Prokaryotes

1 2 3 Bacteria and cyanobacteria Smaller diameter The genetic materials, circular double staind of DNA are not surrounded by double membrane nuclear envelope. ( nucleoid )

Eukaryotes
Protoctists ,fungi,plant and animals Larger diameter The genetic materials ,DNA are surrounded by double membrane nuclear envelope. The DNA are associated with the histone to form chromosome. Circular DNA present in mitochondria and chloroplast.

3 4

Plasmid present. (plasmid is the small circular DNA) Few organelles .No double membrane-bound organelles.

5

6 7

Mesosome in bacteria and plasma membrane of cyanobacteria contain respiratory enzyme . no mitochondria. No mitosis and meiosis. No spindle formation. Ribosome smaller .70 types. As free particles in cytoplasm.

Plasmid absent. Many organelles .Presence of double membrane-bound organelles ( mitochondria ,nucleus,and chloroplast) Presence of mitochondria as site of cellular respiration Mitosis and meiosis occur. Spindle formation occur. Ribosome bigger . 80 types. As free particles in cytoplasm and also attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

have “9+2” arrangement of microtubules. Absent of chloroplast. If pesent . Flagella . 10 Flagella .cell wall of fungi with chitin . . If present .8 9 Rigid cell wall with murein ( peptidoglycan) Certain protokaryotes are photoautotroph. The photosynthetic membranes are not stacked into grana.) 11 Some prokaryotic cell contain enzymes which fix the atmospheric nitrogen for use in amino acid synthesis. Cell wall of plant with cellulose . (“9+2” arrangement means 9 fused microtubules centered around two single microtubules as diagram shown below.animal does not have cell wall Thylakoid are stacked into grana in the chloroplast. No enzyme which fix the atmospheric nitrogen. contain flagellin and lack microtubules.

Without centrioles Big permanent vacuole. 9 Smaller 10 Lysosome present . Cell wall made up of cellulose With plasmodesmata and pits . Starch granules as carbohydrate storage.Animal cell 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 No cell wall No plasmodesmata and pits With flagella and cilla No chloroplast With centrioles which form spindle fibre during meiosis and mitosis. Bigger No lysosome. cytoplasm throughout the cell. Without flagella and cillia With chloroplast. Small vacuole Nucleus often central. Glycogen granules as carbohydrate storage. Nucleus and cytoplasm normally peripheral.

Cell components 1. Membrane .

giving a mosaic apearance and have different structure and function.are found between the phospholipid molecules. . Phospholipid bilayer Polar hydrophilic end .prevents the phospholipid from geting close to each other . Cholesterol . . . Cytoskeleton . -stabilise the membrane structure and regulate the fluidity of the membrane.point outward .i. repelled the aqueous surrounding . iii. attractive to aqueous surrounding.thus giving the membrane its fluidity. ii. Attracted by one another by hydrophobic interaction and VDW interaction. .Phospholipid molecules and some protein molecules are free to move laterally or change their place .The fluidity increase when temperature increase. Membrane fluidity .Unsaturated fatty acids have double bond which form kinks .thus increase the fluidity and promote the movement of phopholipid bilayer.Proteins are scattered in the fluid phospholipid bilayer . iv.point inward. Non-polar hydrophobic end .Intracellular protein fillament which support the membrane.

Cell wall have pits . Cell wall i. iv. iii.able to prevent the plant cell from bursting when the osmotic pressure increase due to the entry of water into the cell via osmosis. microfibrills . ii. *cellulose microfibrils are having high tensile strengh . They are arranged in sucessive layers and in The microfibrills are embedded in an amorphous different angles. arranged . Primary cell wall laid down during cell division. by lignin. v. matrix of hemicelluloses. Extra layer are later secreted inside the surface of the primary wall and form secondary cell wall. The suberin in cork cell and cutin on epidermal The cell wall is permeable to the water and solutes surface reduce the evaporation of water and the entry of pathogens.2. there are spaces in between the beinng increased. Middle lamella –pectin layer which contain calcium and magnesium –join the adjacent cell together.enable the cyotoplasmic strands (plasmodesmata) to pass through connecting cytoplasm of one cell and adjacent cell.protect the plant and give the mechanical strength. Primary cell wall Secondary cell wall Made up of celulose microfibrills which loosely The cellulose microfibrills are more compact. the mechanical strength and support are Thus . calcium and magnesium The cell wall of tracheid and xylem cell is thickened pectate. . Rigid cell wall give the plant cell a fixed shape .

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