On the public Sphere as a Cultural Political Idea, The Nordic Cultural Model as an example – by Peter Duelund

© Peter Duelund & Nordisk Kultur Institut 2002. Publikationen er et paper til Wellingtonkonferencen om kulturpolitisk forskning i 2002. Alle rettigheder forbeholdes. Mekanisk, fotografisk eller anden gengivelse af eller kopiering af teksten eller dele deraf er kun tilladt i overensstemmelse med overenskomst mellem Undervisningsministeriet og Copy-Dan. Enhver anden udnyttelse uden skriftligt samtykke fra forfatteren/forlaget er forbudt ifølge dansk lov om ophavsret. Nordisk Kultur Institut | Amalievej 15 | DK-1875 Frederiksberg C Tlf. +45 33 21 36 53 | nordkult@post11.tele.dk | www.nordiskkulturinstitut.dk

1. Introduction As a framework of analysing cultural policy as a cross-disciplinary topic in the humilities my starting point is Jürgen Habermas's theories of the public sphere and his later studies of system and lifeworld. Does it make sense to use these theories as a common theoretical framework for cultural political research? What limitations and need for renewal do the theories contain? What are the methodological implications? What is the significance of the answers to these theoretical questions if one empirically attempts comparatively to uncover the basic aspects and development traits of the Nordic cultural policies? With the last question I wish concretely to apply to my study of Danish Cultural Policy as a part of the comparative Nordic research project "The Changing Nordic Cultural Policies - Divergence and Convergence in Nordic Cultural Policies," which I have conducted for the cultural ministries in the Nordic Countries in the last 5 Years. The final Report "The Nordic Cultural Model" are published in February 2003.. 2. The public sphere as a cultural political idea There are several elements in Habermas's theorising and conceptualising about the bourgeois public (Habermas 1962) which immediately demand substantial cultural political research interest. The most essential ones deal with: The individual and political role of the arts in a democratic; Cultural public sphere understood as a sphere for social practice and critical culture struggle; Development of a conceptual apparatus about "publicity" and a "public" taking part and the universal validity of rational forms of communication (universal linguistic pragmatism).

I shall briefly outline these elements - I could mention others - as background to understanding their possible relevance to cultural political research today.

Peter Duelund –On the public Sphere as a Cultural Political Idea 2.1. The Individual and societal role of Arts Without art - no culture or education. Without culture or education - no democracy. In this sense free artistic expression is an precondition for personal life insight and political democracy.

2

Firstly, the bourgeois public sphere as an idea and in its internal understanding was an expression of the combination of a cultural and political democracy and of the role of culture in a state governed by law that still keeps its validity in welfare-motivated cultural policy in modern states governed by law. This applies not the least to the goals used as the basis for Nordic cultural policies after World War Two. The cultural public sphere was/is meant to secure both in the classic understanding of public sphere and in the modern welfare democracies, that the individual experiences of the citizens through the arts in their various forms are produced and presented without distorting and violating political or economic supremacy. This philosophical goal, for instance, acquires its clear constitutional expression in the European and Nordic tradition of authors' right. In opposition to the representative public sphere in pre-modern society - when bishops, princes, and other religious and profane leaders politically and culturally ruled the public sphere and through ceremonies, carnivals, and other cultural manifestations were represented "before" the people - the establishment of the public sphere that grew together with the Western European bourgeois society in the 17th and 18th centuries means that citizens through a free press, publishing companies, public concert halls, theatres, opera houses, art museums, etc., in the everyday life world, and constitutionally, create a sphere for artistic experience, cultural education, and political debate in that order. Thus, the most important task of cultural policy in a democratic state governed by law will be to establish, maintain, and develop a network of cultural institutions that will allow for the multitude of the citizens' individual cultural experiences to be expressed freely in the public sphere as precondition for the development of a successful political democracy. In the classic liberal perception of democracy, the cultural experiences are the starting point for the political discourse and opinion shaping - not the other way round, as many modern political scientists and also cultural theorists are postulating. That is why the primary task of cultural policy as part of the political democracy was and is to procure the state subsidy schemes, the institutional forms, and organisational principles which will optimise the possibility that no citizen is culturally excluded. The cultural public sphere must be "representative". All artistic as well as cultural experiences must be freely expressed. Nobody must be delimited?? The arts were a medium for the aesthetic manifestation in the public sphere of individual life experiences. The cultural institutions were the framework for the artistic process of acquisition. The individual life experiences and human insight were the starting point in the self-knowledge of the bourgeois public sphere. Art and politics were the necessary media of the life world.

 Nordic Cultural Institute | All rights reserved Nordisk Kultur Institut | Amalievej 15 | DK-1875 Frederiksberg C Tlf.: +45 33 21 36 53 | nordkult@post11.tele.dk | www.nordiskkulturinstitut.dk

dk | www.in English "publicness" and "public" . etc. And the feudal overlords. In his analyses. counties and municipalities.2. Habermas attaches great value to demonstrate that the public sphere under classic liberalism and the political and cultural philosophy behind it does not. and cultural institutions were the tool. namely the political and administrative power machinery within the state.tele. which is accessible to the citizens. The establishment of the bourgeois public sphere in the Nordic countries and the rest of Europe demanded a struggle. Contrary to what we today understand by public sphere. the Dannebrog. The function of the public sphere as a cultural critical battleground and tool for the social mobility of the bourgeoisie becomes especially evident towards the end of absolutism.I have shown how the tendencies of the cultural political aim in the Nordic countries and in joint Nordic cultural policy from the 1960s till today have been characterised by a development from cultural policy understood as a tool for the nation state construction process to a rational and instrumentalised abuse of cultural policy. Within their closed cultural and political cycle no clear differences existed between the private and the public.. state machinery.nordiskkulturinstitut.organises and establishes itself from bourgois and the nethermost room of society and from the many new informal places of meetings and gatherings."Culture abused" . the absolutist and despotic state forms.originally refers to concrete physical features such as landscapes. fall from the sky to a God-favoured people. (Duelund 1992: 14-32) 2.and later in the Nordic countries . Everywhere it happens in critical opposition to. the classic concept of publicness referred to a sphere for social practice and cultural struggle. and in physical struggle with. the English "coffee houses" or the German "Tischgesellschäfte". even though instrumentalised Nordic cultural policy of the 1990s often proved the other way round in the political self-knowledge. The ecclesiastical and profane princes within the representative public sphere strove to hold their ground till the last within the narrow representative public sphere around themselves and their circle. Public sphere as arena for social practice and cultural struggle While the concept "offen" . princes.dk . The concept acquires philosophical and sociological meaning as concept for a social order with social room for a societal debate. cultural policy. It originates and progresses through physical battle of culture with the premodern authorities.in English "open" . The sociological precondition for the establishment of the public sphere was the new types of social life and the new social and cultural meeting places for the citizens in the French "les salons". like the Danish national flag. on which absolute monarchy was founded.  Nordic Cultural Institute | All rights reserved Nordisk Kultur Institut | Amalievej 15 | DK-1875 Frederiksberg C Tlf. and bishops did absolutely not want the closed cycle broken by the establishment of a sphere free from a free cultural and political dialogue between the private and state levels of society. In the book "Kulturens misbrug" .: +45 33 21 36 53 | nordkult@post11. when the bourgeois public sphere in Europe . the conceptual coupling in early 18th century Europe of "öffentlichkeit" and "öffentlich" .Peter Duelund –On the public Sphere as a Cultural Political Idea 3 The free cultural and political public sphere was the goal.and in French "publicité" and "publique" begins to refer to social relations.

concerts. the West German cultural sociologist. which rise during the 19th century. and reasoning public develops. art exhibitions. 4 Habermas shows how in 18th century Europe a reading. The new societies. culture subsidy agreements. This were where the new public meets as free and equal citizens. Is the same development the case in Nordic societies? The individualised socialising patterns and aesthetic preferences of the new youth generations must invariably clash with the existing cultural institutional patterns of formation. museums and other cultural institutions. Kaare Nielsen 1993: 135-163.: +45 33 21 36 53 | nordkult@post11. listening.nordiskkulturinstitut. Kaare Nielsen 1996: 137-170).their critical sense and a rational argumentative competence through the  Nordic Cultural Institute | All rights reserved Nordisk Kultur Institut | Amalievej 15 | DK-1875 Frederiksberg C Tlf. and art exhibitions. has produced some significant theses about the developmental tendencies within the highly developed modern societies on the basis of an empirical study of West German society. the public developed and sharpened . (Duelund & Bille Hansen 1994: 20-30.3.as mentioned above. beside the informal meeting places. 2.tele.. Publicity. a public which through newspapers. and principles of organisation. "public" and "rational communication" are key concepts in Habermas's analyses of cultural enlightment. theatres. public and the universal validity of rational communication The concepts of "publicity". Gerhard Schultze. books. Can the new cultural movements which prevail today in Nordic cultural policies be explained and understood as a contemporary parallel to the historical break of the bourgeoisie from the then feudal forms of institutions and formations of experience? Are they a manifestation of social groups having been excluded in the cultural public sphere in Nordic welfare societies? Which new forms of institutions. should room be created for the life experiences and aesthetic form expressions? Among others.dk | www. concerts. Kaare Nielsen 1996: 175-187). periodicals. coffee houses. by this he means that the social action is dominated by a quest for experiences and immediate satisfaction of needs (Schultze 1992. etc.dk . critical argumentation and democratic political opinion shaping in the classic bourgeois public sphere. That raises a number of new cultural political problems which have many parallels to the cultural political struggles and conflicts of interest which took place in the European cultural landscape during the first constitutionalising phase and "gründerperiode" of the bourgeois public sphere. according to Schultze. from around 1980 take on the character of "societies of experience". becomes the precondition for the political public sphere in the shape of parliamentary gatherings. salons. constituted later on the social prerequisite for the bourgeois public sphere. Is Habermas's concept of publicity and public applicable in empirical and theoretical analyses of the role of the publicity in the cultural industrial public sphere and empirical society of today? Does the concept of rational communication have universal validity? In the self-knowledge of the bourgeois public sphere.Peter Duelund –On the public Sphere as a Cultural Political Idea Theatres.

But what did reality look like then and now? The answer in Habermas's analyses. concepts. That is also the case with cultural policy in the Nordic countries and with the joint Nordic cultural policy after World War Two. It was in harmony with the economic. That is also the case with the foundation of ideas. and cultural basic principles. and economy. Writers. artists.Peter Duelund –On the public Sphere as a Cultural Political Idea acquisition of what the publicity produced publicly in the form of books. and principles. The structural change of the public sphere The above thoughts are the ideal model for the vision about cultural. it is described how the bourgeois society from the middle of the 19th century undergoes a social.: +45 33 21 36 53 | nordkult@post11. (Bakke 1988. which deals with the structural change and fall of the bourgeois public sphere. etc. and political democracy that still serves as a justifying basis for important parts of public cultural policy in European democratic societies: The overall aim of cultural policy. composers. art. art. cultural.dk .tele. and political vision of the cultural public sphere. and organisational principles that are applied still to a great extent on foundations for ideas. science. periodicals. In this lay the key to understanding the role and function of the publicity. political. social. cultural enlightment og democratic development in modern societies. and political change which has undermined the real societal debate and the cultural. and societal conception of liberalism. the forms of subsidy and institution.  Nordic Cultural Institute | All rights reserved Nordisk Kultur Institut | Amalievej 15 | DK-1875 Frederiksberg C Tlf. the philosophy of the public sphere was founded on a production structure of independent businessmen . etc.in politics. which lies behind the public function and role on which Habermas's analyses and conceptual apparatus primarily build: The economic precondition for the public sphere was/is actual free trade and free competition.dk | www.nordiskkulturinstitut. individual understanding. Duelund 1982) The free development of thought should apply to all areas . religion. which probably is well known to everybody in this forum. 5 The Danish media researcher Frands Mortensen has schematically summed up the cultural political idea of the bourgeois public sphere in the following way (see plate 1) 3. is an unequivocal No! In the latter half of the book. newspapers.who owned the means of production themselves and on a working life without organised bindings for neither labour nor capital. social. social. - Socially. and other authors were subjected to the critical evaluation and judgement of the public on the basis of what Habermas conceptualises as "rational reasoning and argumentation".

The interest groups joined in still more areas in the regulating work of the social state. in which everybody culturally can be heard and gain political influence. The citizens of the civic society must applaud to the new re-feudal political and economic power system where the state power machinery. the collective interest groups of the underprivileged social groups . The free competition of economic liberalism was replaced by national and international monopolisation. not independent individuals. social.applied the state governed by law to demand social rights and protection.first the peasants' movement. the arena today is characterised by consumption of mass culture. are under the structural change to a large extent paid producers and communicators of culture in the new cultural industries. and marketing culture with no authentic representation of the individual and collective experience of the citizens. economic. The free citizens in the liberal. In the political understanding of liberalism. the public has developed from a reasoning public to a passive mass public. Instead. the large capital formation. party members. characterised by cultural multitude and an authentic production of culture which was the original cultural political foundation for ideas of the public sphere.The critical function of publicity has been replaced by manipulatory communication to an anonymous mass public that no longer participates in an actual discussion. has the modern state governed by law thus lost any hope of building and developing a democratic cultural and political foundation under the new societal conditions? Has the possibility for developing a critical sense and building a just society.dk .Peter Duelund –On the public Sphere as a Cultural Political Idea 6 The material productions did not remain as preconditioned in the social self-knowledge in the hands of the individual citizens.tele. been stopped forever by the definite colonisation by the systemic media of the various spheres of the life worlds? Or has Habermas not seen that also the culturally industrialised society holds "pockets of life worlds" where both critical sense and authentic production and presentation of art have survived as an emancipatory possibility and an actual potential for resistance and development?  Nordic Cultural Institute | All rights reserved Nordisk Kultur Institut | Amalievej 15 | DK-1875 Frederiksberg C Tlf.dk | www. and the mighty organisations and media constitute an integrated power factor. The ownership of the means of production was centralised. and political self-knowledge did not become free citizens under the structural change of the public sphere from the 18th century to today. If the analyses are valid. And most relevant in this connection: The cultural public sphere with private and public cultural institutions did not develop neither within the bourgeois society nor within the Nordic welfare states into the democratic cultural arena.: +45 33 21 36 53 | nordkult@post11.nordiskkulturinstitut. The authors. In the change from the liberal "night-watchman-state" to the modern social state. were nominated to the parliaments in the new representative democracies. both in the cultural and political spheres a "re-feudalising" has taken place. according to Habermas. who as creators of art were the truth witnesses of the culture of the life world in the bourgeoisie understanding of the public sphere. According to Habermas. later the workers' movement . Cultural production and art are no longer an expression of communicative actions but goal-rational behaviour. The political debate free from supremacy was made difficult by private and collective interest groups. commercialism. With Habermas's concepts.

Peter Duelund –On the public Sphere as a Cultural Political Idea Will it .still be possible that the field in both Tour de France and Danmark Rundt will cross over the finishing line without it being to the dictation of the competitive capitalism and the cultural industries? 4. what is relevant in "Borgerlig Offentlighet" .evaluate the concrete implications of a given cultural policy in order to discern and eventually point out the need for changing the institutional framework in existence and the development of alternative strategies. Through the conceptual apparatus and architecture of the theoretical model." on the other hand. that is all up to the politicians and the other actors in cultural policy to decide. maintain."The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere" . In Jürgen Habermas's theory on communicative action.nordiskkulturinstitut.dk | www. the structural analysis of the structural change of the bourgeois public sphere has been developed further into a normative dialectic theory of communication concerning the action rationalities that are important to the cultural development of the late modern capitalist society. On the contrary. But whether it is going to be different and whatever cultural political consequences that may be drawn from the conclusions of the research. the social conditions for cultural practice. with a starting point in the theoretical work and concrete empirical studies. and develop a cultural public sphere with institutions and cultural subsidy schemes which optimise the possibility for the individual experiences and social practice of the societal citizens free from supremacy to be expressed culturally through art. such as I tried to interpret the theory. Habermas analyses the cultural development of the mutual developmental relations between the various action rationalities within system world and life. hermeneutic cultural political research can develop concepts and set up models that can qualify the continuing discourse between the various actors of cultural policy concerning the consequences of a given cultural political practice.dk . acquires analytical tools enabling it adequately to describe and .at best . The Theory of Communicative Action (TCA) From the point of view of cultural research. and what is possibly wanted from a change in the given practice. role.: +45 33 21 36 53 | nordkult@post11. Cultural political research can play a part in answering and enlightening such questions and produce knowledge that can be a part of the public discourse.to return to the sports allegory with which I began . What is cultural politically interesting in "The Theory of Communicative Action. to which Habermas's critical theoretical work ascribes itself. can set up models and possible conditions for passable ways of renewal. But the research. and means of cultural policy. and possibilities of cultural policy. 7 The overall goal for cultural policy in modern democratic societies governed by law such as the Nordic and European welfare societies is to procure.is its structural model for the idea. the research on cultural policy. cannot reach objectively verifiable conclusions as to what cultural policy in a given context exactly ought to do. and other symbolic expressions. aesthetics. challenges.  Nordic Cultural Institute | All rights reserved Nordisk Kultur Institut | Amalievej 15 | DK-1875 Frederiksberg C Tlf. Cultural political research defined as part of the hermeneutic research tradition.tele. is the normative approach to an understanding of the role.

the life world is home to our cultural and social reproduction.dk | www. etc. "Folkets huse". For instance has Svein Bjøkås in the study "Det muliges kunst" shown how the contemporary Norwegian arts subsidy schemes exclude performing freelance artists to a large extent. . Their institutional and aesthetic "codes" could only be "decoded" by a very limited part of the contemporary public. i. That was for instance the aim of Pierre Bourdieu and Alain Darbel's extensive empirical investigation of the European art museums and their public.e. the cultural heritage . of that time. Other studies from that time proved a corresponding exclusion of large civic groups in the literary institutions. Heikkinen & Karhunen 1996) In his music-sociological study of the situation of rhythmic music in Sweden. theatres.The personal identity that constitutes the super-ego of the individual and gives the subject an  Nordic Cultural Institute | All rights reserved Nordisk Kultur Institut | Amalievej 15 | DK-1875 Frederiksberg C Tlf. a goal-rational instrumental logic with the one goal to further maximisation of profit and an effective administration. (Bourdieu. and cultural practice of 1960s art museums in France. their conclusion was that the cultural political aim. Darbel 1991) 8 As is known.e. the Netherlands. (Larsson. and Italy indeed were particular.The norms and rules for social interaction that render it possible for individuals in a given cultural context jointly to co-operate and to maintain the social integration that is the precondition for the joint community. In opposition to the strategic behaviour of the system world. Are the foundations for experience of large Nordic civic groups excluded in their cultural practice today? Is the representation in the cultural public sphere particular? Topical empirical studies indicate it is so.tele. Through the communicative actions are reproduced: . i.Peter Duelund –On the public Sphere as a Cultural Political Idea The action sphere of the research thus positions itself in the public sphere between the intimacy sphere and the state.e. Larsson 1997). which is home to the capitalist commodity economy and accumulation of capital as well as the bureaucracy of modern society. reflects the foundation for experience of a limited social group. which used to be favoured greatly on the musical scene in Sweden's folk parks. if we keep to the bourgeois public sphere model. is characterised by strategic behaviour. i. etc.: +45 33 21 36 53 | nordkult@post11. the life world is characterised by communicative actions. Merja Heikkinen has proved that the creative artists as a whole and young artists in particular have become delimited in Finnish cultural policy. Germany. institutional form. In contrast to this. have become delimited in the modernising and institutionalising process of the musical life that has taken place during the latter decades.or in Habermasian terminology the fund of knowledge and insight that is created by earlier collective historical experiences and into which the individual is born. The level of the system. researcher Tor Larsson has shown how for instance jazz and folk dance music. (Heikkinen 1995. The research may produce knowledge as to whether the artistic representation in the cultural public sphere is particular.The cultural background knowledge of individuals and collectives.nordiskkulturinstitut. (Bjørkås 1998) In various studies carried out for Centralkommissionen för Konst in Finland. Svenson 1992..dk . . concert halls.

this is not an irreversible process. and political context in which they are worked out. Habermas's new conceptual architecture is reflecting to central differentiations of social practice at life world level that have manifested themselves. The three dimensions in Habermas's conceptual apparatus refer to the historical. about which I am going to talk briefly. the morally practical one. the UK. and art/culture. (Kaare Nielsen 1993) [fnote 13] This is especially the case with the setting free of three relatively autonomous action rationalities within the life world: The cognitively instrumental one. That is why it is important for cultural research to uncover the cultural background knowledge and joint understanding horizon. that can be traced back to cultural heritage and passed down patterns of meaning. into tools for the neo-liberal market mechanisms and newconservative power hierarchies of the system world.dk | www. According to Habermas. The economic and political media in the system world are still colonising more and more life areas with these media with a goal-rationality and strategic behaviour that is far from the communicative actions of the life world. (Chartrand 1989)  Nordic Cultural Institute | All rights reserved Nordisk Kultur Institut | Amalievej 15 | DK-1875 Frederiksberg C Tlf. and artistic dimension of cultural policy. the individual identities. art conceptions. if we are to remain in Habermas's terminology. and the aestheticexpressive one. 9 He produces theoretical arguments that a tendency towards colonising the life world is taking place under the late modern societal development. subsidy schemes. 4. The cultural context of cultural policy Often this cultural background knowledge is implicit and unconscious to the individual and to society. Art and culture are transformed from being media that ideally communicated the collective cultural forms of the life world. At the same time.1. that regulate our daily life. France and the former USSR. and the social integrational relations free from supremacy into a larger public sphere. cultural. together with the corresponding developments of institutions: Science/technique. the special cultural tradition that creates the invisible framework for our individual behaviour and values and in which cultural policy is worked out. In a comparative study of art policy in the USA. We do not daily think about which of the behavioural norms and individual character traits and cultural dispositions.dk . and artists' status are characterised by and reflect the specific historical.: +45 33 21 36 53 | nordkult@post11. Canadian cultural economist Harry Hilman Chartrand has shown how the state cultural political models concerning the goals. is also often unconscious in relations to the constitutional process of construction in society.e.Peter Duelund –On the public Sphere as a Cultural Political Idea autonomous action potential in relations to the cultural heritage and collective norms of the community. cultural. Culture within TCA is not defined as a dimension of all human relations but as a specific type of social practice in the life world that under the process of modernising has become separated from other social forms of practice such as the strategic political and economic behaviour at system level. The cultural background knowledge. i. That is why it is relevant to consider how it is possible with political means to act against the colonising tendencies and to further a framework free from supremacy for the free expression of culture. politics/ethics.tele.nordiskkulturinstitut.

as shown by Per Mangset (Mangset 1995) [fnote 8]. On the other hand. However. That is why it corresponds with the Soviet cultural ambitions . movements.e. the own representatives of the arts are at table with the politically appointed members of the Nordic arts councils. Generally speaking.nordiskkulturinstitut. Everybody is the architect of his own fortune/"Everyone has a right to pursue his own happiness. steel.one can hardly speak of a cultural heritage for the first generations under communist rule. The state is to interfere as little as possible. In relation to French cultural policy. That is why it is  Nordic Cultural Institute | All rights reserved Nordisk Kultur Institut | Amalievej 15 | DK-1875 Frederiksberg C Tlf. was founded according to the so-called "Architect" model. the state must acknowledge its responsibility. amateur work. subsidy schemes. cultural policy in the Nordic countries after World War Two is worked out and inspired by both the UK "Patron" model and the French "Architect" model. the Nordic countries attach greater importance to cultural subsidy to institutions. That is why the first Ministry of Cultural Affairs in Europe. and engineering calculation to end the material poverty and create a just and solidary society by changing the public mentality just as the engineers want to change the direction of the river. just as the architect does not want to interfere with the café life once the café is built. by the freely patronising arts council without political interference.dk . The ideal is that the cultural subsidy is distributed according to "The Arm's Length Principle". the cultural political models in the Nordic countries. In the "Architect" model the state acknowledges its responsibility to procure framework for the free expression of culture and art. This also applies for the Nordic countries that have not only a joint but also a different cultural heritage that has characterised the working out of the cultural policy and the various institutions. The cultural engineers worked out cultural policy first in the USSR and then in Eastern Europe with this political goal in sight." That also applies to artists and artistic institutions. the communist vision was iron. Ever since the October Revolution.tele. Since the French Revolution and the Philosophy of Enlightenment. cultural policy in the Nordic countries is also to a great extent characterised by the different cultural traditions and historical differences of the various countries. and organisational models that are applied.Peter Duelund –On the public Sphere as a Cultural Political Idea 10 The American "Facilitator" model reflects the US super-liberal cultural tradition and constitution. general education. That is also true with cultural areas. On the other hand. as their cultural background knowledge to a larger extent originated from feudal Czarist Russia.dk | www. But generally. French culture has been characterised by the classic bourgeois public sphere model and a republican political structure emphasising the individual freedom rights. the state leaves it to the individual authors to fill out the framework. In the UK "Patron" model it is the role of the state in correspondence with the aristocratic cultural heritage that individually appointed patrons in the form of Arts Councils distribute alms to individual artists and artistic institutions. just as an architect resumes responsibility for the building of houses as framework for human existence.: +45 33 21 36 53 | nordkult@post11. indeed in the world. have a larger degree of corporativism and collectivism in correspondence with what we without colonising anybody rightly can term a joint Nordic cultural heritage. and other collective cultural aims. i. Cultural policy is thus characterised by the general cultural context and cultural heritage in which it is worked out constitutionally. Oh dear! Politics and collective decisions are in UK cultural tradition a necessary evil. in correspondence with French freedom tradition. In opposition to the UK Arm's Length authorities.

As mentioned. amateur work. of the earlier bourgeois society. salons. cultural policy is not about staging joint foundation for value from above. general education. In a democratic cultural understanding. In French cultural policy. The individuals within the liberal society must constitute themselves as public. The collective norms and behavioural rules The collective norms and behavioural rules that regulate our daily life rarely take their direct expression in democratic cultural policy. But does that mean that the normative and social preconditions for cultural democracy are present? Are judicial rules and formal institutions in themselves a guarantee of cultural freedom and democracy? Habermas's answer is No! Without a normative and communicative life world as resonator. etc.Peter Duelund –On the public Sphere as a Cultural Political Idea 11 important in the Nordic research project to describe these differences and to analyse how they have been implemented in the national cultural policies. this "broad" cultural dimension has been delimited from cultural policy since the writer and later Minister of Cultural Affairs André Malraux's attempt through "Maison de la Culture" to democratise the so-called high culture. the formal rules of the game carry meaning only to a limited extent. But disregarding the well-meant intentions. (Looseley 1995) [fnote 9]  Nordic Cultural Institute | All rights reserved Nordisk Kultur Institut | Amalievej 15 | DK-1875 Frederiksberg C Tlf. one of the supposed common denominators in Nordic cultural policies and in the joint Nordic cultural policy is that culture defines its sociological/anthropological meaning through subsidy and institutional framework for so-called "popular cultural activities" in the form of state subsidy schemes for local cultural activities. democratic cultural policy is democratic when only the formal structures and institutions actually are present. etc.nordiskkulturinstitut.: +45 33 21 36 53 | nordkult@post11.tele. The securing of these free spheres constitute the cultural dimension of cultural policy in which culture is defined sociologically as the values that render the social relations meaningful.dk . The cultural planning of the engineer is not accepted in a democratic cultural understanding. Cultural institutions are not per se any guarantee for the free expression and multitude of culture. From a structural point of view. No state power or other system characterised by goal-directed strategic behaviour should dictate them what to do. That also applies to the cultural political sphere. since that would conflict with the individual human rights as well as the basic cultural rights within the liberal cultural model of the bourgeois public sphere.2. The cultural norms and joint values should be developed through the free social intercourse and communicative actions of the citizens. It is important to take this historical dimension as starting point if the divergences between the cultural policies of the various countries and autonomous regions are to be identified and defined. It must roll in the blood of people as an internalised normative reality. but about procuring social spheres free from supremacy in which the public freely can meet and through communicative actions develop norms and joint values without the a priori determined cultural strategy of the Engineer model. And that is only developed if today's society contains non-colonised spheres for the free communicative actions of individuals parallel to the coffee houses. 4. social movements. the strategy of the "Maison de la Culture" remained a staged popularising from the system level.dk | www. as in the Engineer model.

" being one of the documented common denominators in Nordic cultural policy.dk | www.e. Henrik Kaare Nielsen has maintained and developed such a position through numerous studies.: +45 33 21 36 53 | nordkult@post11. a priority bound by context? Well-documented studies show that the "broad" cultural dimension carries high priority economically and in the state cultural objectives. In contrast to this position.dk . (Nielsen 1996: 58)  Nordic Cultural Institute | All rights reserved Nordisk Kultur Institut | Amalievej 15 | DK-1875 Frederiksberg C Tlf.3. in the Nordic countries. perhaps higher than in other European countries.nordiskkulturinstitut. which has been strongly inspired by post-modern deconstruction of the individual author as the aesthetic artefactor ??? subject and replacement with self-referential processes of aesthetics. for instance at "The centre for cross-aesthetic studies" at Aarhus University. Aesthetics and development of identity A number of theoretical works from the latter years have thematicised the relation between aesthetics and social practice and its importance for the development of identity for the subject under modern societal terms. also regarding modern art. 4.there are others who are more qualified to do this. But the aesthetic/artistic process of creation may just as well refer to the existential experience of the individual artist as to the discourses that are carried out internally within the various cultural institutions. to which Habermas arttheoretically refers in his discourse concerning the importance of the communicative practice forms for the personal development of identity in modern society.tele. differ from the overall goals in public cultural policy in the other European countries or have the Nordic countries "merely" aimed more resources in cultural policy to carry them out into existence? To what extent can the priority of the social cultural dimensions be explained by the character of the Nordic cultural heritage of collectivity and social life world fixation . it is the relations of the works to the expectational structures of everyday experience that play a leading role in the importance acquired by the works in the reception of art. in later years . Since the 1970s.i. What is interesting in a cultural political research perspective is that the new aesthetic theoretical positions maintain that. That may be the case.not least in German humanities and social sciences .an aesthetic research has developed that seeks to maintain the aesthetics to everyday experience without reducing the aesthetic process of creation to social experience as reference framework. I shall not in this case touch further upon the aesthetic theoretical discourse . What status does the aesthetically expressive dimension have in cultural policies of the Nordic countries and in joint Nordic cultural policy? This problem is applicable to the 3rd life world sphere in Habermas's TKH.Peter Duelund –On the public Sphere as a Cultural Political Idea What is the case with Nordic cultural policy? 12 Does the "broad aim. Large parts of the modern art discourse have in its self-knowledge suspended any reference to everyday experience and thus the importance of aesthetic development.

in reference to a sentence by Danish literature critic Georg Brandes.dk . The subject is always involved in a mutual dialectic process.tele.nordiskkulturinstitut. colonisation or marginalising of the own dynamics and own legality of aesthetics and the aesthetic creational process. but as processual principles of organising that the actors create. and so forth. recreate.dk | www. "When we act. not to aesthetic ones. It is important to cultural political research that in process orientation has to thematicise the relation between aesthetics. we experience. (Giddens 1984. As the Danish aesthetical and cultural researcher Henrik Kaare Nielsen has pointed out.: +45 33 21 36 53 | nordkult@post11.the putting aside. the way is paved not only for a coupling of aesthetic theory to Habermas's theories about the importance of the communicative actions for the development of identity for the individual . Giddens's structuration process relates to social experiences. The central concept.and it is important to point out if aesthetic reductionism is to be avoided in cultural political research ." (Kaare Nielsen 1996: 11) It is the task of the aesthetic sciences to analyse the own logic of aesthetics.what Habermas terms the communicative actions (Kaare Nielsen 1996: 15). but intersubjectively manifested/Gestalt. Scientific cognition is always subjectiveobjective. either in actor or structure orientation. The concept of truth is not objective and metaphysical. Thus the tendency is broken to think either in process or system orientation. culture and politics. 1994) [fnote 10] Our cognition of the world thus takes its form from a never ended process of construction. in which the main view is that societal structures neither are to be understood as objective matters nor determined patterns. But that does not mean that the two paradigms cannot inspire each other. Thus the classic cognitive epistemological schism between subject and object is transgressed. The processual and communicative understanding of science and the world has meant that postmodern theorists have made capital of the fact that our social and aesthetic cognition of reality is so arbitrary and fictive that only random social or aesthetic preferences can give greater importance to one statement about the world than others. It is the cultural political research task to analyse the optimal conditions for an aesthetic production free from supremacy. the concept of aesthetics thus becomes relevant in a larger social and societal context. either voluntary or deterministic.  Nordic Cultural Institute | All rights reserved Nordisk Kultur Institut | Amalievej 15 | DK-1875 Frederiksberg C Tlf. there are many relations to Giddens's structuration theory. and change themselves as they go along as part of the social practice. which brings about new revised action which again results in modification of the experience up till now.a coupling not carried out by Habermas himself. never one or the other. 1990. The way is also paved for the development of a cultural political research paradigm that thematicises the social and cultural importance of aesthetics and the cultural political framework conditions under which the social meaning of aesthetics is optimised without . On the contrary! In this perception of aesthetics. Giddens's structuration theory contains no cultural theory. according to both Giddens and Habermas.Peter Duelund –On the public Sphere as a Cultural Political Idea 13 Thus. either at micro level or at macro level. or "the connection between the infinitely small and the infinitely big" . that furthers the static and stiffened fronts in cultural sociology is social practice .

and on the other hand .: +45 33 21 36 53 | nordkult@post11. the actor perspective ties to the communicative processes of the life world. the processual understanding of knowledge does not build upon an arbitrary but upon an empirical cognitive process that will be acknowledged because of its capability to organise collective experience in an inter-subjectively plausible way. On the other hand. In Habermas's theory it is in the conflicting relations between system and life world that his criticism of society takes its starting point . system and life world. In the development of theory we talk about dynamic relations of conflict between system and life world between the colonisation of the communicative life connections by the system . I have shown how this post-modern angle on literary criticism corresponds to the super-liberal economic development of theory that wants the copyright and other cultural political instruments abolished in favour of market-orientated art and artistic production without regulating public measures.and the opposition and attempt by the life world to re-conquer colonised area.Peter Duelund –On the public Sphere as a Cultural Political Idea 14 For instance in post-modern cultural theory and deconstructivistic literary theory (Foucault.tele.in defence of the communicative actions of the life world as relevant medium for the regulation and development of modern democratic society . Eco. Both Habermas's and Giddens's developments of theory are thus strongly characterised by antideterminism. this endeavour is expanded in the thesis that modern societal formation has split itself into two practice spheres.dk . The system and its rationality are defined by the expansive own/eigen dynamics of the capital accumulation and state bureaucracy. Barthes.  Nordic Cultural Institute | All rights reserved Nordisk Kultur Institut | Amalievej 15 | DK-1875 Frederiksberg C Tlf.in criticism of the tendency of formal systemic media such as money and power beginning more and more to colonise and marginalise art. Exactly these dynamics tend to be extremely useful as an analytical starting point for cultural political research at a theoretical as well as at an empirical level. (Duelund 1998) This aesthetic reductionism of reality misses the fact that cognition not only uses an aesthetic rationality but also cognitive and aesthetic rationalities about which I shall talk briefly below in relation to Habermas's theory of rationality.by the acting subjects and by other researchers.nordiskkulturinstitut. According to Habermas. and others). In an analysis of the status of the creative artists in international copyright law and its importance as cultural political instrument. When we as researchers analyse the cultural actions and processes we interpret something that already is interpreted . That exactly is the point of Giddens's concept of double-hermeneutics as terms for the scientific process of cognition in a port/post-traditional world. culture. that has brought about the conclusion that the concept of the subject and thus the individual concept of the author is a survival from the past and an error in the conception of art and developmental belief of modernism. that operate with different rationalities and that are in conflict with each other. On the other hand. and in the strategic colonisation of the life world by the economic and bureaucratic media. and cultural policy.dk | www. (Nielsen 1996: 15) Neither according to Habermas nor Giddens do scientific cognition and the scientific public sphere function as a guarantee for truth but for the collective adaptation of experience as the critical authority to which other scientific cognitions must be able to legitimise themselves.

authors. Beiträge zur Diskurstheorie des Rechts und des demokratischen Rechtsstaats" (Habermas 1992) . Or: It is left to the cultural political practice to work against the goal-rational. The potential of cultural policy in the modern state governed by law In his analysis of the rise and fall of the bourgeois public sphere. can function as a sphere for a debate free from supremacy and therefore also can continue. (Habermas 1994) In BFN he argues that the public sphere in democratic states governed by law. The optimistic tones were already set in 1989 with the UK publication of the structural change of the public sphere when Habermas in the new preface writes that during his work he had underestimated the resistance potential of the life world. The public sphere in the form of the democratic state governed by law carries not only instrumental rationality of objective and strategic action.e. its maximisation of profit. not power and sanctions.dk | www. In the theory of communicative actions the process of decay and fall takes place in a tension field between the strategic behaviour of the system.Peter Duelund –On the public Sphere as a Cultural Political Idea 15 With Habermas (and Giddens) the most important point for cultural policy and cultural political research is this: The economic and bureaucratic media of the system may develop in correspondence to an eigen-logical expansive logic. and researchers who through their actions create the colonised systemic strategies for action. Habermas works out the legal and political implications of his theory about communicative action. especially the critical and reasoning potential inherent in the educational system which since the 1960s has been expanded greatly. That is why it is also left to human practice with starting point in the communicatively organised practice of the life world to bring the colonisation to an end.public.nordiskkulturinstitut. But this strategic rationality does neither depend upon itself nor is it absolute. Cultural policy delimits and marginalises a free production of art with the starting point in the own experiences of the citizens."Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy" (Habermas 1996). The book is also a completion of the theoretical work on the public sphere that Habermas commenced with the bourgeois public sphere almost 40 years ago. and bureaucratic power wielding . social norms. "Public relations" and manipulation techniques replace the principle of publicity.tele. After all. Habermas takes a more nuanced view of the democratic possibilities of the public sphere. but also communicative reason. and personal development of identity which in the liberal democratic cultural understanding was created and reproduced through the communicative rationality of the life world.: +45 33 21 36 53 | nordkult@post11. even under the economic and bureaucratic tendencies to colonisation. That is why the  Nordic Cultural Institute | All rights reserved Nordisk Kultur Institut | Amalievej 15 | DK-1875 Frederiksberg C Tlf. 5.dk . Habermas finishes in a pessimistic presentation and evaluation of the emancipatorical possibilities of the public sphere. by will and competence to dialogue and exchange of experience along with arguments. it is human actors . i. In his latest major work "Faktizität und Geltung. In such a cultural political paradigm the task falls on scientific research to procure knowledge about which constitutional terms will optimise such a potential for resistance. culture. instrumental colonisation of art. The reasoning and critical public degenerates into passive consumers of culture.and the communicative reason of the life world. In "Between Facts and Norms" (abbreviated to BFN).

subsidy and regulation schemes to work against the marginalisation of the communicative reason and to ensure that it not only are economic and power political goals to which consideration is taken. Cultural policy and its basic principles must be sanctioned through reasoning and discourse. through a joint dialogue.Peter Duelund –On the public Sphere as a Cultural Political Idea 16 possibility still exists for the state governed by law through legislation. That is what Hart terms the "internal aspect" of legislation. emancipatorically and through reason to find out which is right and wrong. i.: +45 33 21 36 53 | nordkult@post11.nordiskkulturinstitut. from a set of joint values that exist among the individuals in society and not from a universal and metaphysical principle of validity or as in traditional legal philosophy in which the normative and communicative aspect . rules of the game. That is why the answer to the last question is that neither artistic freedom nor basic copyright political principles.unless the majority in a given society normally finds that it must be so. despite the colonised tendencies.tele.e.the internal aspect of legislation . are explained metaphysical or through natural right.is delimited. Established procedures. such as the rights of the authors. Hart has termed the "internal aspect" of legislation. If not. what is desirable and non-desirable. and the organisational principles of culture also legitimacy based on collective social recognition if cultural policy in modern states governed by law is going to survive in the long run? Can the overall goal of cultural policy about "artistic freedom" and "the necessity of art" as many of the engaged advocates of artistic policy seem to think. be legitimised in universal legal principles as Kant thinks? If Habermas's latest theoretical work on cultural policy is applied to the Nordic welfare states and other democratic states governed by law in the world. then the answer to the two first questions is an unequivocal Yes! Just like other legislative and public subsidy schemes. through social recognition collective legitimacy has emerged about what the legal theorist H. whether reflecting the will of God and religious power wielders or whether having been passed through procedures.L. cultural institutions. Does the demand for legitimacy also hold for public cultural policy? Are the preconditions of cultural legislation.A. The same can happen for cultural policy. constitutional legal machineries. Here Habermas is founded on a dualistic philosophy of legislation that includes both "facts and norms" as preconditions that legislation can achieve the democratic effects as originally were intended in the bourgeois public sphere. will not be legitimised and survive in the long run . cultural policy must be legitimised and sanctioned by social and normative recognition.dk | www. Thus. public arts subsidy. cultural legislation and other public regulation schemes are not going to survive in the long run.dk .  Nordic Cultural Institute | All rights reserved Nordisk Kultur Institut | Amalievej 15 | DK-1875 Frederiksberg C Tlf. In democratic states governed by law. Habermas takes his starting point in the fact that the life world still is housing communicative rationality and a set of joint values and norms that can be the beginning for people. Whether the arguments in the public debate are valid and legitimate is in Habermas's legal philosophy defined inter-subjectively.

 Nordic Cultural Institute | All rights reserved Nordisk Kultur Institut | Amalievej 15 | DK-1875 Frederiksberg C Tlf. The concept of rationality is to narrow in studies of the complex field of research on cultural policy and reductionistic in accordance to the modern variety of symbolic form of communication and artefacts. In my opinion is Habermas's assertion that it is always possible . as in the bourgeois liberal ideal model we began by describing.Peter Duelund –On the public Sphere as a Cultural Political Idea 17 That is why it is such an important task for cultural political research to contribute with knowledge and insight that can qualify cultural political reasoning with a starting point in the assumption that art and culture. Theories of Communication i not applicable to analyse the real power structure in the world and its implications for culture and the arts. To describe. and evaluate under which constitutional and institutional framework terms art and culture express communicative actions to a greater extent than strategic behaviour. from when he conceptually divided the concepts "labour" and "interaction" in his work on "Technik und Wissenschaft als Ideologi" (Habermas 1968) to his latest work on the possibilities of cultural regulation in the democratic society governed by law "Between Facts and Norms" (Habermas 1996) . A lot of populations and cultural varieties have in reality been excluded in the public sphere in its classical form. This universal and rational idea of communication . if research is to give a plausible answer to these questions. remain communicative actions reflecting and expressing the authentic experiences of the citizens.under certain constitutional and institutional preconditions .: +45 33 21 36 53 | nordkult@post11. 6.the "universal pragmatics" which runs through all of Habermas's scientific production.methodological implications and issues to discuss The theories and the apparatus of concepts in the work of Habermas can and have been criticized from several points of view. three of the most important tasks of cultural political research today will be: To identify where in the tension field between system and life world should the Nordic cultural policy and the joint Nordic cultural policies rightly be placed. If the scientific public sphere . albeit a modest part can procure consensus about the normative research paradigm. To intensify the scientific discourse about which theories and methods are relevant.nordiskkulturinstitut.of which cultural political research is a part.dk . The forms of communication in the theories of Habermas underestimate and marginalizes the aesthetic paradigm and the autonomous potential of the fine arts and their role for human cognition. Cultural Policy between System and Life World .dk | www. through communicative acts with equal partners the most problematic element in his theories and model. analyse.is one of the points which has resulted in the greatest critical scepticism against his theoretical complex and conceptual apparatus.tele.possible to create consensus through a true and real dialogue.

Polity Press. Les éditions de Minuit. which allow us to discus also this critical elements and makes it possible in a reasonable dialoque to clarify the conceptual and theoretiocal misunderstandings . Alain: Cultural Works and Cultivated Disposition. 1991 Bourdieu. The model of cultural policy in the sense of Habermas are illustrated in plate 1 "The Constitutional Paradigm of Culture". Oxford 1993b.J. On the other hand as Habermas has pointed out in his essay "Further Reflections on the Theory of Public Sphere" (Habermas 1996). Oslo 1993a.dk .: The Field of Cultural Production.does it make sense to apply the theories of Habermas as a critical framework for research on cultural policy. Norges forskningsråd.nordiskkulturinstitut.P.): Kunnskap om kulturpolitikk. Cambridge.& Wacquant. Darbel. Per (red. Det norske Samlaget. 1979. but they are hardly in themselves a form of communication complex enough to the shaping of. Bourdieu.dk | www.Peter Duelund –On the public Sphere as a Cultural Political Idea 18 In post-modern linguistic and cultural theory the notion of the validity and universality of the rational acts of communication is thus severely questioned. the public sphere in a democratic society governed by law. Paris.is Yes! The overall goal for cultural policy in modern democratic societies governed by law such as the Nordic and European welfare societies is to procure. Polity Press.  Nordic Cultural Institute | All rights reserved Nordisk Kultur Institut | Amalievej 15 | DK-1875 Frederiksberg C Tlf.: Den kritiske ettertanke. Utviklingstrekk i norsk kulturpolitikkforskning. Bourdieu.P. 56. KULTs skriftserie nr. References Bjørkås.tele. So my answer to the overall issue of this presentation . meaning and opinion in society or a guarantee of the maintenance of a cultural and political democracy in a state governed by law.: +45 33 21 36 53 | nordkult@post11.D. aesthetics. On the operational and empirical level their is a lot of issues to be clarified in the years to come. Pierre. maintain. Rational argumentation and reasoning may be necessary elements in the dialogue and communicative acts between individuals. Oslo 1996. and develop a cultural public sphere with institutions and cultural subsidy schemes which optimise the possibility for the individual experiences and social practice of the societal citizens free from supremacy to be expressed culturally through art. European Art Museums and their Public. Svein & Mangset. cultural competence.is the only model. That is on of our main methodological issues for discussion and hopefully for clarification of the joint Nordic research project that we are about to undertake. Bourdieu. Pierre: La distinction. and other symbolic expressions The overall goal for research on cultural policy is to clarify under which constitutional conditions the purpose of cultural policy have the optical chances to be realised. L. in: Pierre Bourdieu and Alain Darbel: The Love of Art.

Peter: "Enlightment and Telematics" in Cronberg. Peter: "Enlightment and Telematics:" in Cronberg. København. Peter: Tilskuer eller deltager? Om alternativer til kulturindustrien. Aarhus: Nordic Culturel Institute. Duelund. Peter: Cultural politics in the light of the EEC in Lise Lyck: Denmark and EEC Membership Evaluated. Akademisk forlag. Peter & Hansen. London.): Kulturens brug eller misbrug?. (ed): Danish Experiments – Social Constructions of Technology.Duelund.: "Relations Between Government and the Arts in Western Europe and North America" in Cummings.: +45 33 21 36 53 | nordkult@post11. Pinter Publishers. Peter & Dyekjær. Nordisk Ministerråd. Denmark and EEC Membership Evaluated. Peter. KLIM/Nordisk Kultur Institut.dk | www. Milton C.): Kulturens Politik. København. Pinter Publishers ( London. Jørn (ed. 1989. 1996).. Pengestrømmene i de ophavsretlige forvaltningsorganisationer ("The Game of Copyright. Copenhagen. Katz. Århus University Press.. Martin’s Press. (The Internal Market and Cultural policy). Katz. 1991 Duelund.fl. Richard S.). New York. bd.dk . 1994) Duelund. St.: Who’s to pay for the Arts? The international search for models of support. St. New York: ACA Books. 1992 Duelund. (København/Århus: Nordisk Kultur Institut/KLIM.tele. Peter (red. Copenhagen. The flow of money in the collecting societies"). Peter (red. 1992. (ed): Danish Experiments – Social Constructions of Technology. Martin's Press. København 1994 Duelund. 1990. Milton C.fl. Duelund. Peter: "Culture in the Postindustrial Society" in Langsted. Nordisk Ministerråd. Studies in Modern Cultural Policy. The Danish Social Science Research Council.om de kulturpolitiske tendenser i Danmark og Europa (The State of Art . 1982. Duelund. Duelund. Richard S. Spillet om ophavsretten. Århus. Århus. Trine Bille: Hvor står vi nu?. Peter: Cultural politics in the light of the EEC in Lise Lyck. KlIM/Nordisk Kultur Institut. Peter: Det indre marked og kulturen. The Danish Social Science Research Council.trends in cultural policy in Denmark and Europe). Duelund. 1989) Duelund. Thomas. Duelund m. Peter: Kunstens vilkår . 1983. 1991 Duelund.  Nordic Cultural Institute | All rights reserved Nordisk Kultur Institut | Amalievej 15 | DK-1875 Frederiksberg C Tlf. København 1994-1995 Duelund.: 1-17. Duelund m.Peter Duelund –On the public Sphere as a Cultural Political Idea 19 Cummings.nordiskkulturinstitut. NordREFO. (Copenhagen. New York. Ministry of Culture. (Copenhagen. NordREFO.) Kulturens spændetrøje. (Copenhagen. Dyekjær Thomas: Spillet om ophavsretten ( The Game of Copyright). Nordisk Duelund. Peter (red. 1992. 1996) Duelund.): Strategies.

American Council for the Arts. Langsted. and J. ACA Books. Helsinki 1995b. Jürgen: Theorie des Kommunikativen Handelns..nordiskkulturinstitut.): Strategies. 1989. Frankfurt a.Peter Duelund –On the public Sphere as a Cultural Political Idea 20 Heikkinen. ACA books. London 1950.: +45 33 21 36 53 | nordkult@post11.  Nordic Cultural Institute | All rights reserved Nordisk Kultur Institut | Amalievej 15 | DK-1875 Frederiksberg C Tlf. Franfurt a. New York. Studies in Modern Cultural Policy. Jürgen: Further Reflections on the Public Sphere". 1981. European Programme of National Cultural Policy Reviews. Suhrkamp Verlag. Jørn (eds. Bd 1-2. Habermas. Cambridge.dk | www. H. The international seach for models of spport. Katz Richard : Who’s to pay for the Arts. Globalization and the Nation State. Cummings Jr. Robert H. Franfurt a.M. Jürgen: Strukturwandel de Öffentkeit.dk . 1990. pp.M. Århus University Press. 1989. Suhekamp Verlag.. New York.G. Milton C. London 1992. Merja: Promotion of Creativity. National Report. Cultural Policy in Finland. Jürgen: Faktizität und Geltung. The MIT Press. Holton (1998). J.1992. Marshall. in: Calhoun.15-43. Mark Davidson: The search for international models: Results from recent comparative reseach in arts policy in Cummings Milton C. 1962 Habermas.: Citizenship and social Class.): Who’s to pay for the Arts?. Schuster. Mark Davidson Schuster (eds.): Habermas and the Public Sphere. M.384-395. Craig (ed. Suhrkamp Verlag. Council of Europe & the Arts Council of Finland. 259-293.tele. Habermas. London: MacMillan Press LTD. Habermas.