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The Internet Information superhighway. How does the internet work?

Transmits data such as pictures, text, sound, and video via different types of transmission lines. The internet is composed of complex, interlocking parts. It requires that each participant system have a unique id i.e. email address. the internet uses various types of equipment to perform many functions. The internet is a system of systems. The internet makes complex simple. The methods of phone calls and email transmissions are almost identical in nature. The phone calls transmits data in analog form but computers transmit out as digital data in short bursts. Digital: data that is transmitted in form of 0s and 1s. Packet: a single sequence of digital data. No matter how many packets are mixed up in transmission they usually can be put back together again by a computer. If anything happens that destroys a call routing system the call will be rerouted and the system will continue to run relatively smoothly. The standard and functional equipment needed to use the internet Standard-A computer, a modem and some type of connection Megahertz-One hertz represents a single cycle of current per second in a circuit. The client is the most important piece of software needed for Internet usage. client-receives and translates data server-provides and translates data By using the client software you can get information from the internet. The software client translates the data packets into Internet language (0s and 1s). Every computer has a unique number through which it communicates to other computers called the IP address. This address is used by the Internet Protocol (IP) to identify each computer on the Internet. It consists of numbers between 0 and 255. InterNIC is responsible for registering all computers on the Internet with IP addresses. Domain Name: This is an English version of the IP address. It is always important to remember your domain name.

Q What are the basic building blocks of packets? A Packets are made up of a number of 0s and 1s in a unique sequence that conveys certain

information. A portion of these 0s and 1s makes up a marker that identifies a packet as belonging with all other similar packets. Q Why is InterNIC responsible for assigning IP addresses and domain names? A Basically, to avoid a lot of confusion. Can you imagine what would happen if every local phone company got to pass out phone numbers? They would have no way to avoid duplication of numbers and no way to route calls to unique numbers. The same is true of IP addresses. InterNIC acts as the administrator to make sure that the Internet runs smoothly. Q Can clients and servers be either software or hardware? A Yes. Server computers are generally loaded with server software to help them "serve"
their information better. When you use the Internet, not only are you using client software to give you the information you need, but your PC also acts as a client computer at the same time.

INTERNET USAGE IN THE MODERN WORLD HOW DID THE INTERNET START? As a project in 1973 by the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It was developed to investigate techniques and technologies for connecting packet networks of various kinds. ARPAnet (later called Internet)was born because DARPA wanted to develop protocols that would allow networked computers to talk to one another. Protocol: Protocol is a set of rules that we use to communicate across networks. Internet developed a series of protocols known as Transmission Control/ Internet Protocol TCP/IP. In 1986-US National Science Foundation (NSF) initiated the development of NSFnet which now carries over 12 billion packets of information per month. Backbone: A major cable that carries network traffic. After 1991 new commercial backbone s sprang up that led to the marketing and popularization of the Internet. After that came America Online, CompuServe, and other Internet service providers. USES OF THE INTERNET 1.COMMUNICATION The most popular use of the Internet is the World Wide Web. Electronic mail or email. person to person communication

2.PERSONAL COMMUNICATION Emails have created the communication accessibilty from one person to another. Emails can let you get hold of people that you needed and could not get easily. The email clears out the thought of getting disconnected when communicating. It is also a fast and efficient way to communicate. 3. MANAGING DOCUMENTS The quickest way to send a document electronically is through the email because it offers you the ability to attach and encode documents to email messages and send them to their destination of choice. 4. A PUBLIC FORUM Internet alllows you to communicate with hundreds of other people through one email adress. You can subscribe to a listserv and gain access to communicate with other people who have subscribed to the listserv. Listserv: an email adress that is configured to forward every message that it receives to the email addresses of the users who have subscribed to it. (mailing lists). COMMUNICATE IN REAL TIME

The processes of getting information, talking to others, and collaborating with colleagues no longer require a waiting period.
Video conferencing is made available.

Connectix QuickCam can introduce you to the world of face-toface communication on the Internet.
One is capable of finding anything on the Internet since it is information. The Internet enables you to create contacts with people who you are looking for or are long lost. Locator Services for finding places. Search Engine-a computer program that indexes a database and then enables users to search it for relevant information. The Internet can be used for fun and entertainment.

Q&A
Q Has the Internet really been around 25 years? A Well, yes and no. The Internet as you know it has really emerged only in the last five years or so, even though TCP/IP-based networks have been around much longer. Q Does a difference exist between the Internet and the World Wide Web? A The World Wide Web is just a part of the Internet, much like email and newsgroups.

Granted, it's a rather large part, but it isn't the same thing as the Internet any more than the telephone in your bedroom is the same as the phone system. Q Is it really reasonable to expect to find good and useful information on the Internet? A Absolutely. As you'll discover as you read this book, a myriad of online libraries, news sources, and other rich pockets of information are just waiting for you to tap into them. 1. What is TCP/IP protocol? 2. Because computer networks are simply connected with phone lines, it doesn't really matter what protocols are used for effective communications across these networks. True or False? 3. Which of the following delivers communications from a large group of people right to your mailbox? (a) A newsgroup (b) A listserv (c) Video-conferencing software Answers 1. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. 2. False. Without a common "language" or protocol such as TCP/IP, networks can never talk to each other. 3. (b) A listserv.
INTRODUCTION TO THE WORLD WIDE WEB The World Wide Web is the fastest growing part of the Internet, as well as most exciting. What is the history of the world wide web? 1980-CERN (European Labaratory for Particle Physics)-Tim Berners-Lee envisioned the development of a worlwide computer interconnection that would provide access to all sorts of information and files for the physics community. -1989-He submitted his proposal which gave birth to www. Organizations began to assemble the hardware and know how to develop this expansive network. -The first www computers were created at CERN and its success and ease of creating and employing these types of computers facilitated the ensuing

explosion of the www and it s utilization. Server-delivers information and data Client-any computer that requests or receives the information or data Information and files on the web can be found anywhere in the world. The www provides an encyclopedia of terms that gives you the meaning of complex terms that you may come across. -Website; a collection of www documents, usually consists of a homepage and other related pages. -Homepage; the cover of a particular website. Main Page. -Link-a link provides a path that connects you from one part of a www document to another part of the same document, a different document or another resource. Anchor-A link that takes you to a different part of the same web page -Image Map; A feature available on the World Wide Web that

enables you to click various locations in an graphic image to link to different documents. Frame: A feature available on the World Wide Web that presents text, links, graphics, and other media in separate portions of the browser display. Some sections remain unchanging, whereas others serve as an exhibit of linked documents.
Table: A feature available on the World Wide Web that presents document text, links, graphics, and other media in row and column format. Table borders may be visible in some documents but invisible in others.