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Localized dyeing is called printing key purpose of printing

More attraction could be produced by this system of dyeing due to the following characteristics multi coloured pattern to fulfill design approach Textile printing can be carried out using either dyes or pigments. The decision on which to use is made on the basis of the particular design to be printed the nature of the fabric the intended end use

Method of printing
Block printing Roller printing Screen printing Transfer printing Other ( batik , tie and die etc )

Screen printing
A method in which background of design is printed on screen with paste and dye /pigment is printed through exposed fabric. It is a process that uses a stencil or screen made o f silk, polyester, polyamide, or nickel mashes through which the printing paste is transferred to fabric . The screen is coated in certain areas of block the total transfer of the paste and it is stretched over dimensionally stable frames (usually made of light metal alloys). screen came in various mesh sizes to match the type of fabrics(for example course or fine ) used and desired print designs separate screen should used for each colour .

Types of screen printing

screen printing

hand screen printing

flat screen printing

rotary screen printing

ROTARY SCREEN PRINTING


In rotary-screen printing, continuous rotation of a cylindrical screen while in contact with the fabric ensures genuinely continuous printing. Print paste is fed into the inside of the screen, and during printing is forced out through the design areas with the aid of a stationary squeegee.

The design of most machines follows the pattern established for fully automatic flat screen machines: an endless driven blanket, screen positions along the top, and blanket washing and drying effected underneath during the return passage. Provision for the use of a thermoplastic adhesive is common on rotary machines, with a curved-surface heating plate to heat the fabric before it is pressed on to the blanket. The cylindrical screens can be much closer together than is possible with flat screens and so the blanket is shorter (for a given number of colors). The fabric dryer, however, must be longer to enable the printed fabric to be adequately dried at higher running speeds. Typically, speeds of 3070 m min1 are used depending on the design and the fabric quality. It is quite possible to run the machine faster than this, the limitations often being the length and efficiency of the cloth and blanket dryers and the difficulty of observing Printing faults at high running speeds. Print paste is often poured into flat screens by hand, even in fully automatic machines, but the continuous movement of a cylindrical screen and the restricted access necessitates automation of this operation. The print paste is pumped into the screen through a flexible pipe from a container at the side of the machine; inside the screen, the paste pipe has a rigid structure as it also acts as a support for the squeegee. Holes in the pipe allow the paste to run down into the bottom of the screen; since the paste is

pumped in from one end, the holes need to be larger at the end furthest from the pump to achieve an even spread across the full width of the screen. A sensor (level control) actuates the pump when the paste level falls below a preset height.

Continuous screen printing process


o o o o o Fabric glued to blanket Fabric moves under rotating screens Rod or blade squeegee system Fine adjustments easily made Speeds up to 100 yards per min

Advantages
Fast

Quick changeover of patterns Continuous patterns

Disadvantages
Design limitations

Small repeats

styles of printing
1) 2) 3) 4) Direct style Resist style Discharge style Discharge resist style

1)

Direct style

colour for designs are applied directly on to the fabric without further treatment .

2)

Resist style

In this method the fabric is first printed with a substance called resist which will prevent the dye from being taken up in a subsequent dyeing process the resist function either by : Mechanically preventing the dye from reaching local areas of the fabric (using substances such as waxes, fats and resins as well as inert substance such as china clay, lead sulphate and barium sulphate all of which prevent absorption of the dye by the fabric.) chemically reacting with the dye or fiber ,to prevent absorption (using a wide variety of compounds such as acids , alkalis. neutral salts ,oxidizing agent and reducing agents ) .

3) Discharge style
In this method fabric is pre dyed to a solid shade by a traditional dyeing process and the color is destroyed locally, be chemical (usually a reducing agent) incorporated in print paste especially for print purpose. The choice of the reducing agent depends on the dyes being used the fiber being printed

4) Discharge resist printing


The fabric is dyed with resist dyes and then its is printed with non resistible dyes.

PRINTING
In Nina textile there are 3 m/c of REGGIANI having max fabric length 120 , 98and 75 and length is 30 meter . On Printing 1 16 colors can be printed and On Printing 2 and 3 12 colors can be printed at a time. Production is 12 hour is 16-17 thousand meter .

CAM CAD:
The design given by the customer may be on a paper or directly they given a sample fabric to the cad cam department they scan the design in the computer.

Software used:
Ram Set Photoshop......Lucher Stork After the approval of the design by the customer design is sent to the engraving department.

Screen Coating:
The screen is made up of 100% nickel. Screen is coated with coated material SCR 64 or SCR 61. Screen is coated upside down for 15-30 min at high temp over 180200c and left for dry about 10-30 min.

Screen exposing:
There are 2 machine of exposing screen such as Wax exposing machine. Contain black wax which fired on the screen. When light strikes on the screen Wax become hard.

Laser exposing.
Laser light bombarded. SCR 102+101 coat is used only curing, exposing and endering.

Types of sheets/mashes for screen:


1. Standard 30,40,60,80 2. Panda 100,125,125 V, 155,155 DHL, 165 mesh 3. Nova 135,135 DHL, 165,195 mesh.

Repeats:
1. 640 mm 2. 819 mm 3. 914 mm

Recipe:
Thickener Liquor Binder Water Pigment

For reactive:
Urea Sodium bi carbonate Alginate Revatol

Process flow:

Entry

Printing

Dryer

Exit

Components of machine: Entry Testa (only for knitted fabric) Suction(blour) Flat rollers Trolley

Printing zone Sensor Conveyor belt washing Dryer The fabric is passes through guide screen rollers to the suction area here the sucker sucks thefabric fluff and dust particles. Flats are provided when we use knit fabric. The fabric enters into the trolley where PVA is applied to stick he fabric with the blanket belt. The machine is provided with an I.R system and cambered plate to give temperature to the thermoplastic glue. Then the fabric

enters into the printing zone. The fabric is sandwiched b/w the rollers and the blanket, magnetic system of printing is used. Color is dozed into the squeegee through pumps automatically. The first screen roller is to press the fabric and the second gathers the remaining fluff. The printing starts from the third screen. Each screen prints a single color. The number of the screen depends on the type of design. The sensor is used to control the speed of the blanket. The fabric than entered into compact HC dryer 160-210 c. the dryer has 5 burners. The dryer has three passages air is blown into the chambers 2 times. Finally the fabric is collected by a crank gear mechanism to a trolley.
Parameters:

Machine name REGGIANI Made Italy Max. speed 90 m/min dryer temperature 215C