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Definition of Psychology Modern psychologists define psychology as "The scientific study of behavior and mental processes, " or "the scientific study of the mind and behavior". Mental processes refer to thinking, problem solving, and feelings. The reason why we refer to to psychology as the "scientific study" is due to the processes we sue to study the mind and behavior. As a result, psychologists rely on the scientific method. The Four Goals of Psychology Psychologists attempt to achieve four goals in the study of behavior and mental processes. The first is to describe behavior and mental processes. If you are studying drug abuse, you might simply describe the behavior of a person while under the influence of a specific drug. Explanation is the second goal. Why do people use drugs? Is it due to learning?...biological predisposition?...lack of self-esteem? The third goal is the prediction of behavior and mental processes. No, we don't have a crystal ball. But, you might try to predict, within a certain margin of error, what the chances are that if a parent abuses alcohol, that a child in that family also will become an abuser. Finally, some psychologists also look for ways to control or influence behavior and mental processes. Introspection, Structuralism, and Functionalism
Most universities offer a semester-long 'History and Systems' course for senior psychology majors. The text presents a shorter history of psychology. In addition, you will learn more history in each of the following chapters. Before the late nineteenth century psychology was part of philosophy. Human behavior and thoughts were debated, but no one actually tested out their ideas. However, that all changed in 1879 when a German psychologist, Wilhelm Wundt, opened up the first psychological laboratory. He brought the scientific method to psychology. He wanted to measure the conscious experience of humans. He would stimulate his subjects' senses (such as sticking them with a sharp needle) and then have them report, in great detail, how they felt. This technique of asking a person to report how they feel is called introspection. This may sound very crude by today's standards, but remember no one had ever tested out his ideas before this. One of Wundt's students E.B. Titchener came to the United States and began doing much of the same research, also relying on introspection. He came to the conclusion that psychology should study the building blocks of conscious, perception, memory, and emotions, separately. He called this structuralism. Almost immediately, another American psychologist, William James, argued that it was impossible to study these separately. All these are interrelated, James stated. You cannot separate them. What was important was to study the function of human behavior. What function does learning serve to help our survival? What function does memory serve, etc.? This school of thought was called functionalism. Here's a non-psychological example. Two people go to a restaurant. One takes a mouthful of food and asks "What are the ingredients? I would like to re-create this at home." This person is a structuralist. The second person says "I can't believe you are doing that. Enjoy how the whole meal tastes." This person is a functionalist. Today, there are no structuralists or functionalists in psychology. However, we can look upon Titchener and James as the pioneers of North American psychology.
Cognitive Psychology Even more recent than humanistic psychology is the cognitive viewpoint. others partially paralyzed. He founded the school of psychoanalysis which is not only an explanation for human behavior. Biological Perspective For thousands of years. Humanistic Psychology One of the most recent developments in psychology is humanistic psychology.Behaviorism The study of learning. affected behavior. From this he came to the conclusion that most of our memory is unconscious. but that psychology should only study behavior since thoughts were inaccessible to exact measurement. "If you can't see it. Some might be blind. they were able to report traumatic memories. the behavioral viewpoint. Although we cannot directly think about our childhood. In the learning chapter we will learn about Pavlov's experiments. were behaviorists. Not all learning theorists take this extreme view. They also wondered about the transmission of behavior from parents to children. most American psychology texts would have defined psychology as "The scientific study of behavior. Psychoanalysis Everyone has probably heard of Sigmund Freud." was the behaviorist argument. problem-solving. philosophers debated if certain liquids or "humors" in the body. psychologists who take the biological perspective scientifically explore this area. Prior to 1970. such as blood or bile. In the United States we think of John B. and feelings are an important part of being human. As a medical doctor in 1890 Vienna he came across many patients who had strange problems for which he could find no physical cause. and how we should respect that everyone's perception of the world is different. This was long before we knew about neurotransmitters. and it will be a factor in almost every other chapter as well.F. We will go into much greater detail about the study of learning. and DNA. emphasizes the natural striving of all humans to achieve their full potential. Therapists who follow Freud's ideas are called psychoanalysts. and can be measured using both neurological and psychological tests. but was the first attempt to use therapy to help those suffering from mental disorders. therapy based on cognitive research has proven . that had caused the problem. Rogers' method of therapy is used by many counseling psychologists today. But most psychologists would now agree that thinking. But under hypnosis and other techniques he developed. hormones. has always been one of the most common perspectives. Skinner. Or "evolutionary psychologists" might research how a behavior has helped humans to survive and reproduce. Under normal circumstances. they could not tell him why they had these problems. and later. They not only believed that learning and the environment almost totally shaped human behavior." Catch the difference between that definition and the one at the beginning of the chapter? Our definition has "mental processes" after behavior. usually of a sexual nature. it shouldn't be part of science. Watson as the originator of learning theory. which we usually associate with Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. the events are still motivating us to behave in certain ways. Today. He was the first to systematically study learning. Watson. This viewpoint. the importance of self-concept. In fact. B. but behaviorism has been a very strong force with psychology.
cross-cultural. we are seen as learning a set of behaviors and thoughts from our family. culture. On the one hand. Psychologists tend to have doctoral degrees and do not administer medication. tend to be either biological and/or psychoanalytic. cognitive. . North Americans and Asians different? How are they the same? How does gender and racial discrimination affect the self-image of both the victimized group and the dominant group? How do the selfconcepts of people change when they move from one culture to another? One of the most studied areas is the difference between Individualist cultures and Collectivist cultures. On the other. cognitive. and humanistic theories. humanistic. Whites and Blacks.to be one of the most effective therapies for many psychological disorders Cross-Cultural Psychology Finally. Eclectic Approach Today psychologists associate with a number of viewpoints. the self is given great importance. Psychoanalytic. and society. many psychologists will take parts of each and combine them into an "eclectic" viewpoint. and biological are the main psychological paradigms. behavioral. Below is a table summarizing some of the differences. how are the self-images of men and women. having been trained in medical schools. In fact. and administer medication. For instance. Therapists and Counselors such as Licensed Professional Counselors and Licensed Marriage and Family Therapists tend to have a Master's Degree (although some may have doctoral degrees). evolutionary. Psychiatrists. the cross-cultural perspective can be seen as a combination of learning.
Research Methods All research starts with a research question." However. psychological testing. and the survey. what you are researching must be defined in a way so that it can be measured. Correlation Method . what you are researching must be defined in a way so that it can be measured.. for instance. They cannot tell you what causes behavior or allow you to make predictions.. the case study. such as "The amount of time two people look in each other's eyes when left alone in a room. Descriptive Methods The descriptive methods. psychological testing.. and the survey." "attraction based on sexual desire. "Fear will cause an increase in the number of subjects to want to be with other subjects." and "warm attachment." and "warm attachment. for a researcher there must be a definition that can be measured. Only the experiment can tell you causes of behavior.. They cannot tell you what causes behavior or allow you to make predictions. which is a very specific statement. This is called an operational definition.. The descriptive methods. the case study.. such as naturalistic observation..... such as "I wonder why people don't like to be alone during times of stress?" This general question is then reworded into a hypothesis. including "strong affection for another. Another example: what is love? Webster's Collegiate Dictionary has a long list of definitions.." "attraction based on sexual desire. Another example: what is love? Webster's Collegiate Dictionary has a long list of definitions. such as naturalistic observation... can only describe. such as "I wonder why people don't like to be alone during times of stress?" This general question is then reworded into a hypothesis.. and the survey. They cannot tell you what causes behavior or allow you to make predictions." However. "Fear will cause an increase in the number of subjects to want to be with other subjects. Fear could be operationally defined as an increased heart beat and amount of sweating. psychological testing. can only describe. Fear could be operationally defined as an increased heart beat and amount of sweating... including "strong affection for another. Only the experiment can tell you causes of behavior. which is a very specific statement. such as naturalistic observation. can only describe. Only the experiment can tell you causes of behavior."All research starts with a research question. such as "The amount of time two people look in each other's eyes when left alone in a room. the case study.." In addition. This is called an operational definition. for instance.. for a researcher there must be a definition that can be measured." The descriptive methods." In addition.
whether the father is an alcoholic and whether a son is an alcoholic and calculate the correlation. all subjects are treated identically. This allows you to predict. Experimental Method and Ethical Concerns . we speak of critical thinking. High grades in one school are usually accompanied by high grades in the other. Only an experiment can show a cause and effect relationship. They can also be used to predict one variable.Correlations can describe the relationship between two variables or measurements. It may be a genetic sensitivity to alcohol that the father passed on to the son. It may be that the son learned to drink by observing the father. there is a strong correlation. It may be that the family atmosphere produced low self-esteem in the son. So is the example of broken homes and crime. On the other hand. That is like shuffling a deck and dealing out cards. Therefore. you could take two measurements on 1. The correlation. Positive correlations occur when both variables increase or decrease together. being skeptical does not mean closed-minded. or relationship. before the experiment starts. age and amount of hair on the scalp are negatively correlated: as my age increases the amount of hair on my head decreases! Another negative correlation: The more partying you do the night before a test. Statements must be backed up with measureable observations. cannot tell you that. For instance. This does not tell us why this relationship occurs. In addition. between those two measurements. In fact. except for a special treatment or independent variable given to the experimental group. For many men. Using this a basic foundation. when the other is known. high school GPA and college GPA are positively correlated. however. Correlations are positive or negative. the subjects are divided into the experimental and control groups by random assignment.000 families. what the chances are that the son of an alcoholic father will also have an alcohol problem. Critical Thinking Psychologists and other scientists tend to be a skeptical group. All these may be correct. The example of alcoholism in families is also positively correlated. Using the critical thinking skills mentioned in this chapter can help you in school as well as in daily life. A negative correlation occurs when one variable increases. Extraordinary claims must be backed up by extraordinary results. the only reason is because of the treatment given to the experimental group. The Experimental Method and Critical Thinking When a psychologist conducts an experiment. The diagram below gives another example of how correlation cannot demonstrate why behavior occurs. while the other decreases. For instance. within certain limits of probability. so he uses alcohol to reduce the pain of his poor selfimage. if there is a difference in the behavior of the two groups at the end of the experiment. the average of both the experimental and control groups will be the same before the experiment starts. Theoretically. the lower your grade will be.
I was not told whether the injection was a flu vaccine or saline solution. So they were told a "cover story. was published in a journal." This is known as deception. It is done in only a small percentage of experiments. If other researchers had not been successful. They were then asked if they preferred waiting alone or with others who were also going to be shocked. This experiment. A personal example: A number of years ago I took part in a study of a flu vaccine at the Baylor College of Medicine. It is used to counter both the placebo effect (subject's expectations) and researcher's expectations. In the above example. He or she may accidentally smile at those who get the real drug and frown at the control group. the experimenter who administers the drug to the subject cannot know which is the placebo and which is the real drug. medical researchers must give the control group in their experiments a placebo. How can the makers of this medicine claim it is beneficial if 45% felt better after taking a placebo? Because 78% felt better after taking the real medicine. During the flu season. The nurse administering the injection did not know either. Learning . however.A number of years ago some psychologists hypothesized that fear will cause a person to want to affiliate with other people. The computer tallied the results without any problems of placebo effect or experimenter expectations. reported feeling better! Because of this so-called placebo effect. My name was paired with the code on the vial of fluid. Notice that up to 45% of the subjects who got a bogus medicine. unintentionally creating demand characteristics. it might alter the subjects' true behavior. the results of the original study would have been considered an accident and not the result of the independent variable. which had previously been assigned randomly by a computer. (No one was really shocked!) All subjects were interviewed by the same experimenter in the same room. This is needed to separate any real effect of the drug on the experimental group from the false effect on the control group. subjects were randomly divided into two groups. but it never came. One group. the experimental group (high fear group). The control group (low fear group) were told that the shock they would receive would be like a soft touch. the researchers concluded that high fear increases the desire to affiliate with others. were told that during the experiment they would be getting extremely painful electric shocks. Everyone is affected by "the power of suggestion. if I felt ill. I had been lucky to receive the genuine vaccine every year. a placebo. The psychologists had decided that if the subjects were told that the experiment was concerning affiliation. As long as the deception is absolutely necessary and the little lie will not cause any harm. They were asked the same question that the high fear group was asked. This is the double blind method. For six years I received an injection at the beginning of the flu season. as all others. The difference between 45% and 78% is statistically significant. Therefore. In one experiment." If I have a stomachache (see below). another type of deception can be used. we can say that fear causes an increased desire to be with others. They were threatened with a shock. Other researchers tried to replicate the results and were successful. At the end of the six years. the subjects in the above experiment were told a slight lie. Therefore. When a statistically significant larger percentage of the experimental group subjects asked to wait with others. deception is allowed. and fed back into the computer. Factors That Impact Experiments In drug studies. the independent variable was fear and the dependent variable was desire to affiliate. If you noticed. They were also not told that the purpose of the study was to test their reaction to fear. I came into the lab and a sample of mucus was cultured to see if I had the flu. the doses are labeled only with a code unknown to both subject and the administrator of the drug. I was shown the results. In addition. There was no difference in the groups except for the fear provoking threat. just swallowing the pain reliever makes me feel slightly better.
and circles.] He then took various stimuli. because it became associated with eating at school or home. From the other he could collect samples of the dogs' saliva. Many of our emotional responses are classically conditioned. similar to the way many people get hungry at a specific time of the day. Pavlov would present this neutral stimulus about one-half of a second before the food. Â He started with a reflex. but did not naturally elicit salivation.] The process of classical conditioning involves repeatedly pairing or associating two stimuli until they both produce the same response. Click on this link for a video of his famous study and discovery of classical conditioning. A feeling of pain naturally elicits fear. something the dogs did not have to learn. [A Conditioned Stimulus produces a Conditioned Response. He inserted two tubes into several dogs' cheeks. The food and the bell BOTH produce saliva. He used metronomes. Other Classical Conditioning Concepts . He kept doing this over and over. [An Unconditioned Stimulus elicits an UnConditioned Response. even if the dog is tied up. while the UCR and CR are the same or very similar. Or simply seeing a McDonald's sign may make you hungry. for instance. If you feel pain on your lower leg and look down and see a dog biting you. You may see McDonald's "golden arches" repeatedly paired with happy. .two stimuli paired together will eventually produce the same response. One day. he entered the room in which all the dogs were caged.. Food elicits the natural response of salivation. Eventually.Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov was a Russian scientist who was interested in the process of digestion. Into one he could blow dried meat powder. The dog salivated to the food. bells. . They took one look at him and he could see they were all dripping saliva from their saliva tubes! This changed his interest from digestion to the study of how the dogs had learned to expect food when they saw him. the dog salivated before the food was presented. the story goes. A key to understanding classical conditioning is that the UCS and CS are different. you may experience a fear response every time you see this dog . hungry hamburger eaters on TV. things the dogs could hear or see.. Next time you get hungry you may automatically think of McDonald's.
not knowing about spontaneous recovery causes many people to become pessimistic and falsely believe that they will never be able to overcome their problem. For instance. Dieters. you may feel your heart racing even when the neighbor's toy poodle barks. When you respond differently to similar. our nervous system is especially sensitive to potential poisons that we might eat. Generally. For instance. but slightly different. If you do not. and along with systematic desensitization. showed that fear could be conditioned in a young infant named Little Albert. when using classical conditioning a number of rules must be followed. The habit goes away only to suddenly reappear. around 1915. If the yellow light means "go faster". However. smokers. Do not strengthen the old behavior and it will extinguish again. eventually permanently. although the effects tend to wear off after a couple of months. light up a cigarette. Mary Cover Jones. or sexually molest children. Watson's pairing of a loud noise and a white rat caused Albert to become afraid of the rat before the noise was sounded. Watson. Operant Conditioning . This is called extinction: presentation of the CS without the UCS. you may develop a disliking for that food. The opposite of stimulus generalization is stimulus discrimination. you have learned stimulus discrimination. and "stop" on a red light. This type of aversive therapy has been successful. Eat a hot dog with sauerkraut tonight and get sick. fur coats and even a Santa Claus mask. It may be a long time before you can bite into a hot dog! This will occur even if you logically know that you became sick due to the flu. For instance. the fear will go away. but slightly different. stimuli. Since a bell does not naturally elicit salivation Pavlov needed to occasionally present the food along with the bell to maintain the association between bell and salivation. if you get sick after eating a particular food. This can be experienced by humans who are trying to break a habit. first developed this therapy. We usually think of discrimination as treating groups of people differently. This process of making the same response to similar. If you take a stimulus that frightens you and very gradually associate it with a stimulus that pleases or relaxes you. a behavior therapist might pair the stimulus associated with that behavior with pain or nausea. give the dog a rest after extinction has occurred.John B. you have generalized from the green to the yellow. Within a short time you will feel the pain or nausea before you take your drink. you are showing discrimination. the CS and UCS must be paired within a short time. Even without food the dog will briefly salivate. However. Even Watson needed about six trials to get Little Albert to fear the rat. rabbits. if you have a behavior that you want to stop. despite what the Texas Department of Public Safety booklet tells you! These techniques are used in behavior therapy. Unfortunately. even if the nausea occurs hours later. This is called counterconditioning. The longer the interval. a student of Watson. stimuli is called stimulus generalization. alcohol and drug abusers experience this. you usually need to pair the CS and UCS many times. Therefore. it has a broader meaning. in learning theory. Pavlov needed about 11 trials to get his dogs to salivate. you only show fear to the original dog that bit you. the salivation to the bell with die out or extinguish. let's say a German Shepherd. In addition. the less likely learning will occur. The opposite of this is to remove a fear. usually less than one second. A brief relapse is a natural occurrence. This is called a taste aversion. However. Be patient. put it back in the same cage and ring the bell. not other dog If you "go" on a green light. If you were bitten by a dog. One of the most interesting effects of this was that Albert began to fear any white-haired object. has been up to 90% successful in reducing phobias.
Extinction and spontaneous recovery occur with operant conditioning as well as classical. This occurs when one event closely follows another. reinforcing each until the final behavior is accomplished. Every Sunday. you are more likely to do it again than if you get nothing back or receive a stimulus that is unpleasant. Sometimes. or a college diploma. Do not think of positive and negative as meaning good and bad. I was ready to go out on the street. break the behavior down into successive steps. We first did circles in the empty parking lot. He called it the Law of Effect. who died only a few years ago. Why are you in this class? To get three credits. Thorndike. If you get what you want. Why do you slow when you see a police car? To avoid a speeding ticket. stop rewarding a behavior reinforced in the past. money. One hits a home run on a day he didn't shave. But what if the behavior is too difficult? Rather than experience failure and frustration. or learn to avoid something. Skinner. If you drive 20 mph to take away the threat of a speeding ticket. reinforcement. it is a primary reinforcer. For instance. The essence of operant conditioning as stated above: If you make a response and get what you want. L. If you get something you want. termed this Operant Conditioning for operating on the environment. If you remove the threat of something you don't want by behaving. Think in terms of arithmetic. but there is actually no cause and effect relationship. A pitcher wins a game on a day he got out of bed on the left side. for a couple of months. Skinner. by accident. we didn't go out on the highway the very first time. Baseball players are infamous for their superstitions. so that's what he does for months.A second type of learning is based on doing something first (making a response) and then getting something back (a stimulus) from the environment. such as food. If you have to learn to want something. Punishment . This is referred to a superstitious behavior. that is positive reinforcement. because you learn by the effects of your behavior However. water or avoidance of pain. that is negative reinforcement. and it will weaken and may eventually disappear or extinguish. you follow the correct response with a reinforcement. this is called positive reinforcement. such as praise. Reinforcement can also be classified in terms of primary and conditioned. so he doesn't shave for weeks. adding and subtracting. We all experience operant conditioning every day. This type of learning was first studied in the 1920's by E. and the process of strengthening a behavior. If a reinforcer meets a biological need. then figure eights. we went to a large empty parking lot. that is a conditioned reinforcer. this is negative reinforcement. When my father taught me how to drive. you will be less likely to engage in that behavior again. you will be more likely to do that behavior again.F. If you are trying to teach a behavior to some animal or person (including yourself) and the learning is successful. If driving 20 mph in school zones gives you a pleasant feeling of safety. In BOTH cases you increase the frequency of driving 20 mph. after behaving. Finally. Reinforcement All reinforcement strengthens behavior. This is called shaping or successive approximation. after a number of weeks. If you do not get anything back or if you get something undesired back. Why do you go to work? To get a paycheck. the animal or person will falsely associate a behavior with a stimulus. then he pointed to a specific spot and I had to drive there. the person we most associate with this process is B.
target (a "scapegoat"). B. people who are depressed. that stimulus will become associated with the reinforcement (through classical conditioning). Skinner once stated that anyone who has to resort to punishment has failed. but the discriminative stimuli are different as well. learned helplessness may occur. or worse. just as long as you stop nagging me" he is escaping from the unpleasant (aversive) stimulus. After the punishment has had its effect. Don't do this immediately or the association between the unwanted behavior and the punishment will be weakened. Why does a child behave like an angel in school but disobey parents at home? Not only are the reinforcements different in each setting.F. If you start to yell at him and he says. Break a small rule. allow for the correct behavior to be reinforced. Threaten a punishment and allow for the correct behavior to prevent the punishment. However. or physical. but weaker. In the future. OK I'll clean it up now. If an animal or human is repeatedly in situations in which unpleasant events occur and from which escape is impossible. this is referred to as escape behavior.The issue of punishment is a controversial one both within psychology and society as a whole. use negative reinforcement. larger punishment. there are a few guidelines to follow. negative reinforcement. Most psychologists would not agree with this statement. Dogs that have been repeatedly shocked. Discriminative Stimuli Throughout this section. either verbal. It can have a powerful immediate effect. punishment alone does not teach what is correct. desire to escape from a punishing environment. may be substituted for the punished one. he believed. and extinction should be all you need to control behavior. all the stimuli I have referred to are either reinforcing or punishing. he will clean it up to avoid the scolding. the presence of that stimulus will act as a signal for the individual to behave in an attempt to get reinforcement. A behavior just as bad. This is the discriminative stimulus. After a long time interval a small child or animal may not even know why he/she is being punished! The punishment should fit the crime. But it has been associated with fear of the punisher. The person gives up trying to change the situation. and anger either directed at the punisher or an innocent. and the "chronic unemployed" have demonstrated this phenomenon. If producing the correct behavior can terminate the punishment once it has begun. Think of this concept in terms of a green light (go) and red light (stop). removal of privileges. If your son knows that you will yell at him if his room is messy. If you do use punishment. It is the opposite of reinforcement. In addition. Positive reinforcement. women in battering relationships. Basically. there is another type of stimulus that is a big factor in operant conditioning. "OK. The longer you wait the less effective it will be. even if change becomes possible. This is called avoidance learning. small punishment. but there is wide agreement on the undesired side effects of punishment. If a stimulus has been present in the environment while an individual has been reinforced. Break a major rule. Applications of Operant Conditioning . The punishment should come as quickly after the undesired behavior as possible. punishment is any stimulus that stops or weakens a behavior. Better yet.
If successful. Skinner wrote a book. Beyond Freedom and Dignity is one of his most controversial. the observer would be less likely to perform the behavior if given a chance. Â Another one of Skinner's book. pictured at the left. In this he lays out. You can even to do this to yourself.. Then reward yourself when you have enough checks. Give yourself check marks for successes.. rather than yelling or spanking. When a child misbehaves. Learning is a very powerful force in humans. Pick a behavior you want to change. was dedicated to Pavlov. One article lists the benefits psychology and humanity have derived from his work. While behaviorism is not as popular as it once was. these behavior modification methods can be used to target a specific behavior to be changed or modified. we cannot directly control our heart beat or blood pressure. In fact. he says. is one of many examples.While much of our learning through operant conditioning occurs haphazardly. Optional Additional Readings In 1948 B. Walden Two. In this book he discusses the idea that human freedom is just an illusion. as long as the observer respects or identifies with the model." This is a boring environment. This method has been very successful in reducing the damaging effects of stress on the body. Biofeedback. However. It is not uncommon for parents to use behavior modification with their children.F. This observational learning (click on blue link for a short video) can even occur without reinforcement or punishment of the model. Observational Learning The person we most associate with the acceptance of cognitive learning is Albert Bandura. no toys. not the observer. the general topics journal of the American Psychological Association. Normally. if enough stickers have been earned. At the end of the week. a perfect society. do not reward behavior that has not achieved the desired goal. Not only are there articles about his work. no TV. All of our behaviors are the result of either attempting to achieve a reinforcement or avoid a punishment. in the form of a novel. run using the principles of operant conditioning. but none for failure.F. Using this for five minutes can calm a child down and the subsequent threat of "time out" can be used as a negative reinforcer. They could then attempt various methods of relaxation to reduce either of these. but excerpts from his original studies. Another method of behavior modification has been used to lower the amount of punishment used in a family or day care center. The September 1997 issue of American Psychologist. the child is placed alone in "time out. thiseasy to read book is still quite interesting. A former follower of B. we may be the only organism on earth in which learning is more important than heredity. But be careful. such as losing one pound per week. she will then be more likely to perform the same behavior. . The learner observes a model performing a behavior. The model gets reinforced. When the observer finds herself in a similar situation. people could be attached to electronic monitors which show these biological functions. for instance. the feedback from the monitors would reinforce the relaxation behavior. Skinner. Bandura conducted several experiments in the mid 1960s that showed that simply observing behavior could result in the performance of that behavior at a later time. Bandura's original experiments showed how children can copy aggressive behavior just by watching an aggressive model in a movie. Notice that I said the model gets reinforced. Children earn "stickers" for good behavior. no other people. These are posted on a calendar for all to see. a video game can be rented. If the model gets punished.
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