at landing ............................................................................................................... 52 Bouncing at touch down......................................................................................................... 53 Engine-out landing ................................................................................................................. 53

9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 10

Weather radar ............................................................................................................................ 54 10.1 General ............................................................................................................................. 54 10.2 Technical background....................................................................................................... 54 10.3 Use of the weather radar .................................................................................................. 54 10.3.1 Tilt ................................................................................................................................ 54 10.3.2 Gain.............................................................................................................................. 55 10.3.3 WX+T and TURB modes ............................................................................................. 55 10.4 Spotting dry hail ............................................................................................................... 55 Turbulence versus altitude ............................................................................................................... 56 10.5 Turbulence above cloud tops............................................................................................ 56 10.6 Colour gradient.................................................................................................................. 56 10.7 Pilot behaviour with significant weather ............................................................................ 56 10.8 Severe turbulence: ............................................................................................................ 57 Winter operation........................................................................................................................ 58 11.1 Flight planning................................................................................................................... 58 11.1.1 General ........................................................................................................................ 58 11.1.2 Runway contamination................................................................................................. 58 11.1.3 Required landing distance ........................................................................................... 59 11.2 Definitions ......................................................................................................................... 60 On ground operation ........................................................................................................................ 61 11.2.1 Securing the aircraft for cold soak ............................................................................... 61 11.2.2 Engine start in cold weather ........................................................................................ 61 11.3 De-icing on ground............................................................................................................ 61 11.3.1 Clean aircraft concept .................................................................................................. 61 11.3.2 Exterior inspection ....................................................................................................... 61 11.3.3 Clear ice phenomenon................................................................................................. 62 11.3.4 General checks ............................................................................................................ 62 11.3.5 Responsibility............................................................................................................... 64 11.3.6 Final check before aircraft dispatch ............................................................................. 64 11.3.7 Procedures................................................................................................................... 65 11.4 Taxiing in icing conditions ................................................................................................. 66 11.5 Take off on contaminated runways .................................................................................. 67 11.5.1 Runway contamination................................................................................................. 67 11.5.2 Performance Optimization ........................................................................................... 67 11.5.3 Flap setting................................................................................................................... 67 11.5.4 Recommended procedure ........................................................................................... 68
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11.5.5 Crosswind limits ........................................................................................................... 68 11.6 Aircraft contamination in flight........................................................................................... 68 11.6.1 General ........................................................................................................................ 68 11.6.2 Engine anti-ice ............................................................................................................. 69 11.6.3 Wing anti-ice ................................................................................................................ 69 11.7 Landing on contaminated runways ................................................................................... 69 11.7.1 Crosswind limits for landing on contaminated runways............................................... 70 11.8 Low temperature effect on altimeter indication ................................................................. 70 11.8.1 Corrections................................................................................................................... 70 11.8.2 Example ....................................................................................................................... 71 12 Handling of abnormal and emergency situations.................................................................. 72 12.1 Types of failures................................................................................................................ 72 12.2 Color code......................................................................................................................... 72 12.3 Warning / Caution classification........................................................................................ 73 12.4 Use of QRH....................................................................................................................... 74 12.4.1 Scope ........................................................................................................................... 74 12.4.2 Contents....................................................................................................................... 74 12.4.3 Use of summaries in the QRH ..................................................................................... 75 12.5 Task sharing for abnormal and emergency procedures ................................................... 76 12.6 Use of autopilot ................................................................................................................. 77 12.7 Landing distance ............................................................................................................... 77 12.8 Memory Items ................................................................................................................... 78 12.8.1 Windshear .................................................................................................................... 78 12.8.2 Windshear ahead (PWS) ............................................................................................. 78 12.8.3 TCAS............................................................................................................................ 81 12.8.4 EGPWS........................................................................................................................ 82 12.8.5 Loss of braking............................................................................................................. 83 12.8.6 Emergency descent ..................................................................................................... 84 12.8.7 Unreliable speed indication.......................................................................................... 85 12.8.8 Rejected T/O / Emergency Evacuation........................................................................ 87 Descent planning ...................................................................................................................... 90 13.1 General ............................................................................................................................. 90 13.2 Energy management......................................................................................................... 91 13.2.1 General ........................................................................................................................ 91 13.2.2 Energy circle displayed on the ND............................................................................... 91 13.2.3 Factors affecting the descent path of the aircraft ........................................................ 92 13.3 The economical descent ................................................................................................... 92 13.3.1 General ........................................................................................................................ 92 13.3.2 Planning for an economical descent............................................................................ 94 13.3.3 A word about track miles.............................................................................................. 95 13.3.4 Remaining on the 3 descent path............................................................................... 95 13.3.5 Strategies for intercepting the 3 descent path from above and below....................... 96 13.4 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 97 Minimum Equipment List (MEL)............................................................................................... 98 14.1 Objectives ......................................................................................................................... 98 14.2 General application of the MEL......................................................................................... 98 14.2.1 Handling of maintenance messages displayed on ECAM status page....................... 99 14.2.2 CAT2, CAT3 SINGLE, CAT3 DUAL automatic approach and landing........................ 99 14.2.3 Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) ......................................................... 99 14.2.4 Required Navigation Performance (RNP) ................................................................... 99 14.3 Structure of the MEL ....................................................................................................... 100 14.3.1 Section 00 General .................................................................................................... 100 14.3.2 Section 00E................................................................................................................ 100 14.3.3 Section 01 MEL.......................................................................................................... 100
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14.3.4 Section 02 Operational Procedure............................................................................. 100 14.4 Presentation of the MEL.................................................................................................. 100 15 RNAV ........................................................................................................................................ 101 15.1 General ........................................................................................................................... 101 15.2 Dispatch requirements .................................................................................................... 101 15.3 Required Navigation Performance (RNP)....................................................................... 101 15.3.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 101 15.3.2 Without GPS PRIMARY............................................................................................. 101 15.3.3 With GPS PRIMARY.................................................................................................. 102 15.4 B-RNAV in European airspace ....................................................................................... 102 15.4.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 102 15.4.2 Procedures................................................................................................................. 102 15.5 P-RNAV for terminal procedures .................................................................................... 103 15.5.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 103 15.5.2 Procedures................................................................................................................. 103 15.6 Position Computation ...................................................................................................... 104 15.6.1 Mix IRS Position......................................................................................................... 104 15.6.2 GPS Position.............................................................................................................. 104 15.6.3 Radio Position............................................................................................................ 105 15.6.4 FM Position ................................................................................................................ 105 15.6.5 Evaluation of position accuracy ................................................................................. 106 15.7 RNAV approaches with vertical guidance....................................................................... 107 15.7.1 Coding requirements.................................................................................................. 107 15.7.2 Flight crew Procedures .............................................................................................. 108 15.7.3 Approach monitoring.................................................................................................. 111 15.8 Non Precision Approaches with engine-out.................................................................... 111 RVSM ........................................................................................................................................ 113 16.1 General ........................................................................................................................... 113 16.2 General procedures ........................................................................................................ 113 16.3 Pre-flight procedures....................................................................................................... 113 16.4 In-flight procedures ......................................................................................................... 114 16.5 Requirements for RVSM ................................................................................................. 114 16.6 Altitude tolerances........................................................................................................... 115 Taxiing and braking ................................................................................................................ 116 17.1 Taxiing............................................................................................................................. 116 17.1.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 116 17.1.2 180 turn on the runway............................................................................................. 116 17.1.3 Taxiing with one engine ............................................................................................. 117 17.1.4 Taxiing in icing conditions .......................................................................................... 118 17.2 Brakes ............................................................................................................................. 118 17.2.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 118 17.2.2 Brake temperature limitations requiring maintenance action .................................... 118 17.2.3 Brakes hot (ECAM warning) ...................................................................................... 118 17.2.4 General recommendations ........................................................................................ 119 CAT II, CAT III Operations....................................................................................................... 120 18.1 Definitions ....................................................................................................................... 120 18.1.1 Decision height .......................................................................................................... 120 18.1.2 Alert Height ................................................................................................................ 120 18.1.3 Runway Visual Range................................................................................................ 120 18.1.4 Fail passive automatic landing system ...................................................................... 120 18.1.5 Fail operational automatic landing system ................................................................ 121 18.2 Decision height and alert height concept........................................................................ 121 18.2.1 Decision height concept:............................................................................................ 121
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18.2.2 Alert height concept ................................................................................................... 122 18.3 Visual Segments ............................................................................................................. 123 18.3.1 CAT II ......................................................................................................................... 123 18.3.2 CAT III ........................................................................................................................ 124 18.4 Runway characteristics ................................................................................................... 125 18.4.1 Runway Length .......................................................................................................... 125 18.4.2 Runway Width............................................................................................................ 125 18.4.3 Runway Slope............................................................................................................ 125 18.4.4 Visual Aids-Runway Lights ........................................................................................ 125 18.4.5 Runway Edge Lights .................................................................................................. 125 18.4.6 Threshold Lights ........................................................................................................ 125 18.4.7 Runway End Lights .................................................................................................... 125 18.4.8 Runway Centerline Lights .......................................................................................... 126 18.4.9 Touchdown Zone Lights ............................................................................................ 126 18.4.10 Taxiway Edge Lights............................................................................................. 126 18.4.11 Taxiway Centerline Lights..................................................................................... 126 18.4.12 Stop Bars .............................................................................................................. 126 18.4.13 Approach Light System......................................................................................... 126 18.5 List of required equipment .............................................................................................. 131 18.6 Approach preparation ..................................................................................................... 132 18.7 Landing ........................................................................................................................... 133 18.7.1 Low Visibility Procedure for Cat II/III landing ............................................................. 133 18.7.2 Commencement and Continuation of Approach (Approach Ban) ............................. 133 18.7.3 Summary Limitations ................................................................................................. 134 18.8 Failures and associated actions...................................................................................... 135 18.8.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 135 18.8.2 Abnormal Procedures ................................................................................................ 136 18.9 Effect on Landing Minima of temporarily failed or downgraded Equipment ................... 138 18.10 Autoland in CAT I or better weather conditions .............................................................. 139 18.10.1 Airports requirements ........................................................................................... 139 18.10.2 Crew procedures .................................................................................................. 139 18.10.3 Limitations............................................................................................................. 139 18.11 Training and Qualifications ............................................................................................. 139 18.12 Type and command experience...................................................................................... 140 19 Low 19.1 19.2 19.3 visibility Takeoff .............................................................................................................. 141 General ........................................................................................................................... 141 Take Off Minima.............................................................................................................. 141 Ground Facilities Requirement for Take Off ................................................................... 142

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Performance ............................................................................................................................ 143 20.1 Ground Speed Mini Function .......................................................................................... 143 20.1.1 Speed mode in approach phase................................................................................ 143 20.1.2 Ground speed mini function principle ........................................................................ 143 20.1.3 Terminology ............................................................................................................... 144 20.1.4 Speed Computation .................................................................................................. 144 20.1.5 Example ..................................................................................................................... 145 20.2 Take off performance considerations ............................................................................. 147 20.3 Wind altitude trade for constant specific range............................................................... 148 20.4 Landing field length requirements................................................................................... 149 20.4.1 Dispatch requirements ............................................................................................... 149 20.4.2 Actual landing field length requirements (in-flight calculation) .................................. 149 20.4.3 Summary.................................................................................................................... 150

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Limitations ............................................................................................................................... 151 21.1 Technical limitations........................................................................................................ 151 21.1.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 151 21.1.2 Flight instrument tolerances....................................................................................... 151 21.1.3 Opearting temperatures ............................................................................................. 152 21.1.4 Cabin pressure........................................................................................................... 152 21.1.5 Structural weight limits ............................................................................................... 152 21.1.6 Speeds ....................................................................................................................... 153 21.1.7 Use of autopilot .......................................................................................................... 153 21.1.8 Automatic approach, landing and roll out .................................................................. 153 21.1.9 Weather...................................................................................................................... 155 21.1.10 Fuel ....................................................................................................................... 155 21.1.11 Hydraulic ............................................................................................................... 156 21.1.12 Break, gear, flight controls .................................................................................... 156 21.1.13 Oxygen.................................................................................................................. 156 21.1.14 Electrical ............................................................................................................... 157 21.1.15 APU....................................................................................................................... 158 21.1.16 Engine................................................................................................................... 158 21.2 Operational Limitations ................................................................................................... 160 21.2.1 Cockpit Preparation ................................................................................................... 160 21.2.2 Taxi ............................................................................................................................ 161 21.2.3 Before Take Off.......................................................................................................... 161 21.2.4 Take Off ..................................................................................................................... 162 21.2.5 After Take Off / Climb ................................................................................................ 162 21.2.6 Cruise......................................................................................................................... 163 21.2.7 Approach.................................................................................................................... 163 21.2.8 Landing ...................................................................................................................... 164 21.2.9 After Landing.............................................................................................................. 164 21.2.10 Parking.................................................................................................................. 165 21.2.11 Leaving Aircraft ..................................................................................................... 165 Abreviations............................................................................................................................. 167

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1
1.1

General Principles
Becoming an expert in Aviation

An expert is a man who has made all the mistakes, which can be made, in a very narrow field. Niels Bohr, Physicist. 1885-1962

You start with a bag full of luck and an empty bag of experience. The trick is to fill the bag of experience before you empty the bag of luck.

Good judgment comes from experience. Unfortunately, experience usually comes from bad judgment.

Always remember you fly an aeroplane with your head, not your hands.

Try to learn from the mistakes of others. You won't live long enough to make all of them yourself.

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1.2

Procedures and Techniques

During the supervision phase, instructors will be speaking of procedures and techniques. These two terms are fundamentally different and must be understood by both instructors and trainees: Procedures are dictated by the company and the manufacturer in the form of documented material: OM(A), FCOM etc.. Procedures contained therein are not modifiable or negotiable by crews, and must be adhered to stringently. Techniques are methods of operation available to the crews that can be used in areas where procedures are not defined. Examples of procedure: All check-list work is procedure; crew shall not omit or modify any part of a checklist (except during emergencies when the commander deems it necessary). The required weather minima according to OM(A) must be fulfilled for departure, destination and alternate airports. A crew shall not begin a flight unless the conditions are satisfied.

Examples of techniques: When beginning to taxi, some pilots prefer to set a higher thrust setting to get the aircraft moving, and then reduce the thrust to idle. Other pilots prefer to set a lower N1 and keep it on for the duration of the taxi. Because the exact thrust settings are not defined in the FCOM for taxi (except for maximum N1: 40%) these two ways of taxiing are two different techniques. Because there is no procedure that defines the flare and touch-down (when to pull the side-stick exactly how much, when to reduce the thrust by how much) the landing is taught to trainees as a technique. For example: some pilots prefer to keep the thrust on during a certain portion of the flare, while others reduce it. The procedures state that a pre-departure and approach briefing shall be conducted by the crews and also dictate what should be covered in the briefing. However, the procedures do not state how the briefing should be accomplished. Again, different pilots have different techniques to accomplish this briefing and opt to put different emphasis on different parts of it.

An instructor must force a trainee to operate according to procedures, but may only offer techniques as advice. A trainee on the other hand, must operate according to procedures and can opt to use whichever technique he believes leads to the best outcome based on his personal preference. Obviously, it is most useful to the trainee if the instructors also taught similar techniques.

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General Principles 1.3 1.3.1 Systematic method of operation Introduction

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The nature of the crews work on the aircraft can be subdivided into three specific areas: Normal Operations: The status of the aircraft, crew, and passengers allow operations that do not deviate from normal check-lists or procedures. Abnormal Operations: The status of the aircraft, the health of crew or passengers are degraded and mandate heightened alert by the crew. Reference to abnormal check-lists or procedures are required to correct the situation. During abnormal operations, the passengers, aircraft and crew are NOT exposed to immediate risks or dangers. Emergency Operations: The safety of the aircraft, crew or passengers are exposed to immediate risk or danger. Corrective by the crew is required without delay to avert further serious degradation of the situation.

Normal Situation

Abnormal Situation

Emergency Situation

The diagram above is a simplified representation illustrating the possible transitions from one operation to another. For example, an EGPWS warning (PULL UP, PULL UP) immediately transfers the crew from normal operations to emergency operations. After the crew-action for the EGPWS warning and no further risk is obvious, the crew may elect to assume normal operations. In another case, the situation may deteriorate from normal to abnormal and then to an emergency scenario. However the situation develops, the crew must all times: 1.3.1.1 Know in which area they are operating (normal, abnormal, emergency), and Work systematically with the available tools (ECAM, QRH etc.) Normal operation

During normal operations the crew is bound to perform their duties according to normal procedures and check-lists, deviation from these procedures are not permitted. The tools they have at their disposal are as follows: .
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SOP (Normal Operation) OM(A) ECAM QRH FCOM OEB

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This situation warrants the execution of abnormal check-lists and procedures as written in company documents. The crew should not deviate from these procedures. The ATC call PAN, PAN, PAN will advise ATC and aircraft in the vicinity that the crew is experiencing an abnormal situation but is not in imminent danger. The tools the crew have at their disposal is as follows: SOP - (Normal and Abnormal Operation) OM(A) ECAM Procedures (must be completed as stipulated in the FCOM) QRH FCOM OEB

As is the case in normal operations, the crew is required to follow instructions published in this material. 1.3.1.3 Emergency operation

During Emergency operations the Commander has authority to deviate from published procedures and check-lists ONLY if it is necessary to maintain safe conduct of flight. This course of action should only be considered if the published procedures are likely to lead to an unsatisfactory result. The ATC call MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY will advise ATC and aircraft in the vicinity that the flight is in imminent danger and is in need of assistance. The tools at the disposal of the crew are lilted below. Note that during emergency operations deviations therein are possible: SOP (deviations possible) OM(A) (e.g. stabilized approach criteria may not be fulfilled) ECAM (e.g. the CMD may opt not to finish the ECAM procedure) QRH (e.g. CMD may elect to disregard landing distance corrections) FCOM (e.g. CMD may decide to deviate from published CB resetting procedures) OEB

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1.3.2

Working with packets

During flight-operations, there are many actions that must be fulfilled by the crew by a particular point in time. For example, during descent the crew must ensure that several actions are completed before commencing the approach (e.g. activate approach phase, switch on exterior lights, check navigational accuracy etc.). It is a useful technique to link these actions with a certain event or altitude and systematically perform the required actions in one flow or packet. The advantage is that items are less likely to be overlooked, delayed unnecessarily or forgotten. Such a packet may be used in any situation the pilot deems useful (e.g. passing FL100 in climb or descent, reaching cruise altitude, to conduct a departure briefing etc.). Below is a suggestion of packets that have proved to be useful in our operation and helps increase the reliability of our actions in during these various phases. At Air Berlin regular use of these packets are taught during training. 1.3.2.1 FL 100 Packet

Climb The FL100 Packet during climb is a suitable time to visit the following items to ensure that they are in the appropriate state: Exterior Lights: EFIS Control Panel: SEC F-PLN page: RAD NAV page: VHF 2: EWD: Switch off Landing- Take off- & Turnoff lights Select Airports Copy active F-PLN Clear all remotely tuned Navigation aids Set to 121.5 MHz Check EWD

Some of these items are included as part of the AFTER TAKE-OFF / CLIMB CHECKLIST (FCOM 3.3.13), and here we ensure that they are set accordingly. However, the packet also ensures that we have set an appropriate setting on the EFIS Control Panel and VHF 2, which is part of good airmanship. Descent The FL100 Packet during descent is a good time to visit the following items in order to make sure that they are in a suitable state: Exterior Lights: EFIS Control Panel: LS Presentation: LS Identification: Nav accuracy: PERF Page: Switch on Landing lights Select Constraints Push LS PB Ident ILS VOR etc. Check GPS Primary Activate Approach Phase

Again, some of these items are included in the Standard Operating Procedures (as listed in the FCOM 3.3.16 DESCENT) the packet in this case serves us as clear reminder at FL100 to ensure that we actually performed the necessary tasks.

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1.3.2.2

Camel-back packet

The MCDU allows the crew access to many pages where data can be stored and from which much information can be extracted. During departure or approach preparation for example, MCDU programming is an essential part of the process. However, once the programming has been complete, the crew will want to review the most important pages and information without visiting every page on the MCDU.

By simply going through the flow during the departure and approach briefing together, the crew will automatically visit the most pertinent pages. It is usually the Pilot Flying that conducts the briefing and it is considered good airmanship if all the data is entered before the briefing is started. Below is an example of how this camel-back can be used:

Key F-PLN RAD NAV PROG PERF FUEL PRED

SEC F-PLN

Dep. Briefing Review departure, constraints, cross-check with charts Set up manually tuned Nav Aids (mostly used for engine out departure route) Check navigational accuracy (must be HIGH so FMS can be used for navigation) Ensure all performance data has been inserted for the correct runway Review fuel data to ensure it corresponds to the planned fuel on the OFP. (Extra Fuel is presented on INIT-B Page) Program of emergency return runway.

App. Briefing Review arrival, constraints, crosscheck with charts. Set up manually tuned Nav Aids to correspond with required Nav aids for approach Check navigational accuracy (must be HIGH so FMS can be used for navigation) Ensure all performance data has been inserted for the correct runway Review data for awareness (how much holding time is possible, what if a G/A has to be flown etc.) Programming of another runway (e.g. in case of circling)

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1.4 1.4.1

Cross-Cockpit Communication General

It is important that both pilots aim to be fully conversant with the operational status of the aeroplane at any time. Expected automatic switching / mode changes must be checked on the FMA by both pilots. All deviations from the expected have to be called out and corrective actions, if necessary, shall be initiated immediately. Clear and precise call outs: this ensures short and precise communication in the cockpit. The danger of misunderstanding is reduced or eliminated. Clear and precise work distribution with clearly defined tasks: this ensures the best and most efficient use of all resources. Each crew member can concentrate on her/his assigned tasks. Closed Loop

1.4.2

According to Air Berlin SOP with Autopilot On, the PF may make attitude, speed, speed-brake, thrust and FMA mode changes without physically or verbally signalling these to the PNF (e.g. ACTION PERFORMED BY PF WITH AP ON - FCOM 3.3.90). The PNF must follow and check the changes made but is not expected to confirm the changes. The following illustration always applies:

1. PF executes an action

2. PNF checks the action

Example with AP engaged: 1. PF selects new altitude (this is performed silently) 2. PNF checks new altitude (this is performed silently) Be aware that Airbus clearly states that IF ANY DOUBT EXISTS that a crew-member has received information that he MUST be informed:

FCOM 3.3.1: Cross-cockpit communication is VITAL for any two-pilot crew. Any time a crew member makes any adjustment or change to any relevant information or equipment on the flight-deck, he must advise the other crew member and get an acknowledgement if it is not obvious, that the other crew-member has received and understood the information. Silent Cockpit is the means within normal operation, but any unclear action or situation must be clarified by acknowledgement to assure all crew-members reflect the same knowledge.

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1.5

Fly , Navigate, Communicate

The successful crew will always clearly understand the priorities when it comes to flying: First: Control the aircrafts attitude, altitude, thrust, speed and configuration.in other words Fly. Second: Know where you are, know where you want to go, know how to get there..Navigate. Third: Make sure you can send and receive clear and reliable information..Communicate. Example: Take-Off with engine failure after v1 (Source: FCOM 3.2.10) Fly: At vrot rotate to 12.5 pitch up Positive rate, gear up Cancel warning Trim the aircraft Consider TOGA thrust Engage any autopilot

Navigate: Pull HDG and fly the engine failure climb out procedure

Communicate: Communicate the intentions to ATC

Once the crew has clear command of the aircraft trajectory, is on a verifiable vertical and lateral path and has informed ATC, the checklist work may begin: Start ECAM action Consult QRH, OEB, FCOM

The situation described above represents an abnormal condition. Please note however, that the same principle applies at all times, during normal, abnormal and emergency situation

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Fuel planning

2.1

Pre-flight planning work distribution

After a short analysis of the weather conditions, the flight crew decides on the assignment of the sectors It is recommended that the PF leads the pre-flight planning. In order to do so he should perform the following tasks: Check SWC and Upper Wind & Temperature chart. o check date and validity of all charts o estimate an average wind component along the route Check TAF, METAR and particular weather information (for interpretation of meteorological information see chapter 2.2.4 page 23) Check NOTAMS for o departure aerodrome o destination aerodrome o destination alternate aerodrome(s) (consider to check more than one alternate aerodrome(s)) o T/O alternate aerodrome if applicable o En route alternate aerodrome Check OFP for o Check header (Date, flight number and aircraft registration) o Check calculated wind component o Check legal fuel calculation according Air Berlin OM-A 8.1.8.2, fuel planning instructions. o Check if profit tankering is recommended (see also chapter 2.2.5,page 24) o perform the operational fuel calculation

The PNF should closely follow the pre-flight planning, making an effort to ensure complete crosschecking. He shall also intervene as appropriate while considering safety and the strength of the team.

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2.2

Legal requirements

The crew always should first check the legal requirements stated on the OFP. 2.2.1 Planning minima for destination aerodromes and alternate aerodromes

(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4.12) 2.2.1.1 Planning minima for a destination aerodrome

Destination aerodromes must only be selected, when the appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or any combination thereof, indicate that, during a period commencing one hour before and ending one hour after the estimated time of arrival at the aerodrome, the weather conditions will be at or above the applicable planning minima as follows: RVR / visibility must be above the specified Minimum. For a Non-precision approach or a Circling approach, the ceiling must be at or above MDH.

Two destination alternates must be selected when: the appropriate weather reports or forecasts for the destination, or any combination thereof, indicate that during a period commencing one hour before and ending one hour after the estimated time of arrival, the weather conditions will be below the applicable planning minima (as prescribed above) or no meteorological information is available. 2.2.2 Alternate Planning

(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4.13) 2.2.2.1 Planning minima for Destination Alternate Aerodromes, 3% ERA Aerodromes, Isolated Aerodromes and Enroute Alternate Aerodromes

An aerodrome as destination alternate aerodrome, 3% ERA aerodrome, isolated aerodrome or enroute alternate aerodrome must only be selected when the appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or any combination thereof, indicate that, during a period commencing one hour before and ending one hour after the estimated time of arrival at the aerodrome, the weather conditions will be at or above the planning minima in the Table below.

Type of approach CAT II / III CAT I NPA Circling

Planning minimum CAT I minima (Note 1) Non-precision approach minimum (Notes 1 & 2) Non-precision approach minimum (Notes 1 & 2) plus 200 ft / 1000 m Circling minimum

Note 1: RVR Note 2: The ceiling must be at or above the MDH.


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2.2.2.2

Destination Alternate Aerodromes

(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4.13) At least one destination alternate must be selected for each IFR flight unless: and Two separate runways are available and usable at the destination aerodrome and the appropriate weather reports or forecasts for the destination aerodrome, or any combination thereof, indicate that for the period from one hour before until one hour after the expected time of arrival at the destination aerodrome, the ceiling will be at least 2 000 ft or circling height + 500 ft, whichever is greater, and the visibility will be at least 5 km.; The destination aerodrome is isolated. The duration of the planned flight from take-off to landing or, in the event of in-flight replanning, the remaining flying time to destination does not exceed six hours,

or

Two destination alternate aerodromes must be selected when: The appropriate weather reports or forecasts for the destination aerodrome, or any combination thereof, indicate that during a period commencing one hour before and ending one hour after the estimated time of arrival, the weather conditions will be below the applicable planning; or No meteorological information is available.

Note: All required alternate aerodrome(s) must be specified in the operational flight plan.

2.2.2.3

Take off alternate aerodromes

(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4.13) A take-off alternate aerodrome must be selected if it would not be possible to return to the departure aerodrome for meteorological or performance reasons. For two engined aeroplanes the take-off alternate aerodrome shall be located within, either: One hour flight time at a one engine-inoperative cruising speed according to the FCOM in still air standard conditions based on the actual take-off mass; or if the FCOM does not contain a one engine-inoperative cruising speed, the speed to be used for calculation must be that which is achieved with the remaining engine(s) set at maximum continuous thrust (MCT).

An aerodrome must only be selected as a take-off alternate aerodrome, when the appropriate weather reports or forecasts or any combination thereof indicate that, during a period commencing one hour before and ending one hour after the estimated time of arrival at the aerodrome, the weather conditions will be at or above the applicable landing minima specified on the applicable approach charts
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The ceiling must be taken into account when the only approaches available are nonprecision and/or circling approaches. Any limitation related to one engine inoperative operations must be taken into account.

2.2.3

Conversion of Reported Meteorological Visibility to RVR

(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.6) If only meteorological visibility is reported, for CAT I and non precision approaches visibility must be converted to RVR as shown below.

Lighting Element in Operation HI approach and runway lighting any type of lighting installation other than above no lighting

Visibility x Factor = RVR DAY 1.5 1.0 1.0 NIGHT 2.0 1.5 Not applicable

Note:

If is not allowed to convert a meteorological visibility to RVR in following cases: for calculating Take-Off minima, Category II or III minima when a reported RVR is available.

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2.2.4

Interpretation of given meteorological information

(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.1.7.4) For planning purposes an aerodrome shall be considered to be below minimum if the RVR or visibility is below the applicable minimum (precision approaches) the ceiling or vertical visibility is below the applicable planning minima (non precision approaches) the steady crosswind component exceeds the prescribed limitation for the A320. The steady (mean) wind should be used and the gusts may be disregarded whenever a forecast contains meteorological conditions indicating below minimum at ETA 1hr, which are prefixed by: Kind of change Deterioration: Applicable from the time of start of the change. Improvement: Applicable from the time of end of the change Ldg minima: Shall be fully applied if weather deteriorates below applicable planning minimum. Must be within limits May be disregarded Application of aerodrome forecast

Indicator

BECMG FM

Mean wind: Gusts:

Ldg minima: Deterioration: Transient / showery conditions e.g. TS SH

May be considered to be above minimum if weather deteriorates below applicable planning minimum. May be disregarded May be disregarded Shall be fully applied if weather deteriorates below applicable planning minimum. Must be within limits May be disregarded

TEMPO TEMPO FM TEMPO TL TEMPO FM...TL PROB 30 PROB 40

Mean wind: Gusts:

Deterioration: Persistent conditions e.g. HZ FG SS

Ldg minima:

Mean wind: Gusts:

Improvement:

Should be disregarded

PROB TEMPO In any case Should be disregarded Note: whenever a forecast contains meteorological conditions indicating below minimum at ETA which are prefixed by BECMG or TEMPO, the airport shall be considered below minimum. for alternate selection only PROB 40% and higher are considered in the selection.
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2.2.5

Profit tankering

(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.1.8.2) It may be commercially expedient to tanker fuel to a destination where fuel prices are high or where there are fuel shortages. The commercial decision to tanker fuel will be made automatically on the OFP. With no Information shown on the OFP is tankering not recommended even there is a low amount of profit. This Information is given on the dispatch remarks section (next Leg Info) or as maximum remaining fuel. Profit tankering should not be applied if: When icing conditions at destination aerodrome is expected. On short haul flights only, during the winter months, in particular December, January and February in Europe, when the temperature at the destination airport is below +10deg C with high relative humidity, wing icing may form in the vicinity of the fuel tanks. On sectors of 1 hour 15 min or more, or when the in flight fuel temperature may fall below freezing, only part of the tankered fuel recommended on the OFP should be uplifted. This will require a further uplift of warm fuel at destination. This has the effect of agitating the fuel in the wing tanks, melting small accumulations of ice, and preventing the further formation of ice during the turn round. Fuel may be tankered on night stopping aircraft, but if overnight frost or freezing conditions are anticipated consideration should be given to the likely effect that precipitation or high relative humidity would have upon cold wings.

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2.3 2.3.1

Tactical aspects General

The crew should verify that the legal fuel requirement stated on the OFP also makes sense from a practical standpoint. Often, the crew will find that it makes sense to take along more fuel to cover for eventualities. For example, if the crew is aware that the destination traffic volume is significant, some fuel for holding could be considered. It is discouraged to simply carry along a standard amount of extra fuel as routine. Every fuel calculation should be made carefully and in respect of conditions as expected. If the Crew has to expect bad weather conditions which make a diversion more likely (e.g. strong xwind conditions) always consider different alternate aerodromes. Always select an alternate with reasonable weather conditions which gives the crew a very good chance for a landing. If the alternates stated on the OFP does not have satisfactory weather conditions, call Traffic Centre and calculate a new destination alternate. Also consider a return to the destination aerodrome. If the Crew has to expect bad weather conditions which make a diversion more likely always plan with the worst case. Make a tactical fuel planning considering two go arounds at the destination aerodrome plus the diversion fuel plus some extra fuel at the alternate aerodrome. Example: PMI-ZRH The forecasted weather conditions in ZRH (winds up to 55kt with a remarkable x-wind component) make a diversion more likely. The alternate aerodromes BSL STR and GVA have the same weather forecasts. BGY and MXP as they are south of the Alps are much better (wind calm). After a conversation with the traffic centre the decision is taken in case of diversion to fly to NUE. (NUE forecasts up to 30kt Wind in RWY axis) Following planning is reasonable: Since the crew does not want to land exactly with final reserve at NUE some extra fuel should be planned at arrival at NUE Landing in NUE with final reserve and 800kg extra for a Go Around: Diversion Fuel calculated by Traffic Centre Re clearance to NUE Two go arounds at ZRH Trip fuel to ZRH Total 2 t 1.5t 0.5 t 2 t 4 t 10 t

As soon as the crew starts to plan tactically backwards with the worst case scenario the amount of extra fuel increases dramatically!! To summarise the facts stated above the following tactic should be considered in bad weather conditions: Always plan with a reasonable alternate. If the selection of the OFP does not satisfy the crew, look for other alternates and call Traffic Centre. Always plan tactically with the worst case backwards from destination alternate aerodrome over the destination aerodrome back to the departure aerodrome.
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2.3.2

HILDAW

HILDAW is an acronym used to assist the crew during the pre-flight planning fuel calculation. It is used as a trip fuel correction that covers factors that are not necessarily covered in the OFP and should be added to the minimum block fuel.

High Speed Cruise

Used to compensate for increased fuel consumption when cruising with HSC. (Approx 5% increased fuel consumption)

Icing Conditions

Used to compensate for increased fuel consumption due to icing conditions when airborne. Approx 5% increased fuel consumption below FL 200 Approx 2% increased fuel consumption above FL 200

Low Level Cruise

Used to compensate for increased fuel consumption when cruising at a lower level than the planned FL. This will be the case, when selecting a lower level due to anticipated conditions, which might hamper the climb to the planed FL (e.g. CAT, ATC constraints, etc). For correction values refer to the OFP

Departure

In this regard, the departure phase begins at chocks-off and finishes at the end of the SID. Therefore, this item shall be used to correct for anticipated traffic situation, runway in use and/or ground de-icing (augmented taxi fuel), or to compensate for increased fuel burn, whenever the expected / actual SID is other than the one depicted by the OFP

Arrival

Used to compensate for increased fuel burn whenever additional track miles are expected during the approach, e.g. longer arrival due to a different runway or long radar vectors in PMI runway 06L Weight Any fuel that is tanked above the amount stated in the OFP (minimum take-off) will signify an increased take-off weight, as will a higher ZFW. This causes a higher fuel consumption. The increased fuel consumption should be considered, especially on long flights. Finally, after the fuel calculation, ensure that MRW, MTOW and MLW are not exceeded.

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Example: The below gives a brief example regarding HILDAW and how it can be applied to fuel planning.This method is not mandatory in nature. However, it provides a speedy, practical way of determining a fuel quantity which takes into account the flight-crews anticipations (which the OFP does not!). After check-in, you having gone over the weather and NOTAMS, it is time to do a fuel plan with the OFP. You have observed the following during the planning: minimum block fuel on the OFP: 6.0t trip fuel 3.5t The aircraft (A320) Zero Fuel Weight: 60.0t It is snowing outside and it is likely that deicing is required. The potential taxi-time is therefore significantly increased you expect to taxi 30 minutes more than planned. The SWC shows turbulence at your flight-level and your collegue suggests that you could fly lower to provide the passengers with a more comfortable ride. At the destination airport the TAF states that there is the possibility of heavy thunderstorms.

The OFP does not cover all the above factors so you you must determine a fuel quantity that covers the operational factors. This is where HILDAW comes in as a useful tool it will determine how much fuel you should take along in addition to the block fuel stated on the OFP. H I L D A W = 0.0t 0.5t 0.2t 0.0t 0.8t 0.1t 1.6t (you decide not to fly high speed as the time gain would be insignificant) (30 minutes taxi time due to de-icing + icing during climb-out) (your decide to fly 2 FL below and consult the OFP for the required fuel). (departure on the OFP corresponds to the actual departure ) (holding fuel for 45 minutes is necessary due to the thunderstorms) (the OFP shows burn of +0.1t more due to the extra fuel you will tank) (you will take along this in addition to the minimum block fuel on the OFP)

The total block fuel you will tank is therefore: + = 6.0t 1.6t 7.6t (minimum legal block fuel on OFP) (fuel determined by you in addition to OFP) (total actual minimum block fuel required by crew)

The last step is to ensure that none of the aircraft structural weights are exceeded: + = = 60.0t 7.6t 67.6t 0.5t 67.1t 3.5t Zefro Fuel Wieght Block Fuel Ramp Weight Taxi Fuel Take Off Weight Trip Fuel

63.6

Landing Weight

(does not exceed Max Ramp Weight) (approximate the taxi-fuel you expect) (does not exceed Max Take-Off Weight) (approximate to the lowest trip fuel you expect [without holding, adjustment for level etc.] because you want to know if you exceed the Maximum Landing Weight if all factors result in your favour i.e. most fuel on-board). (does not exceed Max Landing Weight)

Finally: This planning tool is especially useful when the operation becomes complex due to the combination of several factors (maximum weights, complex weather situations, arrival delays, winter-ops etc.) as it provides the crew with a systematic approach to a potential problem.

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3
3.1

Briefings
RNAV - and conventional waypoints Structure

3.1.1

To verify all waypoints in the FMGS properly against the EAG charts use following structure: The table below shows examples of waypoints FMGS DL239 LSZ03 EAG charts DL239 KLO Radial 275 2.3DME

RNAV waypoint Conventional waypoint

Obviously RNAV waypoints are easy to crosscheck against the Charts. To verify a conventional waypoint is more difficult. The coding in the FMGS is not always obvious. Check track and radials directly in the MCDU. Distances can be verified on the ND in PLAN MODE. Sometimes the coding of the waypoint also allows proper verification. (See chapter 3.1.2 Coding of NavDataBase (NDB) 3.1.2 Coding of NavDataBase (NDB)

(Source: EAG, ERM, Legends, chapter 14) The NavDataBase delivered by EAG is coded according to an international convention called ARINC 424. This convention should not be confused with the charting convention on which the 3.1.2.1 Definitions Final Approach Course Fix (FACF) A fix immediately prior to the Final Approach Fix, with an assigned altitude, usually between one to four miles before the FAF and generally in line with the final approach course. Final Approach Fix (FAF) A published fix on the final approach with an assigned altitude, usually about four miles from the runway or Missed Approach Point, and usually indicated by a star symbol on the approach. The term FAF is used in ARINC 424, for all Final Approach Fixes, also for ILS or other precision approaches. This may be confusing, since EAG flight documentation (SID, IAL etc.) based on country AIPs, defines FAF otherwise. Step Down Fix (SD) A published fix on the final approach with an indicated minimum crossing altitude.

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The following summarizes the most common terminal waypoints that have to be assigned codes by the database coder according to the Naming Conventions: FACF identifier For un-named fixes the letter C is used, followed by route type identifier and runway identifier. The route type identifier can be any of several letters, and generally indicates the type of navaid used for the approach. For example, an ILS is indicated by the route identifier I, L or B, while an NDB approach is indicated by the route identifier N, Q or U. E.g: CI26, CL27L, CQ32, CN01R FAF identifier For un-named fixes the letter F is used, followed by route type identifier (see explanation above) and runway identifier. E.g: FI26, FD27L, FV22, FN01R Step Down Fix identifier DME or other distances are coded after a three-letter code for whole miles, or before the code for decimals of miles. Codes are DME, THR (distance to runway threshold) or LOC. E.g: 52DME, DME03 Missed Approach Point (MAP) identifier For un-named fixes the letters MA are used. If duplication occours, the letter M is used followed by the route type identifier (see above) and finally the runway number. E.g: MA27L, MN09, MD09 Other Terminal Waypoints The published name should always be used if one exists. Otherwise the convention for navaid based fixes uses the letter D followed by the bearing from the navaid, and finally followed by A-Z representing 1 NM to 26 NM (A=1, B=2, C=3 etc. and Z=26). E.g: D150J For distances greater than 26 NM, the navaid identifier is used, followed by mileage. Duplications are identified by adding the suffix A, B etc., and shortening the navaid identifier to two characters. E.g: LON28, CDG48, CD38A

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To programme for example an EOSID in the secondary flightplan following Format is to be used: 3.2.1 Place, Bearing, Distance

Often a waypoint is defined with a track and distance from a Navigation-aid.

Waypoint Bearing

Distance Place The Format to programme such a point is Place/Bearing/Distance. In the FMS the waypoints are shown as PBD01,PBD02 etc. Example EOSID RWY 28 in ZRH: climb on track 275 KLO to 2.3 DME then turn left to intercept the Radial 255 KLO. The first point is programmed as follows: KLO/275/2.3 Bearing = 275 PBD01 Distance = 2.3 NM In the FMS the waypoint is shown as PBD01. KLO

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To programme an intercept point the formate Place Bearing, Place Bearing is used. In the FMS the waypoints are shown as PBX01,PBX02 etc.

Waypoint

Bearing Bearing Place Place

Example EOSID RWY 28 in ZRH: climb on track 275 KLO to 2.3 DME then turn left to intercept the Radial 255 KLO. The second point is programmed as follows: PBD01-225/KLO-255 Notes: PBD01 is the turning point as programmed in chapter 3.2.1 above. To intercept the Radial 255 an intercept heading of 225 (30-Interception) is used.

PBD01 Bearing = 225

Bearing = 275 KLO Distance = 2.3 NM Bearing = 255

PBX01

In the FMS the waypoint is shown as PBX01.

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3.3

General Briefing

Before the first flight of the day and before initiating the checklists, a general briefing should be performed. The main purpose of the latter is to inform both pilots of the status of the aircraft and to refresh the on ground emergency procedures. The Commander informs the First Officer about: Status of the aircraft and crew (e.g. hold item list, CAT I/II/III capabilities) Emergency handling before V1 (task sharing, callouts and priorities) Emergency evacuation handling and task sharing

3.4

Departure Briefing

The Departure Briefing should, before each take-off, address the procedures intended to be applied when in normal conditions. The PF will inform the PNF about it as follows: Review the expected departure (charts, FMGS and FCU settings) It is recommended to review the following pages in the FMGS: o F-PLN: x-check all relevant data of the SID (waypoints, constraints. etc.) on the MCDU and on the ND in PLAN mode. o RAD NAV: consider to manually tune Navigation aids (VOR or NDB) o PROG: consider to set a point for a quick return to the field. (e.g. LSZH14) Check GPS PRIMARY and NAV ACCURACY HIGH. o PERF: Check all relevant data. (Speeds, transition altitude, acceleration altitudes, flex, trim, shift, runway) o FUEL PRED: Check remaining fuel at destination and extra time (INIT-B) o SEC F-PLN: Consider programming an appropriate runway for a return to the departure airport or another RWY/SID. o Brief MSA, initial climb altitude, departure frequency, use of weather radar and TERR and any specials on the EAG chart.

3.5

Take off Briefing

The take-off-briefing should, before each take-off, address the procedures intended to be applied when in abnormal and emergency conditions. The PF will inform the PNF about it as follows: A general assessment of the actual meteorological and operational conditions (e.g. runway length vs. breaking coefficient) Known or expected technical and operational particularities of the respective departure (e.g. take off alternate) Action taken in case of major malfunctions after V1 Flight path in case of abnormal and emergency conditions during take-off and initial climb, especially addressing One Engine Inoperative (OEI) situations and respective FMGS and FCU settings.

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The landing briefing should address the necessary procedures to be followed, the computer settings, the status of the aircraft, the crew qualifications and the airport facilities. The PF will inform the PNF about: Clearance limit, type of approach, MSA, initial fix, steps, minimum, missed approach, navigation and expected taxiing FMGS and FCU settings. It is recommended to review following pages in the FMGS: o F-PLN: x-check all relevant data of the approach (waypoints, constraints. etc.) on the MCDU and on the ND in PLAN mode. o RAD NAV: consider to manually tune Navigation aids (VOR or NDB), check ILS frequency and inbound course. o PROG: consider to set a point towards the field (e.g. LSZH14) Check GPS PRYMARY and NAV ACCURACY HIGH. If required check RNP versus required accuracy in the FMGS o PERF: Check all relevant data. (QNH, wind, temperature, configuration, MDA/DH, runway etc.) o FUEL PRED: Check remaining fuel at destination and alternate destination and check extra fuel o SEC F-PLN: Consider to program a different STAR/RWY or a runway for circling. Brief RWY length, use of TERR, use of AUTO BRAKE, use of REV and GW A general assessment of the actual meteorological and operational conditions (e.g. wet runway, x-winds, degrading of equipment, Notam)

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4
4.1

Use of automation
Recommendations for optimum use of automation General Correct use of automated systems reduces workload and significantly improves the flight crew time and resources for responding to: o An unanticipated change (e.g., ATC instruction, weather conditions, ). o An abnormal or emergency condition. During line operations, AP and A/THR should be engaged throughout the flight especially in marginal weather conditions or when operating into an unfamiliar airport. Using AP and A/THR also enables flight crew to pay more attention to ATC communications and to other aircraft, particularly in congested terminal areas and at highdensity airports. AP and A/THR should be used during a go-around and missed-approach to reduce workload. FMGS lateral navigation should be used to reduce workload and the risk of CFIT during go-around if : o Applicable missed-approach procedure is included in the FMGS flight plan; and, FMGS navigation accuracy has been confirmed. The safe and efficient use and management of AP, A/THR and FMGS are based on the following three-step technique: o Anticipate Understand system operation and the results of any action, be aware of modes being engaged or armed (seek concurrence of other crewmember, if deemed necessary). o Execute Perform action on FCU or on FMGS CDU. o Confirm Crosscheck the effective arming or engagement of modes and the active guidance targets (on FMA, PFD and/or ND scales and/or FMS CDU). See also closed loop principle. Interfacing with automation

4.1.1

4.1.2

When interfacing with automation, for mode arming / selection and for guidance target entries, adhere to the following rules-of-use: Before any action on FCU, check that the knob or push button is the correct one for the desired function. After each action on FCU, verify the result of this action on: o FMA (e.g., for arming or engagement of modes). o PFD/ND data (e.g., for selected targets). o By reference to the aircraft flight path and airspeed response. Note: Never check any setting on the FCU!!!

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Announce all changes in accordance with the standard calls defined in the SOPs. When changing the selected altitude on the FCU, cross-check the selected altitude indication on the PFD. During descent, ensure that the selected altitude is not below the MEA or MSA (or be aware of the applicable minimum-vectoring-altitude). During final approach, set the go-around altitude on the FCU. The MDA/H or DA/H should not be set on the FCU. Prepare the FMGS for arrival before starting the descent. An alternative arrival routing, another runway or circling approach, can be prepared on the secondary flight plan (SEC F-PLN), as anticipated. In case of a routing change (e.g., DIR TO), cross-check the new TO waypoint before activating the DIR TO. If necessary, the selected heading mode can be used with reference to navaids raw data, while verifying the new route and/or requesting confirmation from ATC. Before arming the NAV mode, ensure that the correct active waypoint (e.g., TO waypoint) is displayed on the FMS CDU and ND. If the displayed TO waypoint on the ND is not correct, the desired TO waypoint can be restored by either: o clearing an undue intermediate waypoint. o performing a DIR TO [desired TO waypoint]. In case of a late routing or runway change, a reversion to AP selected modes and raw data may be considered. Reprogramming the FMGS during a critical flight phase (e.g., in terminal area, on final approach or go-around) is not recommended, except to activate the secondary flight plan, if prepared, or for selecting a new approach. Priority tasks are, in that order: o horizontal and vertical flight path control. o altitude and traffic awareness. o ATC communications. If cleared to exit a holding pattern on a radar vector, the holding exit prompt should be pressed (or the holding pattern cleared) to allow the correct sequencing of the FMGS flight plan. Under radar vectors, when intercepting the final approach course in a selected heading or track mode (not in NAV mode), flight crew should ensure that the FMGS flight plan is sequenced normally by checking that the TO waypoint is correct (on ND and FMS CDU). Ensuring that the FMGS flight plan is sequenced correctly with a correct TO waypoint is essential, in readiness for re-engaging the NAV mode, in case of a go-around. Before arming the APPR mode, ensure that the aircraft is within the ILS capture envelope. The ILS capture envelope is defined by ICAO as follows: o within 10 NM from the runway. o within 8 degrees from the localizer centreline. o within a glide slope sector ranging from 0.3 to 1.75 time the nominal glide slope angle (e.g., a glide slope sector between 0.9 degree and 5.2 degrees for a typical 3-degree glide slope).
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Exterior Inspection

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Exterior Inspection (Walk Around)

(Source: A320 FCOM 3.3.3, A320 FCOM 3.3.5) 5.1 General The Exterior Inspection ensures that the overall condition of the aircraft and its visible components and equipment are safe for the flight. Complete inspection is normally performed by maintenance personnel or in the absence of maintenance personnel by a flight crew member before each originating flight. The parking brake must be on during the exterior inspection to allow the flight crew to check brake wear indicators. Check structure for impact damage Check that there is no evident fuel, oil or hydraulic leaks. If a landing gear door is open, contact the maintenance crew before applying hydraulic power. Do not pressurize the green hydraulic system without clearance from ground personnel, if any gear door is open. Remember that the green hydraulic system is pressurized if the yellow system is pressurized and the PTU is on auto.

5.2

Walk Around

The Walk Around must be performed by a flight crew member before each flight. Walk around the aircraft according Picture 5-1, page 4 and perform the items listed below:

1.

LH FWD fuselage AOA probes F/O and CAPT static ports Toilet servicing door (if installed) CONDITION CLEAR CLOSED

2.

Nose section Pitot probes STBY static ports TAT probes Radome and latches CONDITION CLEAR CONDITION CONDITION / LATCHED

3.

Nose landing gear Nose wheel chocks Wheels and tires CHECK IN PLACE CONDITION

4.

RH FWD fuselage F/O-CAPT static ports AOA probe CLEAR CONDITION

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Exterior Inspection 5. Lower centre fuselage none 6. RH centre wing 7. Landing light Slat 1 CONDITION CONDITION

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ENG 2 LH side Fan cowl doors Drain mast Engine inlet and fan blades CLOSED / LATCHED CONDITION / NO LEAK CHECK

8.

ENG 2 RH side none

9.

RH wing leading edge Slats 2, 3, 4, 5 Fuel ventilation overpressure disc Navigation light Wing tip CONDITION INTACT CONDITION CONDITION

10. RH wing trailing edge Control surfaces Flaps and fairings CONDITION CONDITION

11. RH landing gear and fuselage Chocks Wheels and tires REMOVED CONDITION

12. RH aft fuselage Toilet service access door CLOSED

13. Tail Stabilizer, elevator, fin and rudder Lower fuselage structure (tail impact on runway) CONDITION CONDITION

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Exterior Inspection 14. APU Navigation light CONDITION

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15. LH AFT fuselage Stabilizer, elevator, fin and rudder Potable water service door CONDITION CLOSED

16. LH landing gear Chocks Wheels and tires REMOVED CONDITION

17. LH wing trailing edge Flaps and fairing Control surfaces CONDITION CONDITION

18. LH wing leading edge Wing tip Navigation light Fuel ventilation overpressure disc Slats 2, 3, 4, 5 CONDITION CONDITION INTACT CONDITION

19. ENG 2 LH side Fan cowl doors Drain mast Engine inlet and fan blades CLOSED / LATCHED CONDITION / NO LEAK CHECK

20. ENG 1 RH side none 21. LH centre wing Slat 1 Landing light CONDITION CONDITION

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Exterior Inspection

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PICTURE 5-1, WALK AROUND

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Loading

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6
6.1

Loading
General, methods, procedures and responsibility for preparation and acceptance of the weight and balance sheet

(Source: A320 FCOM 2.01.00, Airberlin OM-A 8.1.9.2) AB Flight Crew must be aware that the weight, distribution and stowage of load will affect its structural integrity and performance and those will affect safety of flight as well as economy of flight. For economy the most aft possible CG is desired A weight and balance document must be prepared in duplicate for each commercial air transport flight. One copy is to be carried on the airplane and the other, as accepted by the commander, must remain available at the departure station for at least 3 days. The document may be in any format (manual or computerised) approved by the Authority to establish the airplanes weight and centre of gravity. It must contain details of the weight and disposition of all loaded items, including fuel, and must indicate whether standard or actual weight values have been used. Where the use of a standard load plan has been allowed by the authority, details must be included together with additional limitations on the permissible range of CG travel on which the standard plan is based. The document, must contain the name of person who prepared it and the loading supervisor must confirm by signature that the load and its distribution are as stated. The weight and balance document must be acceptable to and countersigned by the airplane commander. He must be informed of any late changes and the details entered in the last minute changes spaces of both the original and duplicate documents.

6.2

Definitions (weights and centre of gravity)

Dry Operating Weights (DOW) The total weight of the airplane ready for a specific type of operation- excluding all usable fuel and traffic load. (DOW and corresponding DOI are calculated for each aeroplane and standard crew composition) Dry Operating Index (DOI) The applicable index on the airplane index system corresponding to the specific DOW. Maximum allowed weights for landing considering structure and performance Maximum allowed weights for take off considering structural, performance and maximum landing weights. The maximum flex take-off weight as limited by economical reasons, published by the operator. Note: This is the lowest of the three weights sums: Max Zero Fuel Weight & Take-off Fuel Max Take off weight Max Landing Weight & Trip Fuel

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Loading

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Traffic load (TL) The total weight of passengers, baggage and cargo including any non-revenue loads Payload (PL) The total weight of the revenue load (pax, cargo or mail). Pantry Code (Pantry) The pantry code refers to the type of catering on board a commercial flight (codes A-Z) for example: Hot or cold meals, single or double leg etc. Usually changed each season. Last Minute Change (LMC) A late change / amendment to the weight and balance sheet which does not require the preparation of a new WB sheet. Note: AB allows LMC up to l000 kg Certified Centre of Gravity limits (CG) These are the CG limits with which the airplane was certified with. Making full use of the certified limits would assume, that the centre of gravity was correctly computed without any errors. Operational centre of gravity envelope This is the operational centre of gravity envelope which further restricts the certified centre of gravity envelope to compensate for errors such as the differences between assumed passenger weights and actual weights. The operational centre of gravity envelope must never be exceeded unless authorised by the Flight Operations Department for special flights. Fleet DOW/DOI For a group or groups of airplanes of the same type and version fleet DOWs / DOIs may be published provided the airplanes in this group meet the requirements of the permitted tolerances for the weights and centre of gravity. Basic Operating Weight (BOW) The total weight of the airplane ready for a specific type of operation excluding all useable fuel and traffic load. This weight does not include items such as: Crew and crew baggage, Pantry Basic Operating Index (BOI) The applicable index on the airplane index system corresponding to the specific BASIC WEIGHT

6.3

Aircraft weights

(DOW) Dry Operating Weight + traffic load = Zero Fuel Weight (ZFW). (ZFW) Zero Fuel Weight + reserve fuel = Landing Weight (LW) (LW) Landing Weight + trip fuel = Take off Weight (TOW) (TOW) Take off Weight + taxi fuel = Ramp Weight

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Loading 6.4 LPC load sheet

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(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.1.9.2) An LPC Load sheet Will be generated by LPC software. After completion of the electronic calculation the LPC system values will be inserted in the load sheet.

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Loading 6.5 Conventional load sheet, manual calculation 1. Fill out the header

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2. Fill in all the masses (For DOW see chapter 6.5.2, page 6)

3. Fill in the corrected index (see chapter 6.5.2, page 6) 4. Fill in all the masses & pax figures according ramp agent

5. Fill in the fuel index (see chapter 6.5.1, page 5)

6. calculate MAC ZFW & MAC T.O.

Caution : when the T.O. CG is lower than 27% MAC the basic performance must be corrected T.O.: Make CG correction or use appropriate RTOW chart. LDG: Make CG correction on LDG speed and distance.
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Loading 6.5.1 Fuel index table

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This can be found on the reverse side of conventional load-sheet. WEIGHT (kg) 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 10000 10500 DENSITY (kg/l) 0,785 +1 +1 +0 +0 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 WEIGHT (kg) 11000 11500 12000 12500 13000 13500 14000 14500 15000 15500 16000 16500 17000 17500 18000 DENSITY (kg/l) 0,785 3 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 10

0,800 +1 +1 +0 +0 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3

0,800 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 10

6.5.2

DOW / DOI A320 for conventional Load sheet

Example for D-ABDA This can be found on the reverse side of the conventional load-sheet. Registratio n Crew Version Catering none D-ABDA 2/0 2/4 42307kg 47.3 iu 42667kg 47.6 iu Charter 43347kg 52.9 iu 43707kg 53.2 iu Charter long range 43432kg 53.8 iu 43792kg 54.1 iu City Shuttle 42892kg 48.8 iu 43252kg 49.1 iu City Shuttle 4 legs 43037kg 48.7 iu 43349kg 49.0 iu

Index corrections for crew version: ACM: FPC: APC: +90kg / -1.1 iu (Jump Seat Cockpit) +90kg / -1.0 iu (FWD Cabin Attendant Seat) +90kg / +1.2 iu (AFT Cabin Attendant Seat)

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Loading 6.6 Last minute changes procedure

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(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.1.9.4) As explained in the definition, last minute changes to the load- and trim-sheet are only permitted if the changes of the load - either plus or minus - are within the limits permitted in the OM/B. One person (LMC) is to be calculated with 90 kg including baggage. LMC limit +/- 1 000 kg The changes have to be entered into the weight and balance sheet into the "LMC" column. In exceptional cases - if time does not permit - changes may be relayed to the commander via radio or the ground service interphone. The flight deck crew and ground staff amend their copies accordingly. The load message sent to the destination must contain the corrected figures of pax, cargo, baggage or mail load. Note: The LMC-procedure is only to be applied in the Loadsheet. W&B and especially the T/O performance have to be correct and therefore to be recalculated!. (Already 100kg may change T/O speeds significantly!)

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Number

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6.7

Standard Weight Values

(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.1.9.3) Air Berlin calculates with the following Standard Passenger Weights: All Adults 76kg Children 35kg Infants counted only For flights within Germany and flights within Spain and all city shuttle flights (e.g. STN, VIE, ZRH, BGY etc.) use the following Passenger Weights: All Adults 84kg Children 35kg Infants counted only or male/female splitted weights for flights within Germany and flights within Spain and all city shuttle flights (e.g. STN, VIE, ZRH, BGY etc.): Male 88kg All Adults 70kg Children 35kg Infants counted only Mass values for checked baggage Domestic flights 11 kg Within the European region Intercontinental flights 15 kg All other 13 kg 13 kg

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Resetting of computers and C/Bs

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Resetting of computers and C/Bs

(Source: A320 FCOM 3.04.24) 7.1 Tripped C/B reengagement in flight

In flight, do not re-engage a circuit breaker that has tripped by itself, unless the Captain (using his/her emergency authority) judges it necessary for the safe continuation of the flight. This procedure should be adopted only as a last resort, and only one re-engagement should be attempted. On ground, do not re-engage any tank fuel pump circuit breaker. For all other circuit breakers, if the flight crew coordinates the action with maintenance, they may re-engage a tripped C/B, provided the cause of the tripped C/B is identified. 7.2 7.2.1 Computer reset On ground

On ground almost all computers can be reset except: ECU (Engine Control Unit) EIU ( Engine Interface Unit) BSCU (Brake Steering Control Unit) if the aircraft is not stopped (see also FCOM 3.04.32) SAC (Slat and Flap Control Computer) could lead to slats/flaps locked.

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Resetting of computers and C/Bs 7.2.2 In flight

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In flight, the crew must restrict computer resets to those listed in the table (A320 FCOM, 3.04.24) For the following system malfunction respectively ECAM warnings/cautions a trouble shooting procedure exists: 7.2.3 VENT AVNCS SYS FAULT AIR PACK 1(2) REGUL FAULT AUTO FLT YAW DAMPER 1 (2) FAULT WINDSHEAR DET FAULT REAC W/S DET FAULT AUTO FLT FCU 1(2) FAULT AUTO FLT FCU 1+ 2 FAULT one MCDU locked or blank both MCDU locked or blank FMGC malfunction F/CTL ELAC 1 (2) FAULT F/CTL ALTN LAW F/CTL ELAC 1 (2) FAULT F/CTL ELAC 1 (2) PITCH FAULT Braking malfunction ELAC OR SEC malfunction ANTI ICE L (R) WINDSHIELD (WINDOW) FWS FWC 1 (2) FAULT L/G LGCIU 1 (2) FAULT Failure messages on the CIDS FAP in the cabin ENG IGN A + B FAULT ENG 1 (2) FADEC A (B) FAULT COM CIDIS 1 + 2 FAULT Frozen RMP FAP freezing SMOKE LAV + CRG DET FAULT BSCU reset (in-flight and on ground)

(Source: A320 FCOM 3.04.32) In case of braking / steering problems, the crew may perform a BSCU reset to recover correct functioning of the system. In particular this applies in the case of any of the following ECAM warnings: WHEEL N.W. STEER FAULT BRAKES AUTO BRAKE FAULT BRAKES BSCU CH 1 (2) FAULT BRAKES BSCU SYS 1 (2) FAULT For more details see FCOM 3.04.32 BSCU RESET

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Resetting of computers and C/Bs 7.3 ECAM advisories

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(Source: A320 FCOM 3.02.80) For several advisories (CAB PRESS, ELEC, FUEL & APU) recommended actions exist. See FCOM 3.2.80 ECAM ADVISORY CONDITION

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Stabilized approach

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8
8.1

Stabilized approach
Definition

(Source: Airberlin OM-A , 2.3.11.1) An approach is stabilized if all of the following conditions are met: Aircraft is on correct flight path. Only small changes in heading and pitch are required to maintain path (10 heading, 2 pitch). Aircraft speed is not more than Vref + 20 KIAS and not less than Vref. (necessary call outs by PNF: +10 KIAS / -5 KIAS of deviations) Aircraft is in the proper landing configuration. Sink rate maximum 1000 FPM below 1000ft AGL. Power setting appropriate for configuration and not below the minimum power for approach as defined by the aircraft operations manual (A320 & A319: N1 approx. 40%-55%) All briefings and checklists have been performed ILS approach must be flown within one dot of the expanded localizer band.

Exception: Circling approach and VFT training patterns: wings must be level on final when aircraft reaches 500 feet AGL, except respective approach procedure dictates otherwise.

8.2

Philosophy of stabilized approach

(Source: Airberlin OM-A 2.3.11.2) All approaches must be stabilized by 1000 feet AGL! In order to reduce the risk of "approach and landing accidents", go-arounds should be initiated whenever a safe landing is not assured, stabilized approach criteria are violated, field not in sight at DH / MDA or any other safety reason . Any go-around accomplished needs not to be reported to DO, however an explanation has to be given to the passengers.

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Landing technique

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9
9.1

Landing technique
Final approach

(Source: A320 Instructor Support, Normal Operation) Once AP is set to OFF using the Instinctive Disconnect button on the stick either on short final or in the flare, be smooth on the stick. The A/C is stable. If you feel that you are very active on the stick, release it and the A/C will stabilize. When transitioning from IMC to VMC, watch the BIRD position versus the A/C attitude symbol in the centre of PFD; this gives a good assessment of the drift, thus in which direction to look for the runway. But then: dont turn towards the runway dont duck under. The final approach with crosswind is conducted flying the aircraft track to the runway centreline, i.e. applying a drift correction. This is a crabbed approach with wings level. 9.2 Flare

(Source: A320 Instructor Support, Normal Operation) When reaching 50 ft RA, the pitch law is modified to flare mode: indeed, the normal pitch law which provides trajectory stability is not the best adapted for the flare manoeuvre. The system memorizes the attitude at 50 ft, and that attitude becomes the initial reference for pitch attitude control. As the aircraft descends through 30 ft, the system begins to reduce the pitch attitude (2 down in 8 sec). Consequently as the speed reduces, the pilot will have to move the stick rearwards to maintain a constant path. The flare technique is thus very conventional. Feedbacks and static stability augmentation are removed on ground. The roll is a roll rate law till the A/C is on ground. Start the flare at around 20 ft; it is a progressive aft action on the stick. A continuous aft pressure has to be applied as usual. At 20 ft a call out RETARD reminds the pilot to retard thrust lever. It is a reminder, not an order. Indeed with ATHR ON, SPEED mode is effective except if autoland (AP ON with LAND/FLARE). Therefore if you are late to retard the thrust levers in a manual landing, the ATHR will add thrust during the flare to keep the A/C on target speed. In order to assess the flare and the A/C position versus the ground, look out well ahead of the A/C. However if PITCH greater than 10, PNF shall announce it. The typical pitch increment in Flare is approximately 4 which leads to a 1 flight path angle associated to a 10 kts speed decay in the manoeuvre. These are typical figures.

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Landing technique 9.3 Crosswind landing

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(Source: A320 Instructor Support, Normal Operation) During the flare, the roll normal law is still effective. Thus when the pilot applies a right rudder pedal input for example, the aircraft yaws and rolls to the right; but it stabilizes with a steady bank angle. The more pedal input there is, the more induced yaw and bank there is with stick free. The aircraft will then turn gently to the right. If the A/C comes for landing with wind from the left, and if the pilot wishes the A/C to land with the fuselage aligned with runway centreline, he has to apply some rudder to the right. Thus, if he does not act laterally on the stick, the A/C will turn to the right because of the resulting bank angle and because of the effect of the wind. In order to keep the A/C on the runway centreline, the pilot will have to apply some stick to the left. Hence the recommended technique for crosswind landing is: smoothlyapply rudder to align the A/C on runway centreline. act on the stick (on the opposite direction) to maintain the A/C on the centreline, with possibly very slight wing down into wind. Note: In strong crosswind, a full decrab might lead to a significant into wind aileron input causing a significant bank angle. The Pilot must be aware that there are aircraft geometry limitations in pitch and in bank not only to prevent incurring a tail strike but to prevent scrapping the engine pod, the flaps or the wing tip. In such conditions, a partial decrab is preferable. Example: with 30 kts crosswind, a full decrab leads to 10 bank angle, whereas a partial decrab (5 crab angle remaining) requires only 5 bank angle.

9.4

Tail strike at landing

(Source: FCOM Bulletin N 806/1) Industry statistics show that tail strikes are more likely to occur at landing, than at takeoff (2 to 1). Although most of them are due to deviations from normal landing techniques, some are associated with such external conditions as turbulence and wind gradient. Deviations from normal landing technique are the most common causes of tail strikes, the main reasons for this being: Allowing speed to decrease well below Vapp before flare. Prolonged hold-off for a smooth touchdown. Too high flare Too high a sink rate, just prior reaching the flare height. Bouncing at touchdown.

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Landing technique 9.5 Bouncing at touch down

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(Source: FCOM Bulletin N 806/1) In case of a light bounce, maintain the pitch attitude and complete the landing, while keeping thrust at idle. Do not allow the pitch attitude to increase, particularly following a firm touchdown with a high pitch rate. In case of a high bounce, maintain the pitch attitude and initiate a go-around. Do not try to avoid a second touchdown during the go-around. Should it happen, it would be soft enough to prevent damage to the aircraft, if pitch attitude is maintained. Only when safely established in the go-around, retract flaps one step and the landing gear. A landing should not be attempted immediately after a high bounce, as thrust may be required to soften the second touchdown, and the remaining runway length may be insufficient to stop the aircraft.

9.6

Engine-out landing

(Source: FCOM 3.04.27 P5) The engine-out landing is basically a conventional landing. The pilot should trim to maintain the slip indication centred. It is yellow, as long as N1 is less than 80%. Between 100 and 50 feet, the pilot he can reset rudder trim to make the landing run easier, and to recover full rudder travel in both directions.

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Use of weather radar

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10 Weather radar
10.1 General A weather radar is only as good as the operators interpretation of the echoes that are displayed on the indicator. The pilot must combine his knowledge of how radar works and its limitations with such things as the prevailing weather pattern, the geographic location, and his personal experience to make a sound interpretation of the displayed targets. 10.2 Technical background (Source: Instructor Support, Normal Operation) The weather radar detects precipitation droplets such as: rain drops wet hail wet snow, etc.

The strength of the echo is a function of the drop size, composition and amount. Water particles reflect five times as much as ice particles of the same size. Consequently the following weather phenomena are not detected by radar: clouds fog clear air turbulence lightning wind

The antenna is stabilized. The angle between the weather radar antenna and the local horizon is called tilt. 10.3 Use of the weather radar The weather radar is used to detect, analyze and avoid significant weather. 10.3.1 Tilt Effective tilt management is the key to weather avoidance. Weather scanning is achieved by varying the tilt. The basic/initial value of the antenna tilt should be such as to depict the first ground returns at the top of the ND. Consequently, the tilt is directly linked to the phases of flight and the ND range selection. Note: In most of the Airberlin A320 Family Aircrafts an AUTO TILT function is available. 10.3.1.1 Before Take off If significant weather is suspected, slowly scan up to +10 the departure path, then set the tilt to + 4. 10.3.1.2 Climb To avoid over scanning, tilt downwards as the aircraft climbs and maintain ground returns at the top of the ND.
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Use of weather radar 10.3.1.3 Cruise

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Use a slightly negative tilt and maintain ground returns at the top of the ND. A good range to identify and observe significant weather is the 80NM range. Set the 160 NM range, tilt down until ground returns are on the 80NM line and return to the 80NM range. When closing in on significant weather decrease the ND range and tilt further down. Notes: Over calm sea and even ground the ground return is poor. No ground returns beyond line of sight.(In FL 370 the line of sight is approximately 240NM)

10.3.1.4 Descent During descent tilt upward to maintain the ground returns at the top of the ND

10.3.1.5 Approach To avoid ground returns tilt upward to + 4 10.3.2 Gain Gain is mostly used in mode AUTO. Before evaluating any weather echoes, start with the gain in AUTO mode. Manually vary the gain to determine the strongest area of a cell, then set the gain back to AUTO. Note: When the MULTISCAN switch is in the AUTO position (tilt automatic mode) and the GAIN is set to CAL (automatically calibrated), the radar display may not entirely correspond to the current weather. Therefore, this Temporary Revision is issued to indicate that, when the MULTISCAN switch is in AUTO position, the GAIN should be manually set to +8 to ensure that the radar display provides an optimum reflection of the current weather condition (Source A320 TR WEATHER RADAR - MULTISCAN FUNCTION) 10.3.3 WX+T and TURB modes WX+T and TURB are used to locate wet turbulence areas. When using turbulence detection, adjust the tilt to eliminate ground returns up to 90 NM. Turbulence is detected within approx. 50 NM and not affected by gain setting.

10.4 Spotting dry hail Small dry hail may not return echoes on a radar that is designed for weather avoidance. As it falls into warmer air, however, it begins to melt and form a thin surface layer of liquid that will give a return. A slight downward tilt of the antenna (toward the warmer air at lower altitude) may show rain coming from unseen dry hail that is directly in the flight path. When rain returns appear below the flight path, but not in the line of flight, the aircraft could be flying into hail. At low altitude operation, the reverse is sometimes true: the radar may be scanning below a rapidly developing storm cell, from which the heavy rain droplets have not had time to fall to the flight level through the updrafts. Tilting the antenna up and down regularly will produce the total weather picture.

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Use of weather radar Turbulence versus altitude

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Studies by the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) of Oklahoma show that thunderstorms extending to 60000ft show little variation of turbulence intensity with altitude. Remember that ice crystals are poor reflectors. A strong echo may be received from rain water at lower altitudes, but a weaker echo will be received as the antenna is tilted up because of frozen water at the higher altitudes. Thus the intensity of the echo might diminish with altitude, but the severity of the turbulence might not.

10.5 Turbulence above cloud tops Limited flight data shows there may be a relationship between turbulence above cloud tops and the speed of upper tropospheric winds. When the winds at the top of the storm exceeds 100 kt, significant turbulence can be expected as high as 10,000 ft above the cloud tops. This value may decrease 1,000 ft for each 10-kt reduction of tropospheric wind speed.

10.6 Colour gradient Echo intensity gradients should also be observed and are very important. Closely spaced or thin lines between different colours are usually associated with severe turbulence and should be avoided.

10.7 Pilot behaviour with significant weather It is recommended to take the following actions to avoid significant weather: whenever suspecting weather, scan by varying radar tilt. do not under estimate a thunderstorm even if the echo is weak (wet parts only are detected). avoid all red and magenta cells by at least 20 NM. deviate upwind rather than downwind (less chances of turbulence or hail). Do not attempt to fly below a storm even in visual conditions (turbulence, wind shear). Use turbulence detection to isolate turbulence from precipitation. Severe turbulence may be encountered up to 5000 ft above a cell. Storms with tops above 35000 ft must be considered hazardous. Frequent and vivid lightning indicates a high probability of severe turbulence.

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Use of weather radar

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10.8 Severe turbulence: (Source: A320 FCOM 3.4.91) If turbulence is unavoidable, aim to keep the speed in the region of the target speed given in this section, so as to provide the best protection against the effect of gust on the structural limits, whilst maintaining an adequate margin above VLS. Consider requesting a lower flight level to increase margin to buffet onset. (Sufficient buffet margin exists at optimum altitude.) Before entering an area of known turbulence, the flight crew and the cabin crew must secure all loose equipment and turn on the "SEAT BELTS" and "NO SMOKING" signs. Keep the autopilot ON. When thrust changes become excessive : disconnect Auto Thrust. Set the thrust to give the recommended speed (see table FCOM 3.4.91). This thrust setting attempts to obtain, in stabilized conditions, the speed for turbulence penetration given in the graph below. Only change thrust in case of an extreme variation in airspeed, and do not chase your Mach or airspeed. A transient increase is preferable to a loss of speed, that decreases buffet margins and is difficult to recover.

If the crew flies the aircraft manually: Expect large variations in altitude, but do not chase altitude. Maintain attitude and allow altitude to vary.

For Approach: Use A/THR for managed speed. Configuration FULL, or 3, can be used. However, Configuration 3 provides more energy and less drag.

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11 Winter operation
11.1 Flight planning 11.1.1 General For more details concerning flight planning refer also to chapter Flight Planning 11.1.2 Runway contamination

Code: RRDCddBB RR Runway e.g. 25L = 25, 25R = 75, all = 88 D 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / Deposit clear & dry damp wet or water patches rime or frost covered dry snow wet snow slush ice Compact or rolled snow Frozen ruts or ridges Deposit not reported Braking action good medium -good medium medium - poor poor unreliable not reported (fc) 0.40 0.36 - 0.39 0.30 0.35 0.26 0.29 0.25 C 1 2 5 9 / Contamination < 10% 11%-25% 26%-50% 51% - 100% not reported

dd 00 01 02 xx 90 91 92 93 9x 98 99 //

Depth < 1mm 1 mm 2 mm xx mm 90 mm not used 10 cm 15 cm 5x cm 40 cm Rwy inop not significant

BB 95 94 93 92 91 99 //

Remarks 88CLRD//

all Rwys o.k.

DDSNOCLO RR//99//

Rwy closed due to snow removal Rwy clearance in progress

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Winter operation 11.1.3 Required landing distance (Source: A320 FCOM 2.03.10)

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11.1.3.1 Manual landing 11.1.3.1.1 Required landing distance (pre-flight) The required landing distance for pre-flight planning is equal to the actual landing distance multiplied with 1.67.
l req = 5 l act 3

lreq: lact:

required landing distance

actual landing distance

11.1.3.1.2 Summary, required landing distance, manual landing Required landing distance in meters Runway condition Landin dry wet 6.3mm 12.7mm g mass water water 64t 1500 1970 2670 2560 62t 1440 1920 2580 2480 58t 1370 1800 2400 2320 54t 1320 1690 2240 2170 Assumptions: Configuration FULL Airport elevation 2000ft 2 Reversers operative No wind correction No CG correction No correction for speed increment

6.3mm slush 2570 2500 2370 2240

12.7mm slush 2530 2400 2270 2150

Compacted snow 2460 2410 2290 2180

ice 4320 4230 4040 3860

11.1.3.2 Automatic landing Determine the corrected required landing distance for manual landing from the data above. The required landing distance for automatic landing is equal to the corrected required landing distance for manual landing except in the following case: In case of landing in Conf 3 with landing weight equal to or less than 65000 kg, it is equal to the corrected required landing distance for manual landing increased by 125 meters. In case of landing in Conf FULL with landing weight equal to or less than 65000 kg, it is equal to the corrected required landing distance for manual landing increased by 70 meters.

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Winter operation 11.2 Definitions (Source A320 FCOM 2.4.10)

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Contaminated runway: A runway is considered to be contaminated when more than 25% of the runway surface area (whether in isolated areas or not) within the required length and width being used is covered by the following: o Surface water more than 3 mm (0.125 in) deep, or slush, or loose snow, equivalent to more than 3 mm (0.125 in) of water; or o Snow which has been compressed into a solid mass which resists further compression and will hold together or break into lumps if picked up (compacted snow); or - Ice, including wet ice Wet runway: A runway is considered wet when the runway surface is covered with water, or equivalent, less than or equal to 3 mm or when there is sufficient moisture on the runway surface to cause it to appear reflective, but without significant areas of standing water. Wet runway and equivalent: Equivalent of a wet runway is a runway covered with or less than o 2mm slush o 3 mm standing water o 4 mm wet snow o 15 mm dry snow Damp runway: A runway is considered damp when the surface is not dry, but when the moisture on it does not give it a shiny appearance. Dry runway: A dry runway is one which is neither wet nor contaminated, and includes those paved runways which have been specially prepared with grooves or porous pavement and maintained to retain effectively dry braking action, even when moisture is present. Icing conditions may be expected when the OAT (on the ground and for takeoff) or when TAT (in flight) is at or below 10C, and there is visible moisture in the air (such as clouds, fog with low visibility of one mile or less, rain, snow, sleet, ice crystals) or standing water, slush, ice or snow is present on the taxiways or runways. Standing Water is caused by heavy rainfall and/or insufficient runway drainage with a depth of more than 3 mm. Slush is water saturated with snow which spatters when stepping firmly on it. lt is encountered at temperatures around 5C and its density is approximately 0.85 kg/dm3. Wet snow is a condition where, if compacted by hand, snow will stick together and tend to form a snowball. Its density is approximately 0.4 kg/dm3. Dry snow is a condition where snow can be blown if loose, or if compacted by hand, will fall apart again upon release. Its density is approximately 0.2 kg/ dm3. Compacted snow is a condition where snow has been compressed (a typical friction coefficient is 0.2). Icy is a condition where the friction coefficient is 0.05 or below.

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Winter operation On ground operation 11.2.1 Securing the aircraft for cold soak See A320 FCOM 3.04.91 11.2.2 Engine start in cold weather (Source: A320 FCOM 3.1.70) If oil temperature is below 40 C the engine has to be preheated T/O with oil temperatures below -10C is not allowed

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11.3 De-icing on ground 11.3.1 Clean aircraft concept (Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8.2.5.7) A pilot shall not take off in an airplane that has: frost, snow, slush or ice adhering to any fan blade, windshield or power plant installation or to airspeed, altimeter, rate of climb or flight altitude instrument systems. snow, slush or ice adhering to the wings or stabilizers or control surfaces or any frost adhering to the upper surfaces of wings or stabilizers or control surfaces.

The MAKE IT CLEAN AND KEEP IT CLEAN rule applies. This is known as the Clean Aircraft Concept and it is ultimately the responsibility of the Commander that this rule is effectively followed on every takeoff. It is imperative that takeoff not be attempted unless the CDR has ascertained, that all critical surfaces of the aircraft are free of adhering ice, snow, or frost formations.

11.3.2 Exterior inspection An inspection of the aircraft must visually cover all critical parts of the aircraft and be performed from points offering a clear view of these parts. In particular, these parts include: Wing surfaces including leading edges, Horizontal stabilizer upper and lower surface, Vertical stabilizer and rudder, Fuselage, Air data probes, Static vents, Angle-of-attack sensors, Control surface cavities, Engines, Generally intakes and outlets, Landing gear and wheel bays.

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Winter operation 11.3.3 Clear ice phenomenon

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Under certain conditions, a clear ice layer or frost can form on the wing upper surfaces when the aircraft is on the ground. In most cases, this is accompanied by frost on the under wing surface. Severe conditions occur with precipitation, when sub-zero fuel is in contact with the wing upper surface skin panels. The clear ice accumulations are very difficult to detect from ahead of the wing or behind during walk-around, especially in poor lighting and when the wing is wet. The leading edge may not feel particularly cold. The clear ice may not be detected from the cabin either because wing surface details show through. The following factors contribute to the formation intensity and the final thickness of the clear ice layer: Low temperature of fuel that was added to the aircraft during the previous ground stop and/or the long airborne time of the previous flight, resulting in a situation that the remaining fuel in the wing tanks is below 0 C. Abnormally large amount of remaining cold fuel in wing tanks causing the fuel level to be in contact with the wing upper surface panels as well as the lower surface, especially in the wing tank area. Temperature of fuel added to the aircraft during the current ground stop, adding (relatively) warm fuel can melt dry, falling snow with the possibility of re-freezing. Drizzle/rain and ambient temperatures around 0C on the ground is very critical. Heavy freezing has been reported during drizzle/rain even at temperatures of 8 to 14C.

The areas most vulnerable to freezing are: The wing root area between the front and rear spars, Any part of the wing that contains unused fuel after flight, The areas where different wing structures are concentrated (a lot of cold metal), such as areas above the spars and the main landing gear doubler plate.

11.3.4 General checks A recommended procedure to check the wing upper surface is to place high enough steps as close as possible to the leading edge and near the fuselage, and climb the steps so that you can touch a wide sector of the tank area by hand. If clear ice is detected, the wing upper surface should be de-iced and then re-checked to ensure that all ice deposits have been removed. It must always be remembered that below a snow / slush / anti-icing fluid layer there can be clear ice. Ice can build up on aircraft surfaces when descending through dense clouds or precipitation during an approach. When ground temperatures at the destination are low, it is possible that, when flaps are retracted, accumulations of ice may remain undetected between stationary and moveable surfaces. It is, therefore, important that these areas are checked prior to departure and any frozen deposits removed. Under freezing fog conditions, it is necessary for the rear side of the fan blades to be checked for ice build-up prior to start-up. Any discovered deposits should be removed by directing air from a low flow hot air source, such as a cabin heater, onto the affected areas.

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When slush is present on runways, inspect the aircraft when it arrives at the ramp for slush/ice accumulations. If the aircraft arrives at the gate with flaps in a position other than fully retracted, those flaps which are extended must be inspected and, if necessary, deiced before retraction. As mentioned above, the Flight Crew Operating Manual allows takeoff with a certain amount of frost on certain parts of the aircraft (a frost layer less than 3mm on the underside of the wings, in the area of fuel tanks and a thin layer of rime or a light coating of powdery (loose) snow on the upper surface of the fuselage.) This allowance exists to cope mainly with cold fuel, and humid conditions not necessarily linked to winter operations. However, when the aircraft need to be de-iced, these areas must be also de-iced. It is important to note that the rate of ice formation is considerably increased by the presence of an initial depth of ice. Therefore, if icing conditions are expected to occur along the taxi and takeoff path, it is necessary to ensure that all ice and frost is removed before flight. This consideration must increase flight crew awareness to include the condition of the taxiway, runway and adjacent areas, since surface contamination and blown snow are potential causes for ice accretion equal to natural precipitation. During anti-icing and de-icing, the moveable surfaces shall be in stowed position. (Source Airberlin OM-A 8.2.5.6) Flaps should be set just prior take-off to prevent damage by slush, sleet, snow, ice. (Source Airberlin OM-A 8.2.5.6)

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Winter operation 11.3.5 Responsibility 11.3.5.1 Maintenance responsibility

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The information report (de-icing/anti-icing code) given to the cockpit is a part of the technical airworthiness of the aircraft. The person releasing the aircraft is responsible for the performance and verification of the results of the de/anti-icing treatment. The responsibility of accepting the performed treatment lies, however, with the Commander. 11.3.5.2 Operational responsibility The general transfer of operational responsibility takes place at the moment the aircraft starts moving by its own power. The responsible ground crew member should be clearly nominated. He should check the aircraft for the need to de-ice. He will, based on his own judgement, initiate de-/anti-icing, if required, and he is responsible for the correct and complete de-icing and/or anti-icing of the aircraft. As the final decision rests with the Commander, his request will supersede the ground crew members judgement to not de-ice. As the Commander is responsible for the anti-icing condition of the aircraft during ground manoeuvring prior to takeoff, he can request another anti-icing application with a different mixture ratio to have the aircraft protected for a longer period against accumulation of precipitation. Equally, he can simply request a repeat application. Therefore, the Commander should take into account forecasted or expected weather conditions, taxi conditions, taxi times, holdover time and other relevant factors. The Commander must, when in doubt about the aerodynamic cleanliness of the aircraft, perform (or have performed) an inspection or simply request a further de-/anti-icing. 11.3.6 Final check before aircraft dispatch No aircraft should be dispatched for departure under icing conditions or after a de-icing / anti-icing operation unless the aircraft has received a final check by a responsible authorized person. The inspection must visually cover all critical parts of the aircraft and be performed from points offering sufficient visibility on these parts (e.g. from the de-icer itself or another elevated piece of equipment). It may be necessary to gain direct access to physically check (e.g. by touch) to ensure that there is no clear ice on suspect areas. No aircraft should be dispatched for departure after a de-icing / anti-icing operation unless the flight crew has been notified of the type of de-icing / anti-icing operation performed. The ground crew must make sure that the flight crew has been informed. The flight crew should make sure that they have the information. This information includes the results of the final inspection by qualified personnel, indicating that the aircraft critical parts are free of ice, frost and snow. It also includes the necessary anti-icing codes to allow the flight crew to estimate the holdover time to be expected under the prevailing weather conditions.

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Winter operation 11.3.7 Procedures (Source A320 FCOM 3.4.91) 11.3.7.1 Cockpit preparation

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Before treatment, avoid pressurizing or testing flight control systems. Try to make sure that all flight support services are completed prior to treatment, to avoid any delay between treatment and start of taxiing. Avoid indiscriminate use of de-icing fluid and its ingestion by the engine or APU. Do not move flaps or slats, flight control surfaces, or trim surfaces, if they are not free of ice. Always have the aircraft treated symmetrically: The left and right sides must receive the same and complete treatment.

11.3.7.2 Before fluid spraying: CAB PRESS MODE SEL CHECK AUTO ENG BLEED 1 + 2 OFF APU BLEED OFF DITCHING pushbutton ON Outflow valve, pack valves, and avionic ventilation inlet and extract valves close. This prevents de-icing fluid from entering the aircraft. Avionic ventilation is in closed circuit with both fans running. In view of the low OAT, there is no time limit for this configuration. Note: If the "VENT AVNCS SYS FAULT" warning appears, reset the AEVC circuit breaker at the end of the aircraft de-icing procedure. AIR COND/AVNCS VENT/CTL D06 on 49VU. AIR COND/AVNCS/VENT/MONG Y17 on 122 VU. THRUST LEVERS CHECK IDLE

Aircraft prepared for spraying

11.3.7.3 Upon completion of the spraying operation DITCHING pushbutton OFF OUTFLOW VALVE CHECK OPEN On the ECAM PRESS page, confirm that the outflow valve indication reaches the open green position to avoid any unexpected aircraft pressurization. ENG BLEED 1 + 2 ON At least 60 seconds after APU start, or on completion of spraying operation: APU BLEED ON PITOTS and STATICS (ground crew) CHECK GROUND EQUIPMENT REMOVE DE-ICING/ANTI-ICING REPORT RECEIVED The information from ground personnel, who performed the de-icing and post-applicationcheck, must include (anti icing code): o Type of fluid used. o The mix ratio of fluid to water (for example 75/25). o When the holdover time (HOT) began. o Hold over time (HOT) NORMAL PROCEDURE RESUME
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Apply appropriate normal procedures. Pay special attention to the flight control check. In freezing precipitation, perform the appropriate checks to evaluate aircraft icing. Base the decision on whether to takeoff, or to re-protect the aircraft, on the amount of ice that has built up on the critical surfaces since the last de-icing, as revealed by a personal inspection from the inside and outside of the aircraft. Make this inspection before the holdover time expires, or just before takeoff. Note: If the fuselage has been sprayed, there is a risk of de-icing fluid ingestion by the APU air intake, resulting in specific odours, or SMOKE warnings. Thus, consider APU BLEED OFF during takeoff. The minimum requirement is to receive the anti-icing code in order to figure out the available protection time from the holdover timetable. Do not consider the information given in the holdover timetables as precise. There are several parameters influencing holdover time. The timeframes given in the holdover timetables consider the very different weather situations worldwide. The view of the weather is rather subjective; experience has shown that a certain snowfall can be judged as light, medium or heavy by different people. If in doubt, a pre-takeoff check should be considered

11.4 Taxiing in icing conditions (Source: A320 FCOM 2.04.10) If taxiing in icing condition with precipitation on runways and taxiways contaminated with slush or snow: Before T/O keep flaps & slats retracted until reaching the holding point on the T/O runway. After landing do not retract flaps & slats to avoid damage of the structure After engine shut down make a visual inspection to determine that the flaps/slats mechanism is free of contamination When flaps/slats mechanism is free of contamination use following procedure: o BLUE & YELLOW PUMP ON o FLAPS RETRACT o BLUE & YELLOW PUMP OFF

Note: 1. 2. On contaminated runways and taxiways, the radio altitude indications may fluctuate and auto call outs or GPWS warnings may be activated. Disregard them. During taxi on snowy runways, the radio altimeters may not compute any data and the ECAM warnings 'DUAL ENG FAILURE', 'ANTI ICE CAPT TAT FAULT', 'ANTI ICE F/O TAT FAULT', 'L/G SHOCK ABSORBER FAULT' may be triggered. Disregard these warnings.

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Winter operation 11.5 Take off on contaminated runways 11.5.1 Runway contamination

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If the layer of contaminant on the runway is thin enough, the runway is not considered contaminated, but only wet. As far as performance determination is concerned, the following guidelines should be considered: Wet runway and equivalent: Equivalent of a wet runway is a runway covered with or less than o 2mm slush o 3 mm standing water o 4 mm wet snow o 15 mm dry snow Contaminated runway: A linear equivalence between depth of slush and snow has been defined: o 12.7 mm wet snow is equivalent to 6.3 mm slush o 50.8 mm dry snow is equivalent to 6.3 mm slush

Note : 1. On a damp runway no performance degradation should be considered. 2. It is not recommended to take off from a runway covered with more than 50.8mm of dry snow or 25.4mm of wet snow. 3. FLEX takeoff is not allowed from a contaminated runway. 11.5.2 Performance Optimization A contaminated runway impacts runway-related performance. The accelerate-go distance is increased due to the precipitation drag, and the accelerate-stop distance is increased due to the reduction in the friction forces. The natural loss of payload, resulting from lower takeoff weight, can be minimized by different means. Optimization of flap setting, takeoff speeds and derated takeoff thrust are the main ways of limiting a loss in takeoff weight. 11.5.3 Flap setting Three different flap settings are proposed for takeoff. The influence of the flap setting on the takeoff performance is well-known. Low flap settings (e.g. Conf1+F) provide good climb performance (good lift to drag ratio) while the takeoff distance is longer (in other words bad runway performance). A higher flap setting (e.g. Conf 3) helps reduce the takeoff distance (improvement of the runway performance) at the expense of the climb performance (degradation of the lift to drag ratio). Most of the time, a contaminated runway calls for higher flap setting. The accelerate-go and the accelerate-stop distances are then reduced. Yet, the presence of an obstacle may still require a minimum climb gradient calling for a lower flap setting. The right balance must be found. The choice of the optimum flap setting is usually done manually. A quick comparison of the performance for the three different flap settings reveals which one is best.

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Winter operation 11.5.4 Recommended procedure (Source: A320 FCOM 2.04.10,)

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When taking off on contaminated runways, following procedure is recommended: Select TOGA Do not abort takeoff for minor deficiencies even at low speeds If you have to abort takeoff maintain directional control with the rudder and small inputs to the nose wheel. If necessary, use differential braking Rotate not before VR , lift off and retract gear and flaps in the normal manner.

11.5.5 Crosswind limits (Source: Airbus FCOM 2.04.10) Reported runway friction coefficient 0.40 and above 0.36 0.39 0.30 0.35 0.26 0.29 0.25 and below unreliable reported braking action good medium-good medium medium-poor poor max. crosswind component 29kt 29kt 25kt 20kt 15kt 5kt equivalent runway condition 1 1 2/3 2/3 3/4 4/5

equivalent runway condition (only valid for maximum crosswind determination) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. dry, damp or wet runway (less than 3mm water depth) runway covered with slush runway covered with dry snow runway covered with standing water with risk of hydroplaning or wet snow icy runway or high risk of hydroplaning

11.6 Aircraft contamination in flight 11.6.1 General Atmospheric physics and meteorology tell us that icing conditions generally occur from slightly positive C down to -40 C and are most likely around FL100. Nevertheless, it should be understood that if severe icing rarely occurs below -12 C, slightly positive OATs do not protect from icing and that icing conditions can be potentially met at any FL. High accretion rates are not systematically associated with Cumulonimbus; stratiform clouds can accumulate lots of ice. Icing conditions are far most frequent than effective ice accretion. Icing conditions do not systematically lead to ice accretion. Should the pilot encounter icing conditions in flight, some recommendations are: In addition to using EAI and WAI according to procedures, the pilot should keep an eye on the icing process: Accretion rate, type of cloud. o When rapid icing is encountered in a stratiform cloud, a moderate change of altitude will significantly reduce the rate.
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Winter operation o

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If icing conditions prevail on the approach, keep speed as high as permitted, delay flap extension as much as possible, and do not retract flaps after landing.

11.6.2 Engine anti-ice (Source A320 FCOM 3.4.30) ENGINE ANTI ICE must be ON during all ground and flight operations, when icing conditions exist, or are anticipated, except during climb and cruise when the SAT is below - 40 C. ENGINE ANTI ICE must be ON before and during a descent in icing conditions, even if the SAT is below - 40 C. 11.6.3 Wing anti-ice (Source: A320 FCOM 3.4.30) WING ANTI ICE may either be used to prevent ice formation, or to remove ice accumulation from the wing leading edges. WING ANTI ICE should be selected ON, whenever there is an indication that airframe icing exists. This can be evidenced by ice accumulation on the visual ice indicator (located between the two cockpit windshields), or on the windshield wipers.

11.7 Landing on contaminated runways (Source: A320 FCOM 2.04.10) (Source: A320 FCOM 3.4.30) When landing on contaminated runways, following procedure is recommended: Avoid landing on contaminated runways if antiskid is not functioning. Use auto brake Approach at the normal speed Make a positive touchdown If needed use max reverse thrust until the aircraft is fully stopped Use nose wheel steering with care

Caution: Extended flight, in icing conditions with the slats extended, should be avoided. If there is evidence of significant ice accretion and to take into account ice formation on non heated structure, the minimum speed should be : o In configuration full, VLS + 5 knots, and the landing distance must be multiplied by 1.1. o In configuration lower than FULL, VLS + 10 knots, and the landing distance in CONF 3 must be multiplied by 1.15.

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Winter operation 11.7.1 Crosswind limits for landing on contaminated runways (Source: Airbus FCOM 2.04.10) Reported runway friction coefficient 0.40 and above 0.36 0.39 0.30 0.35 0.26 0.29 0.25 and below unreliable reported braking action good medium-good medium medium-poor poor

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max. crosswind component 33kt 29kt 25kt 20kt 15kt 5kt

equivalent runway condition 1 1 2/3 2/3 3/4 4/5

equivalent runway condition (only valid for maximum crosswind determination) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. dry, damp or wet runway (less than 3mm water depth) runway covered with slush runway covered with dry snow runway covered with standing water with risk of hydroplaning or wet snow icy runway or high risk of hydroplaning

11.8 Low temperature effect on altimeter indication (Source: Airbus, getting to grips with cold weather operations) The pressure (barometric) altimeters installed on the aircraft are calibrated to indicate true altitude under International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) conditions. This means that the pressure altimeter indicates the elevation above the pressure reference by following the standard atmospheric profile. Any deviation from ISA will, therefore, result in an incorrect reading, whereby the indicated altitude differs from the true altitude. Temperature greatly influences the isobaric surface spacing which affects altimeter indications. When the temperature is lower than ISA, the true altitude of the aircraft will be lower than the figure indicated by the altimeter. Specifically, this occurs in cold weather conditions, where the temperature may be considerably lower than the temperature of the standard atmosphere and may lead to a significant altimeter error. A low temperature may decrease terrain clearance and may create a potential terrain clearance hazard. It may also be the origin of an altitude/position error. 11.8.1 Corrections Various methods are available to correct indicated altitude, when the temperature is lower than ISA. In all cases, the correction has to be applied on the height above the elevation of the altimeter setting source. The altimeter setting source is generally the atmosphere pressure at an airport, and the correction on the height above the airport has to be applied on the indicated altitude. The same correction value is applied when flying at either QFE or at QNH.
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Increase obstacle elevation by 4% per 10C below ISA of the height above the elevation of the altimeter setting source, or, decrease aircraft indicated altitude by 4% per 10C below ISA of the height above the elevation of the altimeter setting source. This method is generally used to adjust minimum safe altitudes and may be applied for all altimeters setting source altitudes for temperatures above -15C. 11.8.2 Example Lets assume ZRH with an airport elevation of 1500 ft. The airport elevation is the same as altimeter setting source altitudes elevation = 1500 ft. The ISA temperature at 1500 ft is 12C. Lets now assume that the actual Outside Air Temperature (OAT) is -10C. The ISA deviation is then, equal to 22C. The Intermediate altitude on the VOR 28 approach is 4000ft or 2500ft above GND. The altitude error is:
A = 2500ft 0.04 22 10 = 220ft

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12 Handling of abnormal and emergency situations

12.1 Types of failures Independent: Primary: Secondary: a failure that affects an isolated system or item of equipment without degrading the performance of others in the aircraft. a failure of a system or an item of equipment that costs the aircraft the use of other systems or items of equipment. the loss of a system or an item of equipment resulting from a primary failure.

12.2 Color code The ECAM display uses a color code that indicates the importance of the failure or the indication. RED: AMBER: GREEN: WHITE: BLUE: MAGENTA: The configuration or failure requires immediate action. The flight crew should be aware of the configuration or failure, but need not take immediate action. The item is operating normally. These titles and remarks guide the flight crew, as they execute various procedures. These are actions to be carried out, or limitations. These are particular messages that apply to particular pieces of equipment or situations (inhibition messages, for example).

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Level

Signification Red warning: The configuration, or failure requires immediate action: Aircraft in dangerous configuration, or limit flight conditions (eg: stall, overspeed) System failure altering flight safety (eg : Eng fire, excess cab alt) Amber caution: The flight crew should be aware of the configuration or failure, but does not need to take any immediate action. However, time and situation permitting, these cautions should be considered without delay to prevent any further degradation of the affected system: System failure without any direct consequence on the flight safety (eg: HYD G SYS LO PR) Amber caution: Requires crew monitoring : Failures leading to a loss of redundancy or system degradation (eg : FCDC fault) System parameters monitoring

Aural Continuous Repetitive Chime (CRC) or specific sound or synthetic voice Single Chime (SC)

Visual MASTER WARN light red flashing or specific red light. Warning message (red) on E/WD Automatic call of the relevant system page on the S/D MASTER CAUT light amber steady Caution message (amber) on E/WD Automatic call of the relevant system page on the S/D

Failure Mode 2

NONE

Caution message (amber) on E/WD generally without procedure. Automatic call of the relevant system page on the S/D. The affected parameter pulses green. Green, Amber, or Magenta message on E/WD

NONE

Advisory Information Memo Information : Recalls normal or automatic selection of functions which are temporarily used NONE

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12.4 Use of QRH (Source QRH 0.00, A320 FCOM, 3.02.01) 12.4.1 Scope The QRH contains some specific procedures which are NOT displayed on the ECAM. As a general rule, the procedures displayed on the ECAM are not provided in the QRH. g n If actions depend on a precondition, a black square indicates the precondition A sequential precondition or a phase of flight is indicated by a black dot

TITLE TITLE

Abnormal procedure displayed on ECAM Abnormal procedure not displayed on ECAM

TITLE TITLE

Emergency procedure displayed on ECAM Emergency procedure not displayed on ECAM

12.4.2 Contents The QRH is divided in following sections Emergency Procedures Abnormal Procedures Normal Procedures In FLT Performance Ops Data OEBs

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A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12.4.3 Use of summaries in the QRH (Source A320 FCOM, 3.02.01) 12.4.3.1 General The summaries consist of QRH procedures. They have been created to help the crew handle the actions to be carried out, in the event of an electrical emergency configuration or dual hydraulic failure. In any case, the ECAM should be applied first. This includes both the procedure and the STATUS review. Only after announcing "ECAM ACTIONS COMPLETED", should the PNF refer to the corresponding QRH summary. When the failure occurs, and after performing the ECAM actions, the PNF should refer to the "cruise" portion of the summary, in order to determine the landing distance coefficient. Since normal landing distances are also given on this page, the PNF will be able to compute the landing distance taking failure(s) into account, in order for the pilot to decide whether to divert or not. 12.4.3.2 Approach preparation As always, approach preparation includes a review of the ECAM STATUS. After reviewing the STATUS, the PNF should refer to the "cruise" portion of the summary to determine the VREF correction, and compute the VAPP. The pilot is presumed to know the computation method, and use the VREF given on the MCDU (the destination having been previously updated). A VREF table is provided in the summary, for failure cases leading to the loss of the MCDU. The landing and go-around portions of the summary should be used for the approach briefing. 12.4.3.3 Approach The APPR PROC actions should be performed by reading the approach portion of the summary. This portion has primarily been added due to the flap extension procedure, which is not fully addressed on the ECAM. As the recommendations provided in this portion of the summary are deemed sufficient, it is not necessary to refer to the "LANDING WITH FLAPS (SLATS) JAMMED" paper procedure. After referring to the approach portion of the summary, the PNF should then review the ECAM STATUS, and check that all APPR PROC actions have been completed.

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A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12.5 Task sharing for abnormal and emergency procedures (Source: A320 FCOM, 3.02.01 & QRH 0.00) Procedures are initiated on the Pilot Flying's command. No action is taken (apart from canceling audio warnings, through the MASTER WARN light) until : The appropriate flight path is established The aircraft is at least 400 feet above the runway, if a failure occurs during takeoff, approach or go-around. A height of 400 feet is recommended, because it is a good compromise between the necessary time for stabilization, and excessive delay in procedure initiation. In some emergency cases, provided that the appropriate flight path is established, the Pilot Flying may initiate actions before this height. I HAVE CONTROL, ECAM ACTIONS

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PF initiates ECAM: Task sharing: PF: PNF:

Controls the Aircraft Communicates with ATC Is responsible for the thrust levers Requests configuration changes Reads titles and checklists and executes required actions. Irreversible items (engine master switch, IRS, fire pushbutton) must be confirmed by the PF Executes configurations changes required by the PF

After a checklist is finished the PNF informs the PF: PNF: PF: TITLE, COMPLETED, CLEAR ? CLEAR

After completion of the whole checklist the Status page appears. Before studying the Status consider following: Does an OEB (Operations Engineering Bulletin) for the actual problem exist? Is a restart or reset of an affected System possible? Are all checklists completed? (Checklists for normal ops as well as checklists in FCOM 3.02 abnormal and emergency procedures)

PNF reads the Status and confirms the completion of the ECAM procedure with ECAM COMPLETED, CLEAR? PF confirms with CLEAR and normal task sharing is resumed.

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A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Notes: If an emergency causes LAND ASAP to appear in red on the ECAM, the Pilot Flying should land at the nearest suitable airport. If an abnormal procedure causes LAND ASAP to appear in amber on the ECAM, the crew should consider the seriousness of the situation, and select a suitable airport. ECAM procedures and STATUS information, supplemented by a PFD/ND check suffice for handling the fault. However, before applying the ECAM procedures, the fault should be confirmed on the system display. When ECAM actions have been performed, and the ECAM STATUS has been reviewed, the crew may refer to FCOM procedure (FCOM 3.02) for supplementary information, if time permits.

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12.6 Use of autopilot The autopilot (AP) may be used in most failure cases, when available : In case of engine failure, including CAT II/CAT III ILS approaches and fail-passive automatic landing. When performing an engine-out non precision approach, the use of the AP is not permitted in the following modes : FINAL APP, NAV V/S, NAV FPA. In case of other failures, down to 500 ft AGL in all modes.

However, the AP has not been certified in all configurations, and its performance cannot be guaranteed. If the pilot chooses to use the AP in such circumstances, extra vigilance is required, and the AP must be disconnected, if the aircraft deviates from the desired or safe flight path.

12.7 Landing distance Any increase in landing distance, resulting from an emergency or abnormality, must be based on the actual landing distance in Conf FULL (Refer to FCOM 3.02.80).

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A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12.8 Memory Items (Source: A320 FCOM, 3.02.01) The following procedures are to be applied without referring to paper: Windshear Windshear ahead TCAS EGPWS Loss of braking Beginning of emergency descent Beginning of unreliable speed indication

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12.8.1 Windshear (Source: A320 FCOM, 3.02.80) Before V1: The takeoff should be rejected only if significant airspeed variations occur below indicated V1 and the pilot decides that there is sufficient runway remaining to stop the airplane. TOGA ROTATE FOLLOW

After V1: THR LEVERS REACHING VR SRS ORDERS

In flight: THR LEVERS TOGA AP (if engaged) KEEP SRS ORDERS FOLLOW (This includes full back stick, if demanded) Note: do not change configuration (flaps, slats gear) closely monitor flight path and speed If AP engaged the AP disengages when is greater then prot If FD is not available use an initial pitch attitude up to 17.5. If necessary to minimize the loss of height, increase this pitch attitude.

12.8.2 Windshear ahead (PWS) (Source: A320 FCOM, 3.02.80) The "W/S AHEAD" message is displayed on each PFD. The color of the message depends on the severity and location of the winds hear. 12.8.2.1 W/S AHEAD red

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The W/S AHEAD warning is associated with an aural synthetic voice "WINDSHEAR AHEAD, WINDSHEAR AHEAD". Before takeoff Delay takeoff, or select the most favorable runway.

During the takeoff run Reject takeoff. Note: Predictive windshear alerts are inhibited above 100 knots until 50 feet.

When airborne THR LEVERS TOGA

As usual, the slat/flap configuration can be changed, provided the windshear is not entered. SRS ORDERS FOLLOW Note: If AP engaged the AP disengages when is greater then prot

Landing The W/S AHEAD warning is associated with an aural synthetic voice "GO AROUND, WINDSHEAR AHEAD". Note : If a positive verification is made that no hazard exists, the warning may be considered cautionary. THR LEVERS ANNOUNCE FLAPS L/G UP TOGA "GO AROUND-FLAPS" RETRACT ONE STEP SELECT

Note: This includes the use of full back stick, if demanded. If AP engaged the AP disengages when is greater then prot If FD is not available use an initial pitch attitude up to 17.5. If necessary to minimize the loss of height, increase this pitch attitude.

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A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12.8.2.2 W/S AHEAD amber (Source: A320 FCOM, 3.02.80 & FCOM 3.4.91) Apply precautionary measures, as indicated in the SUPPLEMENTARY TECHNIQUES 3.04.91. Before takeoff Delay takeoff until conditions improve. Evaluate takeoff conditions using observations, experience and checking weather conditions. Select the most favorable runway (considering location of the likely windshear). Use the weather radar or the predictive windshear system before commencing takeoff to ensure that the flight path clears any potential problem areas. Select TOGA thrust. Monitor closely airspeed and airspeed trend during the takeoff run for early signs of windshear.

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During approach Note : When it is using the GS mini-function, associated with managed speed, the system will carry extra speed in strong wind conditions. If downburst is expected, increase Vapp displayed on the MCDU up to a maximum of VLS + 15 knots. Delay landing or divert to another airport until conditions are more favorable. Evaluate condition for a safe landing by Using observations, experience and checking weather conditions. Use the weather radar. Select the most favorable runway, considering also which has the most appropriate approach aid. Select FLAPS 3. Use managed speed in the approach phase. Check both FDs engaged in ILS, FPA or V/S. Engage the autopilot, for a more accurate approach and earlier recognition of deviation from the beam, when ILS is available.

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A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12.8.3 TCAS (Source: A320 FCOM, 3.2.34, QRH 1.15) Traffic advisory, TA (traffic) Attempt to see the traffic

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Corrective resolution advisory, RA (climb or descent or monitor vertical speed or maintain vertical speed, maintain or adjust vertical speed ): AP (if engaged) OFF BOTH FD OFF Adjust the vertical speed, as required, to that indicated on the green area of the vertical speed scale. Respect all GPWS or wind shear warnings Attempt to see the traffic Notify ATC When clear of conflict is announced, resume normal navigation in accordance with ATCclearance.

Note : Avoid excessive maneuvers, while keeping the vertical speed outside the red area of the VSI and within the green area. If necessary, use the full speed range between Vmax and Vmax. GO AROUND procedure must be performed when a RA "CLIMB" or "INCREASE CLIMB" is triggered on final approach. (Resolution Advisories (RA) are inhibited below 900 feet.)

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A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12.8.4 EGPWS (Source:A320 FCOM, 3.2.34, QRH 1.14)

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12.8.4.1 Hard warnings MWL and synthetic voice PULL UP or TERRAIN, TERRAIN PULL UP or TERRAIN AHEAD PULL UP or AVOID TERRAIN During night or in IMC apply the procedure immediately. Do not delay reaction for diagnosis. During daylight and VMC conditions, with terrain and obstacles clearly in sight, the alert may be considered cautionary. Take positive corrections.

Reaction: AP PITCH Pull up to full back stick and maintain. THRUST LEVERS SPEED BRAKE BANK OFF PULL UP TOGA CHECK RETRACTED WINGS LEVEL or ADJUST

When flight path is safe and EGPWS warning ceases, decrease pitch and accelerate. When speed is above VLS and V/S is positive, clean up aircraft as required.

12.8.4.2 Soft warnings MCL and synthetic voice TERRAIN TERRAIN or TERRAIN AHEAD or TOO LOW TERRAIN or SINK RATE or GLIDE SLOPE etc.) Take positive corrections.

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A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12.8.5 Loss of braking (Source: A320 FCOM, 3.2.32, QRH 1.13) If autobrake selected: BREAK PEDALS PRESS

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If no braking available: REV MAX

BRAKE PEDALS RELEASE Brake pedals should be released when the A/SKID & N/W STRG selector is switched OFF,since the pedal force or displacement produces more braking action in alternate mode than in normal mode. A/SKID & N/W STRG OFF Braking system reverts to alternate mode. BRAKE PEDALS PRESS Apply brake with care, since initial pedal force or displacement produces more braking action in alternate mode than in normal mode. MAX BRK PR 1000 PSI Monitor brake pressure or BRAKES PRESS indicator. Limit brake pressure to approximately 1000 psi and, at low ground speed, adjust brake pressure as required.

If still no braking : PARKING BRAKE USE Use short successive parking brake applications to stop the aircraft. Brake onset asymmetry may be felt at each parking brake application. If possible, delay the use of the parking brake until low speed, to reduce the risk of tire burst and lateral control difficulties.

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12.8.6 Emergency descent 12.8.6.1 Beginning of Emergency descent (Source: A320 FCOM, 3.02.80, QRH 1.25) Immediate Actions: OXY MASK ON Descend with autopilot engaged ALT selector knob turn and pull HDG selector knob turn and pull Target SPD/MACH adjust THR LEVERS (if A/THR not engaged) IDLE SPEED BRAKES FULL Extension of the speed brakes will significantly increase VLS. To avoid autopilot disconnection and automatic retraction of the speed brakes, due to possible activation of the angle of attack protection, allow the speed to increase before starting to use the speed brakes. 12.8.6.2 Points of considerations When the oxygen masks are on, establish communication When selecting an altitude, it should be above MORA/MOCA. A quick way to determine the MORA is to select CSTR and check the lower left of the ND for the value (remember that it is the Grid MORA). When selecting a new HDG ensure that it makes sense. For example, flights to and from LEPA from Germany pass over mountainous regions dont turn towards high terrain. Another example; TCAS may also be used to choose a HDG that doesnt pose a risk to other traffic. After the beginning actions executed by memory, refer to the QRH for further actions.

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A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12.8.7 Unreliable speed indication (Source: A320 FCOM, 3.2.34) 12.8.7.1 General Unreliable speed indication may be due to radome damage, or due to air probe failure or obstruction. The indicated altitude may also be affected, if static probes are affected. Unreliable speed cannot be detected by the ADIRU. The flight control and flight guidance computers normally reject erroneous speed/altitude source(s), provided a significant difference is detected. However, they will not be able to reject two erroneous speeds or altitudes that synchronously and similarly drift away. In this remote case, the aircraft systems will consider the remaining correct source as being faulty and will reject it. Consequently, the flight control and flight guidance computers will use the remaining two wrong ADRs for their computation. Therefore, in all cases of unreliable speed situation, the pilots must identify the faulty ADR(s) and then switch it (them) OFF. During this failure identification time, since the flight control laws may be affected, it is recommended to maneuver the aircraft with care until the ADR(s) is (are) switched OFF. Unreliable speed indications may be suspected, either by Speed discrepancies (between ADR 1, 2, 3, and standby instruments). Fluctuating or unexpected increase/decrease/permanent indicated speed, or pressure altitude. Abnormal correlation of the basic flight parameters (speed, pitch attitude, thrust, climb rate). Abnormal AP/FD/ATHR behavior. Stall warning, or overspend warnings, that contradicts with at least one of the indicated speeds. Rely on the stall warning that could be triggered in alternate or direct law. It is not affected by unreliable speeds, because it is based on angle of attack. Depending on the failure, the overspend warning may be false or justified. Buffet, associated with the overspend VFE warning, is a symptom of a real overspend condition. Inconsistency between radio altitude and pressure altitude. Reduction in aerodynamic noise with increasing speed, or increase in aerodynamic noise with decreasing speed. Impossibility of extending the landing gear by the normal landing gear control.

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How to apply the procedure If the wrong speed or altitude information does not affect the safe conduct of the flight, first apply the ADR CHECK procedure to identify the faulty ADR(s) and switch it (them) OFF. If necessary, enter the unreliable speed procedure, or severe turbulence table (if in cruise), to set the pitch and thrust corresponding to the current flight phase. Check the resulting speed indicated on the table with all the indicated speeds/altitudes (from ADR 1, 2, 3 and standby instruments) to positively identify the faulty ADR(s). If the safe conduct of the flight is affected (all the speed indications are unreliable, or the wrong speed indication cannot not be positively identified) Immediately apply the memory items : AP/FD/ATHR OFF, and fly the memory pitch thrust settings. Then, once stabilized, refer to the QRH in order to determine the pitch and thrust settings required by the current flight phase. Determine the faulty ADR(s) once the aircraft is stabilized, by comparing all of the indicated speeds/altitudes (from ADR 1, 2, 3 and standby instruments) with the expected
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speed, as per the table ; use ground speed and GPS speed/altitude variations for reasonableness considerations. In the extreme case where the faulty ADR(s) cannot be identified and all speed indications remain unreliable, apply the proper pitch-thrust settings for each flight phase until landing and refer to ground speed and GPS speed/altitude variations for assistance.

12.8.7.2 Beginning of Unreliable Speed Indication (Source: A320 FCOM, 3.2.34) AP / FD A/THR FLAPS SPEED BRAKES L/G OFF OFF MAINTAIN CURRENT CONFIG CHECK RETRACTED UP

Below thrust reduction altitude THRUST LEVER PITCH ATTITUDE TOGA 15

Above thrust reduction altitude Note: Respect the stall warning, if in alternate law. Ground speed variations can provide valuable short-term information at low altitude. The FPV is unreliable, if altitude information is affected. In other cases, it is a valuable aid in establishing a safe flight path. THRUST LEVER PITCH ATTITUDE below FL100 PITCH ATTITUDE above FL100 CLB 10 5

After the beginning actions executed by memory, refer to the QRH for further actions.

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A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12.8.8 Rejected T/O / Emergency Evacuation (Source: A320 FCOM, 3.02.10 & 3.02.80) 12.8.8.1 General The decision to reject the takeoff and the stop action is made by the captain. Therefore the captain should keep his hand on the thrust levers until V1 is reached whether he is PF or PNF. As soon as he decides to abort, he calls "stop", takes over, and performs the stop actions. It is impossible to list all the factors that could lead to the decision to abort the takeoff, but in order to help in the decision process, the ECAM inhibits the warnings that are not paramount from 80 knots to 1500 feet (or 2 minutes after lift-off, whichever occurs first). Rejected takeoffs have sometimes been hazardous even though the performance was correctly calculated, based on flight tests. This may be due to the following : Delay in initiating the stopping procedure Tires damaged Brakes worn or not working correctly, initial temperature higher than normal Brakes not fully applied Runway friction coefficient lower than expected Error in gross weight determination Runway line-up not considered.

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The aircraft is certificated according to FAR amendment 25-42, which allows 2 seconds between decision and action, thus improving the safety margin. Above 100 knots, rejecting the takeoff becomes a serious action that may lead to a hazardous situation. Therefore, as speed approaches V1, the pilot should be "go-minded" if none of the main failures cited below ("Above 100 knots and below V1") has occurred. 12.8.8.2 Decision management Below 100 knots : The decision to reject the takeoff may be taken at the captain's discretion, depending on the circumstances Although we cannot list all the causes, the captain should seriously consider discontinuing the takeoff, if any ECAM warning is activated. Note: The speed of 100 knots is not critical: It was chosen in order to help the captain make his decision, and to avoid unnecessary stops from high speed.

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A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Above 100 knots and below V1 : Rejecting the takeoff at these speeds is a more serious matter, particularly on slippery runways. It could lead to a hazardous situation, if the speed is approaching V1. Very few situations should lead to the decision to reject the takeoff. The main ones are: o o o Fire warning or severe damage. Sudden loss of engine thrust. Malfunctions or conditions that give unambiguous indications that the aircraft will not fly safely. ECAM warnings such as: ENG or APU FIRE ENG FAIL CONFIG. (MAIN WARNINGS ONLY) ENG OIL LO PR ENG REV UNLOCKED L + R ELEV FAULT

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Nose gear vibration should not lead to an RTO above 100 knots. In case of tire failure between V1 minus 20 knots and V1: Unless debris from the tires has caused serious engine anomalies, it is far better to get airborne, reduce the fuel load, and land with a full runway length available. The V1 call has precedence over any other call.

Above V1: Takeoff must be continued, because it may not be possible to stop the aircraft on the remaining runway.

12.8.8.3 Procedure during a rejected takeoff

12.8.8.3.1 Phase 1 CMD: stop CALL THRUST LEVERS MAX REVERSE Full reverse may be used until coming to a complete stop. But, if there is enough runway available at the end of the deceleration, it is preferable to reduce reverse thrust when passing 70 knots.

FO: BREAK RESPONSE REVERSE 70 kt ANY WARNING ATC ON GND EVAC C/L MONITOR CONFIRM CALL OUT CANCEL INFORM LOCATE
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Note: If the brake response does not seem appropriate for the runway condition, full manual braking should be applied and maintained. If in doubt, take over manually. Do not attempt to clear the runway, until it is absolutely clear that an evacuation is not necessary and that it is safe to do so. If the autobrake is unserviceable, the Captain simultaneously reduces thrust and applies maximum pressure on both pedals. The aircraft will stop in the minimum distance, only if the brake pedals are maintained fully pressed until the aircraft comes to a stop. If normal braking is inoperative, immediately switch the A/SKID & NOSE WHEEL switch OFF and modulate brake pressure, as required, at or below 1000 PSI. If the brake pedals were fully pressed when switching the A/SKID & NOSE WHEEL switch OFF, full pressure would be applied to the brakes. After a rejected takeoff, if the aircraft comes to a complete stop using autobrake MAX, release brakes prior to taxi by disarming spoilers.

12.8.8.3.2 Phase 2 CMD: FO: ECAM ACTIONS INITIATE PARKING BRAKE PA cabin crew at stations ECAM actions ON CALL CALL

12.8.8.3.3 Evacuation Phase If required, refer to the ON GROUND EMER/EVACUATION Checklist for evacuation. Inform ATC of intention and required assistance.

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Descent planning

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13 Descent planning
13.1 General The Airbus A320 is equipped with numerous electronic tools (FMS, EFIS) to aid the pilot in planning and executing a descent from cruising level all the way down to the landing. These tools have distinct advantages which include: Economic descent (fuel savings) FMS can be programmed to consider constraints MCDU, PFD and ND can be used to monitor vertical and lateral progress of descent. It is very accurate, indicating deviations to +- 10ft on the PERF Page on the MCDU. However, there are also disadvantages to consider: The FMS is most useful for long-term predictable paths. In dynamic and fast-paced ATC environments it is difficult to use the FMS for effective descent planning (e.g. radar vectors, visual approaches). By using the FMS, the flight-crew risks to become less situationally aware regarding the lateral and vertical position and energy of the aircraft in relation to the descent path independently from the FMS. During emergency or abnormal operations the FMS may not be available for the planning, execution and monitoring of the descent. Flight-crews lose awareness of factors that lead to the most economically viable descent (fuel savings).

Some practical examples that would require an approximate rapid calculation by the pilots independent of the FMS (no time available to program the FMS): You are at 9000ft AGL during the approach. ATC asks AB9748 how many track miles do you need for landing? You are being vectored downwind at an altitude of 6000ft AGL. ATC asks you AB7221 you have 25 Track Miles to land, is this sufficient? You are cruising 37000 feet, fire and smoke develops in the cabin. Can you fly directly for a straight in approach to an airport 30 miles ahead?

After working through this section you will appreciate what factors must be considered in finding a reasonable course of action for the above examples and actual situations during daily operations. Remember a controlled safe descent will provide you with the time to devote your attention to other matters. It is not uncommon for pilots to misjudge the descent ending up high and fast an uncomfortable situation that will require much attention and capacity to rectify. This topic will concern the pilots awareness of the aircrafts vertical and lateral position and energy in relation to the descent path using the FMS data as back-up rather than the primary source of information.

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Descent planning 13.2 Energy management 13.2.1 General

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A descent constitutes the management of the aircrafts energy. The total energy is always the sum of the potential energy (potential energy = altitude) and its kinetic energy (kinetic energy = speed).

E pot = mgh

Ekin =

1 mv 2 2

Epot: Ekin: m: g: h: v:
So the total energy of the Aircraft is

Potential energy Kinetic energy Mass of aircraft Acceleration due to gravity (g=9.81m/s2) Height of the aircraft above the field Speed of the aircraft

Etot = E pot + Ekin

The primary concern of the flight-crew during the descent is therefore to control the aircrafts descent path by managing the total energy so as to be at the desired speed at the required altitude if possible in an economic manner. 13.2.2 Energy circle displayed on the ND (Source: A320 FCOM 4.2.20 PERFORMANCE FUNCTION) In the ND a green dashed arc is presented if the lateral guidance mode is heading or track, and the current FMS flight phase is in cruise, descent or approach, and the aircraft is within 180 NM of the destination. The energy circle is centered on the aircraft position and oriented to the current track line. It represents the required distance to land by comparing the actual total energy of the aircraft and the required total energy at the destination airport. (The total energy at destination is zero)

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Descent planning 13.2.3 Factors affecting the descent path of the aircraft

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The primary factors affecting the descent path of an aircraft can be subdivided into two main groups:

Factors that can be influenced by the Pilot o Configuration Deploying devices such as spoilers, flaps, slats and gear will increase the drag of the aircraft and thus increase the descent gradient. o Thrust The lower thrust setting will translate into a steeper descent path. Consumers such as anti-Ice increase the idle thrust parameters and can also have an influence on the descent path. o Speed The descent speed (IAS) can have a significant effect on the descent path. Since the total drag increases exponentially with speed, the steepest descent path can be attained flying at the highest possible speeds. Factors that cannot be influenced by the Pilot o Mass A higher mass constitutes higher inertia. The consequence is that the aircraft has a higher total energy and it takes more effort to change vectors such as speed. o Wind The wind has an influence on the air distance the aircraft has available to reduce the altitude. An increase in headwind increases air distance in which the altitude can be defeated. On the other hand a tailwind will reduce the air distance available to land.

Reading the above, it can be seen that the steepest descent path is achieved when the pilot flies with spoilers, flaps, slats, gear extended, at idle thrust, consumers such as engine anti-ice off, with maximum IAS and if he is lucky enough to be flying into a head-wind with a comparatively light aircraft..it can drop like rock. 13.3 The economical descent 13.3.1 General As seen above, the Pilot has various tools at his disposal to increase the drag of the aircraft. Considering that the thrust should be reduced to idle at the top of descent to save fuel, the pilot has two strategies for approach:

As a first option (1 in the figure below), he can maintain the speed as dictated by the entered Cost Index (Econ Speed) and commence the descent at the relevant point. Per definition, this speed is the most cost-effective for the given flight. The descent path is not as steep as the second option and so the descent must begin earlier. As a second option (2 in figure below), he can choose to continue at the cruising altitude as long as possible in order to have low fuel consumption at high altitude. At the appropriate point, he can initiate a descent at the highest possible speed and drag so as to complete the descent in the shortest possible time.

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1 Econ speed

2 Max speed

The most economic descent is option 1. Whereas option 2 allows the engines to operate at the cruising level for longer and has a shorter descent phase, the consumed fuel from A to B defeats the economic purpose of the descent. In addition the time gain of option 2 is practically insignificant. Consequently, the most fuel efficient descent for the applicable flight is the one that is conducted at the ECON SPEED at idle thrust in clean configuration.

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Descent planning 13.3.2 Planning for an economical descent

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As far as fuel efficiency is concerned, anytime a high drag device is deployed it means that lift energy is being destroyed lift that was provided by engine thrust (and fuel!) at some point. Therefore the most cost-effective descent is attained when flying at the company specified Cost Index speed without the aid of devices such as spoilers. The aerodynamics of most commercial aircraft such as the A320, have a lift/drag curve in clean configuration that lends itself well to a conduct of a 3 descent gradient. The pilot can always check what the aircraft altitude should be is in relation to this gradient with the following formula: Note: For simplification use FL equivalents for altitude and elevation e.g. aircraft altitude 100000ft = approx FL100, airport elevation 2000ft = approx. FL 20.
Aacft ,req = 3 tm + Aairport

Consequently:
tmreq = Aacft Aairport 3

Aacft, req: Aacft: Aairport: tm: tmreq:

Required aircraft Altitude Aircraft Altitude Airport elevation Track miles Required track miles

[FL] [FL] [FL] [Nm] [Nm]

13.3.2.1 Example 1 During a descent you are at 11000ft AMSL and are descending to a runway 35 NM away that is at 2000ft AMSL. Are you on the 3 descent path (do not consider effects of wind in this example)? Required aircraft altitude:

Aacft ,req = 3 35 + 20 = FL125

The required aircraft altitude is FL125 or approximately 12500ft AMSL In the above example you are 1500ft below the 3 descent path and so are in a comfortable position to continue the descent. (1500ft at this distance is a reasonable deviation you will get a feel for this tolerance during practical flying).

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13.3.2.2 Example 2 You see that you are 90 NM from the airport at which you intend to land and are still cruising at FL350. The airport is at 2000ft. a. When should you start your descent (do not consider effects of wind in this example)? b. Are you too high? If so by how much? Answer: a. Required track miles: b. Required aircraft altitude: tmreq = (Aacft - Aaiport) ) / 3 = (350 20) / 3 = 110 track miles
Aacft ,req = 3 90 + 20 = FL290

So you should start your descent immediately since you are 6000ft too high! 13.3.3 A word about track miles The key to successful descent planning is that the pilot is aware of the distance which the aircraft has left to fly over ground. In order to do this, this ND is an ideal tool since the distance markings give a good view in which to visualize the possible ground distance. When calculating the track miles, be cautious about simply reading the distance on the MCDU F-PLN page. It may contain additional miles such as procedure turns that you will end up not flying considerably reducing your actual track miles.

13.3.4 Remaining on the 3 descent path As discussed earlier, the wind has a distinct effect on how many air miles the aircraft has available for completing the descent. If flying into an increasing headwind the aircraft has more air distance available to complete the descent the pilot would have to reduce the vertical speed to remain on the descent path. However if the aircraft would fly into an increasing tailwind, the air distance available would decrease and the rate of descent would have to be increased to remain on the descent path. Because the method by which the pilot monitors the descent rate is primarily the vertical speed indicator it would be helpful if there was a simple way to calculate the required vertical speed to maintain a 3 descent gradient. Fortunately, there is a simple formula:
VSreq = 5 GS

VSreq: GS:

Required vertical speed Ground speed

[ft/min] [kt]

This formula already takes into account any existing tail or headwind component. However, the Ground speed (as seen on the ND on the A320) must be monitored and the V/S adjusted since the wind can vary significantly at various altitudes.
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13.3.4.1 Example

If you see on your ND that your GS is 300 Knots and you are on the 3 descent gradient, what would be your required vertical speed? Required vertical speed.
VSreq = 5 GS = 5 300 = 1500 ft min

13.3.5 Strategies for intercepting the 3 descent path from above and below Because the environment in which we fly is so dynamic, it often occurs that we find ourselves above the desired descent gradient or even below. In this case we must act accordingly and intercept the desired gradient using several tools at our disposal. 13.3.5.1 Intercepting from above When above the glide-slope, the pilot can convert the excess altitude (potential energy), to speed (kinetic energy). For example, when in OP DES mode (engines at idle thrust) a selection of a higher IAS would result in an increase in airspeed and therefore an increase is descent rate. Once established on the descent path, the speed can be reduced to attain a descent rate that is appropriate for the descent path. Devices such as spoilers are especially useful for increasing descent rate when the speed increase is no longer desired (e.g. ATC) or possible (e.g. maximum speed for configuration already attained). In this case high-drag devices allow an increase in descent rate without an increase in airspeed. Using this notion, the pilot has great flexibility in applying them. For example, there are cases when further descent is restricted by ATC but the aircraft is already significantly above the desired 3 descent gradient. o If the pilot chooses to continue at this speed, he may have to resort to the spoilers later to defeat the excess altitude. As a result, the fuel spent cruising at the original speed will have been wasted. o If the pilot reduces the speed at this stage, he will later be able to lose the excess altitude effectively by increasing the speed in OP DES mode. By reducing the speed, the pilot reduces the thrust and fuel flow and may be able to attain the descent path without unnecessary additional drag such as spoilers.

13.3.5.2 Intercepting from below Intercepting the descent-path from below allows the pilot fewer strategies. However, the same basic energy management principles apply: Excess speed can be traded for altitude. Obviously the deployments of any high-drag devices are undesired during this stage. If the speed energy required is insufficient to regain the desired descent path, the only option left to the pilot is to add thrust.

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As you have read, great emphasis was put above on the economics of the descent. In todays industry, fuel cost is a major factor in determining the future of any company. Although safety remains the top priority economic flying is becoming ever more important. As Airberlin has a considerable fleet size, even minor fuel savings per aircraft can add up to vast sums for the entire fleet over the course of a year. So remember, the descent must be safe and economic!

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14 Minimum Equipment List (MEL)


(Source: A320 Airberlin MEL)
14.1 Objectives

An airplane is being type certificated with all required equipments in operating conditions. If deviations from this type certificated configuration and equipment required by the operating rules were not permitted, the aircraft could not be flown in revenue service unless such equipment was operable. Experience has proven that the operation of every system or component installed on the aircraft is not necessary, in specific conditions and during limited period, when the remaining instruments and equipment provide an acceptable level of safety. Therefore, certain conditional deviations from the original requirement are authorized to permit continued or uninterrupted operation of the aircraft in revenue flight: they are published in the MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST (MEL) related to applicable regulations, specific operations or airlines particular definitions.

14.2 General application of the MEL

MEL provisions are applicable until the airplane commences the flight and therefore have to be considered during taxiing prior take off.

MEL conditions and limitations do not relieve the pilot in command from determining that the aircraft is in a fit condition for safe operation with MEL specified unserviceabilities. His decision to have allowable inoperative items corrected prior flight will have priority over the provisions contained in the MEL. For the sake of brevity, the MEL does not include obviously required items such as wings, control surfaces, engines, landing gear, etc or items which do not affect the air worthiness of the aircraft such as galley equipment, entertainment systems, passenger convenience items, etc
All items which are related to the airworthiness of the aircraft and not included in the list are automatically required to be operative for each flight.

For dispatch with secondary airframe or engine parts missing refer to Configuration Deviation List (CDL). The failure of instruments or items of equipment in excess of those allowed to be inoperative by the MEL causes the aircraft to be unairworthy. The MEL makes no distinction between what is required for the flight between origin and destination (including the intermediate stops) and what is required for a flight beyond the scheduled arrival point. The MEL is intended to permit operation with inoperative items of equipment for a period of time until rectifications can be accomplished. It is important that rectifications be accomplished at the earliest opportunity. In order to maintain an acceptable level of safety and reliability the MEL establishes limitations on the duration of and conditions for operation with inoperative equipment.

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Air carriers are responsible for exercising the necessary operational control to assure that no aircraft is dispatched or flown with one or more MEL item inoperative for an indefinite period and without first determining that any interface or interrelationship between inoperative systems or components will not result in a degradation in the level of safety and/or an undue increase in crew workload. The exposure to additional failures during operation with failed inoperative systems or components must also be considered to determine that an acceptable level of safety is being maintained. This MEL may not deviate from requirements of the flight manual limitations section, emergency procedures, or airworthiness directives, unless the flight manual or airworthiness directive provides otherwise.

14.2.1 Handling of maintenance messages displayed on ECAM status page At the head of each ATA chapter of this MEL, the related MAINTENANCE messages which may be displayed on ECAM STATUS page are listed with the indication of the associated dispatch status. A MAINTENANCE message indicates the presence of a category of failure which can only be identified by the interrogation of CFDS. Dispatch with a MAINTENANCE message displayed on ECAM STATUS page is allowed without specific conditions except for the following message: AIR BLEED: Refer to MEL 360001

14.2.2 CAT2, CAT3 SINGLE, CAT3 DUAL automatic approach and landing Equipment to be operative to get CAT2, CAT3 SINGLE, or CAT3 DUAL capability displayed on FMA are listed in QRH and in the Flight Manual 4.03.00 page 8. The MEL does not include these requirements, refer to QRH, FM and FCOM.

14.2.3 Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) Minimum equipment/functions required to begin RVSM operations are listed in Flight Manual 4.03.00 and FCOM 2.04.50. The MEL does not include these requirements, refer to Flight Manual and FCOM.

14.2.4 Required Navigation Performance (RNP) Minimum equipment/functions required to begin RNP operations are listed in FM 4.03.00 and FCOM 2.04.51. The MEL does not include these requirements, refer to Flight Manual and FCOM.

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14.3 Structure of the MEL

The content of the MEL is divided into four parts: 14.3.1 Section 00 General Section 00 contains general information about the manual. 14.3.2 Section 00E Section 00E contains ECAM warnings/MEL entry. 14.3.3 Section 01 MEL The Minimum Equipment List contains the LBA approved list of equipment which may be inoperative for aircraft dispatch and/or clearly specified NO GO items if necessary When a MEL item requests a flight crew action, a so called operational procedure (labelled by an (o) ) a procedure,,,, is described in section 02 Operational Procedures When a MEL item calls for a maintenance procedure, this is labelled by an (m). The relevant procedure can be found in the AM (Aircraft Maintenance Manual) and has to be carried out by a certified mechanic.

14.3.4 Section 02 Operational Procedure Section 02 contains operational procedures.

14.4 Presentation of the MEL

For a detailed description of the presentation of the MEL refer to MEL 01- 00 Page 1-5

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15 RNAV
15.1 General

(Source: Air Berlin OM-A, 8.3.2.2 ) Area Navigation (RNAV) is a method of navigation, which permits aircraft operation on any desired flight path within the limits of the capability of self-contained aids or a combination of these. The Required Navigation Performance (RNP, see chapter 15.3, page101) is a parameter describing lateral deviations from an assigned or selected track as well as along track position fixing accuracy on the basis of an appropriate containment level. RNP 5 (Basic RNAV) RNP 1 (Precision RNAV)

15.2 Dispatch requirements

(Source: Air Berlin OM-A, 8.3.2.2.2) The appropriate FMS/RNAV - transitions to final approach (clearance limit to intermediate fix) are an integral part of the standard arrival procedures and should not be filed separately in the ATC FPL. The indication for air traffic control is the appropriate equipment code, which has to be incorporated in field 10 of the ATC flight plan. The equipment code for the A320 is E (double FMS, double EFIS, triple IRS) Note: The filing on ATC-FPL is mandatory for use of FMS/RNAV - STARs

15.3 Required Navigation Performance (RNP)

(Source: A320 FCOM 2.04.10) (Source: A320 FCOM 2.4.51 P-RNAV FOR EUROPEAN TERMINAL PROCEDURES) 15.3.1 General When referring to RNP-X, the value X is the navigation accuracy expressed in NM which has to be met with a probability of 95%. According Jeppesen air traffic control 7.1.8 the required RNP is as follows: en-route navigation: terminal navigation: approach: RNP-5 RNP-1 RNP-0.3

15.3.2 Without GPS PRIMARY RNP requirements are met, provided the radio navaid coverage supports it for: RNP- 1 en route and in terminal area provided a required accuracy of 1.2Nm is manually entered in MCDU PROG page RNP- 0.3 in approach provided a required accuracy of 0.36Nm is manually entered in MCDU PROG page

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15.3.3 With GPS PRIMARY RNP requirements are met, provided GPS PRIMARY is available, for: RNP- 1 en route RNP- 0.5 in terminal area provided AP or FD in NAV mode is used RNP- 0.3 in approach provided AP or FD in NAV mode is used

15.4 B-RNAV in European airspace

(Source: A320 FCOM 2.4.51 BRNAV IN EUROPEAN AIRSPACE) 15.4.1 General In this airspace, radio navaid coverage is assumed to support RNP-5 accuracy. The minimum required equipment to enter B-RNAV airspace is: One RNAV system, which means: One FMGC One MCDU One VOR for FM navigation update One DME for FM navigation update One IRS Flight Plan Data on two NDs.

15.4.2 Procedures When GPS PRIMARY is not available, periodically crosscheck the FM position with navaid raw data. Manual selection of a required accuracy on the MCDU is optional. If manual entry of a required accuracy is desired, enter 5NM or use the radial equivalent to 5NM XTK accuracy, which is 6.1NM. When leaving RNP-5 airspace, or when entering the terminal area, revert to the default required accuracy, or enter the appropriate value on the MCDU. If one of the following MCDU or ECAM messages is displayed, check navigation accuracy with the navaid raw data, or with the GPS MONITOR page (if GPS installed):
o o o o

NAV ACCUR DOWNGRAD FMS1/FMS2 POS DIFF CHECK IRS 1(2)(3)/FM POSITION ECAM : FM/GPS POS DISAGREE (if GPS installed)

If the accuracy check confirms that RNP-5 capability is lost, or if both FMGCs have failed: Inform the ATC, and revert to conventional navigation. If the accuracy check confirms that only one FMGC position is incorrect, resume navigation with the other FMGC. In inertial navigation, B-RNAV capability is maintained for 2 hours, independently of the estimated accuracy displayed on the MCDU.

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(Source: A320 FCOM 2.4.51 P-RNAV FOR EUROPEAN TERMINAL PROCEDURES) 15.5.1 General For terminal procedures requiring P-RNAV capability within European airspace, radio navaid coverage can be assumed to support RNP-1 accuracy. The minimum required equipment to fly a P-RNAV procedure is: One RNAV system, which means : One FMGC One MCDU One VOR or GPS receiver for FM navigation update One DME or GPS receiver for FM navigation update One IRS One FD Flight Plan data for two NDs.

For terminal procedures with legs below the MSA, or without appropriate radar coverage, two RNAV systems may be mandated by the procedure chart. 15.5.2 Procedures When GPS PRIMARY is not available, crosscheck the FM position with the navaid raw data, prior to starting the procedure. The terminal procedure (RNAV SID, RNAV STAR, RNAV TRANSITION, ...) must be loaded from the FM navigation database, and checked for reasonableness by comparing the F-PLN page waypoint sequencing, tracks, distances and altitude constraints with the procedure chart. The procedure, as loaded from the navigation database should not be modified, unless instructed to do so by the ATC (DIR TO.., HDG to intercept the F-PLN, insertion of waypoints loaded from the navigation database). If GPS PRIMARY is not available, check or enter RNP-1 in the MCDU and check HIGH accuracy. When leaving the terminal procedures, revert to the default, or enter the appropriate value on the MCDU. If one of the following messages is displayed, check navigation accuracy with navaid raw data or the GPS monitor page (if GPS is installed) :
o o o o o

NAV ACCUR DOWNGRAD FMS1/FMS2 POS DIFF CHECK IRS 1(2)(3)/FM POSITION ECAM : FM/GPS DISAGREE (if GPS installed) ECAM : FM/IR POS DISAGREE

If the accuracy check confirms that RNP-1 is lost, or if both FMGCs are failed: Inform the ATC and revert to conventional navigation. If the accuracy check confirms that only one FMGC position is incorrect, resume navigation with the other system.

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15.6 Position Computation

(Source: A320 FCOM 1.22.20, Navigation) Each FMGC computes its own aircraft position (called the "FM position") from a MIX IRS position and a computed radio position or GPS position. The FMGS selects the most accurate position, considering the estimated accuracy and integrity of each positioning equipment. GPS/INERTIAL is the basic navigation mode provided GPS data is valid and successfully tested. Otherwise, navaids plus inertial or inertial only are used. (Refer to Navigation modes). 15.6.1 Mix IRS Position Each FMGC receives a position from each of the three IRSs, and computes a mean-weighted average called the "MIX IRS" position. If one of the IRSs drifts abnormally, the MIX IRS position uses an algorithm that decreases the influence of the drifting IRS within the MIX IRS position. If one of the IRSs fails, each FMGC uses only one IRS (onside IRS or IRS3). Each IRS position and inertial speed are continuously tested. If the test fails, the corresponding IRS is rejected. When the CHECK IRS (1, 2 or 3)/FM POSITION message appears on the MCDU, refer to FCOM 4.03. 15.6.2 GPS Position Each IRS computes a hybrid position that is a mixed IRS/GPS position called GPIRS. For this, each IRS can independently select their GPS source in order to maximize GPS data availability. Among these 3 GPIRS positions received by each FMGC, one is selected according to a figure of merit and priority. The selection is performed using the following hierarchy : Onside GPIRS position GPIRS 3 Opposite GPIRS position

If the GPIRS data does not comply with an integrity criteria, the GPS mode is rejected, and radio position updating is used, the "GPS PRIMARY LOST" message is displayed on the ND and on the MCDU scratchpad. During non ILS approach, the loss of the GPS primary function triggers a triple click aural warning. When the GPS primary function is recovered, the "GPS PRIMARY" message comes up on the ND and on the MCDU scratchpad. It means that GPIRS data again complies with the required integrity criteria.
As long as GPS primary is in use, all usual navigation performance requirements are met.

The crew can deselect/select the GPS on the SELECTED NAVAIDS page, if necessary.

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15.6.3 Radio Position Each FMGC uses onside navaids to compute its own radio position. These navaids are displayed on the SELECTED NAVAIDS page. The available navaids are : DME/DME VOR/DME LOC DME/DME-LOC VOR/DME-LOC

It uses LOC to update the lateral position, using LOC beam during ILS approach. LOC is also used for quick update, when in GPS/IRS mode. If one or more navaids fail, each FMGC can use offside navaids to compute the VOR/DME, or the DME/DME radio position. The radio navaid selection is displayed on the DATA "SELECTED NAVAIDS" page. 15.6.4 FM Position At flight initialization, each FMGC displays an FM position that is a mixed IRS/GPS position (GPIRS). At takeoff, the FM position is updated to the runway threshold position, as stored in the database, possibly corrected by the takeoff shift entered on the PERF TO page. In flight, the FM position approaches the radio position, or the GPS position, at a rate that depends upon the aircraft altitude.
Note : The FM position update at takeoff is inhibited when GPS PRIMARY is active.

The FMGS updates the FM position using GPS or radio navaids if the GPS function in inoperative. It can use 4 main different FM navigation modes to make this update. The decreasing priority order is: IRS-GPS IRS-DME/DME IRS-VOR/DME IRS only

During ILS approaches the system performs, a lateral temporary updating using one of the following modes : IRS-GPS/LOC IRS-DME/DME-LOC IRS-VOR/DME-LOC IRS-LOC

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15.6.5 Evaluation of position accuracy (Source: A320 FCOM 1.22.20, Navigation) The FMGS computes an Estimated Position Error (EPE) continually. It is an estimate of how much the FM position has drifted, and is a function of the navigation mode the system is using. CURRENT NAV MODE IRS/GPS EPE (RATE or THRESHOLD) (FOM + 100)^0.5 in meters REMARK FOM = Figure of Merit of GPS If above 0.28 NM the GPS position is rejected. EPE decreases from initial value to 0.28 Nm. EPE increases or decreases as the distance between the a/c and the VOR/DME. EPE increases continuously

IRS/DME/DME

Tends towards 0.28 NM 0.1 NM + 0.05 X DME DIST minimum : 0.28 NM + 8 NM/h for the first 21 min. + 2 NM/h after

IRS/VOR/DME

IRS ONLY

Note: After an IRS alignment or at takeoff the EPE is set at 0.2 NM. The system displays the EPE to the crew, and compares it with the required navigation performance (RNP). If the EPE does not exceed the appropriate criteria, accuracy is HIGH. If the EPE exceeds the appropriate criteria, accuracy is LOW. The number displayed in the Required Navigation Performance (RNP) field is (in decreasing order of priority): The pilot-entered value the database procedure value The system's default value.

When a pilot enters a RNP that is larger than the published value, one of the following messages is displayed: "PROCEDURE RNP is XX.XX", or "AREA RNP IS XX.XX". When this occurs, the crew should check the entered value, and modify it, if necessary. The RNP value shall be in accordance with the specified RNP values of the navigation/approach charts (if a RNP is specified). This message is also displayed upon a flight area change, if the new required criteria (default value) are smaller than the displayed manually-entered value. Default area RNP values: en route: terminal: approach o GPS: o other cases: 2.0 NM 1.0 NM 0.3 NM 0.5 NM

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When the position computation uses IRS/GPS mode, the EPE is always smaller than any airworthiness required value. As a result, accuracy is HIGH and GPS is the primary mean of navigation. "GPS PRIMARY" is displayed on the PROG page, and temporarily on the ND. When the GPS function is lost, a "GPS PRIMARY LOST" message is displayed on the ND and MCDU scratchpads. The MCDU message can be cleared but the ND message cannot. During a non ILS approach, a triple click aural warning is also triggered. When the GPS is lost, NAV accuracy does not immediately downgrade, but only when the EPE exceeds the required criteria. Caution: "HIGH" or "LOW" indicates FM position accuracy, based upon estimated drift. This is why the flight crew must periodically check position accuracy, when the GPS function is lost. When the GPS is manually deselected, the "GPS IS DESELECTED" message is displayed on the MCDU, 80 NM before T/D or at approach phase transition. GPS/FMS POSITION DISAGREEMENT: When GPS primary is active, and either of the FMGC positions deviates from the GPS positions 1 or 2 by more than 0.5 minutes of latitude or longitude, then the lower ECAM display unit displays the NAV FMS/GPS POS DISAGREE amber message and A/C POS... CHECK in blue. The master caution light comes on, and the single chime sounds.

15.7 RNAV approaches with vertical guidance

(Source: A320 FCOM, 3.3.19 & OEB 826/1 ) 15.7.1 Coding requirements A number of FMGC coding guidance requirements have been identified, and must be considered, when performing navigation database validation for the use of managed guidance in approach. As an example, the following drawings show the coding of an VOR DME IAP (with the MAP before the runway), and the associated MCDU display.

FACF = Final Approach Course Fix MAP = Missed Approach Point FAF = Final Approach Fix

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The final approach consists of a sequence of at least two waypoints. However, it more often consists of 3, or 4, waypoints. In the above example, the 3 waypoints are the FACF, the FAF, and the MAP. Sometimes, the MAP is located at, or after the runway threshold. It is important for the crew to identify the MAP position. Sometimes, a Step Down Fix (SDF) is added an the approach final descent between the FAF and the MAP The SDF is not necessarily identical to the waypoints published an the approach chart. The identification of the waypoints shown an the MCDU often differs from the identification shown on the approach chart.

15.7.1.1 The lateral F-PLN coding requirements The FACF and the FAF must be aligned with the approach course. lf the FACF and the FAF are collocated, the course change at the FAF should be small. A sharp turn would prevent the aircraft from overflying the FAF, and the final descent would start before the FAF, without the aircraft being established an the final approach course.

15.7.1.2 The vertical F-PLN coding requirements An altitude constraint must be coded at each approach waypoint. Any waypoint of the approach should not be common to a STAR or a VIA waypoint with different altitude constraints. Combining altitude constraint may lead to erroneous vertical flight path guidance. An AT or ABOVE constraint can be used for an SDF. When the MAP is located at, or before, the runway threshold, an FPA (# 0) must be coded at the MAP, or at the runway threshold (RW). This FPA will appear an the MCDU, between the MAP and the FAF, or any previous SDF in the final approach. When the MAP is located after the runway threshold, an FPA = 0 must be coded at the MAP

For these "old style IAP", with the MAP after the runway threshold, and depending an the position of the approach axis relative to the runway, FMGC guidance may start the final approach descent slightly before the FAF. In most cases, the crossing altitude difference at the FAF is not significant (less than 50 feet). But sometimes this difference may be higher. The MAP of an RNAV IAP must be located at the runway threshold.

15.7.2 Flight crew Procedures The SOP (FCOM 3.03.19) for Non Precision and RNAV approaches are applicable. The following recommendations are provided to highlight specific vertical navigation aspects when FINAL APP mode is used.

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15.7.2.1 Approach F-PLN verification Before starting the approach, the crew must check the FMS F-PLN (on the MCDU, and on the ND in PLAN mode with the CSTR displayed), starting from the beginning of the STAR down to the runway and the missed approach procedure, and verify the profile against the published IAP chart. For the final approach procedure the crew should check the following: Approach course Waypoints and associated altitude constraints IAP must not include a Procedure Turn (PROC T indicated an the MCDU) Distance from the FAF to RW, or FAF to MAP Approach angle (shown an the MCDU line above the related waypoints) If MAP, after the runway threshold : FPA = 0 at MAP If MAP before or at runway threshold : FPA # 0 at MAP For each Step Down Fix, an FPA # 0 must be defined MAP of an RNAV IAP must be located at the runway threshold. Note : The MAP of a GPS IAP can be located before the runway threshold. Altitude at the MAP or at the runway threshold: lf the crossing altitude at MAP is not shown on the approach chart, crosscheck consistency with the distance to the runway and the approach angle. GPS 1+2 on GPS MONITOR page CHECK BOTH IN NAV GPS PRIMARY on PROG page CHECK AVAILABLE

If GPS PRIMARY is not available RNP for approach CHECK/ENTER HIGH accuracy CHECK

15.7.2.2 Limitations to approach F-PLN modifications

When performing an IAP, using NAV and FINAL APP modes, the active F-PLN, extracted from the navigation database can be modified provided the following limitations are observed : 1. F-PLN modifications :
No lateral modification of the F-PLN from FACF (inclusive) to RW or to MAP. A modification is permitted before FACF, provided the resulting change in the flight path course is not so large that it prevents the aircraft from being laterally-stabilized on the final approach course before reaching the FAF. No altitude constraint modification from FACF to MAP Even in case of a very low OAT, no altitude correction can be entered in this way. This may require that a minimum OAT be defined, so that the vertical flight path will clear obstacles with the required margin. This minimum OAT should be given to the crew when appropriate. In the future, for RNAV approaches the minimum OAT will be published an the approach chart itself.
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When the FAF is the TO waypoint, the FROM waypoint must not be cleared in an attempt to perform a DIR TO/INTERCEPT. To benefit from managed speed, and have a correct location of the DECEL point, it is recommended to enter Vapp as a SPD CSTR at FAF.

2. DIR TO... DIR TO FACF is permitted, provided the resulting change in flight path course at FACF is not so large that it prevents the aircraft from being laterally-stabilized on the final approach course before reaching the FAF. DIR TO FAF is permitted, provided the resulting change in flight path course at FAF is small. For aircraft with FMS2 : DIR TO/INTERCEPT TO FAF is permitted, provided the RADIAL IN corresponding to the final approach course (approach course + 180) is selected, and that the interception angle is not so large that it prevents the aircraft from being laterallystabilized on the final approach course at the FAF.

15.7.2.3 Lateral F-PLN interception in HDG/TRK :

F-PLN must be intercepted before the FACF, and the interception angle should not be so large that it prevents the aircraft from being laterally-stabilized an the final approach course before reaching the FAF, or Before FAF, at the latest, provided the interception angle is small.

Once cleared for the approach, press the pushbutton when flying towards the FAF or the FACF. Check that APPR NAV is engaged, FINAL is armed, and the VDEV scale is on the PFD. Check correct TO waypoint on the ND. Monitor VDEV and FPV (on the PFD) and XTK error (on the ND).

Use altitude indication versus distance to the runway to monitor the vertical navigation. If the vertical guidance is unsatisfactory, revert to NAV/FPA or consider the go-around. If the lateral guidance is unsatisfactory, perform a go-around.

Note : In managed guidance (FINAL APP mode engaged), when the aircraft reaches MDA (MDH) - 50 or 400 feet (if no MDA/MDH entered), the autopilot automatically disengages.

CAUTION

Before arming NAV, check that the correct "TO" waypoint is displayed an the ND. The intercept path in HDG/TRK must not cause premature sequencing of the FAF. The FAF should be sequenced in NAV mode, when established an the final approach course.

15.7.2.4 Vertical F-PLN interception : The crew should manage the descent, so that the vertical F-PLN is intercepted before the FAF, at the latest.

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15.7.3 Approach monitoring For RNAV IAP, vertical navigation can be monitored by using the distance to the RW, or to the MAP displayed an the ND, and the altimeter reading. After passing the FAF, when stabilized an the final descent, the crew should check that the X-TRK and V-DEV are correct, and that the FPV is consistent with the approach angle. Generally the following applies:
XTE: EPE: RNP:

XTE + EPE RNP

X-TRK Error (displayed on the ND) Estimated Position Error (displayed on the PROG Page) Required Navigation Performance for Aprroach (normally 0.3NM)

If the sum of the X-TRK Error and the EPE is greater than the RNP perform a go around!

When APPR is selected an the FCU, the crew must verify the Correct FMA display (APP NAV green, FINAL blue) Correct TO waypoint on the ND Blue descent arrow at FAF and the correct F-PLN Correct Vertical Flight Path deviation indication

When passing the FAF, the crew must verify Correct altitude indication Correct FMA display (FINAL APP green) Correct TO waypoint an the ND Correct blue track an the ND, armed for Missed Approach That the aircraft starts the descent and follows the correct lateral and vertical flight path.

The IAP must be discontinued, when one of the following warnings occurs GPS PRIMARY LOST, if GPS accuracy is required, NAV ACCUR DOWNGRAD, during an RNAV approach, FM/GPS POS DISAGREE, if GPS is installed and is not deselected, and if no navaid raw data is available to revert to selected modes. FM1/FM2 POS DIFF, unless navaid raw data is available to revert to selected modes.

15.8 Non Precision Approaches with engine-out

(Source: A320 FCOM, 3.1.22, General) If one engine is inoperative, it is not permitted to use the autopilot to perform NPAs in the following modes: FINAL APP NAV V/S
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NAV/FPA.

Only FD use is permitted.

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16 RVSM
16.1 General

(Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8.3.2.5 page 30, RVSM Implementation) The implementation of a reduced vertical separation minimum represents a major capacity enhancing objective of European Air Traffic Harmonisation and Integration Programme (EATCHIP) work programme. Effectively, the introduction of RVSM will permit the application of a 1000 ft vertical separation minimum (VSM) between suitable equipped aircraft in the level band FL 290 FL 410 inclusive, thereby making available six additional usable flight levels. The purpose of these six additional flight levels is to reduce controller workload and to provide the airspace user community with an improved operating environment and to optimise flight profiles. The European Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) reduces the separation minimum between FL290 and FL410 to 1000 ft between suitable equipped aircraft.
16.2 General procedures

(Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8.3.2.5, page 34, RVSM Implementation, procedures) Any deviation, regarding the RVSM status of the aircraft, before, during or after a flight shall be notified by an entry into the WO with reference to the RVSM status of the aircraft [e.g. aircraft nonRVSM compliant) and notify as HlL item. RVSM compliance is the normal aircraft status, therefore will not be documented. Additionally MOC and Traffic Centre TXL have to be informed as soon as possible by using any means of communication available. A copy of the WO shall be faxed to MOC and Traffic Centre TXL, whenever possible. Change of RVSM aircraft status shall be reported to Traffic Centre TXL immediately.

16.3 Pre-flight procedures

(Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8.3.2.5. page 34, RVSM Implementation, procedures) (Source: A320 FCOM, 3.4.34, flight instrument tolerances) (Source: A320 FCOM, 2.4.50, procedures) The flight crew shall verify: The condition of the equipment required (refers to chapter 0, page 114) for RVSM operations and that maintenance actions have been taken to correct defects. Review of maintenance logs and forms to determine the condition of equipment required for flight in RVSM airspace. Ensure that maintenance actions have been taken to correct any defects of required equipment. Check, that there is not any damage in the pitot-static probes and adjacent area The altimeter accuracy by setting the QNH or the QFE. The reading should then agree with the altitude of the apron or the zero height indication within a 75 ft (23m) tolerance. Check, on ground, that the two primary altitude indications are within tolerances (FCOM 3.04.34, see also chapter 16.6, page 115) (max difference between ADR1/ADR2, ADR1/ADR3 respectively ADR2/ADR3 is 20ft). Check letter W in field 10 of ATC flight plan. Check reported and forecasted weather on the flight route.
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(Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8.3.2.5, page 34, RVSM Implementation, procedures) (Source: A320 FCOM, 3.4.34, flight instrument tolerances) (Source: A320 FCOM, 2.4.50, procedures)

All the required equipment shall be monitored and checked to ensure satisfactory operation before (transition airspace/ transition altitude) and within RVSM airspace. In RVSM airspace and transition areas restrict the rate of climb/descend during step climb/descent to 1000ft/min when operating 2000ft of other aircraft to minimize the generation of TCAS TAs and RAs. The aircraft should not overshoot or undershoot the cleared flight level by more than 150 ft The automatic altitude control system shall be engaged during level cruise by reference to one of the two altimeters. The altitude capture feature shall be used whenever possible for the level off. Always select new altitude first on the altitude-select-panel before starting climb or descend. The autopilot should be engaged within RVSM airspace for cruise and flight level changes. At intervals of approximately one hour, check that PFD altimeter indications agrees in accordance with the instrument tolerances (FCOM 3.04.34, see also chapter 16.6, page115). The usual scan of flight deck instruments should be sufficient. The altimeter system being used to control the aircraft should be the same that is used by the transponder transmitting information to ATC. Select ATC 1 for Autopilot 1 and select ATC 2, when Autopilot 2 is in use.

16.5 Requirements for RVSM

(Source: A320 FCOM 2.4.50) Aircraft requirements: RVSM regulations require the following equipment/functions in order to be operative: 2 ADR + 2 DMC 1 transponder 1 Autopilot function 1 FCU channel (for altitude target selection and OP CLB/OP DES mode engagement) 2 PFD 1 FWC (for altitude alert function)

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(Source: A320 FCOM, 3.4.34, flight instrument tolerances) The values below apply to aircraft in symmetrical flight (no sideslip), in clean configuration and in straight and level flight. PFD 1 or 2 at ground check : plus or minus 25 feet

Maximum differences between altitude indications


FL/speed Altitude (ft) comparison between

ADR 1 and ADR 2 (on PFD) Gnd check FL50/250 kt FL100/250 kt FL200/300 kt FL300/.78 FL390/.78 20 50 55 90 130 130

ADR 3 and ADR 1, or ADR 3 and ADR 2 (on PFD) 20 65 80 135 195 195

ISIS and any ADR 1, or 2, or 3 100 130 185 295 390 445

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17 Taxiing and braking

17.1

Taxiing

17.1.1 General (Source: A320 FCOM 3.3.10, Taxi) Little, if any, power above idle thrust will be needed to get the aircraft moving (40 % N1 maximum). Thrust should normally be used symmetrically. Once the aircraft starts to move, little thrust is required. Use of the engine anti-ice increases ground idle thrust, thus the pilot must be carefully on slippery surfaces. The engines are close to the ground. Avoid positioning them over unconsolidated or unprepared ground (beyond the edge of the taxiways, for example). Avoid high thrust settings at low ground speeds, which increase the risk of ingestion (FOD), and the risk of projection of debris towards the trimmable horizontal stabilizer and towards the elevator. The normal maximum taxi speed is 30 knots in a straight line and 10 knots for a sharp turn. As the ground speed is difficult to assess, monitor ground speed on the ND. Do not "ride" the brakes. As 30 knots is exceeded with idle thrust, apply the brakes smoothly and decelerate to 10 knots. Release the brakes, and allow the aircraft to accelerate again.

17.1.2 180 turn on the runway (Source: A320 FCOM 3.3.10, Taxi) A standard runway is 45 meters wide. However, this aircraft only needs a pavement of 30 meters wide for a 180 turn. The following procedure is recommended for making such a turn in the most efficient way.

17.1.2.1 For the CM1 Taxi on the right-hand side of the runway and turn left, maintaining 25 divergence from the runway axis. Maximum ground speed is 10 knots. When the CM1 is physically over the runway edge, he turns the nose wheel full right and sets 50 % to 55 % N1. Note: To avoid skidding the nose wheel on a wet runway, perform the turn at very low speed, using asymmetric thrust and differential braking as necessary.

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180 turn on runway 180 Turn

17.1.2.2 For the CM2 The procedure is symmetrical. (Taxi on the left-hand side of the runway).

17.1.3 Taxiing with one engine (Source: A320 FCOM 3.4.90) When the aircraft is not in such unusual operational environments as an uphill slope, slippery taxiways, or high gross weight, it may be advisable to taxi on one engine. The pilot must exercise caution when taxiing on one engine to avoid generating excessive jet blast. For the whole procedure (taxiing with one engine (departure, arrival)) refer to FCOM 3.4.90, one engine taxi.

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17.1.4 Taxiing in icing conditions For this topic refer to section winter operation chapter 11.4, page 66 or A320 FCOM 2.04.10

17.2 Brakes

17.2.1 General For technical details refer to A320 FCOM 1.32.30 For operational details refer also to section resetting of computers & CBs , chapter 7, page 47 17.2.2 Brake temperature limitations requiring maintenance action (Source: A320 FCOM 3.04.32 P2) Maintenance action is required in following cases: The temperature difference between 2 brakes on the same gear is greater than 150C and the temperature of one of the brakes is higher than 600C. The temperature difference between 2 brakes on the same gear is greater than 150C and the temperature of one of the brakes is lower than 60C. The difference between the LH and RH brakes average temperature is higher than 200. A fuse plug has melted. One brakes temperature exceeds 900C.

17.2.3 Brakes hot (ECAM warning) (Source: A320 FCOM 3.02.32, 3.03.25 & 3.3.10) If the caution BREAKS HOT is displayed during taxi in, brake fan selection should be delayed for a minimum of about 5 minutes, or done just before stopping at the gate (whichever occurs first), to allow thermal equalization and stabilization, and thus avoid oxidation of brake surface hot spots. Delay takeoff, until the brake temperature is below 300 C with the brake fans OFF, and 150C with the brake fans ON. If an arc is displayed on the ECAM WHEEL page above the brake temperature, select the brake fans on prior brake temperature reaches 260 C. If the BRAKES HOT message is still on when the aircraft is parked, the flight crew should not set the PARKING BRK ON. When one brake temperature is above 500C (or 350C with brake fans ON), avoid applying the parking brake, unless operationally necessary.

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17.2.4 General recommendations (Source: CARBON BRAKE DRIVING Background, Facts & Figures, Optimum Technique, http://fb-airbus.airberlin.com -> Library ) The following aspects have to be taken into account: To minimize brake wear, brake applications should be reduced to a minimum. To minimize brake wear, brake temperatures of between 100 and 250 should be avoided during taxi Brake temperatures of 450 and above should be avoided (oxidation!) Regular use of Parking Brake requires additional maintenance action and may lead to dragging brakes. As soon the chocks are in place, set parking brake to off

17.2.4.1 Taxi out (Departure) Brake temperature should not exceed 100C If brake temperature is above 100C use the brake fan Reduce applications during taxi Do not ride the brakes Alternate left and right braking when taxiing slowly (reduces number of applications by 50 %!!)

17.2.4.2 Landing Use of Auto Brake is recommended when need of brake application is foreseen: o On short or evenly contaminated runways: LO (or MED) o On long and dry runways: LO (Autobrake usage reduces BRAKE DIFF TEMP) Reduce the number of brake applications to one!

17.2.4.3 Taxi in (Arrival) Release the parking barke at the parking position as soon as possible Let the brakes thermally stabilize (Wait at least 5-10 Minutes before using the brake fan unless the temperature reaches 450 or more) Use the brake fan to reduce the brake temperature below 100C Reduce applications during taxi Do not ride the brakes Alternate left and right braking when taxiing slowly (reduces number of applications by 50 %!!)

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18 CAT II, CAT III Operations


18.1 Definitions

(Source: Airbus getting to grips with CAT II / CAT III operations) 18.1.1 Decision height Decision height is the wheel height above the runway elevation by which a go-around must be initiated unless adequate visual reference has been established and the aircraft position and approach path have been assessed as satisfactory to continue the approach and landing in safety (JAA). For CAT II and CAT III A, a pilot may not continue the approach below DH unless a visual reference containing not less than a 3 light segment of the centerline of the approach lights or runway centerline or touchdown zone lights or runway edge lights is obtained. For CAT III B the visual reference must contain at least one centerline light. 18.1.2 Alert Height ICAO: An Alert Height is a height above the runway, based on the characteristics of the aeroplane and its fail-operational automatic landing system, above which a Category III approach would be discontinued and a missed approach initiated if a failure occurred in one of the redundant parts of the automatic landing system, or in the relevant ground equipment. Airbus: The alert height is the height above touch down, above which a CAT3 autoland would be discontinued and a missed approach executed, if a failure occured in either the airplane systems or the relevant ground equipments. Below the alert height, if such a failure occurs, the flare, touchdown and roll out may be accomplished using the remaining automatic system. The Alert height for the A320 Family of Airberlin is 100ft 18.1.3 Runway Visual Range Runway Visual Range (RVR) is the range over which a pilot of an aircraft on the centreline of the runway can see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating the runway or identifying its centreline (ICAO). 18.1.4 Fail passive automatic landing system An automatic landing system is fail-passive if, in the event of a failure, there is no significant out-of-trim condition or deviation of flight path or attitude but the landing is not completed automatically. For a fail-passive automatic landing system the pilot assumes control of the aircraft after a failure (JAA). On Airbus aircraft since the A320, fail-passive capability is announced by the display of CAT 3 SINGLE on the PFD.
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18.1.5 Fail operational automatic landing system An automatic landing system is fail-operational if, in the event of a failure below alert height, the approach, the flare and landing can be completed by the remaining part of the automatic system. In the event of failure, the automatic landing system will operate as a fail-passive system (JAA). On Airbus aircraft since the A320, fail operational capability is announced by the display of CAT 3 DUAL on the PFD.

18.2 Decision height and alert height concept

(Source: Airbus getting to grips with CAT II / CAT III operations) 18.2.1 Decision height concept: Decision height is a specified point in space at which a pilot must make an operational decision. The pilot must decide if the visual references adequate to safely continue the approach have been established. If the visual references have not been established, a go-around must be executed. If the visual references have been established, the approach can be continued. However, the pilot may always decide to execute a go-around if sudden degradations in the visual references or a sudden flight path deviation occur.

In Category II operations, DH is always limited to 100ft or Obstacle Clearance Height (OCH), whichever is higher. In Category III operations with DH, the DH is lower than 100ft (typically equal to 50ft for a fail-passive automatic landing system and 20ft for a fail-operational automatic landing system).

The DH is measured by means of radio-altimeter. When necessary, the published DH takes into account the terrain profile before runway threshold.

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18.2.2 Alert height concept (Source A320 FCOM 1.22.30 & 4.5.70, Airbus getting to grips with CAT II / CAT III operations) Alert height is a height defined for Category III operations with a fail-operational landing system. Above AH (100ft AGL), a go-around must be initiated if a failure affects the fail-operational landing system. Below AH, the approach will be continued except if AUTOLAND warning is triggered The AUTOLAND warning is triggered in following cases: (Source A320 FCOM 1.22.30 & 4.5.70) o When in LAND mode, the radio altitude goes below 200 feet and o the aircraft gets too far off the beam (LOC or GLIDE) o or both autopilots fail o or both localizer transmitters or receivers fail above 15ft o or both glide slope transmitters or receivers fail above 100ft o or the difference between both radio altimeter indications is greater than 15 feet.

The AH is only linked to the probability of failure(s) of the automatic landing system.

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18.3.1 CAT II With RVR 350m at DH = 100ft (typical CAT II)

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18.3.2 CAT III With RVR 200m at DH = 50ft (typical CAT IIIa)

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18.4 Runway characteristics

18.4.1 Runway Length There is no specific requirement concerning runway length for an aerodrome to be CAT II or III approved. The runway length is only an operational limitation. 18.4.2 Runway Width The runway width should be normally not less than 45m. 18.4.3 Runway Slope For CAT II or CAT III, disregarding normal standards, it is recommended that for the first and the last quarter of the length of the runway the slope does not exceed 0.8%. To permit the use of the automatic landing system, ICAO also recommends that slope changes must be avoided or, when it is not possible, kept to a maximum of 2% per 30m (i.e. a minimum radius of curvature of 1500m) in the area located just before the threshold (60m wide, 200m long). This limitation is due to the fact that automatic landing systems use radio altimeter and a rapid slope change could disturb the landing. 18.4.4 Visual Aids-Runway Lights Runway lights on runways intended for use by CAT II or CAT III operations consist of high intensity threshold lights, runway end lights, runway touchdown zone lights, runway edge lights, and runway centerline lights. The basic pattern of runway lights is shown in the figure below. 18.4.5 Runway Edge Lights Runway edge lights are placed along the full length of the runway in two parallel rows equidistant from the centerline, with a distance of no more than 3m to the runway edge. These lights are uniformly spaced at intervals of no more than 60m and may be omitted at the intersections. The lights are fixed lights showing variable white. 18.4.6 Threshold Lights Threshold lights are placed in a row at right angles to the runway axis, outside the runway with a distance of no more than 3m to the threshold. The lights are fixed unidirectional lights showing green, uniformly spaced at intervals of no more than 3m. 18.4.7 Runway End Lights Runway end lights are placed in a row at right angles to the runway axis, outside the runway with a distance of no more than 3m to the runway end. The lights are fixed unidirectional lights showing red, with a minimum number of 6 lights. ICAO also recommends a spacing between the lights of no more than 6m for runways intended for use by CAT III approaches.

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18.4.8 Runway Centerline Lights Runway centerline lights are a specific requirement for CAT II or CAT III approaches. They are located along the centerline of the runway, with a longitudinal spacing of approximately 7.5m, 15m or 30m for CAT II and only 7.5m or 15m for CAT Ill. These lights are fixed lights showing: Variable white from the threshold to the point 900m from the runway end. Alternate red and variable white from the point 900m to the point 300m from the runway end (pairs of red lights followed by pairs of variable white lights if the spacing is only 7.5m) Red from the point 300m to the runway end. 18.4.9 Touchdown Zone Lights Runway touchdown zone lights are a specific requirement for CAT II or CAT III approaches. They extend from the threshold for a longitudinal distance of 900m (full touchdown zone) but do not extend beyond the mid-point if runway length is less than 1800m. The pattern is formed by pairs of barrettes containing at least three lights. The lights inside each barrette are fixed unidirectional lights showing variable white, spaced at an interval of no more than 1.5m. Each barrette must be not less than 3m and no more than 4.5m in length. The lateral spacing (or gauge) between the lights is not less than 18m and no more than 22.5m with a preference of 18m. The longitudinal spacing between pairs of barrettes is 60m or 30m, but it is recommended to have a spacing of 30m for low minima. 18.4.10 Taxiway Edge Lights Taxiway edge lights are not a specific CAT II or CAT III requirement, but provide efficient visual aid during low-visibility operations. The lights are fixed lights showing blue. 18.4.11 Taxiway Centerline Lights Taxiway centerline lights have to be installed on airfields intended for use by operations with an RVR 400m or less (400m is the mean value for CAT II approach). The lateral spacing between lights must not exceed 15m but the proximity of a curve must be indicated by a spacing equal to, or less than, 7.5m. The lights are fixed lights showing green, but from the beginning of the taxiway to the perimeter of the ILS critical area/sensitive area or the lower edge of the inner transitional surface, the lights are alternately showing green and yellow. 18.4.12 Stop Bars Stop bars are placed at each taxi-holding position when the runway is intended for use at an RVR less than 400m and are specially required for all CAT III approaches. The lights of the stop bars show red and are spaced at intervals of 3m. These stop bars are an efficient means to avoid aircraft intrusion into the obstacle-free zone (OFZ) or into the critical/sensitive area during approaches in very low visibility conditions. 18.4.13 Approach Light System The approach light system is mandatory for CAT II operations, and only optional for CAT III operations. It consists of a row of lights on the extended centreline of the runway, extending over a distance of 300m from the threshold (over 900m for CAT I).It is specified by the ECAC that sequenced strobe lighting is considered to be incompatible with CAT II and III operations. When installed for other operation, it should be switched off when CAT II or CAT III approaches are in progress.
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Runways lights
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CAT IIIA / CAT IIIB approach light system

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TWY Lights

Typical RWY taxi-holding position signs and associated TWY markings.

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Technical aspects (Source: FCOM 1.22.30 ; 4.5.70) 700ft

FMGS frozen 400ft FCU frozen 350ft LAND GREEN 200ft AUTO LAND WARNING becomes active 100ft ALERT HEIGHT

When managed, the speed target is computed by the FMGS and may be modified by the crew through the MCDU. At 700 feet RA, the current speed target value is memorized by the autothrust, to ensure stabilized speed guidance, even if Flight Management fails. Below 700 feet, any new VAPP or WIND entry in the MCDU has no effect on the speed target. When the aircraft reaches 700 feet RA with APPR mode (LOC and G/S) armed or engaged, the ILS freq and course are frozen in the receiver. This function (ILS tune inhibit) is available, when at least one AP/FD is engaged. Any attempt to change the ILS frequency or CRS, via the MCDU or RMP, does not affect the receiver. If the speed is managed, the system does not accept any modifications the flight crew may enter on the PERF APPR page (surface wind, selected landing configuration, or VAPP) for speed guidance purposes below this altitude. When the aircraft reaches 400 feet RA, LAND mode engages. The flight crew can only disengage this mode by engaging the GO AROUND mode

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The table in the QRH 5.04 gives the reference of the tests, which verify the CAT III availability in each system.
FMA CAPABILITY EQUIPMENT

CAT 2 1 AP ENGAGED 0 1 0 0 1 1 1/1 2 2 1 1* 1* 1* 1 (displayed on both sides) 2 1 for PNF 1&2 2/2 2 1 1

CAT 3 SINGLE 1 AP ENGAGED 1 2 1 0 1 1 1/1 2 2 1 1* 1* 1* 2 2 2 1&2 2/2 2 1 1

CAT 3 DUAL 2 AP ENGAGED 1 2 1 1 2 2 2/2 3 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1&2 3/3 2 2 1

AP/FD AUTOTHRUST FMA A/THR CAUTION ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SPLIT

FMGS MONITORED FOR FMA LANDING CAPABILITY

FAC ELAC YAW DAMPER/RUDDER TRIM HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT PFD DUs FLIGHT WARNING COMPUTER BSCU CHANNEL ANTISKID NOSEWHEEL STEERING RADIO ALTIMETER ILS RECEIVER BEAM EXCESSIVE DEVIATION WARNING ATTITUDE INDICATION (PFD1/PFD2) ADR/IR AP DISCONNECT PB

NOT FMGS MONITORED FOR FMA LANDING CAPABILITY

"AP OFF" ECAM WARNING "AUTOLAND" LIGHT RUDDER TRAVEL LIMIT SYSTEM WINDSHIELD HEAT (L or R windshield) WINDSHIELD WIPERS OR RAIN REPELLENT (if activated) ND DUs AUTO CALLOUT FUNCTION ATTITUDE INDICATION (STBY) DH INDICATION

1 required for auto land with crosswind higher than 12 kt 1 for PF 1 for PF 1 one is required for auto land 1 2 1 1 1 for PNF 2 1 1

*For automatic rollout, one is required. For autoland without automatic rollout, none is required. Note : Flight crews are not expected to check the equipment list before approach. When an ECAM or local caution occurs, the crew should use the list to confirm the landing capability. On ground, the equipment list determines which approach category the aircraft will Abe able to perform at the hext landing. Electrical power supply split : This ensures that each FMGC is powered by an independent electrical source (AC and DC). Fallure of antiskid and/or nosewheel steering mechanical parts are not monitored for landing capability. The DH will Abe displayed an the FMA, and the "Hundred Above" and "Minimum" auto callouts will Abe announced, provided that the DH value has been entered an the MCDU.
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Aircraft Status o Check on ECAM STATUS page that the required landing capability is available. o Although it is not required to check equipment that is not monitored by the system, if any of this equipment is seen inoperative (flag), the landing capability will be reduced. o On the A320 Family it is not necessary to check AUTOLAND WARNING light. Weather Check weather conditions at destination and at alternates. Required RVR values must be available for CAT II/III approaches. The selected alternate must have weather conditions equal to or better than CAT I. Approach ban Policy regarding an approach ban may differ from country to country. Usually the final approach segment may not be continued beyond the OM or equivalent DME distance if the reported RVR is below the published minima for the required transmissometers. After OM or equivalent, if RVR becomes lower than the minima, the approach may be continued. ATC calls Unless LVP are reported active by ATIS, clearance to carry out a CAT II or CAT III approach must be requested from ATC, who will check the status of the ILS and lighting and protect the sensitive areas from incursion by aircraft or vehicles. Such an approach may not be undertaken until the clearance has been received. Before the outer marker, the required RVR values should be transmitted. Seat position The correct seat adjustment is essential in order to take full advantage of the visibility over the nose. The seat is correctly adjusted when the pilots eyes are in line with the red and white balls located above the glareshield. Use of landing lights At night in low visibility conditions, landing lights can be detrimental to the acquisition of visual references. Reflected light from water droplets or snow may actually reduce visibility. Landing lights would therefore not normally be used in CAT ll or CAT III weather conditions. CAT II or CAT III crew briefing The briefing should include the normal items as for any IFR arrival and in addition the following subjects should be covered prior to the first approach: o destination and alternate weather, o airfield and runway operational status CAT II / CAT III, etc. o aircraft systems status and capacity and downgrading possibilities o brief review of task sharing, o review approach procedure (stabilized or decelerated), o review applicable minima (performance page), go-around procedure, ATC calls, o brief review of procedure in case of malfunction below 1000ft, o optimum seat position and reminder to set cockpit lights when appropriate

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18.7.1 Low Visibility Procedure for Cat II/III landing (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4.3.2) Cat II or III landings shall not be conducted unless: The airplane concerned is certificated for operations with decision heights below 200 ft, or no decision height, and equipped with the systems required for operations as certified by the Authority DH must be determined by means of a radio altimeter To maintain the safety of operation it is required to report any failure of approaches by using an adequate reporting form. Specific approval/authorisation for Cat II and III operations is granted by the authority The Flight Crew consists of at least 2 licensed pilots Landing is carried out by the Commander LVP are in force.

18.7.2 Commencement and Continuation of Approach (Approach Ban) (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4.10) The commander may commence an instrument approach regardless of the reported RVR/Visibility but the approach shallnot be continued beyond the outer marker, or equivalent position, if the reported RVR/visibility is less than the applicable minima. If, after passing the outer marker or equivalent position the reported RVR/visibility falls below the applicable minimum, the approach may be continued to DA/H or MDA/H. Where no outer marker or equivalent position exists, the commander shall make the decision to continue or abandon the approach before descending below 1 000 ft above the aerodrome on the final approach segment. If the MDA/H is at or above 1 000 ft above the aerodrome, the approach can be continued down to the applicable minimum.The approach may be continued below DA/H or MDA/H and the landing may be completed provided that the required visual reference is established at the DA/H or MDA/H and is maintained. The touch-down zone RVR is always controlling. If reported and relevant, the mid point and stop end RVR are also controlling. The minimum RVR value for the mid-point is 125 m or the RVR required for the touchdown zone if less, and 75 m for the stop-end. For aeroplanes equipped with a roll-out guidance or control system, the minimum RVR value for the mid-point is 75 m. Relevant, in this context, means that part of the runway used during the high speed phase of the landing down to a speed of approximately 60 knots. If the touch down zone RVR is not available, the midpoint RVR may substitute the touch down zone RVR. In this case the midpoint RVR must be at or above the applicable minimum value for the approach.

Note 1: The equivalent position referred to above can be established by means of a DME distance, asuitably located NDB or VOR, SRE or PAR fix or any other fix that independently establishes the position of the airplane, if published on the instrument approach chart. Note 2: Where a State Approach Ban is more restrictive, the published State Approach Ban applies (refer to OM Part C - EAG Route Manual).

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18.7.3 Summary Limitations (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4.10, FCOM) 18.7.3.1 General limitations CONF3 or CONF FULL Slope angle within -2.5 & -3.15 Airport Altitude below 2500ft Automatic rollout has not been demonstrated on snow covered or icy runways. Landing minima will be the higher of the basic minima as tabulated below or those published by the state of jurisdiction as reflected in the EAG chart or special minima published by Air Berlin. Landings at a friction coefficient below 0.26 are prohibited. It is not allowed to convert a meteorological visibility to RVR for calculating Category II or III minima or when a reported RVR is available. Landing distance: 15% or 300 m - whichever is greater - runway shall be available in addition to the landing distance requirement for dry runways; The maximum allowable tailwind for automatic landing and roll out is 10 knots. Wind limitation is based on surface wind report by the tower. Displayed wind on the ND may be disregarded. The touch-down zone RVR is always controlling. If reported and relevant, the mid point and stop end RVR are also controlling. The minimum RVR value for the mid-point is 125 m or the RVR required for the touchdown zone if less, and 75 m for the stop-end. For aeroplanes equipped with a roll-out guidance or control system, the minimum RVR value for the mid-point is 75 m. Aprroach CAT II CAT III A CAT III B RVR TDZ 300m 200m 75m RVR MID ZONE 75m 75m 75m RVR END ZONE 75m 75m 75m

18.7.3.2 CAT II (auto land) DH: RVR: Headwind: Crosswind: Tailwind: 100ft (resp. according EAG chart minimum) TDZ: 300m (resp. according EAG chart minimum) MID: 125m* END: 75m*. max. 30 kt max. 20 kt max. 10 kt

* if relevant 18.7.3.3 CAT II (manual landing) DH: RVR: AP OFF: Crosswind: Tailwind: 100ft (resp. according EAG chart minimum) TDZ: 300m (resp. according EAG chart minimum) MID: 125m*END: 75m*. latest at 80 ft no limitation (33kt demonstrated) max. 10 kt

* if relevant
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18.7.3.4 CAT IIIA (CAT 3 Single) DH: 50ft (resp. according EAG chart minimum) RVR: TDZ: 200m (resp. according EAG chart minimum) MID: 125m* END: 75m*. A/THR must be used in selected or managed mode Headwind: max. 30 kt Crosswind: max. 20 kt Tailwind: max. 10 kt

* if relevant 18.7.3.5 CAT IIIA (CAT 3 Dual) DH: 50ft (resp. according EAG chart minimum) RVR: TDZ: 200m (resp. according EAG chart minimum) MID: 125m* END: 75m*. A/THR must be used in selected or managed mode Headwind: max. 30 kt Crosswind: max. 20 kt Tailwind: max. 10 kt

* if relevant

18.7.3.6 CAT IIIB (CAT 3 Dual) DH: NO RVR: 75m (resp. according EAG chart minimum) MID: 75m* END: 75m* Alert Height: 100ft A/THR must be used in selected or managed mode Headwind: max. 30 kt Crosswind: max. 20 kt Tailwind: max. 10 kt

* if relevant

18.7.3.7 Engine out (CAT II or CAT 3 Single) DH: 100ft / 50 ft (resp. according EAG chart minimum) RVR: 300m / 200m (resp. according EAG chart minimum) MID: 125m* END: 75m* Config: FULL Engine out procedure completed latest at 1000 ft AGL A/THR must be used in selected or managed mode Headwind: max. 30 kt Crosswind: max. 20 kt Tailwind: max. 10 kt

* if relevant

18.8 Failures and associated actions

18.8.1 General
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In general there are three possible responses to the failure of any system, instrument or element during the approach. CONTINUE the approach to the planned minima. REVERT to higher minima and proceed to a new DH (above 1000ft). GO AROUND and reassess the capability.

The nature of the failure and the point of its occurrence will determine which response is appropriate. As a general rule, if a failure occurs above 1000ft AGL the approach may be continued reverting to a higher DH, providing the appropriate conditions are met Below 1000ft (and down to AH when in CAT III DUAL) the occurrence of any failure implies a go-around, and a reassessment of the system capability. Another approach may then be undertaken to the appropriate minima for the given aircraft status. It has been considered that below 1000ft, not enough time is available for the crew to perform the necessary switching, to check system configuration and limitations and brief for minima. In CAT III DUAL, in general, a single failure (for example one AP failure or one engine failure) below AH does not necessitate a go-around. But a go-around is required if the autoland warning is triggered.

18.8.2 Abnormal Procedures 18.8.2.1 General The abnormal procedures can be classified into two groups Failures leading to a downgrading of capability as displayed on FMA and ECAM with an associated specific audio warning (triple click). Failures that do not trigger a downgrading of capability but are signaled by other effects (Flag, ECAM warning, amber caution and associated audio warnings).

It should be noted that some failures might trigger ECAM warnings, cautions and a downgrading of capability. The FCOM describes what should be the crew responses to failures in function to the height. Above 1000ft:

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18.8.2.2 Downgrading conditions Downgrading from CAT 3 to CAT 2 is permitted only if ECAM actions are completed, RVR is at least equal to CAT II minima, Briefing is amended to include CAT II procedure and DH. Decision to downgrade is completed above 1000ft AGL, Downgrading from CAT 2 to CAT 1 permitted only if ECAM actions are completed, at least one FD is available, RVR is at least equal to CAT I minima, briefing is amended to include CAT 1 procedure and DH. the decision to downgrade is completed above 1000ft AGL,

Note: switching from one AP to another before 1000ft AGL is permitted. Below 1000ft and above DH (for CAT 2 or CAT 3 SINGLE) or above AH (for CAT 3 DUAL) a go-around must be performed in case of: ALPHA FLOOR activation, loss of AP (cavalry charge), downgrading of capability (triple click), amber caution (single chime), engine failure.

At 350ft RA LAND must be displayed on FMA and runway course must be checked. If runway course is incorrect or LAND does not appear, a go-around must be performed or if conditions permit, a CAT ll approach with AP disconnection no later than 80ft may be performed. LAND is displayed if LOC and GS track modes are active and at least one RA is available. These conditions need to be obtained no later than 350ft AGL to allow a satisfactory automatic landing. Depending on terrain profile before the runway LAND mode may appear at lower height. This can be acceptable provided it has been demonstrated that automatic landing is satisfactory. At 200ft RA and below Any AUTOLAND warning requires an immediate go-around. If visual references are sufficient and a manual landing is possible, the PF may decide to land manually. At flare height If FLARE does not come up on FMA, a go-around must be performed. If visual references are sufficient and a manual landing is possible, the PF may decide to complete the landing. After touchdown In case of anti-skid or nose wheel steering failure, disconnect AP and take manual control. If automatic rollout control is not satisfactory, disconnect the AP immediately.
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18.9 Effect on Landing Minima of temporarily failed or downgraded Equipment

(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4.11)

Failed or downgraded equipment

Effect on Landingminima CAT III CAT II Not allowed No effect No effect if replaced by published equivalent position No effect May be temporarily replaced with midpoint RVR if approved ba the state of Aerodrome. RVR may be reported by human observation No effect Not allowed for DH > 50ft Not allowed No effect Not allowed

ILS Standby transmitter Outer marker Middle marker TDZ RVR assessment system Midpoint or Stopend RVR Approach Lights Approach Lights except the last 210m Approach Lights except the last 420 Stanbypower for approachlights Whole RWY light system Edge lights Centerline lights TDZ lights Stanbypower for RWY lights Taxiway light system

No effect No effect Not allowed Day only RVR 300m, day only RVR as for CAT I basic facilities

RVR 300m by day; 550m by night

RVR 300m by day; 550m by night Not allowed No effect except delays due to reduced movment rate

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Low Visibility Operations 18.10 Autoland in CAT I or better weather conditions

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18.10.1 Airports requirements The Automatic Landing System performance has been demonstrated during type certification with CAT II or CAT III ILS qualify beam, nevertheless automatic landing on CAT I ILS quality beam is possible provided the Airline has checked that the guidance below 200ft is satisfactory. 18.10.2 Crew procedures Visual cues must be obtained at the applicable DA (baro) (CAT I) or a go-around must be performed. The crew should be warned that fluctuations of the LOC or GS may occur and that the PF should be prepared to immediately disconnect the AP and take the appropriate action should unsatisfactory automatic landing performance occur. The flight crew is reminded to be vigilant for ILS disturbances when conducting automatic landing on any ILS quality beam in CAT I or better weather conditions when the critical area protection is not assured by ATC. Being in visual contact with the runway, the crew will decide to continue the automatic landing or to take over manually or to go around. Flare, landing and roll-out must be closely monitored as the crew must be ready to take over in these flight phases as well.

18.10.3 Limitations Automatic landing must be approved in the AFM. At least CAT 2 capability must be displayed on FMA. AFM limitations must be observed including: o Glide slope angle o Airport elevation o Flap configuration o Wind limits o Required equipment for CAT II must be operative.

18.11 Training and Qualifications

(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4.7) All CAT II/III licenced pilots must conduct at least 3 approaches with an automatic landing within 6 months (all mandatory approaches may be conducted in an approved simulator). For CAT III operations at least once every 6 months a missed appr. must be conducted in an approved simulator as a result of an autopilot failure at or below decision height with a RVR of less than 300m.

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Low Visibility Operations 18.12 Type and command experience

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(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4.3.3) Before commencing Category II/III operations, the following additional requirements are applicable to commanders, or pilots to whom conduct of the flight may be delegated, who are new to the aeroplane type: 50 hours or 20 sectors on the type, including line flying under supervision; and 100 m must be added to the applicable Category II or Category III RVR minima unless he has previously qualified for Category II or III operations with a JAA operator, until a total of 100 hours or 40 sectors, including line flying under supervision, has been achieved on the type.

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19 Low visibility Takeoff


19.1 General

(Source: Airbus getting to grips with CAT 2/3 operations, Airberlin OM-A 8.4.4) Takeoff with RVR less than 400m is considered as LVTO by JAR OPS 1. The maximum RVR at Takeoff is quite independent of the aircraft type and aircraft equipment except for very low RVR. The Takeoff minima is mainly determined by the airport installation (runway lighting system, RVR measurement system, ...). When weather conditions are more severe than the landing minima, a takeoff alternate is required within one hour. Above time is determined at the one engine inoperative speed and equals 370NM

Before commencing take-off, a commander must ensure that the RVR or visibility in the takeoff direction of the aeroplane is equal to or better than the applicable minimum and that the condition of the runway intended to be used should not prevent a safe take-off and departure.

19.2 Take Off Minima

(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4.4.1) Take-Off minima must selected to ensure sufficient guidance to control the aircraft in case of: o discontinued take -Off in adverse circumstances or o continued take-Off after failure of the critical engine The commander shall not commence Take-Off unless the weather conditions at the aerodrome f departure are equal to or better than applicable minima for landing at that aerodrome unless a suitable Take-Off alternate aerodrome is available. Take-Off with minima less than 400 m requires that LVP's are in force, the RVR is reported and the flight crew members have satisfactorily completed training in a simulator. The pilot in command has to perform the T/O if the RVR is less than 400 m. When no visibility is reported or the reported visibility is below that required for Take-Off and or RVR is not reported, a Take-Off may only be commenced if the pilot in command can determine that the RVR visibility along the Take-Off run required (JAR take-off field length) is at or above minimum required. It is not allowed to convert a meteorological visibility to RVR for calculating Take-Off minima, Category II or III minima or when a reported RVR is available. Take-offs at a friction coefficient below 0.26 are prohibited.

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Low Visibility Operations 19.3 Ground Facilities Requirement for Take Off

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Ground facilities

RVR / VIS (Note 3)

Nil (day only) Runway edge lighting and/or centerline marking (for night, edge and runway end lights are required)

500m

250m / 300m (Note 1 & 2)

Runway edge and centerline lighting

200m 250m (Note 1)

Runway edge and centerline lighting and multiple RVR information

150m /200m (Note 1 & 4)

Note 1: Note 2: Note 3: Note 4:

The higher values apply to Category D aeroplanes. For night operations at least runway edge and runway end lights are required. The reported RVR/Visibility value representative of the initial part of the take-off run can be replaced by pilot assessment. The required RVR value must be achieved for all of the RVR reporting points throughout the Accelerate Stop Distance (ASD), with the exception given in Note 3 above.

The takeoff minima may be reduced to 125 m RVR (Category C aeroplanes) or 150 m RVR (Category D aeroplanes) when: Low Visibility Procedures are in force; High intensity runway centreline lights spaced 15 m or less and high intensity edge lights spaced 60 m or less are in operation; Flight crew members have satisfactorily completed training in a Flight Simulator; A 90 m visual segment is available from the cockpit at the start of the take-off run; and The required RVR value has been achieved for all of the RVR reporting points throughout the Accelerate Stop Distance (ASD).

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20 Performance
20.1 Ground Speed Mini Function

(Source: A320 FCOM 1.22.30; A320 Instructor Support, chapter 13) 20.1.1 Speed mode in approach phase When the aircraft flies an approach in managed speed, the speed target displayed on the PFD in magenta, is variable during the approach. This managed speed target is computed in the FMGS, using the "ground speed mini function".

20.1.2 Ground speed mini function principle The purpose of the ground speed mini function is to take advantage of the aircraft inertia, when the wind conditions vary during the approach. It does so by providing the crew with an adequate indicated speed target. When the aircraft flies this indicated speed target, the energy of the aircraft is maintained above a minimum level ensuring standard aerodynamic margins versus stall. If the A/THR is active in SPEED mode, it will automatically follow the IAS target, ensuring an efficient thrust management during the approach. The minimum energy level is the energy level the aircraft will have at touchdown, if it lands at VAPP speed with the tower reported wind as inserted in the PERF APPR page. The minimum energy level is represented by the Ground Speed the aircraft will have at touchdown. This Ground Speed is called "GROUND SPD MINI". During the approach, the FMGS continuously computes the speed target, using the wind experienced by the aircraft, in order to keep the ground speed at or above the "Ground Speed Mini". The lowest speed target is limited to VAPP and its upper limit is VFE of next configuration in CONF 1, 2, 3 and VFE - 5 in CONF FULL. The speed target is displayed on the PFD speed scale in magenta, when approach phase and managed speed are active. It is independent of the AP/FD and/or ATHR engagements. Wind is a key factor in the ground speed mini function.

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20.1.3 Terminology 20.1.3.1 Tower wind It is the MAG WIND entered in the PERF approach page. It is the average wind, as provided by the ATIS or the tower. Gusts must not be inserted, they are included in the ground speed mini computation. 20.1.3.2 Tower headwind component The TWR HEADWIND COMPONENT is the component of the MAG WIND projected on the runway axis (landing runway entered in the flight plan). It is used to compute VAPP and GS mini.

20.1.3.3 Current headwind component The actual wind measured by ADIRS is projected on the aircraft axis to define the CURRENT HEADWIND COMPONENT (instantaneous headwind). The CURRENT HEADWIND COMPONENT is used to compute the variable speed target during final (IAS target). 20.1.4 Speed Computation 20.1.4.1 VAPP computation VAPP, automatically displayed on the MCDU PERF APPR page, is computed as follows : VAPP = Vls + maximum of 5kts for ATHR 5kts for severe icing 1/3 of steady headwind (max. 15 kts)

The crew can manually modify the VAPP and TWR wind values on the PERF APPR page. 20.1.4.2 Speed target computation The FMGS continuously computes a speed target (IAS target), that is the MCDU VAPP value plus an additional variable gust. The gust is the instantaneous difference between the CURRENT HEADWIND COMPONENT and the tower headwind component. It is always positive (or equal to zero for no wind or tailwind). The IAS target is displayed on the PFD as a magenta triangle moving with the gust variation. The IAS targets have two limits : VAPP as the minimum value VFE 5 kts in CONF FULL, or VFE of the next configuration in CONF 1, 2 or 3 as the maximum value.

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20.1.4.3 Ground speed mini (GS mini) computation Ground speed mini concept has been defined to prevent the aircraft energy from dropping below a minimum level during final approach. The GS mini value is not displayed to the crew. The GS mini guidance has 3 major benefits: 1. It allows an efficient management of the thrust in gusts or longitudinal shears. Thrust varies in the right sense but in a smaller range ( 15% N1) in gusty situations which explains why it is recommended in such situations. 2. It provides additional but rational safety margins in shears. 3. It allows pilots "to understand what is going on" in perturbed approaches by monitoring the target speed magenta bugs: when it goes up = head wind gust. Note: The ATIS and tower wind is a two minute average wind; gusts are considered if in the past 10 mn the peak wind value exceeds by typically 10 kts or more the two minute average wind. The METAR is a ten minute average wind, with 10 minute gusts. It is always referenced to True North. The wind information used by the FMGS for the Managed Speed target control during the approach (GS mini guidance) is provided by the onside IRS (update rate typically 10 times/sec); thus it is an instantaneous wind information.

20.1.5 Example Approach on runway 09 The tower wind direction is on the runway axis 090 with 30kt VAPP = VLS + 10kt (1/3 of 30kt) VAPP = 140kt IAS target values If we turn the previously explained speed target definition into formulae, we obtain the following result : IASTARGET = Max [VAPP, (VAPP + current headwind - tower headwind)]

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Current wind in approach IAS target Current wind in approach (a) 090/50 (b) 090/10 (c) 270/10 (d) 090/30 IAS target Max [VAPP, (140 + 50 - 30) = 160 kt Max [VAPP, (140 + 10 - 30) = 140 kt Max [VAPP, (140 + 0 - 30) = 140 kt Max [VAPP, (140 + 30 - 30) = 140 kt

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Always calculate the T/O performance with the most accurate GW! LMC- procedure according OMA does NOT allow making an LMC without recalculating the T/O Performance even if the change is only 100kg! (See example below) Dont just reduce Flex temperature perform a complete recalculation If the wind is different at T/O position perform a complete recalculation

Already 100kg difference can make a huge difference in Speed! Example: ZRH RWY 28 Wind Temperature QNH Conf Wing- & Engine anti ice RWY CG GW 61450kg: GW 61500kg: 240/5 17C 1019 1 off dry > 27% Flex 56 Flex 54 V1 = 142 ; VR = 142 ; V2 = 143 ; limiting factor: OBS V1 = 133 ; VR = 133 ; V2 = 135 ; limiting factor: VMU

A 50kg HIGHER GW REDUCES V1 by 9kt!!

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(Source: A320 FCOM 3.5.15) Following diagram shows if a lower level would be more economically when winds are less in lower altitudes. Example: Given: Weight : 65000kg Wind at FL350 : 10 kt head

Find: Minimum wind difference to descend to FL310 : (40 4)= 36 kt

Results: Descent to FL310 may be considered provided the tail wind at this altitude is more than (36 - 10) = 26 kt.

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(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.1.2.4) 20.4.1 Dispatch requirements The un-factored landing distance (= the distance from 50 ft to stop) shall be factored with 1,67 for jets. In case of a runway forecasted or reported to be wet/contaminated an additional 15% shall be added. 20.4.2 Actual landing field length requirements (in-flight calculation) the following calculation therefore needs to be carried out: Un-factored landing distance (dry) + correction for the wet/contaminated runway + correction for system failures - if any = corrected un-factored distance + an operational factor of at least 1,20 = required distance to land
This required distance for the (actual) landing shall, however, never be lass than the distance calculated for dispatch purposes (including the 1.67 operational factor).

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20.4.3 Summary

Dispatch:

LDreq = LDunfactored 1.67

Normal Operations: In flight: Abnormal Operations: the greater of

LDreq = LDunfactored 1.67

LDreq = ULD 1.67 LDreq = ULD foperational fsystem failure fwet fCAT III

LDreq LDunfactored foperational fsystem failure fwet fCAT III

Required Landing Distance Unfactored Landing Distance (Note 3)

Operational factor (foperational = 1.2) Factor for system failures (see QRH 2.32) Factor for wet RWY (fwet = 1.15) (Note 1)

Factor for CAT III Approach (fCAT III = 1.15) ( Note 2)

Notes: 1: 2: 3: Alternatively the table unfactored landing distance wet can be used. Or +300m whichever is more. See QRH 4.03 landing distance without autobrake, configuration FULL

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21 Limitations
The limitations in this summary are divided in two groups: Technical limitations Limitations out of the FCOM which are most of them nice to know since the FWC is monitoring them or they have no direct consequence in normal operation. Operational limitations Limitations which have direct consequences in normal operation and should be known by heart. The operational limitations are ordered according a normal flight in flight phases. Most of the operational limitations can also be found in the section technical limitations.

21.1 Technical limitations

21.1.1 General (Source: FCOM 3.01.20) Length Wingspan Tail height Tail width Fuselage width Min. pavement width for 180 turn Main Gear track (outside face of tire) Max. operating altitude: Max. operating temperature Runway slope limits: Runway width: Manoeuvring load limits: clean: slats extended / flaps retracted slats & flaps extended Maximum take-off and landing altitude: Pitch in T/O: Range of ADIRS (FCOM 3.01.34): 21.1.2 Flight instrument tolerances (Source: FCOM 3.4.34) Altimeter: max. difference between ADR1 and ADR2: 20 ft (on ground) 55ft (FL100) 130 ft (FL390) 20 ft (on ground) 350 ft (FL390)
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33.8 (A319) 37.6m (A320) 44.5m (A321) 34.1m 12m 12.5m 4m 23m (A319, A320) 27.6m (A321) 9.2m FL 390 (39800ft PA) -70 C OAT +/- 2% min. 45m + 2.5 g to - 1.0 g. + 2.0 g to 0.0 g. + 2.0 g to 0.0 g. -1000ft 9200ft PA max. 18 / 22.5 in windshear between 73N and 60S

max. difference between ADR1 / 2 and ADR3:

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max. difference between ADR1 / 2 / 3 and ISIS: Airspeed: max. difference between ADR1 and ADR2: max. difference between ADR1 / 2 and ADR3: max. difference between ADR1 / 2 / 3 and stby ASI:

100 ft (on ground) 185 ft (FL 100) 445 ft (FL390) 6 kt / m0.008 (ground) 3 kt / m0.01 (FL390) 6 kt / m0.008 (ground) 4 kt / m0.008 (FL390) 6 kt (on ground) 8 kt (FL390) max. difference 4

Heading:

21.1.3 Opearting temperatures (Source: FCOM 3.1.20) Take-off & Landing: In flight: min. - 40 / max. 55C (0 ft PA) min. - 45 / max. 37C (9000ft PA) min. - 70 / max. -25C (39000 ft PA) min. - 66 / max. -20C (35000 ft PA) min. - 63 / max. -10C (30000 ft PA)

21.1.4 Cabin pressure (Source: FCOM 3.01.21) Maximum positive differential pressure Maximum negative differential pressure Ram air inlet opens only if differential pressure is lower 21.1.5 Structural weight limits (Source: FCOM 3.01.20) Maximum take-off weight (brake release): Maximum landing weight: Maximum zero fuel weight: A319: A320: A321: A319: A320: A321: A319: A320: A321: 75500kg 77000kg 93000kg 62500kg 64500kg 77800kg 58500kg 61000kg 73800kg 8.6 psi -1 psi 1 psi

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21.1.6 Speeds (Source: A320 FCOM 3.01.20) (all speeds IAS) VMO / MMO VRA / MRA VFE / MFE max. operating speed rough air speed: max. slats / flaps extended speed: 1: 1 + F: 2: 3: 4: VLS: min. selectable speed: T/O: Other modes: 350 kts / M 0.82 250 kts / M 0.65 230 kts 215 kts 200 kts (A319 , A320) 215 kts (A321) 185 kts 177 kts (A319 , A320) 190 kts (A321) VLS 103kt (8000ft)= 1.13 VS1g VLS = 1.23 VS1g 110 kts ( 0ft) / 110 kts ( 0ft) / 103kt (8000ft) max. 220 kts max. 250 kts max. 280 kts / M 0.67 max. 230 kts max. 195 kts max. 200 kts

VMCA VMCG (config 1 +F) Gear retraction VMLO retraction: Gear extension VLO extension: Gear extended VLE: Windshield wipers: Tire speed: Speed for opening cockpit Window: 21.1.7 Use of autopilot (Source: FCOM 3.01.22) Height for engagement after Take-off (with SRS mode) Straight in non precision approach Circling approach: ILS approach with CAT 1 displayed on FMA: All other cases 21.1.8 Automatic approach, landing and roll out (Source: FCOM 3.01.22) Headwind: Tailwind: Crosswind: max. 30kt max. 10kt max. 20kt

100 ft MDA MDA-100ft 160ft 500ft

Note: Wind limitation is based on the surface wind reported by the tower. If the wind displayed on ND exceeds the abovenoted autoland limitations, but the tower reports a surface wind within the limitations, then the autopilot can remain engaged. If the tower reports a surface wind beyond limitations, only CAT I automatic approach without autoland can be performed.

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21.1.8.1 Engine out CAT II and CAT III fail passive autoland are only approved in configuration FULL, and if engine-out procedures are completed before reaching 1000 feet in approach. Maximum wind conditions for CAT II or CAT III automatic approach landing and roll out. 21.1.8.2 Automatic landing CAT II and CAT III autoland are approved in CONF 3 and CONF FULL. Automatic landing is demonstrated: With CAT II and CAT III ILS beam. With slope angle within ( 2.5, 3.15) range. For airport altitude at or below 2500 feet. At or below the maximum landing weight. At approach speed (VAPP) = VLS + wind correction. Minimum wind correction 5 knots ; maximum 15 knots.

Automatic rollout performance has been approved on dry and wet runways, but performance on snow-covered or icy runways has not been demonstrated. Automatic landing in CAT I or better weather conditions The automatic landing system's performance has been demonstrated on runways equipped with CAT II or CAT III ILS approaches. However automatic landing in CAT I or better weather conditions is possible on CAT I ground installations or when ILS sensitive areas are not protected, if the following precautions are taken:

The airline has checked that the ILS beam quality and the effect of terrain profile before the runway have no adverse effect on AP/FD guidance. In particular the effect of terrain discontinuities within 300 meters before the runway threshold must be evaluated. The crew is aware that LOC or GS beam fluctuations, independent of the aircraft systems, may occur and the PF is prepared to immediately disconnect the AP and take appropriate action, should unsatisfactory guidance occur. At least CAT2 capability is displayed on the FMA and CAT II/CAT III procedures are used. Visual references are obtained at an altitude appropriate to the performed CAT I approach, otherwise goaround is initiated. When the crew does not intend to perform an autoland, they should disconnect the AP at or above 80 feet: this altitude being the minimum to take over and feel comfortable. Nevertheless, for safety purposes, the AP may be disconnected at anytime.

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21.1.9 Weather (Source: A320 3.01.20) Following: Cross wind for T/O: Cross wind for LDG: max. 29kts gusts up to 38 kts* max. 33kts gusts up to 38 kts*

* Values are demonstrated values and not operational limitations Tail wind (T/O & Ldg. at or below 5300 ft): 15 kts (>5300 ft: 10 kts) (A320) 10 kts (A319) Note: The maximum tailwind for automatic landings and rollout remains 10 kts ! Maximum wind for passenger door operation : Maximum wind for cargo door operation : 65 knots 40 knots (or 50 knots, if the aircraft nose is oriented into the wind, or the cargo door is on the leeward side). 40 kts

Keep parking brake on with wind speeds above: 21.1.10 Fuel (Source: FCOM 3.1.28 ; 1.28.10) A319 , A320 Max usable wing tanks: Max usable center tanks: Total usable Fuel: A321 Max usable wing tanks: Max usable center tanks: Total usable Fuel: Maximum allowed wing fuel imbalance Inner tanks Tank Fuel Quantity (Heavier tank) Full (5350 kg) 4300 kg 2250 kg Note:
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2 x 6126kg 6476 kg 18728 kg

(=0.785) (=0.785) (=0.785)

2 x 7250kg 8200 kg 23700 kg

Maximum allowed imbalance. 1500 kg 1600 kg 2250 kg

The variation is linear between these values (No limitation below 2 250 kg)
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Outer tanks:

Maximum allowed imbalance:

530 kg

Fuel management Tanks must be emptied in the following order: center tank then wing tanks Takeoff on center tank is prohibited. Fuel temperature: min. -43C (Jet A1)

21.1.11 Hydraulic (Source: FCOM 3.1.29) Normal operating pressure 3000 psi +/-200

21.1.12 Break, gear, flight controls (Source: FCOM 3.1.27 ; 3.3.11 ; 1.32.10) Altitude for LG extension: Altitude for flap extension: Min. Speed to cut off green hydraulic pressure: max. FL 250 max. FL 200 260kt 40 kt

Keep Parking brake on with wind speeds above: Do not set N1 above 75% on both engines with the parking brake on Steering angle: Rudder: Tiller: Towing: Break temperature for T/O: Altitude for flap extension: Speedbrakes NOT usable for configuration: 21.1.13 Oxygen (Source: FCOM 3.1.35) Oxygen pressure:

6 (40kt) / 0 (130kt) 75 (0kt) / 0 (70kt) 95 max. 300C with break fan off. max. 150C with break fan on. max. FL 200 FULL (A319, A320) FLAPS 3 and FULL (A321)

min. 800 psi (2 Crew / 40C) min. 1000 psi (+1 observer / 40C) min. 1300 psi (+2 observer / 40C) during emergency descent ->10min. cruise at FL 100 -> 110min
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Protection time
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against smoke with 100% oxygen at FL 80 -> 15min. Cabin: Smoke hood: Bottle in cabin: 21.1.14 Electrical (Source: FCOM 3.01.2e) Max continuous load per generator Max continuous load per TR (continuous) 100 % (90 kVA) 200 A 4 + 4 Masks -> 12min approx. 15min LOW 1h, HI 30min

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21.1.15 APU (Source: FCOM 3.1.49) Maximum N (ECAM display) 107 % Note : The APU automatically shuts down at 107 % N speed, that appears on the ECAM.This corresponds to an actual N speed of 106 %. Maximum for start (below 25000 feet) Maximum for start (above 25000 feet) APU start: 900C 982C max. 3 start cycles thereafter wait 60 min before attempting 3 more cycles

APU bleed air extraction for wing anti ice is not permitted 1.12 Pressurization/ ventilation

(Source: FCOM 3.3.6) Pack flow selector: LO if number of PAX < 115 LO if number of PAX < 85 (A320) (A319)

HI for abnormally hot and humid conditions NORM for all other operating cases 21.1.16 Engine (Source: FCOM 3.1.70) Time limit for T/O & GA: EGT limit for starting: EGT limit MCT: EGT limit T/O & GA: Oil temperature: engine start T/O power Oil quantity: Engine start: Reverse thrust: 5 min. / 10min. OEI 725C 915C 950C

min.-40 C min.-10 C max. 140 C max. trans. 155 C for 15 Min. min. 9.5 qts + estimated consumption (0.5 qts/h) 4 Starts (max. 2 Min.) with 20 sec. delay After 4 starts 15 Min. cooling maximum reverse should not be used below 70 kts Idle reverse is allowed down to acft stop

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Reduced Thrust Takeoff (Source: FCOM 3.01.70) Takeoff at reduced thrust is only permitted, if the airplane meets all applicable performance requirements at the planned takeoff weight, with the operating engines at the thrust available for the assumed temperature. The assumed temperature must not be lower than the flat rating temperature, or the actual OAT. Takeoff at reduced thrust is not permitted on contaminated runways. Takeoff at reduced thrust is permitted with any inoperative item affecting the performance, only if the associated performance shortfall has been applied to meet all performance requirements at the takeoff weight, with the operating engines at the thrust available for the flex temperature.

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21.2 Operational Limitations

21.2.1 Cockpit Preparation (Source: FCOM 3.3.4 ; 3.3.6 ; 3.4.34)

Oxygen pressure:

min. 800 psi (2 Crew / 40C) * min. 1000 psi (+1 observer / 40C) * min. 1300 psi (+2 observer / 40C) * * If below check FCOM 3.4.34 FLIGHT INSTRUMENT TOLERANCES

Engine oil quantity: Battery:

A320: min. 9.5 qts + estimated consumption (0.5 qts/h) A319: min. 11 qts + estimated consumption (0.3 qts/h) (off on -> check) battery charge currents are below 60 A and decreasing min. 25,5 V (ensures charge 50%) charging cycle about 20 minutes do not use APU Bleed with external Airconditioning connected -> valve damage between 2000 and 2700 PSI (full pedal deflection), if no 1000 PSI limiter installed

APU:

Brake pressure check:

IRS:

full alignment ca. 10 minutes if one IRS has a residual ground speed greater than 5 knots complete a fast alignment on all 3 IRS. LO if number of PAX < 115 LO if number of PAX < 85 (A320) (A319)

Pack flow selector:

HI for abnormally hot and humid conditions NORM for all other operating cases Altimeters max. difference between ADR1 and ADR2: 20 ft (on ground)

max. difference between ADR1 / 2 / 3 and ISIS:

100 ft (on ground)

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21.2.2 Taxi (Source: FCOM 03.03.10) N1 Taxispeed Brake fan: max 40% max 30 kt straight ahead max 10 kt in turns If an arc is displayed on the ECAM WHEEL page above the brake temperature, select the brake fans on prior brake temperature reaches 260 C max. 300C with brake fan off. max. 150C with brake fan on.

Break temperature for T/O:

Icing (Sorce: FCOM 3.3.9) Note: Icing conditions may be expected when the OAT (on the ground and for take-off), or when TAT (in flight) is 10 C or below with visible moisture in the air or standing water, slush, ice or snow is present on the taxiways or runways. During ground operation when engine anti ice is required and OAT is plus 3 deg C or less, periodic engine run-up to as high a thrust setting as practical (70 % N1 recommended) may be performed at the pilot's discretion to centrifuge any ice from the spinner, fan blades and low compressor stators. There is no requirement to sustain the high thrust setting. The run-ups should be performed at intervals not greater than 15 minutes. Subsequent takeoff under these conditions should be preceded by a static run-up to as high a thrust as practical (70 % N1 recommended) with observation of all primary parameters to ensure normal engine operation. 21.2.3 Before Take Off (Source: FCOM 03.03.07) Start IGN START if heavy rain or severe turbulence is expected after takeoff.

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21.2.4 Take Off (Source: FCOM 3.3.12; 3.5.6 ;3.1.28; 3.1.70 ; FCTM 020.50) max demonstrated crosswind T/O max demonstrated crosswind LDG max tailwind A320 A319 Max Pitch at Rotation without Tailstrike Max Pitch after T/O Separation due to wake turbulence: (Source: EAG ERM, ICAO RAR 12.28.2) behind heavy aircraft (>136000kg) same position intermediate position 2 min 3 min 29kt, gusts 38 kt 33kt, gusts 38 kt 15 kt 10 kt 11.7 (A320) 13.5 (A319) 18

Time limit for T/O & GA: Fuel:

5 min. / 10min. OEI Takeoff on center tank is prohibited. Max. Imbalance of outer Tank is 590kg

Icing (Source: FCOM 3.4.30) Icing conditions may be expected when the OAT (on ground and for takeoff), or when the TAT (in flight) is at or below 10C, and there is visible moisture in the air (such as clouds, fog with low visibility of one mile or less, rain, snow, sleet, ice crystals) or standing water, slush, ice or snow is present on the taxiways or runways 21.2.5 After Take Off / Climb (Source: FCOM 3.3.12) Packs: Note: Select PACK 1 ON after CLB thrust reduction Select PACK 2 ON after a min. 10 seconds waiting period but not later than Flaps are set to zero. Selecting pack ON before reducing take off thrust would result in an EGT increase. Selecting both packs ON simultaneously may affect passenger comfort.

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Flight instrument tolerances (Source: FCOM 3.4.34) Altimeter: max. difference between ADR1 and ADR2: max. difference between ADR1 / 2 / 3 and stby altimeter: 55ft (FL100) 130 ft (FL390) 185 ft (FL 100)

21.2.6 Cruise Turbulence (Source: FCOM 3.4.91) Above FL200 Below FL 200 275 kt or Mach 0.76 (which ever is less) 250 kt

Icing Conditions (Source: FCOM 3.4.30 OPERATIONS IN ICING CONDITIONS) ENGINE ANTI ICE must be ON during all ground and flight operations, when icing conditions exist, or are anticipated, except during climb and cruise when the SAT is below - 40 C. ENGINE ANTI ICE must be ON before and during a descent in icing conditions, even if the SAT is below - 40 C.

21.2.7 Approach

max demonstrated crosswind T/O max demonstrated crosswind LDG max tailwind A320 A319 auto LDG max tailwind auto LDG max crosswind auto LDG max headwind Speedbrakes NOT usable for configuration:

29kt, gusts 38 kt 33kt, gusts 38 kt 15 kt 10 kt 10 kt 20 kt 30 kt FULL (A319, A320) FLAPS 3 and FULL (A321)

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Wake turbulence radar separation minima (Sorce: ICAO RAR 12.28.3) Behind a heavy acft: All other cases 5Nm 3Nm

21.2.8 Landing (Source: FCOM 3.3.21) Pitch Bank Full reverse max 10 max 7 min. 70kt

21.2.9 After Landing (FCOM 03.03.23) if above 30 C OAT consider Conf 1 Brake fans selection should be delayed for a minimum of about 5 minutes, or done at the gate (whichever occurs first), to allow thermal equalization and stabilization and thus avoid oxidation of brake surface hot spots. Engine shut down minimum 3 minutes after LDG, if full reverse used

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21.2.10 Parking (Source: FCOM 3.3.24 ; 3.4.32) Brakes above 500C, parking brake application should be avoided unless operationally necessary

When turnaround times are short, or brake temperatures are likely to exceed 500C, use the brake fans, disregarding possible oxidation phenomenon. Maintenance action is due in the following cases : The temperature difference between the 2 brakes on the same gear is greater than 150C, and the temperature of either one of the brakes is higher than or equal to 600C or The temperature difference between the 2 brakes on the same gear is greater than 150C, and the temperature of one brake is lower than or equal to 60C, or The difference between the LH and RH brakes' average temperature is higher than or equal to 200C or A fuse plug has melted or One brake's temperature exceeds 900C IRU Performance On POSITION MONITOR page Residual ground speed check: Below 5kt 6-14 kt 15-20kt ok perform a fast alignment Report (The IR part of the ADIRU must be considered as failed, if the excessive deviation occurs after two consecutive flights). Report (The IR part of the ADIRU must be considered as failed). Drift 5nm or below (in all other cases consult FCOM 3.3.24)

Above 21 kt

Maximum wind for passenger door operation : 65 knots Maximum wind for cargo door operation : 40 knots (or 50 knots, if the aircraft nose is oriented into the wind, or the cargo door is on the leeward side). 40 kts

Keep parking brake on with wind speeds above: 21.2.11 Leaving Aircraft (Source: FCOM 3.3.25)

After having switched off the ADIRS, wait at least 10 seconds before switching off the electrical supply to ensure that the ADIRS memorize the latest data.
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Wait until the APU flap is fully closed (about 2 minutes afte the APU AVAIL light goes out), before switching off the batteries

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22 Abreviations A
ABN Abnormal AC Alternating Current A / C Aircraft ACARS ARINC Communication Addressing and Reporting System ACP Audio Control Panel ADF Automatic Direction Finder ADIRS Air Data Inertial Reference System ADIRU Air Data Inertial Reference Unit ADM Air Data Module ADR Air Data Reference ADV Advisory AEVC Avionics Equipment Ventilation Computer AFS Auto Flight System AIDS Aircraft Integrated Data System AIL Aileron AIU Audio Interface Unit AMU Audio Management Unit ANT Antenna ALS Approach Light System ALT Altitude ALTN Alternate A / P Auto-Pilot APPR Approach APPU Asymmetry Position Pick off Unit APU Auxiliary Power Und ARPT Airport AS Airspeed ASAP As Soon As Possible ASI Air Speed Indicator A / SKID Anti Skid ATC Air Traffic Control ATE Automatic Test Equipment A/THR Auto Thrust Function ATS Auto Thrust System ATT Attitude AWY Airway

BTC BTL

Bus Tie Contactor Bottle

C
C Centigrade CAPT Captain, Capture CAS Calibrated Airspeed C / B Circuit Breaker CBMS Circuit Breaker Monitoring System CDL Configuration Deviation List CDU Control Display Unit CFDIU Centralized Fault Data Interface CFDS Centralized Fault Display System CG Center of Gravity CHG Change CIDS Cabin Intercommunication Data System C / L Check List CLB Climb CLR Clear CMD Command CMPTR Computer CO Company CONT Continuous CO RTE Company Route CPCU Cabin Pressure Controller Und CRC Continuous Repetitive Chime CRG Cargo CRS Course CRT Cathode Ray Tube CRZ Cruise CSCU Cargo Smoke Control Unit CSD Constant Speed Drive CSM / G Constant Speed Motor / Generator CSTR Constraint CTR Center CTL PNL Control Panel CVR Cockpit Voice Recorder

D
DA Drift Angle DAR Digital AIDS Recorder DC Direct Current DDRMI Digital Distance and Radio Magnetic Indicator DES Descent DEST Destination DEU Decoder / Encoder Unit DFA Delayed Flap Approach DFDR Digital Flight Data Recorder DH Decision Height DIR Direction DIR TO Direct To DISC Disconnect DIST Distance
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B
BARO BAT BCL BCDS BITE BIU BFE BMC BNR BRG BRK BRT BSCU Barometric Battery Battery Charge Limiter Bite Centralized Data System Built-in Test Equipment Bite Interface Unit Buyer Furnished Equiptment Bleed Air Monitoring Computer Binary Bearing Brake Bright Braking Steering Control Unit

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DITS DMC DME DMU DSDL DSPL DTG DU

Digital Information Transfer System Display Management Computer Distance Measuring Equipment Data Management Und (Aids) Dedicated Serial Data Link Display Distance To Go Display Unit

E
E East ECAM Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring ECB Electronic Control Box (APU) ECM Engine Condition Monitoring ECON Economic ECP ECAM Control Panel ECS Environmental Control System ECU Engine Control Unit EDP Engine Driven Pump EFCS Electronic Flight Control System EFIS Electronic Flight Instrument System EFOB Estimated Fuel On Board EIU Engine Interface Unit EIS Electronic Instruments System ELAC Elevator Aileron Computer ELV Elevation ELEC Electrics EMER Emergency EMER GEN Emergency Generator ENG Engine EO Engine Out EPR Engine Pressure Ratio ESS Essential EST Estimated ETA Estimated Time of Arrival ETE Estimated Time en Route ETP Equal Time Point EVMU Engine Vibration Monitoring Unis E / WD Engine / Waming Display EXT PWR External Power EXTN Extension

FF Fuel Flow FGC Flight Guidance Computer FIDS Fault Isolation and Detection System FL Flight Level FLSCU Fuel Level Sensing Control Unit FLT Flight FLT CLT Flight Control FMA Flight Mode Annunciator FMGC Flight Management Guidance Computer FMGS Flight Management Guidance System FMS Flight Management System F/0 First Officer FOB Fuel on Board F-PLN Flight Plan FPA Flight Path Angle FPPU Feed Back Position Pick-Off Unit FPV Flight Path Vector FQI / FQU Fuel Quantity Indication / Unit FREQ Frequency FRT Front FRV Fuel Retum Valve FT Foot, Feet FT/MN Feet per Minute FU Fuel Used FWD Forward FWC Flight Waming Computer FWS Flight Waming System

G
GA Go Around GCU Generator Control Unit GEN Generator GLC Generator Line Contactor GMT Greenwich Mean time GND Ground GPCU Ground Power Control Unit GPS Global Positioning System GPWS Ground Proximity Waming System GRND Ground GRP Geographic Reference Point GRVTY Gravity GS Ground Speed G/S Glide Slope GW Gross Weight

F
FAC Flight Augmentation Computer FADEC Full Authority Digital Engine Control System FAF Final Approach Fix FAP Forward Attendants Panel FAR Federal Aviation Regulations FAV Fan Air Valve F / C Flight Crew FCDC Flight Control Data Concentrator FCU Flight Control Unit FD Flight Director FDIU Flight Data Interface Unit FDU Fire Detection Unit
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H
H HCU HDG HDG/S HDL HI HI
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Hour, Hot Hydraulic Control Unit Heading Heading Selected Handle High High Intensity
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HLD Hold HMU Hydraulic-Mechanical Unft HP High Pressure HPTCC HP Turbine Clearance Control HPV High Pressure Valve HUD Head Up Display HYD Hydraulics HZ Hertz

I
IAF Initial Approach Fix IAS Indicated Airspeed IDENT Identification IDG Integrated Drive Generator IFR Instrument Flight Rules IGN Ignition IGV Inlet Guide Vane ILS Instrument Landing System IMM Immediate INB Inbound INBO Inboard INCREM Increment INIT Initialization INOP Inoperative INR Inner INST Instrument INTCP Intercept I/O Inputs / Outputs I/P Input or Intercept Profile IP Intermediate Pressure IPC Intermediate Pressure Check-valve IPPU Instrumentation Position Pick-off Unit IRS Inertial Reference System ISA International Standard Atmosphere ISOL Isolation

LLS Left Line Select Key LOC Localizer LONG Longitude LP Low Pressure LPTCC LP Turbine Clearance Control LRRA Low Range Radio Altimeter LRU Line Replaceable Unit LSK Line Select Key LT Light LVL Level LVL/CH Level Change LW Landing Weight

M
M Magenta, Mach, Meter MAC Mean Aerodynamic Chord MAG Magnetic MAG DEC Magnetic Declination MAG VAR Magnetic Variation MAINT Maintenance MAN Manual MAX CLB Maximum Climb MAX DES Maximum Descent MAX END Maximum Endurance MB Millibar MCT Maximum Continuous Thrust MCDU Multifunction Control and Display Unit MCU Modular Concept Unit MDA Minimum Descent Altitude MECH Mechanic MEL Minimum Equipment List MFA Memorized Fault Annunciator MI Medium Intensity MIN Minimum MKR Marker MLS Microwave Landing System MLW Maximum Landing Weight MMEL Master Minimum Equipment List MMO Maximum Operating Mach MN Mach Number MRIU Maintenance and Recording Interface Unit MSA Minimum Safe Altitude MSG Message MSL Mean Sea Level MSU Mode Selector Unit (IRS) MTBF Mean Time Between Failure MTOW Maximum Take-Off Weight MZFW Maximum Zero Fuel Weight

K
KG KT Kilogram Knot

L
L Left LAF Load Alleviation Function LAT Latitude LAT REV Lateral Revision LAV Lavatory LCN Load Classification Number LDG Landing L / G Landing Gear LGCIU Landing Gear Control Interface Unit LGPIU L/ G Position Indicator Unit LH Left Hand LIM Limitation LS Localizer Inertial Smoothing LK Lock LL Latitude / Longitude
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N
N Normal, North NACA National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics NAV Navigation
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NAVAID Navigation Aid (VOR / DME) ND Navigation Display NDB Non Directional Beacon NM Nautical Miles NW Nose Wheel

QAR Quick Access Recorder QFE Field Elevation Atmosphere Pressure QFU Runway Heading QNE Sea Level Standard Atmosphere Pressure (1013 MB) QNH Sea level Atmosphere Pressure QT Quart (US) QTY Quantity

O
OAT Outside Air Temperature OBRM On Board Replacable Module OFF / R Off Reset OFST Offset O/P Output OPP Opposite OPT Optimum OUTB Outbound OUTR Outer OVBD Overboard OVHD Overhead OVHT Overheat OVRD Override OVSPD Overspeed

R
R RA RACC RAT RCDR RCL RCL RCLM RCVR REL REL REV RH R /1 RL RLSK RMI RMP RNG RPM RPTG RQRD RSV RTE RTOW RWY RWYM Right, Red Radio Altitude Rotor Active Clearance Control Ram Air Turbine Recorder Recall Runway Centerline Lights Runway Centerline Markings Receiver Release Runway End Lights Reverse Right Hand Radio / Inertial Runway (Edge) Lights Right Line Select Key Radio Magnetic Indicator Radio Management Panel Range Revolution per Minute Repeating Required Reserves Route Regulatory Takeoff Weight Runway Runway Markings

P
P-ALT Profile Altitude P/B Push-Button P-CLB Profile Climb PCU Power Control Unit P-DES Profile Descent PDU Pilot Display Unit PERF Performance PFD Primary Flight Display PHC Probes Heat Computer P-MACH Profile Mach POB Pressure Off Brake P-SPEED Profile Speed POS Position PPOS Present Position PPU Position Pick-off Unit PR Pressure PRED Prediction PROC Procedure PROC T Procedure Turn PROF Profile PROG Progress PROTEC Protection PSU Passenger Service Unit PT Point PTP Purser Test Panel PTR Printer PTU Power Transfer Unit (Hydraulic) PVI Paravisual Indicator PWR Power
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S
S South SC Single Chime S / C Step Climb SD System Display STAT INV Static Inverter S / D Step Descent SDAC System Data Acquisition Concentrator SDCU Smoke Detection Control Unit SEC Spoiler Elevator Computer SEL Selector SFCC Slat / Flap Control Computer SFCS Slat / Flap Control System SFE Seiler Furnished Equipment
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SID Standard Instrument Departure SIM Simulation SLT Slat SOV Shutoff valve SPD Speed SPD LIM Speed Limit SPLR Spoiler SRS Speed Reference System STAR Standard Terminal Arrival Route STEER Steering STRG Steering STS Status SW Switch SWTG Switching SYNC Synchronize SYS System

UFD ULB UNLK UTC

Unit Fault Data Underwater Locator Beacon Unlock Universal Coordinated Time

V
V V1 V2 VBV Vc VEL VFE VFEN VFTO VHF VHV VIB VM VMIN VMO VOR VOR-D VR VREF V/S VSI VSV Volt Critical Engine Failure Speed Take Off Safety Speed Variable by pass valve Calibrated airspeed Velocity Maxi Velocity Flaps Extended VFE Next Vetocity Final Take-Off Very High Frequency Very High Voltage Vibration Maneuvering Speed Minimum Operating Speed Maximum Operating Speed VHF Omnidirectional Range VOR-DME Rotation Speed Landing Reference Speed Vertical Speed Vertical Speed Indicator Variable Stator Vane

T
T TACT TAS TAT TBD T/C TCAS True, Turn, Total Tactical True Air Speed Total Air Temperature To Be Determined Top of Climb Traffic Collision Alert System or Threat Analysis / Collision Avoidance System T / D Top of Descent TDZ Touchdown Zone Lights TEMP Temperature TGT Target THR Thrust THRL Threshold Lights THS Trimmable Horizontal Stabilizer TK Tank TK Track Angle TKE Track Angle Error TMR Timer TLA Throttle Lever Angle TO. Take Off TOGA Take-Off - Go-Around TOGW Take-Off Gross Weight TOW Take-Off Weight T-P Turn Point T-R Transmitter-Receiver TRANS Transition TROPOTropopause TRK Track TRU Transformer Rectifier Unit TTG Time to Go

W
W WHC WPT WTB WXR White, West, Weight Window Heat Computer Waypoint Wing Tip Brake Weather Radar

X
XCVR XFR XMTR XPDR XTK Transceiver Transfer Transmitter Transponder Cross Track Error

Y
Y Yellow

Z
ZFCG Zero Fuel Center of Gravity ZFW Zero Fuel Weight

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