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PCI MANUAL FOR THE DESIGN OF HOLLOW CORE SLABS

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PCI MANUAL FOR THE DESIGN OF HOLLOW CORE SLABS


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3/28/2012

PCI MANUAL FOR THE DESIGN OF HOLLOW CORE SLABS

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PCI MANUAL FOR THE DESIGN OF HOLLOW CORE SLABS Document Transcript
1. PCIMANUAL FOR THE DESIGN OF HOLLOW CORE SLABS SECOND EDITION byDonald R. Buettner and Roger J. Becker Computerized Structural Design, S.C. Prepared for the PCI Hollow Core Slab Producers Committee John E. Saccoman, ChairpersonJames Beerbower Ernest MarkleKevin Boyle James MarkleJeffrey Butler Milo J. NimmerLoris Collavino William C. Richardson, Jr.Edward J. Gregory Klaus RosensternPat Hynes Wes SchrootenPaul Kourajian Larry Stigler PRECAST / PRESTRESSED CONCRETE INSTITUTE 175 WEST JACKSON BOULEVARD CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 60604 312 786--0300 FAX 312 786--0353 2. Copyright 1998 By Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute First edition, 1985 Second edition, 1998All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof may not bereproduced in any form without the written permission of thePrecast/Prestressed Concrete Institute. ISBN 0- -937040- -6 -57- Printed in U.S.A. 3. INTRODUCTIONPurpose of Manual The application and design of precast, prestressed hollow core slabs is similar to that of other pre-stressed members. However, there are situations which are unique to hollow core slabs either be-cause of the way the slabs are produced or because of the application of the slabs. For special situations, hollow core producers have developed design criteria and conducted in-house testing to verify that their approaches are valid. In fact, there is consistency between the manytypes of hollow core slabs available. The purpose of this manual is to bring together those things thatare common, that are verified by test and that can be universally applied to hollow core slabs. Be-cause there are differences, some topics covered will also point to the differences where closer coor-dination with the local producer is required. This manual was prepared by Computerized Structural Design, S.C., Milwaukee, Wisconsin withinput and direction from the PCI Hollow Core Slab Producers Committee. Additionally, the fire andacoustical sections were prepared by Armand Gustaferro of The Consulting Engineers Group, Inc.,Mt. Prospect, Illinois and Allen H. Shiner of Shiner and Associates, Inc., Skokie, Illinois, respective-ly. All reasonable care has been used to verify the accuracy of material contained in this manual.However, the manual should be used only by those experienced in structural design and should notreplace good structural engineering judgment.Scope of Manual This document is intended to cover the primary design requirements for hollow core floor androof systems. In instances where the design is no different than for other prestressed members, thePCI Design Handbook and the ACI Building Code should be consulted for more in-depth discussion. For the architect or consulting engineer, this manual is intended as a guideline for working withhollow core slabs, a guide for the use and application of hollow core slabs and an indication of someof the limitations of hollow core slabs. For the plant engineer, the manual will hopefully presentsome backup and reference material for dealing with everyday design problems. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTSIntroductionNotationChapter 1 - Hollow Core Slab Systems -1.1 Methods of Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- -11.2 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- -11.3 Advantages of Hollow Core Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- -31.4 Framing Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- -31.5 Wall Panel Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-41.6 Design Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- -51.7 CrossSections and Load Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- -51.8 Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1--6Chapter 2 - Design of Hollow Core Slabs -2.1 General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- -12.2 Flexural Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2--1 2.2.1 ACI Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- -1 2.2.2 Stresses at Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- -2 2.2.3 Prestress Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.2.4 Service Load Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- -5 2.2.5 Design Flexural Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- -62.3 Shear Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- -9 2.3.1 ACI Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- -92.4 Camber and Deflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- -11 2.4.1 Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- -12 2.4.2 Deflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- -142.5 Composite Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- -152.6 Strand Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- -19 2.6.1 ACI Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- -19Chapter 3 - Special Design Considerations -3.1 General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3- -13.2 Load Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3- -1 3.2.1 Load Distribution Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3- -1 3.2.2 Design Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3- -23.3 Effect of Openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3- -83.4 Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3--103.5 Cantilevers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3- -103.6 Horizontal Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3- -12Chapter 4 - Diaphragm Action with Hollow Core Slabs -4.1 General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4- -14.2 Design Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4- -14.3 Distribution of Lateral Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4- -34.4 Structural Integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4- -44.5 Elements of a Diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4- -44.6 Diaphragm Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4- -6 5. 4.6.1 Longitudinal Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4- -6 4.6.2 Transverse Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4- -84.7 Collectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4- -84.8 Topped vs. Untopped Diaphragms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4- -94.9 Design Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4- -9Chapter 5 - Connections in Hollow Core Slabs -5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5- -15.2 Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5- -15.3 Typical Details with Concrete Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5- -25.4 Typical Details with Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5- -95.5 Typical Details with Steel Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5- -155.6 Typical Cantilever Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5- -205.7 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5- -23Chapter 6 - Fire Resistance of Assemblies made with Hollow Core Slabs -6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- 16.2 Heat Transmission through Floors or Roofs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- -1 6.2.1 Equivalent Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- -1 6.2.2 Toppings, Undercoatings, or Roof Insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- -2 6.2.3 Ceilings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- -46.3 Structural Fire Endurance of Floor or Roof Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- -4 6.3.1 Simply Supported Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- -5 6.3.2 Effect of Spray Applied Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- -9 6.3.3 Structurally Continuous Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- -9 6.3.4 Detailing Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- -116.4 Restraint to Thermal Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- -12Chapter 7 - Acoustical Properties of Hollow Core Slabs -7.1 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7- -17.2 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7--17.3 Approaching the Design Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7- -2 7.3.1 Dealing with Sound Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7- -27.4 Sound Transmission Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7- -27.5 Impact Noise Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7- -37.6 Absorption of Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7- -57.7 Acceptable Noise Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7- -57.8 Establishment of Noise Insulation Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7- -87.9 Leaks and Flanking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7- -87.10 Human Response to Building Vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7- -97.11 Vibration Isolation for Mechanical Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7- -10Chapter 8 - Guide Specification for Precast, Prestressed Hollow Core Slabs . . . . . . . . . . 8- - -1ReferencesIndex 6. NOTATIONA = Cross-sectional area fd = Stress at extreme tension fiber due toa = Depth of equivalent compression stress unfactored member self weight block Fi = Portion of base shear applied at level ia = Depth of equivalent compression stress fpc = Compressive stress in concrete at the block under fire conditions centroid of the section due to effectiveAcr = Area of crack face prestress for non-composite sections orAe = Net effective slab bearing area due to effective prestress and momentsAps = Area of prestressed reinforcement resisted by the precast section alone forAvf = Area of shear friction reinforcement composite sectionsb = Width of compression face fpe = Compressive stress in concrete at extremebw = Net web width of hollow core slab fiber where external loads cause tensionC = Confinement factor due to the effective prestress onlyC = Compressive force fps = Stress in prestressed reinforcement atC = Seismic factor dependent on site and nominal strength structure fundamental period fps = Stress in prestressed reinforcement at fireC = Factor for calculating steel relaxation strength losses as given in Table 2.2.3.2 fps = Maximum steel stress in partiallyc = Distance from extreme compression developed strand fiber to neutral axis fpu = Specified tensile strength ofCR = Prestress loss due to concrete creep prestressing steelCs = Seismic coefficient fpu = Tensile strength of prestressing steel atD = Dead load elevated temperaturesd = Distance from extreme compression fiber Fpx = Force applied to diaphragm at level under to centroid of non-prestressed consideration tension reinforcement fse = Effective stress in prestressing steel afterdb = Nominal diameter of reinforcement all lossesdp = Distance from extreme compression fiber fsi = Stress in prestressing steel at initial to centroid of prestressed prestress reinforcement Ft = Additional portion of base shear applied atDW = Distribution width top levele = Distance from neutral axis to centroid of fu = Usable grout strength in a horizontal joint prestressed reinforcement fy = Steel yield strengthEc = Modulus of elasticity of concrete h = Overall member depthEci = Modulus of elasticity of concrete at the hn = Net height of grout in keyway between time of initial prestress slab unitsES = Prestress loss due to elastic shortening of I = Occupancy importance factor concrete I = Cross-sectional moment of inertiaEs = Modulus of elasticity of steel J = Factor for calculating steel relaxation reinforcement losses as given in Table 2.2.3.1fc = Specified design compressive strength of k = Fraction of total load in a horizontal joint concrete in a grout columnfci = Compressive strength of concrete at the Kcir = Factor for calculating elastic shortening time of initial prestress prestress lossesfcir = Net compressive stress in concrete at Kcr = Factor for calculating prestress losses due centroid of prestressed reinforcement at to concrete creep time of initial prestress Kes = Factor for calculating prestress losses duefcds = Stress in concrete at centroid of to elastic shortening prestressed reinforcement due to Kre = Factor for calculating prestress losses due superimposed dead load to steel relaxation as given in Table 2.2.3.1 7. Ksh = Factor for calculating prestress losses due Vi = Factored shear force due to externally to concrete shrinkage applied loads occurring simultaneouslyKu = Factor from PCI Handbook Fig. 4.12.2 for with Mmax calculating flexural design strength = Vu - Vd -L = Live load Vn = Nominal shear strength of a member = Span length Vs = Nominal shear strength provided by sheard = Reinforcement development length reinforcement Vu = Design shear forcee = Strand embedment length from member V/S = Volume to surface ratio end to point of

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maximum stress w = Uniformly distributed loadf = Flexural bond length w = Bearing area lengtht = Strand transfer length W = Total dead load plus other applicableM = Service load moment loads for seismic designMcr = Cracking moment wi = Portion of W at level iMd = Unfactored dead load moment wpx = Portion of W at level underMg = Unfactored self-weight moment considerationMn = Nominal flexural strength yb = Distance from neutral axis to extremeMn = Flexural strength under fire conditions bottom fiberMmax = Maximum factored moment due to yt = Used as either distance to top fiber or externally applied loads tension fiber from neutral axis = Mu - Md - Z = Seismic zone factorMsd = Unfactored moment due to 1 = Factor defined in ACI 318-95, Section superimposed dead load 10.2.7.3Mu = Factored design moment p = Factor for type of prestressing strandM = Applied fire moment all = Limiting free end slipP = Effective force in prestressing steel after s = Actual free end slip all losses ps = Strain in prestressed reinforcement atPo = Effective prestress force at release prior to nominal flexural strength long term losses s = Strain in prestressed reinforcementPi = Initial prestress force after seating losses se = Strain in prestressed reinforcement afterQ = First moment of area lossesR = Fire endurance rating = Shear friction coefficientRE = Prestress loss due to steel relaxation e = Effective shear friction coefficientRe = Reduction factor for load eccentricity in p = Ratio of prestressed reinforcement horizontal joints = Ratio of compression reinforcementRH = Ambient relative humidity = ACI strength reduction factorRw = Seismic coefficient dependent on = fy/fc structural system type = fy/fcS = Section modulus p = pfps/fcSH = Prestress loss due to concrete shrinkage w = Reinforcement index for flanged sectionsT = Tensile force w = Reinforcement index for flanged sectionstg = Width of grout column in horizontal joint pw = Reinforcement index for flanged sectionsV = Seismic base shear pu = p fpu/fcVc = Nominal shear strength of concrete = Subscript denoting fire conditionsVci = Nominal shear strength of concrete in a shear-flexure failure modeVcw = Nominal shear strength of concrete in a web shear failure modeVd = Shear due to unfactored self weightVh = Horizontal beam shear 8. CHAPTER 1 HOLLOW CORE SLAB SYSTEMS1.1 Methods of Manufacturing long. Slabs are then sawcut to the appropriate A hollow core slab is a precast, prestressed con- length for the intended project.crete member with continuous voids provided to The economy of the generalized hollow corereduce weight and, therefore, cost and, as a side system is in the quantity of slabs that can be pro-benefit, to use for concealed electrical or mechan- duced at a given time with a minimum of labor re-ical runs. Primarily used as floor or roof deck sysquired. Each slab on a given casting line will havetems, hollow core slabs also have applications as the same number of prestressing strands. There-wall panels, spandrel members and bridge deck fore, the greatest production efficiency is obtainedunits. by mixing slabs with the same reinforcing re- An understanding of the methods used to quirements from several projects on a single pro-manufacture hollow core slabs will aid in the spe- duction line. This implies that best efficiency for acial considerations sometimes required in the use single project is obtained if slab requirements areof hollow core slabs. Hollow core slabs are cast repetitive.using various methods in the seven major systems 1.2 Materialsavailable today. Because each production system As stated previously, hollow core slabs are pro-is patented, producers are usually set up on a fran- duced with two basic concrete mixes; low slumpchise or license basis using the background, and normal slump concrete. For the low slumpknowledge and expertise provided with the ma- concretes, water content is limited to slightlychine development. Each producer then has the more than that required for cement hydration.technical support of a large network of associated Water-cement ratios are typically about 0.3. Mix-producers. ing is critical because the limited water available Two basic manufacturing methods are current- must be well dispersed in the mix. Water reducingly in use for the production of hollow core slabs. admixtures can be used to optimize a mix by reOne is a dry cast or extrusion system where a very ducing cement and water requirements while stilllow slump concrete is forced through the ma- retaining adequate workability for proper com-chine. The cores are formed with augers or tubes paction of the concrete by the machine. Air en-with the concrete being compacted around the trainment admixtures are not effective in the drycores. The second system uses a higher slump mix concrete. With the low water-cement ratiosconcrete. Sides are formed either with stationary, and compaction placing method, air is difficult tofixed forms or with forms attached to the machine disperse well and maintain.with the sides being slip formed. The cores in the Table 1.1 Hollow Core Systemsnormal slump, or wet cast, systems are formedwith either lightweight aggregate fed through Manufac- Machine Concrete Core Formtubes attached to the casting machine, pneumatic turer Type Type/Slumptubes anchored in a fixed form or long tubes at- Dy-Core Extruder Dry/Low Tubestached to the casting machine which slip form the Dynaspan Slip Form Wet/Normal Tubescores. Elematic Extruder Dry/Low Auger/Tube Table 1.1 lists the seven major hollow core sys- Flexicore Fixed Form Wet/Normal Pneumatictems available today along with the basic inTubesformation on the casting technique. Various Spancrete Slip Form Dry/Low Tubesnames may be used by local licensees to describe SpanDeck Slip Form Wet/Normal Fillerthe same products. In most cases, the slabs are aggregatecast on long line beds, normally 300 ft to 600 ft Ultra-Span Extruder Dry/Low Augers 1- -1 9. The wet cast products (those cast with normal slump concrete), have water-cement ratios in the range of 0.4 to 0.45. Depending on the slip form- ing system used, slumps of 2 to 5 inches (50 - 130 mm) are used. The mix design and use of admix- tures is dependent on achieving a mix that will hold its shape consistent with the forming tech- nique used. Aggregates vary in the various manufacturing processes depending on what type is locally avail- able. Maximum aggregate size larger than pea gravel is rarely used because of the confined areasLatex feathering ready for direct carpet application into which concrete must be placed. Light weight aggregates are occasionally used to reduce the weight of the sections and to achieve a significant reduction in required equivalent thickness in a fire rated application. Concrete unit weights ranging from 110 to 150 pcf (1760 - 2400 kg/m3) are used in the industry. Strand use in hollow core slabs includes about every size and type of strand produced depending on what is available to a particular producer. The trend is toward primary use of the larger 1/2 in (13 mm) diameter, low relaxation strand. The philos- ophy of strand use varies from using many strand sizes to optimize cost for a given project to using only one or two strand sizes for simplicity of in- ventory and production. Except for special situations, keyway grout is normally a sand and Portland cement mixture in proportions of about 3:1. The amount of water used is a function of the method used to place the grout but will

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generally result in a wet mix so key-Acoustical spray on exposed slab ceiling ways may be easily filled. Shrinkage cracks may occur in the keyways, but configuration of the key is such that vertical load transfer can still occur with the presence of a shrinkage crack. Rarely is grout strength required in excess of 2000 psi (13.8 MPa) for vertical load transfer. Although it is discouraged, non-shrink, non- staining grout is occasionally specified for use in keyways. In evaluating the potential benefits of non-shrink grout, the volume of grout must be compared to the overall volume of concrete in the slabs and support materials. Because the size of the keyway is small in relation to a floor or roof as- sembly of slabs, total shrinkage will be affectedElectrical and HVAC application only to a minor degree. Shrinkage cracks can still1- -2 10. occur in the keyways and there is little benefit to acteristics associated with concrete. The Soundbe gained in comparison with the additional cost. Transmission Class rating ranges from about 47 to 57 without topping and the Impact Insulation1.3 Advantages of Hollow Core Slabs Class rating starts at about 23 for a plain slab and Hollow core slabs are most widely known for may be increased to over 70 with the addition ofproviding economical, efficient floor and roof carpeting and padding. Detailed information onsystems. The top surface can be prepared for the the acoustical properties of hollow core slabs isinstallation of a floor covering by feathering the presented in Chapter 7.joints with a latex cement, installing non-structur-al fill concretes ranging from 1/2 in to 2 in (13 - 51 1.4 Framing Conceptsmm) thick depending on the material used, or by The primary consideration in developing acasting a composite structural concrete topping. framing scheme using hollow core slabs is theThe underside can be used as a finished ceiling as span length. For a given loading and fire endur-installed, by painting, or by applying an acoustical ance rating, span length and slab thickness may bespray. optimized by consulting a producers published When properly coordinated for alignment, the load tables. Section 1.7 presents sample loadvoids in a hollow core slab may be used for electri- tables and instructions for the use of the tables.cal or mechanical runs. For example, routing of a The PCI Design Handbook1 recommends limitslighting circuit through the cores can allow fix- on span-depth ratios for the hollow core slabs. Fortures in an exposed slab ceiling without unsightly roof slabs, a span-depth ratio limit of 50 is sug-surface mounted conduit. Slabs used as the heated gested and for floor slabs, a limit of 40 is sug-mass in a passive solar application can be detailed gested. In practice, a span-depth ratio of 45 isto distribute the heated air through the cores. common for floors and roofs when fire endurance, Structurally, a hollow core slab provides the ef- openings, or heavy or sustained live loads do notficiency of a prestressed member for load capac- control a design.ity, span range, and deflection control. In addi- Consideration must be given to factors whichtion, a basic diaphragm is provided for resisting affect slab thickness selection for a given span.lateral loads by the grouted slab assembly pro- Heavy superimposed loads, as required by thevided proper connections and details exist. A de- function of a system, would require a lower span-tailed discussion of diaphragm capabilities is depth ratio. Similarly, heavy partitions or a largepresented in Chapter 4. number of openings will result in higher load ca- Excellent fire resistance is another attribute of pacity requirements. The fire resistance rating re-the hollow core slab. Depending on thickness and quired for the application will also affect the loadstrand cover, ratings up to a 4 hour endurance can capacity of a slab. As the code required fire ratingbe achieved. A fire rating is dependent on equivaincreases, prestressing strands can be raised forlent thickness for heat transmission, concrete cov- more protection from the heat. The smaller effec-er over the prestressing strands for strength in a tive strand depth will result in a lower load capac-high temperature condition, and end restraint. ity. Alternatively, a rational design procedure canUnderwriters Laboratories publishes fire ratings be used to consider the elevated strand temperafor various assemblies. However, many building tures during a fire. This fire design condition maycodes allow a rational design procedure for control a slab design and, again, result in a lowerstrength in a fire. This procedure, described in de- load capacity.tail in Chapter 6, considers strand temperature in Once slab thicknesses and spans are selected,calculating strength. Required fire ratings should the economics of layout become important.be clearly specified in the contract documents. While ends cut at an angle can be designed andAlso, the fire rating should be considered in deter- supplied, it is most efficient to have the bearingmining the slab thickness to be used in prelimi- perpendicular to the span so square cut ends cannary design. be used. Used as floor-ceiling assemblies, hollow core It is also desirable to have the plan dimensionsslabs have the excellent sound transmission char- fit the slab module. This is dependent upon the 1- -3 11. slab systems available in the project area. ture of the slabs. At the other extreme, if a flatNon-module plan dimensions can be accommo- floor is required in a structure consisting of multi-dated using partial width slabs. Some producers ple bays of varying length and change in slabintentionally cast narrow widths as filler pieces direction, the highest point will determine the topwhile others use a section split from a full slab. elevation of the topping. A greater amount of top-Such a split section might be created by a longitu- ping will then be required in low areas. Thesedinal sawcut or a break if the edge will not be ex- considerations must be dealt with in the planningposed to view. stages to both control costs and minimize ques- Construction tolerances must be accounted for tions and potential for extras during construc-in developing a plan layout. Tolerance on slab tion.length may be taken up by allowing a gap at the Camber, camber growth, and deflections mustslab ends in the bearing detail. On the non-bearing be considered when slabs run parallel to a stiff ver-sides, clearance may be provided by using a detail tical element such as a wall (e.g. slabs runningwhere the slabs lap over a wall or beam. If the slab parallel to the front wall of an elevator). The dooredge butts a wall or beam, a gap should be pro- rough opening should allow for camber to pro-vided. Refer to local producers information for duce proper door installation. Alternatively, therecommendations of proper tolerances. slab span might be rearranged so the front wall is a When a hollow core slab deck is exposed to bearing wall. Then door problems would be alleweather for a long period of time during construc- viated.tion, water can accumulate in the cores. The priCamber, camber growth, and deflections mustmary source of water infiltration is at the butt be taken into account in roofing details. Wherejoints. In cold weather, this water can freeze and changes in relative slab position can occur, coun-expand causing localized damage. One remedy terflashings are suggested to accommodate suchfor this situation is to drill weep holes at the slab changes.ends under each core. The need for such weepholes is generally known only after a construction 1.5 Wall Panel Applicationsschedule is

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established. The specifier and the slab Some hollow core slab systems can also pro-supplier are not usually in a position to know of vide slabs to be used as walls. Long line manufac-such a need in advance. turing can result in economical cladding or load Hollow core members will be cambered as with bearing panels used in manufacturing or commer-any other prestressed flexural member. In the cial applications. The hollow core wall panels areplanning stages, consideration should be given to prestressed with two layers of strands for accomthe causes of differential camber. For two slabs of modating handling, structural loadings and bow-identical length and prestressing, the camber may ing considerations. Some manufacturers can addbe different because of concrete and curing varia- 2 in to 4 in (51 - 102 mm) of insulation to the hol-tions. This factor is independent of a framing low core section with a 1 1/2 in thick to 3 in (38 - 76scheme. However, joints between slabs of un- mm) thick concrete facing to create an insulatedequal spans or joints at which a change in the span sandwich panel.direction occurs, will cause a potential differential A variety of architectural finishes are availablecamber problem. This must be recognized and with hollow core wall panels. While the finishesdealt with in the design layout. Wall locations can be very good, the variety of finishes availablemay hide such a joint, but the door swing might be is different from those typically available withdirected to the least variable side. true architectural precast concrete panels. In Camber must also be accommodated when a judging the quality of finish on hollow core walltopping is to be provided. The quantity of topping panels, consideration must be given to therequired must consider the amount of camber and manufacturing process.the function of the floor. In occupancies whereflat floors are not a requirement, a constant top-ping thickness may be used to follow the curva-1- -4 12. 1.6 Design Responsibilities Producer load tables define the allowable live It is customary in the hollow core industry for load that a given slab can safely support in addi-the producer to perform the final engineering for tion to the slab self weight. The load capacity willthe product to be supplied to the job. This would be a function of the slab thickness, the amount ofinclude design for vertical loads and lateral loads prestressing provided, and the location of the pre-specified by the Engineer of Record, embedded stressing strands. Fire rated slabs may requireitems for specified connection forces, and han- additional concrete cover below the strands whichdling and shipping. However, the Engineer of Re- will affect the load capacity.cord plays a very important role in the design pro- The design criteria used to develop these loadcess. Prior to selection of the hollow core productables is defined by the ACI Building Code2 aser, enough preliminary planning should be done to outlined in Chapter 2. Depending on the designinsure that the specified floor and roof system is criteria controlling a slabs load capacity, someachievable. That is, the project should be one that advantage may be gained by understanding that incan be engineered without requiring changes from most applications, superimposed loads will con-the contract documents. sist of both dead and live loads. Where ultimate The contract documents must clearly indicate strength controls, an equivalent live load can bedesign criteria to which hollow core slabs will used to enter a load table. It is calculated as:have to conform. This is especially importantwhen the hollow core slabs must interface with w equivalent = 1.4 superimposed Dead load 1.7other construction materials. When connections + Live loadare required, the forces to be transmitted through However, if bottom fiber tensile stresses con-the connections must be specified in the contract trol, no adjustment in superimposed loads may bedocuments. The producer is best able to deter- used.mine the most efficient connection element to be Similarly, many loading conditions consist ofembedded in the slab. However, the balance of a loads other than uniform loads. For preliminaryconnection which interfaces with another materi- design only, an equivalent uniform load may beal should be detailed in the contract documents. calculated from the maximum moment caused by The Engineer of Record also has a responsibil- the actual loads.ity in the review and approval of erection draw- 8 M superimposedings prepared by the precast producer. Review of w equivalent =these drawings is the last opportunity to assure 2that the producers understanding of the project Shear will not be properly addressed in this sit-coincides with the intent of design. Erection uation. Thus, the final design must consider thedrawings should be checked for proper design actual load pattern.loads, proper details and bearing conditions, con- Because of the uniqueness of each hollow coreformance with specified fire ratings, and the loca - slab system and the many possibilities of strandtion of openings. patterns available from various producers, a ge- neric hollow core slab has been developed to dem- onstrate design procedures. Figure 1.7.1 depicts the slab section and properties and illustrates a1.7 Cross-Sections and Load Tables typical form for a producers load tables. Each of the major hollow core slab systems has Throughout this manual, this section will be useda standard set of cross-sections that can be pro- to demonstrate various calculation proceduresduced by their equipment. Available in thick- where any one of the proprietary cross-sectionsnesses ranging from 4 in to 15 in (102 - 380 mm), could be substituted. It must be emphasized thatcore configurations make each system unique. this cross-section is not available for use andEach individual producer has additional produc- should not be specified.tion practices which may affect the capabilities of Figures 1.7.2 through 1.7.8 present the propri-their product. Therefore, most producers prepare etary slab cross-sections currently available. Theand distribute load tables in their market area. section properties are as provided by the manufac- 1- -5 13. turers, but weights are based on 150 pcf (2400 For final design use the methods of Chapter 2kg/m3) concrete. The actual weights may vary particularly to check shear.slightly from those given. The availability of anyparticular section in a given area must be verified 1.8 Tolerances3with the local producers. Figures 1.7.9 present Figure 1.8.1 shows the dimensional tolerancescharts of the general range of load capacities for precast hollow core slabs. These tolerancesavailable in a given slab thickness. As with any are guidelines only and each project must be con-chart of this nature, the chart should be carefully sidered individually to ensure that the tolerancesapproached and verified with local producer load shown are applicable.tables, especially for the longest and shortest and Figure 1.8.2 shows erection tolerances for hol-lightest and heaviest conditions. Special care is low core slabs. When establishing tolerances, thealso required when fire rated slabs must be used function of the slabs should be considered. Foron a project. (See Chapter 6) example, slabs covered by finish materials may The following examples demonstrate the ways not need the close tolerances required for exposedin which load tables may be used. slabs.Example 1.7.1 Equivalent Uniform Load From the load table in Figure 1.7.1 select astrand pattern to carry a uniform superimposeddead load of 20 psf and a uniform live load of

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60psf on a 24 foot span. wtotal = 20 + 60 = 80 psf4-7/16 in dia. strands required: capacity = 118 psfflexural strength controls w equivalent = 1.4 20 + 60 = 77 psf 1.7 Use 4-3/8 in dia. strands: capacity = 79 psfflexural strength controls.Example 1.7.2 Non-Uniform Loads From the load table in Figure 1.7.1 select astrand pattern to carry a superimposed uniformload of 20 psf dead plus 40 psf live and a continu-ous wall load of 600 plf located perpendicular tothe span and at midspan. The design span is 25feet.For preliminary design 2 M superimposed = 25 20 + 40 + 25 600 8 4 = 8438 ft-#/ft 88438 w equivalent = 25 2 = 108 psfTry 6-3/8 in dia. strands capacity = 120 psf1- -6 14. Fig. 1.7.1 Generic hollow core slab 36" Section Properties 1 1/2" 5 1/4" 1 1/4" A = 154 in2 I = 1224.5 in4 bw = 10.5 in yb = 3.89 in 8" Sb = 314.8 in3 St = 297.9 in3 1" 1 1/2" 1 1/2" wt = 53.5 psf 4 1/4" SAMPLE LOAD TABLE3 Allowable Superimposed Live Loads, psf Spans, ft Strands, 270LR Mn, ft-k 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 4-3/8 45.1 317 270 232 200 174 152 133 116 102 90 6-3/8 65.4 356 311 272 240 212 188 168 150 47/16 59.4 320 278 243 214 189 167 148 132 6-7/16 85.0 3431 3111 2831 258 231 208 4-1/2 76.7 327 289 257 229 204 183 6-1/2 105.3 3171 2901 2671 2471 Strands, 270LR Mn, ft-k 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 4-3/8 45.1 79 79 69 61 53 46 6-3/8 65.4 134 120 108 97 87 78 70 4-7/16 59.4 118 105 94 84 75 67 59 6-7/16 85.0 187 169 153 139 126 114 104 4-1/2 76.7 165 148 134 121 109 99 90 6-1/2 105.3 2271 2101 1952 1782 1632 1492 1372 1 - Values are governed by shear strength. 2 - Values are governed by allowable tension 3 - Table based on 5000 psi concrete with 6 f c allowable tension. Unless noted, values are governed by strength design. Note: This slab is for illustration purposes only. Do not specify this slab for a project. 1- -7 15. Fig. 1.7.2 Trade name: Dy-Core Equipment Manufacturer: Mixer Systems, Inc., Pewaukee, Wisconsin Section Untopped with 2 topping width x A yb I wt yb I wt depth in2 in in4 psf in in4 psf 4-0 x 6 142 3.05 661 37 4.45 1475 62 4-0 x 8 193 3.97 1581 50 5.43 3017 75 4-0 x 10 215 5.40 2783 56 6.89 4614 81 4-0 x 12 264 6.37 4773 69 7.89 7313 94 4-0 x 15 289 7.37 8604 76 9.21 13225 101 Note: All sections not available from all producers. Check availability with local manufacturers.Fig. 1.7.3 Trade name: Dynaspan Equipment Manufacturer: Dynamold Corporation, Salina, Kansas Section Untopped with 2 topping width x A yb I wt yb I wt depth in2 in in4 psf in in4 psf 4-0 x 4 133 2.00 235 35 3.08 689 60 4-0 x 6 165 3.02 706 43 4.25 1543 68 40 x 8 233 3.93 1731 61 5.16 3205 86 4-0 x 10 260 4.91 3145 68 6.26 5314 93 8-0 x 6 338 3.05 1445 44 4.26 3106 69 8-0 x 8 470 3.96 3525 61 5.17 6444 86 8-0 x 10 532 4.96 6422 69 6.28 10712 94 8-0 x 12 615 5.95 10505 80 7.32 16507 105 Note: All sections not available from all producers. Check availability with local manufacturers.1- -8 16. Fig. 1.7.4 Trade name: Elematic Equipment Manufacturer: Mixer Systems, Inc., Pewaukee, Wisconsin Section Untopped with 2 topping width x A yb I wt yb I wt depth in2 in in4 psf in in4 psf 4-0 x 6 157 3.00 694 41 4.33 1557 66 4-0 x 8 196 3.97 1580 51 5.41 3024 76 4-0 x 10(5) 238 5.00 3042 62 6.49 5190 87 4-0 x 10(6) 249 5.00 3108 65 6.44 5280 90 4-0 x 12 274 6.00 5121 71 7.56 8134 96 Note: Elematic is also availble in 96 width. All sections not available from all producers. Check availability with local manufacturers.Fig. 1.7.5 Trade name: Flexicore Licensing Organization: The Flexicore Co. Inc., Dayton, Ohio Section Untopped with 2 topping width x A yb I wt yb I wt depth in2 in in4 psf in in4 psf 1-4 x 6 55 3.00 243 43 4.23 523 68 2-0 x 6 86 3.00 366 45 4.20 793 70 1-4 x 8 73 4.00 560 57 5.26 1028 82 2-0 x 8 110 4.00 843 57 5.26 1547 82 1-8 x 10 98 5.00 1254 61 6.43 2109 86 2-0 x 10 138 5.00 1587 72 6.27 2651 97 2-0 x 12 141 6.00 2595 73 7.46 4049 98 Note: All sections not available from all producers. Check availability with local manufacturers. 1- -9 17. Fig. 1.7.6 Trade name: Spancrete Licensing Organization: Spancrete Machinery Corp., Milwaukee, Wisconsin Section Untopped with 2 topping width x A yb I wt yb I wt depth in2 in in4 psf in in4 psf 4-0 x 4 138 2.00 238 34 3.14 739 59 4-0 x 6 189 2.93 762 46 4.19 1760 71 4-0 x 8 258 3.98 1806 63 5.22 3443 88 Ultralight Spancrete 4-0 x 10 312 5.16 3484 76 6.41 5787 101 4-0 x 12 355 6.28 5784 86 7.58 8904 111 4 -0 x 15 370 7.87 9765 90 9.39 14351 115 4-0 x 8 246 4.17 1730 60 5.41 3230 85 4-0 x 10 277 5.22 3178 67 6.58 5376 92 4-0 x 12 316 6.22 5311 77 7.66 8410 102 Note: Spancrete is also available in 40 and 96 widths. All sections are not available from all producers. Check availability with local manufacturer.Fig. 1.7.7 Trade name: SpanDeck Licensing Organization: Fabcon, Incorporated, Savage, Minnesota Section Untopped with 2 topping width x A yb I wt yb I wt depth in2 in in4 psf in in4 psf 4-0 x 8 246 3.75 1615 62 5.55 2791 87 4 -0 x 12 298 5.87 5452 75 8.01 7856 100 8-0 x 8 477 3.73 3236 60 5.53 5643 85 8-0 x 12 578 5.86 10909 72 7.98 15709 97 Note: All sections not available from all producers. Check availability with local manufacturers.1- -10 18. Fig. 1.7.8 Trade name: Ultra-Span Licensing Organization: Ultra-Span Technologies, Inc., Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Section Untopped with 2 topping width x A yb I wt yb I wt depth in2 in in4 psf in in4 psf 4-0 x 4 154 2.00 247 40 2.98 723 65 4-0 x 6 188 3.00 764 49 4.13 1641 74 4-0 x 8 214 4.00 1666 56 5.29 3070 81 4-0 x 10 259 5.00 3223 67 6.34 5328 92 4-0 x 12 289 6.00 5272 75 7.43 8195 100 Note: All sections are not available from all producers. Check availability with local manufacturers.Fig. 1.7.9(a) Slab load ranges 300 6" Hollow Core Slab 3/4" Concrete Cover 250 ~ = 45 h Superimposed Live Load, psf 200 6" + 2" Topping 150 6" 100 50 10 20 30 40 Span, ft 1- -11 19. Fig. 1.7.9 (b) Slab load ranges 300 8" Hollow Core Slab 3/4" Concrete Cover 250 ~ = 45 Superimposed Live Load, psf h 200 8" + 2" Topping 150 8" 100 50 10 20 30 40 Span, ftFig. 1.7.9(c) Slab load ranges 300 10" Hollow Core Slab 3/4" Concrete Cover 250 10" + 2" Topping Superimposed Live Load, psf 200 ~ = 45 h 150 10" 100 50 10 20 30 40 Span, ft1- -12 20. Fig. 1.7.9 (d) Slab load ranges 300 12" Hollow Core Slab 3/4" Concrete Cover 250 12" + 2" Topping Superimposed Live Load, psf 200 ~ = 45 h 12" 150 100 50 10 20 30 40 Span, ftFig. 1.7.9(e) Slab load ranges 200 15" Hollow Core Slab 3/4" Concrete Cover 175 15" + 2 1/2" Topping Superimposed Live Load, psf 15" 150 ~ = 45 h 125 100 75 50 10 20 30 40 50 60 Span, ft 1- -13

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21. Fig. 1.8.1 Product tolerances - hollow core slabs -a = Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/2 in j = Center of gravity of strand groupb = Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/4 in The CG of the strand group relative to the top of the plankc = Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/4 in shall be within 1/4 in of the nominal strand group CG. Thedt = Top flange thickness position of any individual strand shall be within 1/2 in of Top flange area defined by the actual measured values of nominal vertical position and 3/4 in of nominal horizontal average dt x b shall not be less than 85% of the nominal area position and shall have a minimum cover of 3/4 in. calculated by dt nominal x b nominal. k = Position of plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 indb = Bottom flange thickness l = Tipping and flushness of plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/4 in Bottom flange area defined by the actual measured values m = Local smoothness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/4 in in 10 ft of average db x b shall not be less than 85% of the nominal (does not apply to top deck surface left rough to receive a area calculated by db nominal x b nominal. topping or to visually concealed surfaces)e = Web thickness The total cumulative web thickness defined by the actual Plank weight measured value e shall not be less than 85% of the nominal Excess concrete material in the plank internal features is cumulative width calculated by e nominal. within tolerance as long as the measured weight of thef = Blockout location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 in individual plank does not exceed 110% of the nominalg = Flange angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/8 in per 12 in, 1/2 in max. published unit weight used in the load capacity calculation.h = Variation from specified end squareness n = Applications requiring close control of differential camber or skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/2 in between adjacent members of the same design should bei = Sweep (variation from straight line parallel to centerline of discussed in detail with the producer to determine applicable member) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/8 in tolerances. b dt j e c CGS db l CROSS SECTION n h g 10 ft k ELEVATION m k f i a PLAN1- -14 22. Fig. 1.8.2 Erection tolerances - hollow core floor and roof members a = Plan location from building grid datum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 in a1 = Plan location from centerline of steel* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 in b = Top elevation from nominal top elevation at member ends Covered with topping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/4 in Untopped floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/4 in Untopped roof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/4 in c = Maximum jog in alignment of matching edges (both topped and untopped construction) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 in d = Joint width 0 to 40 ft member length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/2 in 41 to 60 ft member length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/4 in 61 ft plus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 in e = Differential top elevation as erected Covered with topping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/4 in Untopped floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/4 in Untopped roof** . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/4 in f = Bearing length*** (span direction) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/4 in g = Differential bottom elevation of exposed hollowcore slabs**** . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/4 in * For precast concrete erected on a steel frame building, this tolerance takes precedence over tolerance on dimension a. ** It may be necessary to feather the edges to 1/4 in to properly apply some roof membranes. *** This is a setting tolerance and should not be confused with structural performance requirements set by the architect/engineer. **** Untopped installation will require a larger tolerance here. a bldg. Y grid datum bldg. Y grid datum a bldg. X grid datum a bldg. X grid datum a f d d c hollow core c floor or roof member hollow core centerline of floor or roof member PLAN steel structure PLAN a1 clearance centerline of e steel structure e f g f hollow core g b b floor or roof member precast or cast in place concrete support member bldg. elevation datum bldg. elevation datum ELEVATION Precast element to precast or ELEVATION cast-in-place concrete or masonry Precast element to structural steel 1- -15 23. CHAPTER 2 DESIGN OF HOLLOW CORE SLABS2.1 General b) Extreme fiber stress in tension except The design of hollow core slabs is governed by as permitted in (c) . . . . . . . . . 3 f cithe ACI (318-95) Building Code Requirements c) Extreme fiber stress in tension at endsfor Structural Concrete.2 As with prestressed con- of simply supported members . . . . . .crete members in general, hollow core slabs arechecked for prestress transfer stresses, handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 f cistresses, service load stresses, deflections and de- 2.2.1.2 Permissible stresses at servicesign (ultimate) strength in shear and bending. Foruniform load cases, the manufacturers load tables loads (Section 18.4)will take into account these various design consid- a) Extreme fiber stress in compressionerations and print a load capacity based on the due to prestress plus sustained loadsgoverning criteria. For loading conditions other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.45 fcthan uniform, or for the development of load b) Extreme fiber stress in compressiontables, the design steps presented in this section due to prestress plus total loadare used. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.60 fc An excellent reference for prestressed member c) Extreme fiber stress in tension in pre-design exists in the PCI Design Handbook.1 compressed tensile zone . . . . . 6 f cCharts and tables provide design aids to shorten d) Extreme fiber stress in tension in pre-the calculation procedures. Another excellent compressed tensile zone where deflec -source for design information is the PCI Standard tions are calculated considering bili-Design Practice4 which reflects design practices near moment-deflection relationshipsin the industry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 f c The generic slab presented in Section 1.7 willbe used for the calculations presented in this sec- 2.2.1.3 Loss of prestress (Section 18.6)tion. The cross-section was selected to provide a Calculation of losses shall consider:means of demonstrating calculation procedures a) Seating lossand does not represent any slab currently in use. b) Elastic shortening of concreteTherefore, this generic slab should never be speci- c) Creep of concretefied for use on a project. See Section 1.7 for the d) Shrinkage of concreteslabs currently available. e)

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Steel relaxation 2.2.1.4 Design (ultimate) strength2.2 Flexural Design a) Load Factors (Section 9.2) U = 1.4D + 1.7L b) Strength Reduction Factors (Section2.2.1 ACI Requirements 9.3) Chapter 18 of ACI (318-95) presents provi- Flexure = 0.9sions for the flexural design of prestressed con- c) Flexural Strength (Section 18.7)crete members. The applicable limits from ACIare paraphrased as follows: Mu Mn = A psf ps d p a 2 A psf ps2.2.1.1 Permissible stresses at transfer a = (Section 18.4). 0.85f cb a) Extreme fiber stress in compression fps = value calculated by strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.6 fci compatibility 2- -1 24. or moment 25 in from slab end fps = f pu 1 p f pu Md = 30.5 2.08 2.08 0.05353 2 2 2 1 p f c = 4.74 ft-k Mn > 1.2 Mcr 4.7412 Md =2.2.2 Stresses at Transfer S 279.9 314.8 When the prestressing strands are cut to applythe prestressing force to the concrete, only the slab = +0.191 ksi top fiberself weight is present to counteract the effects of = --0.181 ksi bottom fibereccentric prestress. A check of stresses is required Net concrete stress at transfer pointat this point to determine the concrete strength re-quired to preclude cracking on the tension side or = --0.162 ksi top fibercrushing on the compression side. The concrete = +1.542 ksi bottom fiberstrength at the time of transfer may be only 50% to Self weight at midspan60% of the 28 day design strength. 2 Md = 30.5 (0.0535)(3) = 18.66 ft-k 8Example 2.2.2.1 - Transfer Stresses Md 18.66 12 Using the generic hollow core cross-section =defined in Section 1.7, check stresses at transfer ofprestress using the following criteria: S 279.9 314.8Prestressing steel: 4 - 1/2 dia. 270 ksi, low relax- = +0.752 ksi top fiberation strands. = --0.711 ksi bottom fiberAps = 4(0.153) = 0.612 in2 Net concrete stress at midspanassume 5% initial loss = +0.399 ksi top fiberdp = 7 = +1.012 ksi bottom fiber = 30-6 Allowable stresses:initial stress = 70% fpu tension at end = 6 f ci Solution: 2 Stresses will be checked at the transfer point fci = 162 = 729 psi 6and at midspan tension at midspan = 3 f ciAt release prestress force does not controlPo = (0.70)(0.95)(0.612)(270) = 109.9kPrestress effect compression = 0.6 fci P = o Po e fci = 1542 = 2570 psi A S 0.6 Concrete strength required at release 109.92.89 = 109.9 = 2570 psi 154 297.9 314.8 Note that if tension or compression in the end region exceeds allowables based on a reasonable = - -0.353 ksi top fiber concrete release strength, strands may be de- = +1.723 ksi bottom fiber bonded in some manufacturing systems or, for tension, top mild reinforcement may be used inSelf weight at transfer point some manufacturing systems to resist the totalt = 50db = 50(1/2) = 25 in tension force.2- -2 25. If tension in the midspan region controls, either 1) Elastic Shorteninga high release strength must be used or mild rein- Esforcement must be added to resist the total tension ES = Kes f E ci cirforce. Mild reinforcement should only be used inthe wet cast manufacturing system. Kes = 1.0 for pretensioned members2.2.3 Prestress Losses The calculation of prestress losses affects the fcir = Kcir A I P i P ie 2 + M ge Iservice load behavior of a slab. The accuracy ofany calculation method is dependent on the pre- Kcir = 0.9 for pretensioned membersciseness of concrete and prestressing steel materi-al properties as well as external factors such as humidity used in the calculation procedure. The 2) Concrete Creepaccuracy of loss calculations has little effect on Esthe ultimate strength of a member. CR = Kcr (f - f ) - E c cir cds Prestress loss calculations are required for pre -diction of camber and for service load stress cal- Kcr = 2.0 for normal weight pretensionedculations. Since the success of a project is judged memberson service load performance rather than ultimatestrength, it behooves any slab producer to use a = 1.6 for sand lightweight pretensionedloss calculation procedure which best predicts the membersbehavior of the product as produced. M sde For low relaxation strand and for special cases fcds = (e.g., long spans or special loadings) using stress Irelieved strand, the 1995 ACI Code references 3) Shrinkage of Concreteseveral sources for prestress loss calculations.The method presented here was developed by Zia, SH = 8.2 x 10-6KshEs 1 0.06 V S et al.5 and considers the following parameters: x (100 - RH) - Fig. 2.2.3.1 Ambient relative humidity 80 70 70 80 70 70 60 75 75 70 50 40 80 30 70 70 60 40 40 50 60 70 75 2- -3 26. Table 2.2.3.1 Table 2.2.3.2 Values of CType of tendon Kre psi J Stress- Stress-relieved270 Grade stress-rerelieved bar orlieved strand or wire 20,000 0.15 fsi/fpu strand or low-relaxation250 Grade stress-re- wire strand or wirelieved strand or wire 18,500 0.14 0.80 1.28 0.79 1.22240 or 235 Grade stress- 17,600 0.13 0.78 1.16relieved wire 0.77 1.11270 Grade low-relax- 0.76 1.05ation strand 5000 0.040 0.75 1.45 1.00250 Grade lowrelax- 0.74 1.36 0.95ation wire 4630 0.037 0.73 1.27 0.90240 or 235 Grade low-re- 0.72 1.18 0.85laxation wire 4400 0.035 0.71 1.09 0.80145 or 160 Grade stress- 0.70 1.00 0.75relieved bar 6000 0.05 0.69 0.94 0.70 0.68 0.89 0.66 Ksh = 1.0 for pretensioned members 0.67 0.83 0.61 0.66 0.78 0.57 RH = Ambient relative humidity from Fig- 0.65 0.73 0.53 ure 2.2.3.1 0.64 0.68 0.494) Steel Relaxation 0.63 0.63 0.45 0.62 0.58 0.41 RE = [Kre J (SH + CR + ES)]C - 0.61 0.53 0.37 0.60 0.49 0.33 Kre, J, C = factors from Tables 2.2.3.1 and 2.2.3.2 Solution:5) Total Loss = ES + CR + SH + RE 1) Elastic Shortening Pi = 0.7(4)(41.3k) = 115.6k Observations and experience in a plant may 2provide modifications to loss calculations to bet- Mg = 30.5 (0.0535)(3) 8ter predict slab performance. = 18.66 ft-k = 224 in-kExample 2.2.3.1 Loss of Prestress Using the generic hollow core crosssectiondefined in Section 1.7, calculate the loss of pre-stress based on the following information: fcir = 0.9 115.6 + 154 115.6(2.89) 1224.5 2 Prestressing steel: 4-1/2 dia. 270 ksi, low re- 2242.89laxation strands - - 1224.5Apsfpu = 0.153(270) = 41.3k/strand = 0.857 ksidp = 7 using Es = 28,500 ksi and Eci = 3250 ksiinitial stress = 70% fpu Es ES = Kes f E ci cir = 30-6Superimposed dead load = 20 psf = (1.0) 28500 (0.857) 32502- -4 27. = 7.52 ksi % = 25.6 (100) = 13.5% 0.72702) Concrete Creep M e fcds = sd 2.2.4 Service Load Stresses I Service load concrete stresses are calculated as 30.5 0.023122.89 8 2 a measure of performance or serviceability. For = the in-service state when deflections must be cal- 1224.5 culated, a stress check must first be made to deter- = 0.198 ksi mine whether gross section properties or cracked-using Ec = 4300 ksi and normal weight concrete transformed section properties are to be used. In-service stresses are checked assuming that E CR = Kcr s (fcir - fcds) - all prestress losses have occurred. The calculated Ec stresses are compared to the permissible stresses = (2.0) 28500 (0.857 - 0.198) - noted in Section 2.2.1. Hollow core slabs are nor- 4300 mally designed to be uncracked under full service = 8.74 ksi loads. Tensile stress limits of between 6 f c and3) Shrinkage of Concrete 7.5 f c are commonly used. In special circum- V = Area = 154 = 1.75 stances where deflections will not be a problem S Perimeter 236 + 8 and where cracking will not be of

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concern, the up- use RH = 70% per limit of 12 f c can be used. SH = 8.2 x 10-6KshEs 1 0.06 V S Example 2.2.4.1 Service Load Stresses Using the generic hollow core cross-section x (100 - RH) - defined in Section 1.7, calculate the service load stresses given the following criteria: = 8.2 x 10-6(1.0)28500 Prestressing steel: x (1 - 0.06 x 1.75)(100 - 70) - - 4-1/2 dia. 270 ksi, low relaxation strands = 6.27 ksi Apsfpu = 0.153(270) = 41.3k/strand4) Steel Relaxation dp = 7 From Table 2.2.3.1 Initial stress = 70% fpu Kre = 5000, J = 0.04 fc = 5000 psi From Table 2.2.3.2 = 30-6 C = 0.75 for fsi/fpu = 0.7 Clear Span = 30-0 RE = [Kre - J(SH + CR + ES)]C - Superimposed Dead Load = 20 psf Live Load = 50 psf = [ 5000 0.04x 1000 Solution: 2 Msustained = 30 (0.0535 + 0.020) ] (6.27 + 8.74 + 7.52) 0.75 8 = 8.27 ft-k/ft = 99.2 in-k/ft = 3.07 ksi 25) Total Loss at Midspan Mservice = 30 (0.0535 + 0.020 + 0.050) 8 = 7.52 + 8.74 + 6.27 + 3.07 = 13.89 ft-k/ft = 167 in-k/ft = 25.6 ksi With losses = 13.5% from Example 2.2.3.1 2- -5 28. Apsfse = (0.7)(4)(41.3)(1 - 0.135) = 100.0k - Mcr = y P + Pe + 7.5 f c I b A Sb Top fiber compression with sustained loads This ensures that when the concrete develops flexural cracks, the prestressing steel will not have 100.02.89) 99.23 reached its full design stress. Violation of this cri-ftop = 100.0 + teria might result in strand fractures at the point of 154 297.9 297.9 = 0.649 - 0.970 + 0.999 - flexural cracking with a resulting brittle failure. However, ACI (318-95) Section 18.8.3 allows = + 0.679 ksi violation of this requirement for flexural membersPermissible compression with shear and flexural strength at least twice that required. = 0.45fc The upper limit of reinforcing requires that, = 0.45(5000) p or, = 2.25 ksi > 0.679 ksi OKTop fiber compression with total load + dd or p pftop = 100.0 100.02.89) 1673 + + dd pw p w w 154 297.9 297.9 be not greater than 0.361 = 0.649 - 0.970 + 1.679 - The need for an upper limit on reinforcing is re= 1.358 ksi lated to the assumptions of ultimate concrete com-Permissible compression pressive strain. Using a uniform compression stress block forces more concrete to reach ulti- = 0.60fc mate strain as reinforcing ratios increase. There- = 0.60(5000) fore when the upper reinforcing limit is exceeded, the moment capacity must be based on the com- = 3.00 ksi > 1.358 ksi OK pression block. For this condition,Bottom fiber tension Mn = f cbd 20.36 1 0.08 2 p 1fbottom = 0.649 + (0.970 - 1.679) 297.9 - 314.8 for rectangular sections or for flanged sections = - -0.022 ksi (tension) with the neutral axis within the flange. The stress in the prestressing steel at ultimatePermissible tension may be calculated in several ways. The ACI equa- = 7.5 f c tion (18-3) may be used as an approximation, charts and tables from the PCI Design Handbook = 7.5 5000 may be used, or a strain compatibility analysis may be made. = 0.530 ksi > 0.022 ksi OK Example 2.2.5.1 Design Flexural Strength2.2.5 Design Flexural Strength Using the generic hollow core slab defined in The moment capacity of a prestressed member Section 1.7, check the design flexural strengthis a function of the ultimate stress developed in the given the following criteria:prestressing strands. As with non-prestressed Prestressing steel: 4-1/2 dia., 270 ksi, low re-concrete, upper and lower limits are placed on the laxation strandsamount of reinforcing to ensure that the stress in dp = 7the strands is compatible with concrete stressesfor ductile behavior. initial stress = 70% fpu The lower limit of reinforcing requires that: fc = 5000 psiMn 1.2 Mcr = 30-62- -6 29. Clear span = 30-0 Mn 1.2 McrSuperimposed Dead Load = 20 psf From Example 2.2.3.1 Live Load = 50 psf Loss = 13.5%Solution: Apsfse = 0.7(4)(41.3)(1 - 0.135) -METHOD 1: ACI Equation (18-3) = 100.0 k Mn = Apsfps(dp - a/2) - Bottom compression fps = f pu 1 p 1 p f pu f c = 100.0 + 154 100.02.89 314.8 = 1.567 ksiUse p = 0.28 for low relaxation strands - 1 = 0.85 - 5000 4000 0.05 3.89 Mcr = 1224.5 1.567 + 7.5 5000 1000 1000 = 660 in-k/slab = 0.80 M n = 920 = 1.39 > 1.2 OK A ps 40.153 M cr 660 p = = = 0.0024 bd p 367 METHOD 2: PCI Design Handbook fps = 270 1 0.28 0.0024 270 0.80 5 Using Figure 4.12.2 from the 5th Edition Hand- book. A ps f pu = 257.7 ksi pu = bd p f c pf ps 0.0024257.7 441.3 p = = = 3675 f c 5 = 0.124 < 0.36 1 = 0.288 OK = 0.131 Ku = 538 A psf ps 40.153257.7 a = = bd 2 0.85f cb 0.85536 p Mn = Ku 12000 = 1.03 in 2 36(7)Note: If a exceeds the top flange thickness, the = 538 12000compression block will encroach on the core area.For this situation, multiple compression forces are = 79.0 ft-k/slabused for the internal couple as is done with otherflanged members. METHOD 3: Strain Compatibility Mn = 0.9(4)(0.153)(257.7) 7 1.03 2 The stressstrain diagram from Figure 11.2.5 of the PCI Design Handbook, shown in Fig. 2.2.5.1, = 920 in-k/slab = 76.7 ftk/slab will be used for this example. However, the actual stress-strain curves received with strand mill re- wu = 1.4(0.0535 + 0.02) + 1.7(0.05) ports should be used when available. = 0.188 ksf The concrete ultimate strain is assumed to be 2 0.003 in/in. The method involves a trial and error Mu = 30 (0.188) procedure to obtain equilibrium within the section 8 where the force in the compression block equals = 21.14 ft-k/ft the tensile force in the steel. The equations are de- = 63.4 ft-k/slab < 76.7 OK veloped from the strain diagram shown.Check minimum reinforcement a = 1c 2- -7 30. Fig. 2.2.5.1 Stress-strain curves, prestressing strand 270 270 ksi strand MINIMUM YIELD STRENGTH AT Es = 28,500 ksi 1% ELONGATION FOR 270 ksi 250 (ASTM A416) 250 ksi strand 230 MINIMUM YIELD STRENGTH AT 1% ELONGATION FOR 250 ksi Stress - fps (ksi) (ASTM A416) 210 190 170 150 0 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 Strain- ps (in./in.) These curves can be approximated by the following equations: 250 ksi strand 270 ksi strand ps 0.0076: fps = 28,500 ps (ksi) ps 0.0086: fps = 28,500 ps (ksi) ps > 0.0076: fps = 250 0.04 (ksi) ps > 0.0086: fps = 270 0.04 (ksi) ps 0.0064 ps 0.007 Using 13.5% loss from Example 2.2.3.1 fse = 0.7(270)(1 - 0.135) = 163.4 ksi - 0.003 0.85 f c f se se = = 163.4 = 0.0057 c a C E s 28500 dp Assume c = 1 then a = 0.80(1) = 0.8 T dp s s = c (0.003) - 0.003 - = 7 (0.003) - 0.003 = 0.018 - 12- 8 31. ps = se + s = 0.0107 in/in = 0.0057 + 0.018 = 0.0237 ps = 0.0057 + 0.0107 = 0.0164 in/inFrom stressstrain curve fps = 266 ksi fps = 268 ksi for bars T = 4(0.153)(268) = 163.8 s = 5.5 (0.003) 0.003 C = 0.85(5) (0.8)(36) 1.53 = 0.0078 in/in = 122.4k < 163.8k yield strain = 60 = 0.002 in/inTry c = 1.3 then a = 0.80(1.3) = 1.04 29000 7 (0.003) - 0.003 T = 4(0.153)(266) + 2(0.2)(60) s = - 1.30 = 162.8 + 24 = 0.0131 = 186.8k ps = 0.0131 + 0.0057 = 0.0188 C = 0.85(5)(1.22)(36) = 186.7k 186.8k okFrom stress-strain curve fps = 267 ksi 2 Mn = 0.9 162.8 7 1.22 + 24 5.5 1.22 2 T = 4(0.153)(267) = 163 = 1042 in-k C = 0.85(5)(1.04)(36) = 86.8 ft-k = 159k 163k 2.3 Shear Design Mn = 0.9(4)(0.153)(267) 7 1.04 2 2.3.1 ACI Requirements

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Hollow core slabs are designed for shear ac- = 952 in-k/slab = 79.3 ft-k/slab cording to the same ACI Code provisions used in On occasion, conventional reinforcement is general for prestressed members. In dry cast sysadded to a hollow core slab to locally provide add- tems, the normal practice is to not provide stirrupsed flexural strength. When required, the bars are when the applied shear exceeds shear capacity be-placed in cores right after the slab is cast and con- cause of the difficulty encountered placing stir-crete is added to fill the cores with the bars. The rups in most production processes. The place-following example illustrates the flexural strength ment of stirrups in a wet cast system is certainlycalculation. easier than in a dry cast extruded system and is a viable shear enhancement method. An alternativeExample 2.2.5.2 Flexural Strength with Bars used to increase shear capacity is to reduce the Repeat Example 2.2.5.1 but add 2 - #4 bars in number of cores used in a given slab. This may becores. done by either leaving out a core for the entireSolution: length of a slab or by locally breaking into the cores and filling them solid while the concrete isUse strain compatibility for strength calculation still in a somewhat plastic state.with an effective depth of 5.5 in for the #4 bars. The provisions for shear are found in ChapterAssume c = 1.53 in. 11 of ACI 318-95. With some paraphrasing, thethen a = 0.80(1.53) = 1.22 in requirements are: Vu Vnfor strands = 0.85 for shears = 7 (0.003) 0.003 1.53 Vn = Vc + Vs 2- -9 32. For the purpose of this discussion, Vs, the con- Using the generic hollow core cross-sectiontribution of shear reinforcement, will be taken as defined in Section 1.7, check the slab for shearzero. The nominal concrete shear strength may be given the following information:found using equation (11-9), Prestressing steel: 4-1/2 dia., 270 ksi, low Vc = 0.6 f c + 700 V ud Mu w b d (11-9) relaxation strands. Initial stress = 70% fpu loss = 15% when the effective prestress force is not less than fc = 5000 psi40 percent of the tensile strength of the flexural re- = 25-6inforcement. The term Vud/Mu shall not exceed Clear span = 25-01.0. The minimum value for Vc may be used as Superimposed Dead Load = 20 psf2 f c bwd and the maximum value is the lesser of Live Load = 50 psf5 f c bwd or the value obtained from Equation Masonry dead load = 800 plf at 3(11-12) considering reduced effective prestress in from one supportthe transfer zone. Solution: Alternatively more refined shear calculations Uniform load: wu = 1.4(0.0535 + 0.020)can be made according to the lesser of Equations + 1.7(0.05)(11-10) or (11-12). = 0.188 ksf = 0.564 klf V M crVci = 0.6 f c b wd + V d + i (11-10) Line Load: Pu = 1.4(0.800) = 1.12k/ft M max = (3)(1.12) = 3.36kVcw = (3.5 f c + 0.3fpc) bwd (11-12) Load, shear and moment diagrams for 3 slab Equation (11-10) predicts shear strength for an width:inclined shear failure mode. For Equation(11-10), the following relationships are used: 1.12 x 3= 3.36 kMcr = y(6 fc + fpe -- fd) I (11-11) 3 0.188 x 3= 0.564 k ft 25Vd = Unfactored self weight shear for k non-composite sections 10 k 8.31Vi = Vu - Vd - 4.95 k VuMmax = Mu - Md -Md = Unfactored self weight moment for non-composite sections k 7.45 The minimum value for Vci need not be lessthan 1.7 f c bwd or 2 f c bwd when the effective Muprestress force is not less than 40% of the tensile 27.48 ft-kstrength of the flexural reinforcement. For equa- 49.25 ft-ktions (11-10), (11-11) and (11-12), the reductionin prestressing force at the member end due to Using the more refined approach according totransfer must be considered. The ACI Code al- ACI Equations (11-10) or (11-12), Vc is:lows an assumption that prestressing force in- Vcw = 0.85 3.5 5000 + 0.3f pccreases linearly from zero at the member end to 1000full effective prestress in a length equal to 50 x (10.5)(7) (11-12)strand diameters. = 15.46 + 0.0187fpc fpc is calculated as a function of the transfer of pre-Example 2.3.1.1 Shear Design stress into the section along the span.2- -10 33. transfer length = 50 db = 50(1/2) = 25 = 11.130 + 26.233fpe - 2.01x + 0.8x2 - with bearing length = 3 Mmax = Moment due to factored full prestress transfer is achieved 22 from loads minus Md the face of supportApsfse = 4(41,300)(0.70)(1 - 0.150) Based on these definitions, Vcw, Vci, and Vu are x x + 3 to x = 22 25 calculated at intervals across the span. A summa- ry is presented in Table 2.3.1.1. Figure 2.3.1.1 presents the results graphically. fpc = A psf se 98294 x + 3 A = 154 25 Table 2.3.1.1 Allowable Shear Vcw Vci 15.46 + 0.0187 98294 x + 3 x VuVcw = h/2 = 0.333 9.82k 18.81k 59.40k 154 25 0.5 9.72 19.76 45.74 = 15.46 + 11.96 x + 3 to x = 22 1.0 9.44 22.64 31.92 25 1.5 9.16 25.51 27.15Vci = 0.6 5000 1000 VM 10.57 + V d + i cr M max 2.0 2.5 8.88 8.59 27.42 27.42 23.34 18.93 x 0.85 (11-10) 3.0 8.31 27.42 15.98 3.0 4.95 27.42 10.02Vd = Shear due to unfactored self weight 3.5 4.67 27.42 9.11 (for non-composite section) 4.0 4.39 27.42 8.34 = 3(0.0535) 25 x = 2.01 - 0.16x 2 - Alternatively, the simplified equation (11-9)Vi = Shear due to factored loads minus Vd might be used. I b Mcr = y 6 f c + f pe f d Vc = 0.85 0.6 5000 + 700 M 7 V u u A eyfpe = Apsfse 1 + b I x 10.57 1000fpe = 98.294 x Vu 154 + 1 3.89 13.89 1224.5 x + 3 25 = 2.65 + 306.1 Mu u (M in in-k). The results of this equation are also shown on Fig- ure 2.3.1.1. = 1.541 x + 3 1.541 ksi 25 At all points, Vu < Vc so shear strength is ade- quate and stirrups are not required.fd = flexural stress due to load used for Vd Md 2.4 Camber and Deflection = Camber is the upward deflection of a pre- S stressed member and results from the prestressing 30.0535x force being eccentric from the center of gravity of 25 x = 2 the cross-section. Since both prestressing force 314.8 and eccentricity are established by the required design load and span length, camber is a result of = 2.01x 0.08x 2 314.8 the design rather than a design parameter. There- fore, camber requirements should not be speci-Mcr = 314.8 x 12 fied. 0.424 + f pe 2.01x 0.08x 2 314.8 12 Deflections are also affected by the amount of prestressing only because prestressing establishes the load at which a member will crack. If tensile 2- -11 34. Fig. 2.3.1.1 Shear for Example 2.3.1.1 25 5 f bw d c 20 Eq. (11-10) Eq. (11-12) 15 Eq. (11-9) 10 2 f bw d c Shear, kips Vu 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 Distance into Span, ftstresses are kept below cracking, deflections will tions are not predictable with any degree of accu-be independent of the prestress level. racy and any calculation of long term movements Cambers and deflections will change with time must be considered to be only estimates.due to concrete creep, prestress loss and other fac- This section presents calculation procedurestors. The sustained compression due to the pre- for determining long term deflections. From thestressing will cause camber growth. Balancing producers standpoint, history and experiencethis is the effect of creep on deflections due to self must be used to modify the procedures to fit the lo-weight and other sustained loads. It is this time cal product. From the specifiers standpoint, thesedependent movement which, in addition to instan- procedures will allow only approximate estimatestaneous deflections, must be considered in the de- of long term effects and should be

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complementedvelopment of framing schemes and detailing. with discussions with local producers. Instantaneous cambers and deflections are pre-dictable as long as the material properties areknown. The time dependent cambers and deflec- 2.4.1 Camber2- -12 35. Table 2.4.1 Long term multipliers6 Without With Condition Composite Composite Topping Topping At Erection: 1. Deflection (downward) component - apply to the elastic deflection due to the member weight at release of prestress 1.85 1.85 2. Camber (upward) component - apply to the elastic camber due to the prestress at the time of release of prestress 1.80 1.80 Final: 3. Deflection (downward) component - apply to the elastic deflection due to the member weight at release of prestress 2.70 2.40 4. Camber (upward) component - apply to the elastic camber due to prestress at the time of release of prestress 2.45 2.20 5. Deflection (downward) - apply to elastic deflection due to superimposed dead load only 3.00 3.00 6. Deflection (downward) - apply to elastic deflection caused by the composite topping - -- -- - 2.30 Hollow core slabs are produced with straight Solution:strand patterns rather than using draped or de- Estimate initial losses at 5% and use Eci = 3250pressed strands. Using (+) to indicate upward ksimovement and (- to indicate downward move- -) Po = 0.95(0.7)(4)(41.3) = 109.9kment, net camber can be calculated as: 2 109.93.89 1[30.5(12)]camber = Pe 5w 2 4 camber = 8EI 384EI 832501224.5 4 To determine initial camber, the appropriate 530.0535(30.5) 1728 values for prestress force and modulus of elastic- - - 38432501224.5ity of the concrete must be used. When ultimatemoment rather than tensile stresses govern a de- = 1.34 - 0.79 -sign, the initial strand stress may be reduced to = 0.55 Say 1/2 to 3/4 initial cambermodify the anticipated camber. Additionally, slab Estimating long term effects is complicated be-camber is sensitive to support point locations dur- cause, as time passes, the prestressing force de-ing storage. Camber will increase as these support creases due to losses and the modulus of elasticitypoints move in from the slab ends. of the concrete increases with concrete strengthExample 2.4.1 Initial Camber gain. Traditionally, a creep factor of 2.0 has been Using the generic hollow core slab defined in applied to instantaneous deflections to estimatesection 1.7, calculate the initial camber given the the additional deflection due to creep. This hasfollowing: been modified by Martin6 for prestressed con- Prestressing steel: 41/2 dia., 270 ksi, low re- crete. Table 2.4.1 presents suggested multiplierslaxation strands to determine both long term final deflections and position at erection. It should be noted that in us-Apsfpu = 0.153(270) = 41.3k/strand ing these multipliers, a total deflection is calcu-Initial stress: 70% fpu lated rather than the additional increment due to dp = 7 long term effects. = 30-6 Example 2.4.2 Long Term Camber 2- -13 36. For the slab of Example 2.4.1, determine thenet camber at erection and the final camber.Table 2.4.2 Maximum Permissible Computed Deflections1 Type of member Deflection to be considered Deflection limitation Flat roofs not supporting or attached to non- Immediate deflection due to live load L structural elements likely to be damaged by * large deflections 180 Floors not supporting or attached to non- Immediate deflection due to live load L structural elements likely to be damaged by large deflections 360 Roof or floor construction supporting or That part of the total deflection occurring after attached to nonstructural elements likely to attachment of nonstructural elements (sum of *** be damaged by large deflections the long-term deflection due to all sustained 480 loads and the immediate deflection due to any Roof or floor construction supporting or atadditional live load)** tached to nonstructural elements not likely to **** be damaged by large deflections 240 * Limit not intended to safeguard against ponding. Ponding should be checked by suitable calculations of deflection, including added deflections due to ponded water, and considering long-term effects of all sustained loads, camber, construction tolerances, and reliability of provisions for drainage. ** Long-term deflection shall be determined in accordance with 9.5.2.5 or 9.5.4.2, but may be reduced by amount of deflection calculated to occur before attach- ment of nonstructural elements. This amount shall be determined on basis of accepted engineering data relating to time-deflection characteristics of members similar to those being considered. *** Limit may be exceeded if adequate measures are taken to prevent damage to supported or attached elements. **** But not greater than tolerance provided for nonstructural elements. Limit may be exceeded if camber is provided so that total deflection minus camber does not exceed limit.Solution: the effective moment of inertia of the section.At erection, Calculations using bilinear moment-deflectioninitial camber = 1.34 - 0.79 - relationships are required when tension exceeds 6 f c and are covered extensively in references 1 = 0.55 from Example 2.4.1 and 2. By definition, cracking occurs at a tensileErection camber = 1.34(1.80) - 0.79(1.85) - stress of 7.5 f c. While the ACI Code requires = 0.95 such bilinear calculations when 6 f c tension is Say 1 erection camber exceeded, in effect bilinear behavior is meaning- less up to a tension of 7.5 f c. Since hollow coreFinal camber = 1.34(2.45) - 0.79(2.70) - slabs are normally designed to be uncracked un- = 1.15 der service loads, the effects of cracking will notSay approximately 1 1/4 final camber be considered here. Table 2.4.1 includes multipliers for determin- ing the long term effects for superimposed loads.2.4.2 Deflections Again, use of the multipliers gives an estimate of As with camber, concrete creep will also affect total deflection rather than an increment for thedeflections due to sustained superimposed loads. additional long term deflection.These long term effects must be considered forcomparison with Table 9.5(b) of the ACI Code todetermine acceptability. This table is reproduced Example 2.4.3here as Table 2.4.2. Engineering judgement For the slab of Examples 2.4.1 and 2.4.2, deter-should be used in comparing calculated deflec- mine the total deflection due to a superimposedtions to the ACI Code limits. Many building code load of 20 psf dead and 50 psf live on a clear spanspecified live loads exceed the actual loads in a of 30-0 including long term effects. Use Ec =structure. While it may be implied that the full 4300 ksi.live load be used for comparison to Table 9.5(b), Solution:situations may arise where it is more reasonable to From Example 2.4.2use actual anticipated live loads for deflectioncomparisons. A further complication for super- Final camber = 1.15imposed loads is that flexural cracking will reduce superimposed dead load instantaneous deflection:2- -14 37. 4 4 50.023(30) 1728 50.023(30) 1728 = = 0.208 = 38443001224.5 384 43002307 = 0.11Final deflection = 0.208 (3.0) = 0.62 (Note: 2307 in.4 = composite moment of inertiaInstantaneous live load deflection: using a 3000 psi topping on a 5000 psi slab.) 4 Long term dead load deflection 50.053(30) 1728 = = 0.52 = 0.11(3.0) = 0.33 38443001224.5 Instantaneous live

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load deflection:Final position = 50 (0.11) = 0.28 final camber = + 1.15 20 sustained dead load = - 0.62 - Final Position = +1.05 - 0.60 - 0.33 - 0.26 = - - - net camber + 0.53 - -0.14 including instantaneous live load. live load increment = - 0.52 - Calculate increment due to differential shrinkage + 0.01 assuming shrinkage strain of 500 10--6 in/in in both the topping and slab: For comparison to the provisions of Chapter 9 If total shrinkage = 500 10-6of the ACI Code, when non-structural elements and erection shrinkage = 250 10-6are attached to the slabs, the portion of deflection differential shrinkage = 250 10-6after erection may be used for comparison. The differential shrinkage can be thought of asChange in camber = 1.15 - 0.95 = + 0.20 - a prestress force from the topping whereSustained dead load = - 0.62 -Instantaneous live loads = - 0.52 - P = Atopping (strain) (modulus) - 0.94 - = 36(2)(0.00025)(3320) When a composite topping is used, it will be = 59.8kcast after a portion of the slab shrinkage has oc- The effect is lessened by concrete creep and,curred. There will then be differential shrinkage using a factor of 2.30 from Table 2.4.1, reduces to:between the topping and slab. This differentialcan cause additional deflection and bottom tensile P = 59.8/2.30 = 26kstress. These effects will generally be negligible. The eccentricity of this force is: e = 9 - 3.89 -Example 2.4.4 Composite Slab = 5.11 Given the slab of Example 2.4.3, add a 2 com-posite topping and recalculate deflections includ- M = Pe = 26 x 5.11 = 133 in-king the affects of differential shrinkage. downward deflection = M 2Solution: 8EIFinal camber = 1.34 x 2.20 - 0.79 x 2.40 - 2 133(30x12) = = 1.05 843002307Instantaneous topping weight deflection: = 0.22 1/4 )4 50.0253(30 1728 Considering the span used in this example and = the accuracy of the other camber and deflection 38443001224.5 calculations, it can be easily seen that differential = 0.26 shrinkage will generally not be significant.Long term deflection due to topping weight 2.5 Composite Design = 0.26 (2.30) = 0.60 A composite, structural concrete topping isSuperimposed dead load deflection: commonly used in floor construction with hollow 2- -15 38. core slabs. The composite action is desirable to Since the composite topping and hollow coreadd stiffness and strength for gravity loads and slabs interact to create the final structural element,may also be required for load transfer within a dia- it is imperative that the topping bond well with thephragm. When a composite topping is used, con- slabs. While the building designer may only be in-sideration must be given to its strength, detailing terested in the final product, the process of achiev-and quality assurance. ing a well bonded, composite topping is very im- The required compressive strength of the top- portant. The hollow core producer is dependentping may be determined from the hollow core slab on a properly bonded topping, yet is not involveddesign requirements. Load tables provided by lo- in specifying, designing or installing the topping.cal producers will normally indicate that either a The hollow core producer is responsible for sup-3000 psi (20.7 MPa) or 4000 psi (27.6 MPa) con- plying a slab that is capable of bonding with a top-crete is required. Diaphragm requirements may ping. The installer of the topping is responsiblenecessitate a higher strength topping concrete. for surface preparation, topping concrete mix de- From a detailing standpoint, the primary con- sign and curing to assure proper bond.sideration is that hollow core slabs will have cam- At a minimum, the slab surface must be cleanber. If the topping is finished as a level surface, the and damp at the time of topping installation. It iscamber will reduce the topping thickness in the recommended that the surface be thoroughly satu-midspan region which will affect the load capacity rated prior to topping placement, but all standingof the slabs. With significant topping thickness water must be removed. ACI 301-967 specifiesreduction, the integrity of the topping concrete that a sand and cement grout be scrubbed into themay also be compromised. A preliminary slab de- slab surface ahead of topping placement. If thissign can provide an estimate of camber and the procedure is used, it is imperative that initial setminimum topping thickness necessary to support not be allowed prior to topping placement. If ini-the design loads. The first option is to provide the tial set occurs, the grout can become a bond break-minimum thickness topping at midspan and allow er. Similarly, bonding agents, which are rarelythe thickness to increase at the slab ends to main- specified, will also act as a bond breaker if any ini-tain a flat floor. Finish and bearing elevations can tial set occurs prior to topping placement.then be set to this criteria. The topping concrete mix and curing tech- A second option to minimize topping concrete niques will also affect bond of a composite top-volume is to allow the minimum topping thick- ping. Curling at topping edges or joints will causeness to follow the curvature of the slabs. This will local delamination. Curling is a result of differen-result in a finished floor with camber which may tial shrinkage between the top and bottom sur-be acceptable in some occupancies. In this option, faces of the topping. Generally, water is lost moreit is important that all trades be made aware of the quickly from the top surface causing additionalfinal camber as it may affect their work. Partidrying shrinkage. This can be minimized by prop-tions, doorways and stairs will be particularly af- er curing techniques and low shrinkage concrete.fected in this option. Design of hollow core slabs for composite ac- When control joints are used in a structural top- tion is usually limited to a horizontal shearping, they should be located over the joints in the strength of 80 psi (0.5 MPa) according to sectionprecast units below where cracks would most nat- 17.5.2.1 of ACI 318-95. Through limited pub-urally occur in the topping. At the ends of slabs, lished8 and unpublished testing, the machine fin-where movement will occur due to camber ished surface has been found to meet the require-changes, deflections, creep, shrinkage or elastic ments of that section. The horizontal shear checkshortening, control joints are desirable. should be based on the shear diagram rather than Reinforcing of a topping may be required for using an average horizontal shear over the dis-structural design. If not, consideration should be tance from zero moment to maximum momentgiven to using minimum shrinkage reinforcement when checking compliance with the 80 psi limit.for crack control. Composite ties are not normally provided giv- en the difficulty and expense of installing the ties2- -16 39. in a machine casting operation. When the horizon- I = 1224.5 + 154(5.24 - 3.89)2 -tal shear exceeds 80 psi (0.5 MPa) and composite 3ties are not used, the topping is considered to be + 2 (27.7) + 2(27.7)(9 - 5.24)2 12superimposed dead load on a non-composite slab. = 2307 in4In a wet cast system, horizontal shear ties with 1/4in amplitude roughening may be used to take ad- Calculate prestress losses:vantage of the higher stresses allowed by ACI. From Example 2.2.3.1 Design of a composite section is similar to that ES = 7.52 ksipresented in Sections 2.2 and 2.3. The followingexample demonstrates the additional consider- Concrete creepations with a composite section. 2 Msd = 30 (0.025 + 0.020)(3) 8Example 2.5.1 Composite Design = 15.19 ft-kUsing the

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generic hollow core cross-section de-fined in Section 1.7, add a 2 in structural topping 15.19(12)(2.89) fcds =and check for the following conditions: 1224.5Prestressing steel: 4-1/2 dia., 270 ksi low relax- = 0.430 ksiation strands CR = (2.0) 28500 (0.857 - 0.430) - 4300Initial stress: 70% fpu = 5.66 ksidp: 7 in SH = 6.27 ksiSlab: fc = 5000 psi Eci = 3250 ksi RE = 5000 0.04(6.27 + 5.66 + 7.52) 0.75 1000 Ec = 4300 ksi = 3.17 ksiTopping: f c = 3000 psi Loss = 7.52 + 5.66 + 6.27 + 3.17 Ec = 3320 ksi = 22.62 ksi = 12%Slab length: 30-6 Calculate service load stresses:Slab span: 30-0 Apsfse = 0.7(4)(41.3)(1 - 0.12) -Loads: topping = 25 psf = 101.8k dead load = 20 psf 2 Mnon--comp = 30 (0.0535 + 0.025) live load = 50 psf 8Calculate section properties: = 8.83 ft-k/ft = 106 in-k/ft 2Base section A = 154 in2 Mcomp = 30 (0.020 + 0.050) I = 1224.5 in4 8 yb = 3.89 in = 7.88 ft-k/ft = 94.5 in-k/ftTopping At top of topping n = 3320/4300 = 0.77 94.5(3)(10 5.24) ftop = (0.77) 2307 use width = 0.77 (36) = 0.450 ksi = 27.7 in At top of slabComposite 101.8(2.89)(4.11) A = 154 + 2(27.7) = 209.4 in2 ftop = 101.8 154 1224.5 154(3.89) + 2(27.7)(9) 106(3)(4.11) 94.5(3)(8 5.24) yb = + + 209.4 1224.5 2307 = 5.24 in. = 1.080 ksi 2- -17 40. At bottom of slab 101.8(2.89)(3.89) Vu = 30 2(12)(0.223)(3) 2 10fbottom = 101.8 + 154 1224.5 = 9.8 k < 22 k ok 106(3)(3.89) 94.5(3)(5.24) Section is composite 1224.5 2307 Check web shear at h/2: = - -0.058 ksi transfer length = 50(0.5) = 25 inCalculate flexural strength at h/2 plus 3 in bearingwu = 1.4(0.0535 + 0.025 + 0.020) + 1.7(0.050) Apsfse = 101.8 25 = 32.6 k 8 = 0.223 ksf for composite section, fpc is calculated at centroid 2Mu = 30 (0.223)(3) of composite section 8 32.6(2.89)(5.24 3.89) = 75.26 ft-k fpc = 32.6 154 1224.5Using ACI Eq. (18-3) = 0.108 ksi 4(0.153)p = 36(9) = 0.0019 Vcw = 0.85 3.5 5000 1000 + 0.3 (0.108) (10.5)(9)fps 0.85 = 270 1 0.28 0.0019 270 3 = 22.5k > 9.8 k ok = 254.8 ksi Check inclined shear at 4 fta = 4(0.153)(254.8) 0.85(3)(36) 2 Vu = 30 4 (0.223)(3) = 1.7 in = 7.36kMn = 0.9(4)(0.153) (254.8) 9 1.7 2 Vd = 30 4 (0.0535 + 0.025 + 0.020)(3) 2 = 1144 in-k = 95.3 ft-k = 3.25kCheck 1.2 Mcr Vi = 7.36 - 3.25 = 4.11k -fbottom = 101.8 + 154 101.8(2.89)(3.89) 1224.5 Mu = 0.223(3)(4) 30 4 = 34.8 ft-k 2 2 = 1.596 ksi Md = (0.0535 + 0.025 + 0.020)(3)(4) 30 4 Mcr = 2307 1.596 + 5.24 7.5 5000 1000 = 12.25 + 3.12 = 15.37 ft-k 2 2 Mmax = 34.8 - 15.37 = 19.43 ft-k - = 936 in-k 101.8(2.89)(3.89) fpe = 101.8 +M n 154 1224.5 = 1144 = 1.22 > 1.2 okM cr 936 = 1.596 ksiCheck horizontal shear: 12.25(12)(3.89) 3.12(12)(5.24) fd = +Vnh = 80bvd 1224.5 2307 = 0.85(80)(36)(9) = 0.552 ksi = 22030 lb = 22 k Mcr = 2307 5.24 6 5000 1000 + 1.596 0.552 at h/2 = 646 in-k = 53.9 ft-k2- -18 41. Vci = 0.85 0.6 5000 1000 (10.5)(9) + 0.85 3.25 + 4.11(53.9) 19.43 = 15.86k > 7.36k ok 2- -19 42. Fig. 2.6.1.1 Fig. 2.6.1.2 fps Steel Stress fse t f fps d fps reqd. Length into span greater than fps available Strand Development d Section 12.9.2 of the ACI Code limits inves-2.6 Strand Development tigation of development length to the section near- est the end of the member where full design strength is required. In conventionally reinforced2.6.1 ACI Requirements concrete, the rate of moment increase must be Section 12.9 of the ACI Code covers develop- considered in selecting reinforcing bar sizes. Thisment length for prestressing strands. While the consideration is also valid in prestressed concretetopic has received considerable discussion9-16, members. As shown in Figure 2.6.1.2, with athe ACI Code expression currently remains: steep rate of moment increase, critical sectionsd = (fps - 2/3fse)db - may occur in the strand development length at less than maximum moment. A further requirement is that the development Demand on strand strength above fse does notlength shall be doubled when bonding of a strand occur until after flexural cracking occurs. If flexdoes not extend to the end of the member and the ural cracking occurs in the transfer length, theprecompressed tensile zone is allowed to be in strand cannot accept additional stress so bond fail-tension at service loads. ure occurs. Therefore, the limit on member flexu- The ACI Code expression for development ral strength in the strand transfer length is thelength describes two bond mechanisms. The first cracking moment.is the transfer length which is the bond length re- In the flexural bond length, strand stress can in-quired to transfer the effective prestress after crease above fse, but not to full fps. Therefore,losses, fse, to the concrete. This portion of the dethere is additional flexural strength above thevelopment length is: cracking moment, but less than full nominal strength. If flexural cracking occurs at factored t = f se d b load in the flexural bond length, the maximum 3 With fse equal to 150 ksi (1034 MPa), the trans- value for fps can be calculated as:fer length becomes 50db, the length used for shear x tcalculations. fps = fse + (fps - fse) - The second mechanism is for bond length after fthe steel stress increases above fse. To develop the where x = the distance from the end of thefull design strength of the strand, fps, a bond length member to the section of interestin addition to the transfer length is required. Theflexural bond length is expressed as: The nominal moment capacity is then calculated f = (fps -fse)db on the basis of this maximum strand stress. Figure 2.6.1.1 depicts the increase in steel Martin and Korkosz17 suggest that with partial-stress along the development length of the strand. ly developed strand, the full concrete compressive2- -20 43. failure strain will not be achieved. A strain com- Hollow core slab systems are often required topatibility analysis can be performed to determine carry concentrated or wall loads which may affectthe concrete strain that would be consistent with the rate of moment increase near the member end.fps and nominal strength can then be calculated While not required by ACI, it is suggested that theusing that strain. transfer length and flexural bond length regions When debonded strands are mixed with fully be investigated for reduced capacity when the mo-bonded strands, a similar strain compatibility ment gradient is high.analysis may be required in the flexural bond The development length equations in the ACIlength for the debonded strands. In this case, Code are based on testing conducted with mem-nominal strength can be calculated in two ways: bers cast with concrete having normal water-ce-1. Analyze section with all strands at the fps for ment ratios. As noted in the Commentary to the the debonded strands. ACI Code, no slump concrete requires extra pre- cautions. Hollow core slabs produced with the ex-2. Analyze section with only fully bonded strands trusion process fall into this category. As original- at their fps and ignore the debonded strands. ly presented by Anderson and Anderson10 andThe greater of the two results would predict the reinforced by Brooks, Gerstle and Logan18, anominal strength of the section. measure of satisfactory bond is the free end slip of For hollow core slabs, the strain compatibility a member after it is cut to length. A limit on freeanalysis for partially developed strand will yield end

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slip expressed as:variable results as compared to a traditional ap- f sef siproach where fps is used with a full concrete strain all = d 6E s bof 0.003 in/in. If fps is close to fse, the strain com- has been suggested as a maximum free end strandpatibility analysis will predict moment capacity of slip for using the ACI Code development lengths.about 85% of the traditional analysis. When fps is This expression approximates the strand shorten-10% greater than fse, the difference reduces to 5% ing that would have to occur over the transferor less. The additional complexity of the strain length. For a 1/2 (12.7 mm) dia. strand stressedcompatibility analysis would only seem war- initially to 189 ksi (1300 MPa), the free end slipranted when flexural cracking is expected near the should not exceed about 3/32 (2.4 mm) if the ACItransfer point or when debonded strands are used. Code transfer and development lengths are to be There are several aspects of a bond length dis- used.cussion that are significant to hollow core slab de- When free end slip exceeds all, the transfersign. In many framing schemes, there will be a re- length and the flexural bond length will increase.quirement to use very short slabs to fill in an area. Shear strength in the transfer length and momentWith fully developed strands, these slabs will nor - capacity in the flexural bond length will be de-mally have very large load capacities. However, creased and the length into the span where fullcapacity may be reduced because the strands moment capacity is provided will be increased.might only be partially developed. For example, If the free end strand slip is known from qualityfor a slab prestressed with 1/2 (12.7 mm) , 270 control measurements, the member capacity canksi (1860 MPa) strands with fse = 150 ksi (1034 be evaluated with consideration of extendedMPa) and fps = 260 ksi (1790 MPa): transfer and flexural bond lengths. As a function d = f ps 2 f sed b of measured end slip, the transfer length and flex- 3 ural bond length can be calculated for each strand = 260 2 150 0.5 3 as follows: t = 2sEs/fsi = 80 = 6-8 (2030 mm) This slab would have to be two development f = 6sEs(fps -- fse)/(fsifse) lengths, or 13-4 (4.1 m) long in order to develop Shear strength can be evaluated by substitutingits full design strength. A shorter slab would have the extended transfer length for 50 db in evaluat-reduced capacity. ing the rate of increase of prestress. Flexural 2- -21 44. Fig. 2.6.1.3 Effect of End Slip 80.00 Moment (ft-k) 60.00 Moment Capacity with 5/32" End Slip 40.00 Moment Capacity 20.00 Uniform Load with Normal End Slip Moment Diagram 0.00 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 Distance Along Member Length (ft) (a) 80.00 Moment (ft-k) 60.00 Moment Capacity with 5/32" End Slip 40.00 Moment Capacity 20.00 Uniform Load with Normal End Slip Moment Diagram 0.00 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 Distance Along Member Length (ft) (b)strength calculations are affected only by the ex- The following example demonstrates the use oftension of the strand development length and po- the Martin and Korkosz strain compatibility anal-tential reduction of fps. The strain compatibility ysis for partially developed strand and the use ofanalysis suggested by Martin and Korkosz for free end slip for evaluating strength. The proce-sections with partially developed strand becomes dure illustrated is also valid with normal end slipmore complex as there can be variation in devel- by using the appropriate transfer and bondopment lengths within a given member. lengths. Figure 2.6.1.3 illustrates the change in moment Example 2.6.1.1 Initial Strand Slipcapacity for the generic slab of Section 1.7 from Given the generic hollow core slab defined innormal slip to 5/32 in (4 mm) slip on all strands. In Section 1.7, calculate the design flexural strength(a), the span length is 30 ft (9.1 m) and there would given the following:be no change in slab capacity for uniform load. In(b), the span is reduced to 25 ft (7.6 m) and it is Prestressing steel: 4-1/2 dia., 270 ksi lowclear that the extended development length would relaxation strands.result in reduced capacity even with uniform load. Es = 28500 ksiEnd slip in excess of normal slip has a more signif- dp = 7icant effect in shorter slabs. fc = 5000 psi2- -22 45. fsi = 185 ksi T = Cfse = 163.4 ksi Findfps = 267 ksi c = 2.18s = 3/16 in. all strands c = 0.000929 in/inSolution: Concrete stress at top t = 2(3/16)(28500)/185 = 4300(0.000929) = 57.8 = 3.995 ksi f = 6(3/16) (28500)(267 -- 163.4)/185/163.4 = 109.9 Concrete stress at top of core 2.18 1.25 d = 57.8 + 109.9 = (3.995) = 1.704 ksi 2.18 = 167.7 3.984 + 1.704 The minimum slab length required to achieve C1 = (1.25)(36) full flexural capacity is 2(167.7)/12 or 28 ft. Cal- 2culate flexural capacity at 10 ft. = 128k 10x12 57.8 C2 = 1.704 (10.5)(2.18 - 1.25) -fps = 163.4 + (267 - 163.4) - 2 109.9 = 222 ksi = 8.3kApsfps = 4(0.153)(222) Mn = (135.9(7 - 0.54) - 8.3(1.56 - 0.54))/12 - - - = 135.9k = 72.45 ft-kTraditional analysisa = 135.9 = 0.89 in. .855 36Mn = 135.9(7 - 0.89/2)/12 - = 74.24 ft-kStrain compatibility analysis Ec c c C1 C2 dp T = Apsfps sps = se + sse = 163.4/28500 = 0.00573 in/inps = 222/28500 = 0.00779 in/ins = 0.00779 - 0.00573 - = 0.00206 in/inUsing trial and error for 2- -23 46. CHAPTER 3 SPECIAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS3.1 General Information slabs will contribute in carrying a given load in a The application of hollow core slabs as roof given location. This section presents a designand floor deck members creates several situations method that may be used when the slabs do actual-for consideration in design which are either not ly have to support non-uniform loads.completely covered by ACI Code provisions orwhich involve consideration of production pro- 3.2.1 Load Distribution Mechanismscesses. This section presents information which As load is applied to one slab in a system, themay be used as a guideline for the situations de- response of the slab system is to deflect and alsoscribed but not as hard and fast rules. The criteria twist if the load is not on the longitudinal center-presented represent conservative practices and line of the system. As the loaded slab edges try toshould be verified with local producers. Pub- move down, the interlock of the grout in the jointslished data relative to each situation is referenced. with the keyways formed in the slab edges forcesHowever, extensive in plant testing has been con- adjacent slabs to deflect a similar amount. Theducted by hollow core producers which may al- flexural and torsional stiffness of the adjacentlow less conservative criteria to be used because slabs reduce the deflection of the loaded slab fromof the unique characteristics of a particular slab. what might be expected if the slab were alone. Shear forces are developed along the keyways and3.2 Load Distribution the loaded slab then gets some support from the As demonstrated in Chapter 2 of this manual, adjacent slabs. As this effect trickles through thehollow core slabs are designed as individual, one system, the keyways between slabs force equalway, simple span slabs. When the slabs are deflections for slab edges at any given keyway.installed and grouted together at the keyways, the Many times shrinkage cracks will occur in theindividual slabs become a system that behaves grouted joints at the interface

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between the groutsimilarly to a monolithic slab. A major benefit of and slab edge. This cracking does not impair thethe slabs acting together is the ability to transfer mechanism described above because the configu-forces from one slab to another. In most hollow ration of the keyways in the slab edges still pro-core slab deck applications, non-uniform loading vides mechanical interlock even with the presenceoccurs in the form of line loads, concentrated of a crack.loads, or load concentrations at openings. The Shear forces transferred along keyways causeability of individual slabs to interact allows these two sets of forces that are normally not consideredload concentrations to be shared by several slabs. in hollow core slab design. The first is torsionThe ability to distribute loads among several slabs which develops because the shear on one edge of ahas been demonstrated in several published tests given slab is different in magnitude from the shear19-25 and many unpublished tests. on the opposite edge. As depicted in Figure 3.2.1, In many cases, load concentrations do not have the keyway shears reduce as the distance from theto be carried by the slabs. For example, a header at load increases. These torsions cause shear stressa large opening may be supported directly to a in the slabs in addition to the direct shear stress.foundation or vertical support element; a beam The second set of forces is induced because themight be installed to directly carry a heavy con- system is tending to behave as a two way slab.centrated load; or a heavy wall parallel to a slab Transverse bending moments occur because ofspan might be designed to carry its own weight or the edge support provided by adjacent slabs. Theany load superimposed on the wall as a deep beam result is transverse tensile stress developed in thespanning between vertical supports. However, bottom of the slab and compressive stress in thewhen such loads must be supported by the slab top. Hollow core slabs are not provided withsystem, a method is required to decide how many transverse reinforcement. Transverse tensile 3- -1 47. Fig. 3.2.1 V1 V1 V2 V2 V3 V1 > V2 > V3stresses must then be resisted by plain concrete. The two basic design parameters consideredThe magnitude of load concentration causing the for hollow core slabs are flexure and shear. De-transverse tension must be limited to preclude a sign for flexure is straightforward with the effecsplitting failure. See Section 3.2.2. tive load resisting width being a function of the Several factors affect the ability of a slab sys- span length. Conversely, shear design is compli-tem to distribute loads to adjacent slabs. As the cated by torsions developed in the system. If tor-width of an assembly of slabs gets narrower than sion is not to be used as a design parameter, directthe span length, a reduction in the number of slabs shear must then be modified to reflect the increasecontributing to the support of a concentration of in shear stress from the torsion.load occurs. This occurs because the freedom of Figure 3.2.2 depicts a method of establishingthe free edges of the system to deflect and twist be- an effective resisting section for any type of loadcomes more significant. A second factor is the to be distributed between slabs. In the midspan re-spacing of the slab joints. With slabs available in gions, the effective width is defined as a functionwidths ranging from 2 feet to 8 feet (0.6 to 2.4 m), of span length. At the supports, the effectivesome differences in load distribution behavior can width is defined as an absolute width. The widthbe expected. Finally, the span length affects the at the support is restricted to account for shearnumber of contributing slabs. As span length stresses due to torsion. Use of these resisting sec-changes for a wide system, the interaction of flex- tions will result in prediction of peak values ofural and torsional stiffnesses changes. For longer moment and shear. That is, the effective widthspans, flexural stiffness reduces relative to tor- concept is simply a mechanism used to determinesional stiffness. This results in relatively less slab the maximum design moments and shears ratherrotation and less transverse curvature. The result than a depiction of the actual load path through theis that more slabs can contribute to distribution on system.longer spans as long as the system is wide relative The performance of slab systems indicates thatto its length. shear and moment might affect additional slabs. For example, for a load located some distance from a free edge, the peak moment due to that load3.2.2 Design Guidelines can be predicted by assuming the load is resisted ACI 318-95 recognizes the load transfer capa- by a width equal to 0.50. In reality, in flexure, abilities of hollow core slabs in Section 16.3.1. total width equal to 85% to 90% of the span lengthThat section specifies that distribution of forces might have some moment attributable to that load.be established by analysis or test. The guidelines In shear, the 1-0 (0.3m) effective section at thepresented here were based on extensive, full scale support at a free edge may be used to predict thetesting of a specific slab system. Additionally, a peak shear but, because of torsion, the total reac-comparison of these guidelines to an analytical tion due to an edge load will not actually be con-study has been done. Therefore, the guidelines centrated in the 1-0 (0.3m).presented here should satisfy the requirement of Several limitations should be recognized forACI (318-95) 16.3.1. Figure 3.2.2.3- -2 48. Fig. 3.2.2 Effective resisting width of slab for load anywhere along span 0.25 0.50 0.25 4 " -0 1-0" Interpolate Interpolate 0.50 0.25 1) As the width of the system becomes narrow- tablished by test for each slab system. Ref- er than the span length, the effective resist- erence 23 provides guidance for edge loads. ing widths will become narrower. The concept of using an effective resisting sec- 2) For extremely high span-depth ratios (in ex- tion is subtlely different from the traditional con- cess of approximately 50), the effective sec- cept of load distribution width. Traditionally, tion at midspan may be reduced by 10 to 20 loads have been divided by distribution widths for percent. design. Using an effective resisting section means that a given load is resisted by a varying width de- 3) For spans less than about 10 ft, the effective pending on the location of the section being inves- width at the support may become narrower. tigated in the span. This is best illustrated by ex- ample. 4) Local load concentrations can cause longi- tudinal splitting failures due to transverse Example 3.2.1 General Case bending in the system. Punching shear type Given an untopped hollow core system using failures can also occur. The magnitude of 36 wide slabs as shown in Figure 3.2.3, deter- concentrated loads must be limited to pre- mine the slab design loads. Slab weight = 53.5 psf clude such failures. These limits are best es- 3- -3 49. Fig. 3.2.3. 5 " -6 P1 9 " -6 w1 P2 25 " -0 6 " -0 P2 w1 P1 9 " -6 5 " -6 DL = 10 psf w1D = 650 #/ft P1D = 500 # P2D = 1000 # LL = 40 psf w1L = 1040 #/ft P1L = 1000 # P2L = 3000 #Solution DW = 0.5 = 0.5(25) = 12.5 ftStep 1: Evaluate the shear and moment diagrams Between x = 0 and x = 6.25 ft for the non-distributable loads. DW = 4 + x (12.5 - 4)- wu = 1.4(53.5 + 10) + 1.7(40) = 157 psf 6.25 = 4 + 1.36x Vx = w (/2 - x) = 0.157(25/2 - x)

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- - See Table 3.2.1 Step 4: Divide the shears and moments from Step Mx = w x ( x) = 0.157x (25 x) 2 2 2 by the effective width from Step 3 and See Table 3.2.1 add to the shears and moments in Step 1.Step 2: Evaluate the shear and moment diagrams See Table 3.2.1 for the distributable loads. Step 5: Design the slabs for the web shear, in- wu = 1.4(650) + 1.7(1040) = 2678#/ft clined shear, and moments obtained from Step 4. Pu = 1.4(500) + 1.7(1000) = 2400# The solution for the general case where the Pu = 1.4(1000) + 1.7(3000) = 6500# shears and moments are calculated at intervals See Table 3.2.1 along the span is best suited for use with a comput- er. The information could then also be used to cal-Step 3: Evaluate the effective width along the culate shear strength at the same time. span. For many cases, a general solution is not neces-At support sary. Simplifying shortcuts can be used to shortenDW = 4.0 ft the design process. Consider the case where shearAt 0.25 = 0.25 (25) = 6.25 ft is known not to be a problem.3- -4 50. Table 3.2.1 Shears and Moments for Example 3.2.1 Non-distributed Distributable Effective Final Loads Loads Width x Vux Mux Vux Mux DWx Vu(k/ft) Mu(ft-k/ft) 0 1.96 0 34.34 0 4.0 10.55 0 h/2 1.91 0.65 33.45 11.28 4.45 9.43 3.18 1 1.81 1.88 31.66 33.0 5.36 7.72 8.04 2 1.65 3.61 28.98 63.32 6.72 5.96 13.03 3 1.49 5.18 26.31 90.98 8.08 4.75 16.44 4 1.33 6.59 23.63 115.94 9.44 3.83 18.87 5 1.18 7.85 20.95 138.23 10.80 3.12 20.65 6 1.02 8.95 15.87 156.64 12.16 2.32 21.83 7 0.86 9.89 13.19 171.17 12.5 1.92 23.58 10 0.39 11.78 0 195.78 12.5 0.39 27.44 11 0.24 12.09 0 195.78 12.5 0.24 27.75 12.5 0 12.27 0 195.78 12.5 0 27.93Example 3.2.2 Example 3.2.3 D = 250 plf D = 250 plf L = 200 plf 25 " 25 " D = 10 psf D = 10 psf -0 -0 L = 40 psf L = 40 psf Slab wt. = 53.5 psf Slab wt. = 53.5 psf Effective width Effective width Given the system shown, determine the design Given the system shown select a generic slabload. from Figure 1.7.1 to support the loads shown.Solution: Solution: Make preliminary selection based on flexure: Shear is judged to be not critical From Figure 3.2.2 the effective width resisting 250 + 200 Superimposed w = 10 + 40 +the line load is 0.50 = 0.50(25) = 12.5 ft 0.5025 = 86 psfDetermine the design superimposed load: Select 4 - 7/16, 270 ksi low relaxation strands w = 40 + 10 + 250/12.5 from Figure 1.7.1 First shear check = 70 psf effective width at support = 4-0 = DW Using the generic slab load table in Figure 1.7.1 wu = 1.4(10 + 53.5) + 1.7(40)select an 8 slab with 4 - 7/16 diameter strands. + (1.4 x 250 + 1.7 x 200)/DW If it is not known whether shear is critical, sim- = 157 + 690/DWple iterative checks may be made. Using DW = 4.0 3- -5 51. Example 3.2.4 10 10 9 " -6 25 " 6 " -0 -0 9 " -6 Typ. wall load Effective width Typ. point load D = 300 plf D = 1800# L = 400 plf L = 2880# Uniform loads: slab wt = 53.5 psf D = 10 psf L = 40 psf wu = 157 + 690/4.0 = 330 psf Therefore, shear check is complete and slab is ad- equate. Check shear based on this load and find @ h/2 Vu = 4.02 k/ft and Vcw = 6.04 k OK To summarize the steps taken to check shear in Example 3.2.3, distributable loads were divided @ 3.0 ft Vu = 3.13 k/ft and Vci = 3.05 k NG by the effective width at the support to make a conservative shear check. If shear along the spanSecond Shear Check is found to be satisfactory, no further steps are re- Inclined shear did not check at 3.0 ft so deter- quired and the shear check is complete. If shear inmine effective width at 3.0 ft, recalculate distrib- the span at some point is found to be inadequate,uted load and recheck shear. the effective width at that point is used to calcu- lated a new load which will then be conservativeAt /4, DW = 0.5 = 0.5(25) = 12.5 ft for points further into the span. Shear is re-At support, DW = 4.0 ft checked. This iterative approach is used until all points further into the span check for shear. IfInterpolate at 3 ft, DW = 3 (12.5 - 4) + 4 - shear works for a given situation, generally no 254 more than three cycles will be required. = 8.08 ft A combination of loads will be used to furtherwu = 157 + 690/DW demonstrate this method in the following exam- ple. = 157 + 690/8.08 = 242 psf Example 3.2.4 Given the center bay of an apartment buildingAgain check shear at 3.0 ft and beyond and find as shown, design for the applied loads using the Vci > Vu at all points. generic slab shown in Figure 1.7.13- -6 52. Solution: x h/2 1.09 1.85 2.61 3.37Select preliminary slab based on flexure: Vu k/ft 7.11 6.93 6.45 6.12 5.79 Use DW = 0.50 = 0.5(25) = 12.5 ft Vn k/ft 6.30 7.79 8.44 6.09 4.79 Because wall and point loads are spaced closerthan 12.5 ft, conservatively use spacing of loads as Note that web shear at h/2 does not work. NoDW. further modifications can be made to adjust theAt design strip: shear calculation. Shear enhancement is required in the form of stirrups, solid cores, higher concrete 468# 468# strength or using a deeper section. Proceed to check inclined shear which was not adequate at 2.61 ft. 70 70 Recalculate effective width at 2.61 ft as: 50 = 2.61 0.5 4 + 4 0.25 = 2.61 (12.5 - 4) + 4 = 7.54 - 6.25 1758# 1758# wu = 157 + 1100/7.54 = 303 psf Pu = 7416/7.54 = 984 plf 1800 + 2880Point loads = = 468 plf Obtain the following results: 10 300 + 400 x 2.61 3.37 4.14 4.90 5.66Parallel walls = = 70 psf 10 Vu k/ft 3.97 3.74 3.51 3.28 3.05Uniform load = 10 + 40 = 50 psf Vn k/ft 6.07 4.77 3.94 3.36 2.94M = 11,511 ft-#/ftequivalent uniform load = 8 x 11511/252 Inclined shear is now adequate to a distance of = 147 psf 5.66 ft into the span. Recalculate the effective width at 5.66 ft.Select 4-1/2, 270 ksi, low relaxation strandscapacity = 148 psf at 25 ft. 5.66 0.5 4 + 4Check shear 0.25 For design strip = 11.7 ft including slab wt. wu = 1.4(10 + 53.5)) + 1.7(40) Note that loads are located only 10 ft apart + (1.4 x 300 + 1.7 x 400)/DW which means that design strips would start to overlap. For this case, the maximum effective = 157 + 1100/DW width might be used as the distance between Pu = (1.4 x 1800 + 1.7 x 2880)/DW loads, or 10 feet, rather than 0.5 . = 7416/DW wu = 157 + 1100/10 = 267 psfStart at support where effective width = 4.0 ft Pu = 7416/10 = 742 plfwu = 157 + 1100/4 = 432 psf With these loads, it is found that Vu < Vn forPu = 7416/4 = 1854 plf the balance of the span. Therefore, the slab se- lected is adequate except for the shear enhance-Obtain the following results: ment required for web shear as previously noted. 3- -7 53. 3.3 Effect of Openings Fig. 3.3.1 Effects of openings Openings may be provided in hollow core sys-tems by saw cutting after a deck is installed andgrouted, by shoring and saw cutting, by formingor sawing the openings in the plant or by installing > 3/8 0.25 0.25short slabs with steel headers. Some typical head-er configurations are shown in Section 5.7. In lay-ing out openings for a project, the least structuraleffect will be obtained by orienting the longest di- > 3/8mension of an opening parallel to a span, or bycoring small holes to cut the fewest prestressing (a)strands, or when several openings must be pro-vided, aligning the openings parallel to the span toagain cut the least number of prestressing strands. For slab design, openings cause load con-centrations which may be distributed over the slab < 3/8 0.25system as discussed in Section 3.2. As with non-uniform loads,

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openings cause torsion in the slabs.Therefore, the method of determining shear ade- 0.25 0.25quacy must also consider the effects of torsion onthe shear stresses. In flexure, the primary consid- < 3/8 0.25erations are the length of the opening parallel tothe span and the length of strand embedment 1 " -0 1 " -0available from the end of an opening to the point (b)of maximum moment. Figure 3.3.1 shows some general opening loca-tions with suggested interpretations of the effec-tive resisting slab width described in Section 3.2.Local slab producers may have information whichwould allow different design approaches for their 0.5particular slab. Figure 3.3.1(a) depicts a relatively small open-ing located at midspan. In flexure, the load fromthe short slabs can be resisted by slabs within 0.250.25 on each side of the opening. As a guideline,if an end of the opening shown is not closer to the 1 " -0 1 " -0support than 3/8 , there will be no special consid- (c)erations for shear design with only uniform loads.When non-uniform loads are superimposed near slabs. The resulting torsion on the adjacent slabsthe opening, the effective resisting section shown requires that a reduced effective width at the sup-in Figure 3.2.2 would then be used for those non- port be used if torsional shear stresses are not di-uniform loads. rectly calculated. Figure 3.3.1(b) shows a similar condition Figure 3.3.1(c) depicts the extreme where anwhere an opening is located with an end closer to opening is located right at the end of a span.the support than 3/8 . In this case, shear is con- Again, the reduced shear width adjacent to thesidered as though the opening created a free edge. opening is required to reflect torsional shearThat is, load from the short slabs or opening will stresses. An end opening extending less than thebe transmitted as an edge load to the adjacent lesser of 0.125 or 4 ft (1.2m) into the span may be3- -8 54. neglected when considering flexure. However,some capacity reduction might be required for the 6 D = 10 psfslab with the opening when strand embedment L = 40 psf 25 " -0length is less than full required development. 19When non-uniform loads are superimposed in thearea of an end opening, these loads should be con-sidered as being at a free edge for shear calcula- Slab wt = 53.5 psf 3tions.Example 3.3.1 Solution: The ends of the opening are closer than 3/8 to 11 " 2 11 " the support on both ends. Therefore, consider the -6 D = 10 psf opening as though it were a free edge. 25 " L = 40 psf 2 -0 load on strip with opening -6 Slab wt = 53.5 psf w = 3(10 + 40 + 53.5) = 311 plf Given the slab system shown, select a generic for flexure and preliminary slab selection use ef-slab from Figure 1.7.1 to carry the loads given fective width = 0.25 to each sideconsidering the opening. 3112 w = 10 + 40 + 0.2525Solution: = 75 psf Check proximity of opening to support3/8 = 0.375(25) = 9.38 Try 4 - 7/16 dia., 270 ksi, low relaxation strands 11.5 > 9.38 no special shear Check Shear considerations effective width at support = 1-0 each side Distribute load from strip with opening: wu = 1.4(10 + 53.5) + 1.7(40) + superimposed w = 10 + 40 = 50 psf 3[1.4(10 + 53.5) + 1.740)]2 load on strip with opening = DW 2(10 + 40 + 53.5) = 207 plf = 157 + 235/DW distributing 1/2 of strip load each side where DW = effective width on each side 2072 wu = 157 + 235/1 = 392 psf w = 50 + 0.25 Using this load, obtain: = 50 + 104 0.2525 x h/2 1.1 1.85 2.61 3.37 4.14 = 67 psf Vu k/ft 4.77 4.47 4.17 3.87 3.58 3.28 Vn k/ft 6.08 7.29 6.62 4.80 3.80 3.15 Select, from Figure 1.7.1, 4 - 3/8 dia., 270 ksi, Shear is adequate to 4.14 ft into span.low relaxation strands Modify effective width at 4.14 ftExample 3.3.2 DW = 4.14 (0.25 1) + 1 0.25 Given the floor system shown, select a genericslab from Figure 1.7.1 to carry the loads given. = 4.14 (6.25 - 1) + 1 - 6.25 3- -9 55. = 4.48 ft duced. A detailed discussion of this is presented in Section 6.3.3. wu = 157 + 235/DW = 157 + 235/4.48 3.5 Cantilevers Cantilever design in hollow core slabs differs = 209 psf from design with conventional precast members because of the production procedures used forFind shear is adequate at 4.14 ft and all points fur- hollow core slabs. Guidelines noted here are con-ther into span. Use 4 - 7/16 dia., 270 ksi, low re- servative and may be exceeded depending on thelaxation strands. specific product used. Because long line beds are used for the produc-3.4 Continuity tion of hollow core slabs, top prestressing strands Hollow core slabs are normally designed as may be economical only when full bed capacity ispart of a simple span system. However, continuity utilized. Even then, substantial amounts of pre-over supports can be achieved by placing reinstressing strand may be used inefficiently becauseforcing steel in the grouted keyways, in a compos- of debonding requirements. The economics of us-ite structural topping, or by concreting bars into ing top strand must, therefore, be determined bycores. Within limits, the result will be better con- the local producer.trol of superimposed load deflections and a lower When top strands are used, the length of therequirement for positive moment capacity. cantilever is usually not sufficient to fully develop With reinforcing steel in either a composite a strand. A reduced value for fps is required andtopping or in cores, elastic moments with allow- the design procedures given in Section 2.6 shouldance for negative moment redistribution deter- be used. In dry cast systems, the bond of topmine the amount of reinforcing required. Because strands may be less than desired so a further re-of the relative efficiencies of positive prestressing duction in fps is required. This reduction may besteel and negative mild reinforcing, it is difficult substantial and each producer should be consultedto economically justify a continuous system de- on top strand bond performance.sign. When top strands are not economical, When reinforcing is required at supports for non-prestressed reinforcement may be placed inreasons such as structural integrity ties or dia- the cores or directly in the unit in the case of a wetphragm connections, the reinforcing ratios are cast product. This is generally done while the slabgenerally quite low, and therefore, develop little concrete is still plastic so bond of the fill concretemoment capacity. While this reinforcing may be with the slab may be achieved. The reinforcementconsidered in calculating service load deflections, is selected based on conventional design with dueit is recommended that full simple span positive consideration given to bar development length.moment capacity be provided for strength design With either top strands or reinforcing bars, itunless moment-curvature relationships existing at may be necessary to debond portions of the bot-the supports at ultimate loads are known. tom prestressing strand in the cantilever zone to One situation that seems reasonable for consid- help minimize the top tension under service loads.ering a reduction in the positive moment require- Not all producers have the ability to debond bot-ments is where the slabs are required to have a fire tom strands which could potentially limit cantile-rating developed using the rational design proce- ver length or load capacity.dure. In this case, a limit analysis approach would It is desirable to limit service level tensions inbe reasonable. cantilevers so that uncracked section properties The negative moment reinforcing, which is un- may be used to more accurately predict deflec-affected by fire loads, can develop full yield mo-

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tions. The tensile stress limit may vary for differ-ment potential and effectively provide a plastic ent systems used. For example, the practice withhinge at the support. As a result, the positive mo- some dry cast systems is to limit tensile stresses toment at midspan may be correspondingly re- 100 psi (0.7 MPa). In other dry cast systems and in3- -10 56. wet cast systems, the limit may be raised to 6 f c. =- -0.491 ksi (tension)The tension limit will basically be a function of a Net tension with fully bonded bottom strands:producers past experience. ft = - -0.176 + 0.463 0.491 - As a rule of thumb, cantilever lengths falling inthe range of 6 to 12 times the slab thickness will be =- 0.204 ksiworkable depending on the superimposed loadand individual producers capabilities. Allow 6 5000 = 0.424 ksi OK Note that some of the bottom strands couldExample 3.5.1 Cantilever Design have been debonded for the length of the cantile- Using the generic hollow core slab section de- ver if top tensile stresses had exceeded a desirablefined in Section 1.7, design for the following level.conditions shown in Figure 3.5.1. Stresses in backspan:Fig. 3.5.1 200 plf D.L. Because the backspan is long in this example, stresses will not be critical in the backspan. When 40 psf L.L. the backspan is short relative to the cantilever 15 psf D.L. length, stresses may require a check in the back- 26 7 span to determine the length of bonding of the top 4.06 ft-k/ft strands. D.L. + L.L. 2.87 Ultimate Strength 7.25 ft-k/ft 5.98 ft-k/ft At the cantilever, strain compatibility will genFull (D.L. + L.L.) u erally show that the bottom strands may be ig- 2.82 nored in determining the nominal moment capac- 11.02 ft-k/ft 5.98 ft-k/ft ity. When the bottom prestress is very heavy or D.L.u on backspan the bottom strands are high in the slab, a strain 4.79 (D.L. + L.L.) on 5.39 ft-k/ft u compatibility analysis should be performed con- cantilever sidering both strand layers.Solution: For this example, assume the bottom strands may be ignored. From the load table in Figure 1.7.1, select 4 -3/ 8 dia., 270 ksi strands as the primary reinforce -ment. Try 2 - 3/8 dia., 270 ksi, low relaxation fps = 270 1 0.28 0.8 2(0.085)(270) (36)(7)(5)strands as cantilever reinforcement. Assume 15%losses and 70% initial stress. = 265 ksi Check stresses at cantilever: 2 (0.085)(265) a = = 0.294 in (0.85)(5)(36) Bottom strands: 154 2.89 4.11 1 Mn 12 = 0.9 (2)(0.085)(265) 7 0.294 2 ftop = 0.7(0.85)(4)(23) 1224.5 = 23.15 ft-k/slab =- -0.176 ksi (tension) Mu = 3(5.98) = 17.94 ftk/slab Top strands: ftop = 0.7(0.85)(2)(23) 154 3.11 4.11 1 1224.5 4.11 Mcr = 1224.5 0.463 0.176 + 7.5 5000 1 1000 12 = + 0.463 ksi = 20.29 ft-k/slab M n Applied moment: = 23.15 = 1.14 < 1.2 NG 4.063 (12)(4.11) M cr 20.29 ftop = - - Add 1 - #4 bar top per slab. 1224.5 3- -11 57. Design summary 2- 38" strands bonded 13-5" at cantilever end Debond 1- #4 x 12-5" at cantilever end 438" strands bonded full lengthCheck length of top strand to be bonded: 3.6 Horizontal Joints lavailable = 7(12) = 84 in Figure 3.6.1 depicts three conditions typically used in a multistory wall bearing building where d = (fps -2/3fse)db hollow core slabs are used in a platform detail. Several expressions 27-31 have been proposed to = (265 - 2(0.7)(0.85)(270)/3)(0.375) - describe the transfer of axial load through this hor- = 59.2 in < 84 in izontal joint. With hollow core slabs used for floors, the mostTherefore, the strand is fully effective in the canti- efficient detail is to build the slab ends into thelever. The moment capacity would have to be re- wall. Depending on the butt joint size, thecalculated by the procedures of Section 2.6 if the strength of the joint for transfer of vertical loadsdevelopment length were found to be greater than can be enhanced with the addition of grout in thethe length available. butt joint, Fig. 3.6.1(b), and in both the joint and Bond of the top strands in the backspan must be cores, Fig. 3.6.1(c). Grout fill in the cores in-long enough to develop the fps required in the can-tilever design. The top strands should also be creases the net slab width and provides confine-bonded for a distance of one transfer length (50 di- ment for a grout column.ameters) past the inflection point under the worst The strength of the joint for vertical load trans-load condition. For this example a bonded length fer can be predicted using Eq. 3.6.1 for an un-of 77 in. would be required. grouted joint, Fig. 3.6.1(a). For a grouted joint, Fig. 3.6.1(b) or (c), the greater of Eq. 3.6.1 and Eq.Alternate Design 3.6.2 can be used. Both grouted and ungrouted Provide mild reinforcement in lieu of top pre- joints can have the slab cores either filled or notstressing strands filled. Both equations include a capacity reduc- Try 2 - #5 Gr 60 bars at d = 7 tion term for load eccentric from the centerline of 2(0.31)(60) the joint. With single story walls braced at the top a = = 0.243 and bottom, this eccentricity will be negligible. (0.85)(5)(36) Pn = 0.85AefcRe (Eq. 3.6.1)Mn 12 = 0.9 (2)(0.31)(60) 7 0.243 2 Pn = tg fuCRe/k (Eq. 3.6.2) where = 19.19 ft-k/slab Pn = nominal strength of the joint = 6.4 ft-k/ft > 5.98 OK Ae = effective bearing area of slab in joint = 2wbwTop stress = - -0.176 - 0.491 - w = bearing strip width = - -0.667 ksi with fully bonded bw = net web width of slab when cores are not bottom strands filled = unit width as solid slab when cores are filled Note that a cracked section must be considered fc = design compressive strength of slab con-in calculating cantilever deflections because the crete or grout whichever is lesstop stress exceeds a tension of 6 f c. tg = grout column thickness3- -12 58. Fig. 3.6.1 Common platform details w w w tg w (a) (b) w tg w (c) = width of slab being considered = 0.7fu = design compressive strength of wall or grout Where bearing strips with a modulus of elastic- whichever is less when walls are reinforced ity other than 50,000 psi (345 MPa) are used, the against splitting and slab cores are filled amount of force in the grout column will be al- tered. A theoretical approach presented in Refer- = 80% of design compressive strength of wall ence 30 considers pad stiffness, grout column or design compressive strength of grout, strength as compared to grout strength, and con- whichever is less when walls are not reinfinement of the grout column. A comparison of forced against splitting or slab cores are not this theoretical procedure with the Johal proce- filled dure indicates that conservative capacity will beC = 1.0 when cores are not filled predicted by substituting the actual pad modulus of elasticity for 50,000 when calculating k. = 1.4 2500f c (grout) 1.0 when cores are The bearing strips need to also be checked filled against manufacturers recommended stress lim-k = 0.65 + (fc(grout) - 2500)/50,000 - its. Figure 3.6.2 summarizes the forces in theRe = reduction factor for eccentricity of load joint and the recommended effective bearing strip width. = 1 - 2e/h Another set of forces acting on the horizontale = eccentricity of applied load measured from joint develop from the negative moments induced joint centerline in the floor slabs due to the clamping effect of ah = wall thickness bearing wall on the slab ends. Two consequences 3- -13

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59. Fig. 3.6.2. Force distribution in horizontal joint Solution: Loads Roof: wu = 28 (1.4(53.5+15)+1.7(30)) = 4.ll klf Pu Floors: wu = 28 (1.4(53.5+10)+1.7(40)) = 4.39 klf V1 V2 Walls: wu = 1.4(800) = 1.12 klf/story Accumulate loads above floor noted Floor wu wu 18 4.11 + 1.12 5.23 17 4.39 + 1.12 10.74 1-k Pu + V1 1-k Pu + V2 2 kPu 2 16 5.51 16.25 2/3w 15 5.51 21.76 2/3w 14 5.51 27.27 13 5.51 32.78result. The splitting strength of the bearing wall is 12 5.51 38.29reduced when the normal force restraining slab 11 5.51 43.80end rotation is considered. Secondly, the joint orslab may crack to relieve the frictional restraint. 10 5.51 49.31This condition is undesirable from either the 9 5.51 54.82standpoint of joint or slab integrity. Reinforcing 8 5.51 60.33normal to the slab butt joint is most efficient forcontrolling this condition. To date, there are no 7 5.51 65.84published studies to evaluate effects of this rota- 6 5.51 71.35tional restraint. No adverse effects have been 5 5.51 76.86cited when nominal diaphragm or structural integ-rity reinforcement has been provided across the 4 5.51 82.37joint. 3 5.51 87.88 2 5.51 93.39Example 3.6.1 Using the generic hollow core slab section de- a) Evaluate capacity of ungrouted joint (Fig.fined in Section 1.7, determine the grouting re- 3.6.1(a))quirements for an interior butt joint as depicted in bw = 10.5 for generic slab = 3.5 in/ft ofFigure 3.6.1(a) given the following criteria: widthSlab span: 28 feet fc (slab) = 5000 psi18 story building with: 3 in bearing strips 8 concrete bearing walls fc wall = 5000 psi Pn = 0.85 Ae fc Re (Eq. 3.6.1)Loads: Roof - DL = 15 psf LL = 30 psf - Floors - DL = 10 psf LL = 40 psf - Pn = 0.7(0.85)(2) (3)(3.5)(5) 1 2(0) 8 Walls - DL = 800 plf/story - = 62.48 k/ftLL Reduction: None for example Adequate for Floors 8 through roof3- -14 60. b) Evaluate strength of grouted joint using Use 1/2 in butt joint with cores filled below 8th 3000 psi grout for floor. 1) 2 in butt joint with no filled cores (Fig. 3.6.1(b)) It should be noted that this example may over- state the height of building that can be supported Pn = 0.85AefcRe (Eq. 3.6.1) on an ungrouted joint. Concentrated loads due to = 0.7(0.85)(2)(3)(3.5)(5) 1 2(0) 8 corridor lintels, wall openings, or exterior span- drels must also be considered in most buildings re- = 62.48 k/ft sulting in an increase in load to be transferred or through the horizontal joint. Pn = tg fuCRe/k (Eq. 3.6.2) fu = 3000 psi C = 1.0 k = 0.65 + (3000 - 2500)/5000 - = 0.66 Pn = 0.7(2)(12)(3)(1.0) x 1 2(0) 8 0.66 = 76.36 k/ft > 62.48 Therefore Pn = 76.36 k/ft 2) 1/2 in butt joint with cores filled (Fig. 3.6.1(c)) Pn = 0.85AefcRe (Eq. 3.6.1) = 0.7(0.85)(2)(3)(12)(3) 1 2(0) 8 = 128.5 k/ft or Pn = tg fuCRe/k (Eq. 3.6.2) fu = 3000 psi C = 1.4 25003000 = 1.28 k = 0.65 + (3000 - 2500)/50,000 = 0.66 - Pn = 0.7(0.5)(12)(3)(1.28) x 1 2(0) 8 0.66 = 24.4 k/ft < 128.5 Therefore Pn = 128.5 k/ft 3- -15 61. CHAPTER 4 DIAPHRAGM ACTION WITH HOLLOW CORE SLABS4.1 General Information satisfy Section 7.13 in precast concrete structures. When hollow core slabs are used as floor or For large panel bearing wall structures, minimumroof decks to support vertical loads, the natural forces are specified to provide ties throughout theextension is to use the slabs as a diaphragm to re- structure. For other types of precast structures,sist and transmit lateral loads. Lateral loads will only general detailing philosophies are specified.be applied to building structures in the form of lat- In either case, the fundamental requirement is toeral earth pressures, wind loads or seismic loads. provide a complete load path from any point in aThe function of a diaphragm is to receive these structure to the foundation. Clearly, a diaphragmloads from the building elements to which they is a significant element in this load path. A tie sys-have been applied and transmit the loads to the lat- tem that satisfies the strength and force transfereral-resisting elements which carry the lateral demands on a diaphragm will generally satisfy theloads to the foundation. The design issues in a detailing requirements for structural integrity.hollow core diaphragm are the design of connec-tions to get loads into the diaphragm, the strength 4.2 Design Loadsand ductility of the slab system to transmit these Lateral loads imposed on hollow core dia-loads to the lateral-resisting elements and the de- phragms can include lateral earth pressures, windsign of the connections required to unload the lat- loads or seismic loads. Lateral earth pressureseral forces from the diaphragm to the lateral-res- will be established by the characteristics of theisting elements. soil being retained. Wind and seismic loads will Clear communication is required between the be dictated by the applicable building code for thebuilding designer and the hollow core slab suppli- structure. Soil and wind loads are forces actuallyer when the hollow core system is to be used as a applied to the structure. Seismic forces are gener-diaphragm. Some elements of the diaphragm de- ated from within the structure as inertial forcessign may be delegated to the hollow core slab sup- due to lateral displacement from ground motions.plier. However, only the building designer is in While soil and wind loads can be safely treated asthe position to know all the parameters involved in static loads, seismic loads must be considered asgenerating the applied lateral loads. Because of dynamic loads. In all cases, the same elementsmany design issues, only the building designer will comprise a complete diaphragm, but the duc-can determine the location and relative stiffnesses tility demands on a seismic resistant system areof the lateral-resisting elements. These parame- significantly more important.ters dictate the distribution of forces in the dia- The balance of the discussion in this chapterphragm. If any design responsibility will be dele- will be concerned with lateral loads from windgated to the hollow core supplier, the location and and seismic. This is not intended to slight the im-magnitude of the lateral loads applied to the dia- portance of considering unbalanced soil pressuresphragm and the location and magnitude of forces which can commonly be a significant consider-to be transmitted to lateral-resisting elements ation in many projects using hollow core slabs.must be specified. Where hollow core slabs must The basic principles of hollow core diaphragmsconnect to other building materials, or where de- which will be discussed are equally applicable tomands on connections go beyond simple strength lateral soil pressures.demands, the connection details should be shown There are many documents which cover designin the contract documents. for wind and seismic loads. The references used An additional consideration in detailing dia- for this chapter are the 1994 UBC code32 and thephragms is the need for structural integrity. ACI 1996 BOCA code33. For wind load, both codesSection 16.5 provides minimum requirements to are similar in that a basic wind speed is selected 4- -1 62. based on the building location, an exposure cate- wpx = portion of W at level under considerationgory is selected based on the surrounding terrain, The magnitude of Fpx need not exceedan importance factor is selected based on the oc- 0.75ZIwpx but shall not be less than 0.35 ZIwpx.cupancy of the building, modifying factors are de- Many other requirements are included in the UBCtermined for the geometry of the building and

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the code which are not restated in this summary.design positive and negative wind pressures are The BOCA code prescribes a seismic designcalculated. procedure. A very important note is that the For seismic loads, the two codes take different BOCA provisions result in forces that are alreadyapproaches. The UBC code allows an equivalent factored and are intended to be used with ultimatestatic load approach for many building types. For strength design methods with no additional loadothers, where certain heights or irregularities are factors. The base shear is calculated as:present, a dynamic lateral force procedure is re- V = CsW (Eq. 4.2.3.)quired. The static force procedure allows designfor a base shear of: whereV = ZIC W (Eq. 4.2.1) Cs = coefficient related to peak velocity-related Rw acceleration, soil profile, structural systemwhere type and building fundamental periodZ = seismic zone factor W = total dead load plus other applicable loadsI = importance factor The base shear is distributed over the height ofC = factor dependent on site and structure fun- the building in proportion to the distribution of the damental period building mass with consideration of the building period. A minimum eccentricity of 5% of the per-Rw = coefficient dependent on structural system pendicular building dimension is also required by type BOCA when distributing forces to the lateral-re-W = total dead load plus other applicable loads sisting elements. For Seismic Performance Cate- This base shear is then distributed over the gories B and greater, each floor or roof diaphragmheight of the structure in proportion to the dis- shall be designed for a minimum load equal totribution of weights over the height. Additionally, 50% of the effective peak velocity-related accel-a minimum eccentricity of 5% of the building di- eration times the weight attributable to the levelmension perpendicular to the direction being con- under consideration. The peak velocity-relatedsidered shall be included when determining the acceleration is determined by the project location.distribution of forces to the lateralresisting ele- Again, there are many provisions in the BOCAments when the diaphragm is not flexible. Specifcode which are not covered in this summary.ic to diaphragms, for Zones 2, 3, and 4, the UBC In light of the performance of some diaphragmsrequires that a floor or roof diaphragm resist a in recent earthquakes, the seismic demand on dia-force equal to: phragms is an area of new focus. Preliminary in- n dications are that diaphragms should remain elas- Ft + Fi tic during a seismic event to ensure that post-elas- i=xFpx = n w px (Eq. 4.2.2) tic behavior can be achieved in the wi lateral-resisting elements. By designing a dia- i=x phragm to remain elastic, several things are ac-where complished. Diaphragm flexibility, discussed inFpx = force applied to diaphragm at level under Section 4.3 will be less significant. The ductility consideration requirements for connection details will be of lessFt = additional portion of base shear applied at concern. The horizontal distribution of forces to top level lateral-resisting elements can be maintained. The building code provisions summarizedFi = portion of base shear applied at level i above are based on achieving post-elastic perfor-wi = portion of W at level i mance. To keep a diaphragm compatible with4- -2 63. Fig. 4.3.1 Diaphragm bending moments w w M- Moment Moment M+ M+ M+ M+ Flexible diaphram on Rigid diaphram on Rigid supports flexible supports (a) (b)post-elastic performance in the lateral-resisting to be considered as a flexible diaphragm. Analy-system system, an analysis can be done to evaluate sis considering flexible diaphragms is much morethe total potential post-elastic capacity of the lat- complex than for rigid diaphragms and should beeral-resisting elements. Providing a diaphragm considered in light of the project complexity andwith strength beyond this capacity will achieve seismicity for the project location. For most lowcompatibility, but will involve significant analy- and mid-rise structures in low seismic risk areas,sis. Alternatively, the diaphragm design forces an assumption of a rigid diaphragm will be rea-prescribed by the building codes can be increased sonable.by a factor of 2R/5 to keep the diaphragm elastic The difference in behavior of flexible and rigidand minimize required analysis. Whether build- diaphragms is illustrated in Figure 4.3.1. In (a),ing code provisions are based on service or fac- the flexible diaphragm with rigid supports be-tored load levels, use of 2R/5 loads will result in haves as a continuous beam. Shears and momentsfactored loads for design. in the diaphragm are a function of the plan geome- try. In (b), the deflections of the flexible supports4.3 Distribution of Lateral Forces must be the same because of the rigid diaphragm. Once the lateral forces to be applied to the dia- The diaphragm shears and moments will be aphragm have been determined, the next problem function of the relative stiffnesses of the supports.is to determine the distribution of those lateral The differences between (a) and (b) can be consid-forces to the lateral-resisting elements which will erable. Actual behavior will fall between the twocarry the forces to the foundation. This problem is cases tending toward one or the other as a functionusually structurally indeterminate which means of the diaphragm stiffness.that deformation compatibilities must be consid- In seismic areas, the topic of diaphragm flexi-ered for establishing equilibrium. The stiffnesses bility has become a more significant issue. UBCto be considered are those of the diaphragm and requires consideration of the diaphragm flexibil-the lateral-resisting elements. Concrete dia- ity for the horizontal distribution of forces. Aphragms are normally considered to be rigid when flexible diaphragm is defined by the UBC as onecompared to the lateral-resisting elements. De- having a maximum lateral deformation more thanpending on the type and magnitude of lateral twice the average story drift for the level underforces applied, a hollow core diaphragm may need consideration. It may be inferred from UBC Sec- 4- -3 64. tion 1631.1 that this consideration would only ap- Fig. 4.4.1 Tie forces in bearing wall buildingsply in seismic zones 2, 3, and 4. The BOCA codesimply states that the horizontal distribution offorces consider the relative stiffnesses of the later- 1al-resisting system and the diaphragm. This pro-vision would apply to Seismic Performance Cate- b T2gories B and greater. By code then, diaphragm 2flexibility need not be considered when designing T1 3for wind or for seismic loads in Zones 0 and 1 un- T3der the UBC or Seismic Performance Category A T1under BOCA. T3 When diaphragm flexibility must be consid- T2ered, a cracked moment of inertia calculation issuggested in Reference 34 and a Virendeel truss T2model in suggested in Reference 35. Since theanalysis of a structure with a flexible diaphragm isdependent on so many factors beyond the dia-phragm itself, such analysis is beyond the scope of For seismic loading, it is preferable to use con-this manual. ventional reinforcing steel for these types of ties to limit the elongations and deformations. When structural integrity requirements control in non-4.4 Structural Integrity seismic areas, untensioned prestressing strands As noted in the introduction to this chapter, the may be used to satisfy the strength requirements.ACI code requires consideration of structural in-tegrity for all precast concrete structures. While 4.5 Elements of a Diaphragmproper

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detailing for lateral loads will satisfy the Figure 4.5.1 illustrates the various elementscomplete load path philosophy of structural integ- which comprise a complete diaphragm. The fol-rity, there are some minimum provisions in ACI lowing definitions will be used to describe the var-Section 16.5 which must be met. With specific re- ious elements:gard to diaphragms, provisions to be aware of in- Boundary Element:Edge member around the pe-clude: rimeter of a diaphragm or1. For buildings other than large panel bearing the perimeter of an opening wall buildings, the connection to the dia- in a diaphragm which ties phragm of members being laterally braced by the diaphragm together. The the diaphragm shall have a minimum nominal boundary element may func- tensile strength of 300 lb per lin ft (4.4KN/m). tion as a chord or a drag strut.2. For large panel bearing wall structures, a sum- Collector: Elements which transfer mary of the tie forces is given in Figure 4.4.1 shear from the diaphragm to and are required to have the following mini- a lateral-resisting element. mum nominal strengths: Chord: Tension or compression ele- ment creating a flange for T1 = nominal strength of 1500 lb per lin ft the diaphragm to develop (21.9 KN/m) of floor or roof span flexural integrity in the dia- T2 = nominal strength of 16,000 lb (71 KN) phragm. Drag Strut: Element used to drag lat- T3 = nominal strength of 1500 lb per lin ft eral loads into the lateral-re- (21.9 KN/m) of wall sisting elements and to dis- These minimum strengths shall not control if tribute shears over a greater the actual forces in the diaphragm are greater. length of the diaphragm4- -4 65. web. (Also called dia- ing element as an axial tension or compression. phragm strut.) Drag struts are not required for structural integrityLongitudinal joint: Joint oriented parallel to the as long as the diaphragm is connected directly to slab span. the lateral-resisting elements. Drag struts simply Transverse joint: Joint oriented perpendicular spread out shears that might otherwise be highly to the slab span. localized. Under the UBC code, it is implied that To satisfy structural integrity, all diaphragms drag struts are required elements in Zones 2, 3,should have boundary elements of some type. and 4. The BOCA code is silent on the use of dragThe boundary elements are essential to ensure that struts, but it can be implied that they are requireda diaphragm will have the strength to transfer lat- for Seismic Performance Categories B and great-eral loads to the lateralresisting system. As a er.chord, tension reinforcement is placed in the When a bonded structural topping is used withboundary element to allow the diaphragm to act as a hollow core slab diaphragm, these elements cana deep horizontal beam or tied arch. This rein- be provided directly by reinforcement in the top-forcement can also provide shear friction steel for ping. When no topping is provided, these ele-shear transfer along the longitudinal joints. ments are developed as grouted or concrete ele- Collectors are required in all diaphragms to ments external to the hollow core slabs. As a sim-transfer forces from the diaphragm to the lateral- ple example, Figure 4.5.2 depicts two commonresisting elements. Such connectors are also re- boundary conditions. In (a), the boundary rein-quired for structural integrity to provide a com- forcement is placed in a masonry bond beam andplete load path for lateral forces to the foundation. the collector reinforcement is placed in the key-Collectors may also function to get forces into a ways between slabs. In (b), the boundary rein-diaphragm. forcement is placed in a grouted or concrete filled Drag struts act to engage a longer length of dia- space at the end of the slabs. The collector rein-phragm web for transferring diaphragm shears forcement is again placed in the keyways betweeninto the lateral-resisting elements. A drag strut is slabs. The primary difference between the detailsparallel to the applied load, receives load from the is that the boundary reinforcement in (a) is eccendiaphragm and transfers load to the lateral-resist- tric from the diaphragm web while it is concentric Fig. 4.5.1 Diaphragm elements Lateral - Resisting Element Boundary Element Drag (chord) Strut Drag Strut Lateral Resisting Element Transverse Joint Collector Load Lateral - Resisting Boundary Element Longitudinal Element (chord) Joint 4- -5 66. Fig. 4.5.2 Boundary elements (a) (b)in (b). The concentric boundary element will ex- Fig. 4.6.1 Shear friction steel in butt jointhibit better performance in a seismic situation andshould be used in Zones 3 and 4 under the UBC orSeismic Performance Categories C, D and E un-der the BOCA code.4.6 Diaphragm Strength The diaphragm must have the strength to trans-fer imposed lateral loads from the point of ap-plication to the point of resistance. The dia-phragm spans between lateral-resisting elementsas a deep beam or tied arch. Shears and tensionswill develop and must be resisted in the dia-phragm to have a complete system.4.6.1 Longitudinal Joints When the grout strength is exceeded or ductile The grouted keyways between slabs do have behavior is required, shear friction principles maycapacity to transfer longitudinal shear from one be used to design reinforcement to be placed per-slab to the next. Using a shear stress of 80 psi pendicular to the longitudinal joints.36 This rein-(0.55 MPa), the useable ultimate strength for lon- forcement may be placed in the transverse joints atgitudinal shear is: the slab ends rather than being distributed along the length of the joints. Placed as shown in FigureVn = (0.08)hn (Eq. 4.6.1) 4.6.1, the area of steel is calculated as:where V Avf = u (Eq. 4.6.2) = length of joint under consideration (in) f yhn = net height of grout key (in) where = 0.85 Vu = factored applied shear4- -6 67. Fig. 4.6.2 Alternate longitudinal shear Fig. 4.6.3 Collector detail connections Bar Spacing by Design Intermittent slab cut-outs Reinforcement across Welded connection grout keyway (a) (b) Boundary = 1.0 for shear parallel to longitudinal joints Reinforcement = 1.4 for shear parallel to transverse joints where concrete can flow into cores = 0.85 While the detail shown in Figure 4.6.1 is themost economical means of providing a mechani-cal connection across the longitudinal joints, al- Fig. 4.6.4 Potential effects of rigid lapternate connections are available which may be connectiondesirable in certain circumstances. Figure Vertically rigid4.6.2(a) shows reinforcing steel placed across the connectionlongitudinal joint and grouted into the cores. Thisdetail might be considered when the amount of re-inforcement required in the transverse joints isgreat enough to cause congestion. Figure 4.6.2(b) Potential jointshows weld anchors in the slabs and a loose plate cracking and grindingwelded across the longitudinal joint. Use of thisdetail should be carefully coordinated with thehollow core slab supplier to ensure that proper an-chorage of the weld plates in the slabs can be accomplished. deflection to occur without distress at the connec- Where the diaphragm must unload shear into a tion. Figure 4.6.4 shows potential damage at thelateral-resisting element, boundary element or in- first interior

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longitudinal joint when a verticallyterior drag strut, a condition similar to the longitu- rigid connection is used. The potential for distressdinal joint exists. For longitudinal shear, again is dependent on the slab span and the real appliedshear friction can be used to design reinforcement loads. Short, lightly loaded spans may experienceas the collector to cross potential crack planes and no problems.transfer the shear. Figure 4.6.3 depicts an examThe effect of different vertical stiffnesses mayple of such a collector detail. While drag struts be accounted for by:and boundary elements may have a vertical stiff-ness similar to the slab deck, the lateral-resisting 1. Determining that distress will not affect theelements will usually have a significantly higher strength or performance of the system,vertical stiffness. The collectors connecting di-rectly to the lateral-resisting elements will tend to 2. Locating vertically rigid connections near thebe rigid vertically. While strength and toughness slab supports where vertical movement isat such collectors is certainly important, it is minimized, orequally important to consider every day perfor-mance of the structure. At rigid vertical elements, 3. Providing allowance for vertical movement init may be desirable to allow slab camber growth or the connection detail. 4- -7 68. 4.6.2 Transverse Joints Mu Vh = (Eq. 4.6.5) The transverse joints serve many functions. As jhdescribed in Section 4.6.1, reinforcement in the In the first case, a unit shear is calculated and sheartransverse joints may provide the shear friction re- friction reinforcement is distributed according toinforcement for shear in the longitudinal joints. the shear diagram. In the second case, the totalThe transverse joint may also have to act as a drag shear is calculated as the tension or compressionstrut with axial tension or compression to carry di- of the internal couple. In this case, shear frictionaphragm loads to the lateral-resisting elements. A reinforcement is uniformly distributed over thetransverse joint may also be the chord member length between zero moment and maximum mo-where flexural tension is resisted. Finally, an inte- ment. It is suggested that the shear friction reinrior transverse joint disrupts the web of the hori- forcement be distributed according to the shearzontal beam where horizontal shear would have to diagram in UBC zones 3 and 4 and BOCA Seis-be transferred to maintain the composite depth of mic Performance Categories C, D and E to mini-the diaphragm. mize the force redistribution required with a uni- The design of shear friction reinforcement for form spacing.longitudinal joint shear is covered in Section Because of the orientation of the joints and the4.6.1. Drag strut reinforcement is calculated sim- loading directions considered, the reinforcementply as: in the transverse joint discussed above is not all T additive. Typically, the chord tension and longitu-As = u (Eq. 4.6.3) dinal joint shear will be concurrent. The drag strut f y tension will typically occur with loads applied inChord tension is resisted by reinforcement to pro- the perpendicular direction.vide flexural strength to the diaphragm. It is sug-gested that the effective depth of the reinforce- 4.7 Collectorsment from the compression side of the diaphragm Collectors function as connections to transferbe limited to 0.8 times the depth of the diaphragm. forces into diaphragms and from diaphragms toHence, the chord reinforcement is calculated as: boundary elements, drag struts or lateralresisting Mu elements. The preceding discussion has indicatedAs = (Eq. 4.6.4) 0.8hf y that reinforcing bars may be used as collectors us- ing shear friction design procedures. As shearwhere friction reinforcement, the steel is used in tensionh = depth of the diaphragm to resist a shear force. In detailing the steel, a crack plane is defined and the bars must be an- = 0.9 chored for full strength on each side of the crackBecause diaphragms tend to act as tied arches plane. For anchorage at a transverse boundaryrather than beams, tension in the chord reinforce- element, the bars may be grouted into the keywaysment does not go to zero at the ends of the dia- or into slab cores where the top of the core is cutphragm. The chord reinforcement must be an- away. Concrete is then used to fill the cores for thechored at the ends of the diaphragm where a stan- length of the bar embedment. Based on a reviewdard hook at the corner will suffice. For of the literature, it is not clear when anchorage ofhorizontal shear in the web of the diaphragm, a collector bars in keyways is sufficient and whenshear parallel to the transverse joint is developed. the collector bars should be placed in slab cores.Shear friction reinforcement perpendicular to the There is a concern that as the boundary elementtransverse joint and embedded in the slab key- and keyway crack, anchorage for a collector bar inways can be used to reinforce for this shear. The a keyway may be lost. Deformations and revers-applied shear can be calculated as: ible loading in a seismic event would suggest that anchoring collector bars in slab cores would be V QVh = u preferable in more intense seismic areas. In keep- I ing with code philosophy, it is suggested that barsor be anchored in slab cores in UBC zones 3 and 44- -8 69. Fig. 4.9.1 Example Problem 8 @ 25 "= 200 " -0 -0 30 20 80 30 30 30and BOCA Seismic Performance Categories C design forces. It is suggested that a topping beand greater. considered in high seismic zones in buildings with In non-seismic and low seismic design situa- plan irregularities or large diaphragm span totions, the collectors need not be reinforcing bars. depth ratios.Particularly for direct connections to lateral-re- Untopped hollow core diaphragms are sug-sisting elements, welded and bolted connections gested when the diaphragm force system iswill suffice for the collector connections when straightforward and the in-plane diaphragmthey are compatible with the slab system used. deflections are acceptable. An example at the end of this chapter illustrates a procedure for deter-4.8 Topped vs. Untopped Diaphragms mining diaphragm deflections. In high seismic When a composite structural topping is pro- areas, local codes may limit the use of untopped,vided, it should have a minimum thickness of 2 to hollow core diaphragms.2 1/2 in (50-65 mm). The topping can then be de-signed as the diaphragm without consideration ofthe hollow core slabs. When the topping provides 4.9 Design Examplethe strength and stiffness for the diaphragm but Given the building plan shown in Figure 4.9.1,the connections are made in the hollow core slabs, design and detail the untopped hollow core dia-shear stresses will be present at the interface of the phragm assuming:topping and the hollow core slabs. These stresseswill generally be well distributed throughout the a. wind design per UBCinterface, but may be more highly localized near b. Zone 2A seismic per UBC.the connections. As discussed in Chapter 2, hori-zontal shear stresses should be kept below a nomi- Building datanal strength of 80 psi (0.55 MPa). 6 stories The primary benefits of a composite structural 14 ft floor to floortopping are to increase stiffness and to allow easi- 8 in hollow core floors wt = 53.5 psfer continuous ties in plans with irregular shapes or partitions & mechanical wt = 20 psflarge openings. However, in seismic areas, the precast framing system wt = 32 psfadditional topping weight increases the seismic exterior wall system (avg.) wt = 35 psf 4- -9

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70. Solutions: Mu = 1.3(1739) = 2261 ft-ka. Seismic Zone 0; Basic wind speed 80 mph Chord Forces: Use Exposure C Using the perimeter beams as chords: Design wind pressure = P = CeCqqsIw Mu where Tu = 0.8h Ce = 1.53 = 2261 = 39.3k Cq = +0.8, - 0.5 - 0.9(0.8)(80) qs = 16.4 Connect beams through columns for this force Iw = 1.0 plus forces due to volume change and gravity P = 1.53(0.8)(16.4)(1.0) = 20.1 loads. (Fig. 4.9.2 Det. C) = 1.53(0.5)(16.4)(1.0) = 12.5 The chord must continue through the center 32.6 psf wall. Wind to diaphragm = w = 14(0.0326) = 0.46k/ft T As = u ( was included in Tu) Consider load applied parallel to the slabs fy Total V = 200(0.46) = 92k = 39.3 60 Assuming a rigid diaphragm, the shear dis- = 0.66 in2tribution to the walls based on their flexural stiff-ness is: Use 2 - #6 (Fig. 4.9.2 Det. F) Connect diaphragm web to chords 30 ft walls: V = 40k Mu 20 ft wall: V = 12k Vuh = jh The diaphragm equilibrium is: j 0.8 0.46 k/ft Vuh = 2261 0.8(80) = 35.3k 40 k 12 k 40 k Distribute over length from zero moment to maximum moment 40 6 Vuh = 35.3 = 0.41k/ft 87 V 87ft 6 Additionally, this connection must resist the 40 negative wind pressure from the exterior wall system. M wu = 1.3(0.0125)(14) 1739 ft-k = 0.23k/ft Use 300 lb/ft for structural integrity The factored design forces are then: (Fig. 4.9.2 Det. A) The same forces must be resisted at the trans- Vu30 = 1.3(40) = 52k verse joints. Use shear friction for the shear Vu20 = 1.3(6) = 7.8k with bars placed in the keyways perpendicular4- -10 71. to the transverse joint. With keyways at 3 ft on Using shear friction reinforcement center: Avf = 1.02 in2 (from above) or 3(0.3) 3(0.41) As = + 6 0.9(60) 0.85(60)(1.4) As = = 0.11 in2 does not control 0.9(60) = 0.034 in2/keyway Use 4 - #5 located near slab ends Use #3 at every 2nd keyway (Fig. 4.9.2 Det. D) (Fig. 4.9.2 Det. B) Alternatively, mechanical connections of slab Longitudinal shear to wall could be used to transfer the same forces. The maximum longitudinal joint shear is at thefirst slab joint from the 30 ft shear wall. Since con- Shear at center 20 ft wall:nections will be made directly from the center bay With the rigid diaphragm assumption:to the shear wall, only the center bay joint lengthshould be considered. Vu = 7.8k on each side of wall Vu = 52k Avf = 7.8 0.85(60)(1.0) Vn = (0.08)hn = 0.15 in2 = 0.85(0.08)(8 - 2)(20 x 12) - Use 2 - #4 located near slab ends or use = 97.9k mechanical connections With concerns for shrinkage cracking in joints, (Fig. 4.9.2 Det. E)transverse shear friction reinforcement can be Consider load applied perpendicular to theprovided in the transverse joints at each end of the slabscenter bay. Total V = 80(0.46) = 36.8k Vu Avf = f y Distribution to walls is: 52 V = 36.8/2 = 0.85(60)(1.0) = 18.4k = 1.02 in2 / 2 transverse joints The diaphragm equilibrium is: = 0.51 in2 per joint 0.46 k/ft Use 1 - #7 in transverse joint (Fig. 4.9.2 Det. B) Shear connection to 30 ft wall 18.4 k 18.4 k Vu = 52k 18.4 Additionally, negative wind pressure must be V resisted across this joint, but would not be con- 18.4 current with shear. Structural integrity ties will control for this case. M Tu = (0.3)(20) = 6k for bay 368 ft-k 4- -11 72. The factored design forces are then: #3 at every 2nd keyway will be adequate Vu = 1.3(18.4) = 23.9k (Fig. 4.9.2 Det. B) Mu = 1.3(368) = 478 ft-k b. Seismic Zone 2A The building weight attributable to each floor Chord force: is: Mu wi = 80(200)(0.0535 + 0.020 + 0.032) Tu = 0.8h +14(0.035)(200 + 80)(2) = 478 = 1962k 0.9(0.8) (200) then = 3.3k W = 6(1962) As = 3.3 = 0.06 in2 = 11772k 60 Base shear The #3 bars across the transverse joints will be adequate for the chord force. (Fig. 4.9.2 Det. B) V = ZIC W Rw Longitudinal shear Z = 0.15 Mu Vuh = I = 1.0 jh C = 2.75 478 0.8(200) Rw = 8 = 3.0k will not control 0.15(1.0)(2.75) V = (11772) 8 Shear connection to walls = 607k Using shear friction reinforcement Vertical Distribution Vu = 23.9k/30 ft wall Ft = 0.07TV = 0.8k/ft controls over parallel wind with a site coefficient of 1.2 and C = 2.75 With bars in keyways at 3 ft on center T = 0.4 sec < 0.7 sec 3(0.8) Ft = 0 Avf = 0.85(60)(1.4) (V F t)w xh x Fx = n = 0.034 in2 per keyway w ih i i=1 Use #3 in every 2nd keyway wi hi wxhx Fx (Fig. 4.9.2 Det. F) 1962 84 164808 173 Shear in transverse joint 1962 70 137340 145 Vu = 1.3(18.4 - 0.46 30) - 1962 56 109872 116 = 6k 1962 42 82404 87 1962 28 54936 58 Avf = 6 0.85(60)(1.0) 1962 14 27468 29 = 0.12 in2 5768284- -12 73. Fig. 4.9.2 Wind design summary 8 @ 25 " 200 " -0 = -0 C F A 30 E 30 20 80 D 30 B 30 #4 near each end of wall 0.3k/ft 0.41k/ft 39.3k Chord Force Intermittent slab cut-outs A C E #3 @ every 2nd keyway #7 cont. 2 -#5 near each #3 every end of bay 2nd keyway 2-#6 Intermittent slab cut-outs B D F 4- -13 74. Diaphragm load The diaphragm equilibrium is: n Ft + Fi 2.77 k/ft i=x Fpx = n w px wi i=x wpx Ft + Fi wi Fpx 241 k 72 k 241 k 1962 173 1962 173 241 36 1962 318 3924 159 V 1962 434 5886 145 87ft 36 241 1962 521 7848 130 1962 579 9810 116 M 1962 607 11772 102 10483 ft-k Minimum diaphragm load Fpx = 0.35ZIwpx Chord forces: = 0.35(0.15)(1.0)(1962) Using reinforcement in a perimeter boundary = 103k element Mu Maximum diaphragm load As = 0.8hf y Fpx = 0.75ZIwpx 10483 = 0.9(0.8)(80)(60) = 0.75(0.15)(1.0)(1962) = 3.0 in2 = 221k Use 4 - #8 To keep diaphragm in the elastic range, multi- (Fig. 4.9.3 Det. A) ply the diaphragm loads by 2R/5. At the roof Fpxu = 173(2)(8)/5 Connect diaphragm web to chord = 554k Mu Vuh = jd The factored roof diaphragm load by code pro- visions is 10483 0.8(80) Fpxu = (1.1)(1.3)(173) = 164k = 248k Distribute over length from zero moment to Design roof diaphragm for a factored load of maximum moment 554k to keep in elastic range. Vuh = 164 = 1.89k/ft 87 For shear parallel to slabs Additionally, this connection must resist the Using a rigid diaphragm, the shear distribution outward force from the exterior wall system. to the walls is: Conservatively, this force will be: 30 ft walls: V = 241k T = 0.75ZIww 20 ft wall: V = 72k = 0.75(0.15)(1.0)(14 0.035)4- -14 75. = 0.055k/ft Avf = 269 0.85(60)(1.0) Tu = 0.055(2)(8)/5 = 5.27 in2 / 4 joints = 0.176k/ft = 1.32 in2 per joint Tu V As = + u In boundary elements, add chord requirement f y f y At first joint = 0.176 + 1.89 0.9(60) 0.85(60) (1.4) Mu = 241(3) - 32(2.77)/2 - = 0.033 in2/ft = 711 ft-k As = 1.32 + 711 Use #3 at 3 ft on center grouted into cores 0.9(0.8)(80)(60) (Fig. 4.9.3 Det. A) = 1.53 in2 At the transverse joint, the same shear parallel 4 - #8 ok to the transverse joint as at the chord must be transferred. However, the tension should con- (Fig. 4.9.3 Det. A) sider the inertial force from the weight of the In transverse joints exterior bay. Conservatively As = 1.32 in2 T = 0.75ZIwp Use 2 - #8 wp = 14(0.035) + 30(0.0535 + 0.020 + 0.032) (Fig. 4.9.3 Det. B) = 3.66k/ft Shear connection to 30 ft wall: T = 0.75(0.15)(1.0)(3.66) Transfer shear to wall and drag strut = 0.41k/ft Tu = 0.41(2) (8)/5 Vu = 253 80 = 1.31k/ft = 3.16k/ft As = 1.89 + 1.31 Avf = 3.16 0.85(60)(1.4)) 0.9(60) 0.85(60)(1.0) = 0.051 in2/ft = 0.062 in2/ftUse #4 at 3 ft on center in keyways Use #4 hairpins at 3 ft on center (Fig. 4.9.3 Det. B) (Fig. 4.9.3 Det. D) Longitudinal shear Drag strut reinforcement The maximum longitudinal shear is at the first (80

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30) Tu = (3.16) slab joint from the 30 ft wall. Provide shear 2 friction reinforcement in the two transverse = 79k joints and the two boundary elements for shear As = 79 resistance. Conservatively consider 5% mini- 0.9(60) mum eccentricity being resisted only in end walls. = 1.46 in2 Vu = 241 + (0.05 x 200)(554)/200 Use 2 - #8 = 269k (Fig. 4.9.3 Det. C) 4- -15 76. Shear connection at 20 ft wall nAs = 6.74(3.16) Vu = 36k = 21.3 in2 over building width Vu = 36 = 0.45k/ft 57(x - 4) + 4.3(x - 8)2/2 = 21.3(956 - x) - - - 80 Avf = 0.45 0.85(60)(1.0) find x = 87.9 in = 0.009 in2/ft Use #4 dowels at 8 ft on center Icr = 57(87.9 - 4)2 + 4.3(87.9 - 8)3/3 - - + 21.3(956 - 87.9)2 - (Fig. 4.9.3 Det. F) Drag strut reinforcement = 17,184,000 in4 (80 20) Tu = (0.45)(2) 2 = 829 ft4 = 27k As = 27 0.9(60) As a rigid diaphragm, the factored load deflec- tion between end shear walls is: = 0.5 in2 (2.77)(200) 4 72(200) 3 Use 2 #5 = 5 384 (4300)(829)(12) 48(4300)(829)(12) (Fig. 4.9.3 Det. E) In-plane deflection of diaphragm = 1.07 in (ignoring shear deflections) Idealize the diaphragm section as As a flexible diaphragm with rigid supports the deflection will be substantially smaller. The 4.3" nA s 8" diaphragm deflection plus the deflection of the 8" lateralresisting system is used to evaluate the gravity load support members for integrity x when deformed. 956" Consider load applied perpendicular to the with 4000 psi concrete in chord slabs Ec = 3835 with 5000 psi concrete in slab Total Vu = 554k Ec = 4300 normalize on slab concrete Distribution to walls is nchord = 0.89 ATchord = 0.89(64) Vu = 554/2 = 57 in2 nsteel = 6.74 = 277k4- -16 77. The diaphragm equilibrium is: Drag strut reinforcement (200 30) Tu = (1.52) 6.93 k/ft 2 = 129.2k As = 129.2 = 2.39 in2 277 k 277 k 0.9(60) Chord reinforcement from load parallel to 277 slabs controls. Vu Shear in transverse joint 277 In center bay Mu wp = 20(200)(0.0535 + 0.020 + 0.032) + 20(14)(0.035)(2) 5544 ft-k = 442k Chord force Conservatively use Mu V = 0.75ZIw Tu = 0.8h = 0.75(0.15)(1.0)(442) = 5544 0.9(0.8)(200) = 49.7k = 38.5k Vu = 49.7(0.55)(2)(8)/5 = 87.5k per joint including As = 38.5 = 0.64 in2 60 5% eccentricity The #4 bars across the transverse joints at 3 ft Load parallel to slabs will control on center will be adequate. (Fig. 4.9.3 Det. B) See Figure 4.9.3 for summary Longitudinal shear Mu Vuh = jd 5544 0.80(200) = 34.7k will not control Shear connection to walls With 5% eccentricity Vu = 1.1(277) = 304.7k Transfer shear to wall and drag strut Vu = 304.7/200 ft = 1.52k/ft Loading parallel to slabs controls 4- -17 78. Fig. 4.9.3 Seismic design summary 8 @ 25 " 200 " -0 = -0 G A C 30 E F 30 20 80 D 30 B 30 #3 @ 3ft. o.c. 2-#8 cont. #3 @3ft o.c. 2-#5 cont. #4 @ 8ft. o.c. grout in cores in cores #4 @ 3ft. o.c. 4 - #8 4 - #8 cont. cont. Intermittent slab cut-outs A C E G #4 @ 3ft. o.c. #4 @8ft. o.c. 2 - #8 cont. #4 @ 3ft. o.c. in keyways 2 - #8 cont. Intermittent slab 2 - #5 cont. cut-outs B D F4- -18 79. CHAPTER 5 CONNECTIONS IN HOLLOW CORE SLABS5.1 General 5.2 Details Connections will be required in hollow core Common details are shown in Sections 5.3, 5.4,slab systems for a wide variety of reasons. Chap- 5.5, and 5.6 to cover a number of conditions whereter 4 described the connection requirements for a forces will probably exist that need to be trans-hollow core diaphragm as an element for lateral mitted into or through a hollow core slab. Thestability. Most connection requirements will be conditions cover common detailing situationsfor localized forces ranging from bracing a parti- when hollow core slabs are used and are intendedtion or beam to hanging a ceiling. to give the specifier an idea of the possibilities that Connections are an expense to a project and, if exist. The commentary provided with each detailused improperly, may have detrimental effects by is intended to give a better understanding of thenot accommodating volume change movements merits of each detail. The emphasis is that thesethat occur in a precast structure. Connections may provide a guide which can be used as a basis fordevelop forces as they restrain these movements. better discussions with local producers. The de-In specifying connection requirements, the actual tails are only conceptual and would require de-forces in the connection must be addressed. If no tailed information to be used on a project.force can be shown to exist, the connection should Differences between wet cast and dry cast holnot be used. Again, cost is reduced and undesir- low core slabs will be evident in the embedded an-able restraining forces will not be developed. chors that can be provided. Without forms to se-When a connection is determined to be necessary, cure anchors to, dry cast systems may be limitedthe force in the connection should be specified es- to shallow anchors that can be tied directly topecially when at an interface between a hollow strands or to inserts that can be placed after cast-core slab and another material. The extent of de- ing. Wet cast systems can accommodate a widertailing to be left to the hollow core slab supplier variety of anchors placed directly in the form priorshould be those items that will be supplied with to casting. Therefore, anchor details in the hollowthe product. core slabs are not shown. Connection possibilities need to be explored with the local producers. 5- -1 80. 5.3 Typical Details with Concrete Beams Design Considerations: Can transfer internal diaphragm forces with headed Can be designed as structural integrity tie stud anchors Plate with deformed With bar grouted in returns slab keyway Topping if Fabrication Considerations: required Advantageous to have no hardware in slab Beam embedments must line up with slab joints Accommodates variations in slab length Erection Considerations: Bearing strip Advantageous to have connection completed by follow-up crew Difficult for welder to hold loose plate in P.C. or C.I.P. position concrete beam Fig. 5.3.1 Design Considerations: Can transfer internal diaphragm forces Reinforcement Can be designed as structural integrity tie grouted in slab keyway Topping if Grout required Fabrication Considerations: May increase beam reinforcement for shallower beam Layout must have opposing slab joints lined up Bearing strip Erection Considerations: Clean and simple P.C. or C.I.P. concrete beam Fig. 5.3.2Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities.5- -2 81. 5.3 (Continued) Design Considerations: With large factors of safety, friction may transfer nominal forces Topping if Additional structural integrity ties may be required required Fabrication Considerations: Clean and simple Bearing strip Erection Considerations: Clean and simple P.C. or C.I.P. concrete beam Fig. 5.3.3 Design Considerations: Reinforcement draped Can transfer internal diaphragm forces over beam and grouted Can

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be designed as structural integrity tie in slab keyway Consider concrete cover on reinforcement Topping if Grout over beam required Fabrication Considerations: Slab layout must have opposing joints lined up Grout Bearing strip Erection Considerations: Clean and simple P.C. or C.I.P. concrete beam Fig. 5.3.4Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities. 5- -3 82. 5.3 (Continued) Design Considerations: Can transfer internal diaphragm forces Will develop volume change restraint forces that must be considered in design of Topping if connections required Fabrication Considerations: Slab manufacturing system must allow bottom weld anchors Beam inserts must align with slab inserts allowing fabrication tolerances Weld Plate (alt. ends) Bearing strip Erection Considerations: with P.C. or C.I.P. headed Connections can be completed by follow-up concrete stud anchors crew beam Access for welding may require ladders or scaffold Spacer may be required to make weld Fig. 5.3.5 Design Considerations: Reinforcement grouted in Can transfer internal diaphragm forces slab keyway Can be designed as structural integrity tie Reinforcement per Horizontal shear from beam cap must be design Concrete transferred Topping if Opposing slab joints must line up required Fabrication Considerations: Clean and simple for slabs Dam Bearing strip Erection Considerations: cores Beam may have to be shored until cap is cured Horizontal shear reinforcement may present P.C. or C.I.P. safety hazard for erector concrete Core dams must be placed beam Fig. 5.3.6Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities.5- -4 83. 5.3 (Continued) Design Considerations: Reinforcement Can transfer internal diaphragm forces grouted in Can be designed as structural integrity tie slab keyway Horizontal shear in composite beam must be transferred Reinforcement per Opposing slab joints must line up design Topping Fabrication Considerations: Clean and simple for slabs Erection Considerations: Dam Bearing strip cores Beam may have to be shored until topping is cured Horizontal shear reinforcement may present safety hazard for erector P.C. or C.I.P. Core dams must be placed concrete beam Fig. 5.3.7 Design Considerations: Plate as required with headed by design stud anchors Can transfer diaphragm shear or deformed bar Can provide lateral brace for beam Potential for negative moment in slabs Topping if required Fabrication Considerations: Slab insert difficult to install. Because of tolerance on sawcut ends, the insert should be installed after slabs are cut to length Beam and slab inserts must align with headed stud anchors Bearing strip Erection Considerations: If required for lateral beam stability, welding may have to be completed as slabs are set P.C. or C.I.P. concrete beam Fig. 5.3.8Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities. 5- -5 84. 5.3 (Continued) Design Considerations: Plate with deformed bar Can transfer diaphragm shear anchor grouted in Can provide lateral brace for beam slab keyway Potential to develop negative moment in slabs Topping if required Fabrication Considerations: Plates in beam must align with slab joints allowing tolerance Erection Considerations: Bearing Plate with headed strip Connection can be completed with a follow-up stud anchors crew Lateral bracing for beam will not be provided until keyway grout cures P.C. or C.I.P. concrete beam Fig. 5.3.9 Design Considerations: Reinforcement grouted in slab keyway Can transfer internal diaphragm forces Can be designed as structural integrity tie Topping if required Fabrication Considerations: Clean and simple Erection Considerations: Bearing Clean and simple strip Keyway dimensions may limit the reinforcement diameter P.C. or C.I.P. concrete beam Fig. 5.3.10Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities.5- -6 85. 5.3 (Continued) Design Considerations: Reinforcement grouted Can transfer diaphragm shear in slab keyway Can be designed as structural integrity tie Topping if Longitudinal required bar as reqd. Fabrication Considerations: Clean and simple for both beam and slabs Erection Considerations: Bearing Reinforcement must be tied in place strip Concrete must be cast around reinforcement Edge form is required for cast-inplace concrete Dowels from beam may present safety hazard P.C. or C.I.P. concrete beam Fig. 5.3.11 Design Considerations: Weld Plate (alt. ends) Can transfer internal diaphragm forces Will develop volume change restraint forces that must be considered in design of Topping if connection required Fabrication Considerations: Slab manufacturing system must allow bottom weld inserts Beam and slab inserts must align with allowance for tolerance Bearing strip Erection Considerations: with headed Connections can be completed by follow-up P.C. or C.I.P. stud anchor crew concrete Access for welding may require ladders or beam scaffold Spacer may be required to make weld Fig. 5.3.12Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities. 5- -7 86. 5.3 (Continued) Design Considerations: Can transfer diaphragm shear Torsional and lateral beam restraint can be Weld plate provided Will develop volume change restraint forces Topping if that must be considered in design of required connection Fabrication Considerations: Bearing strip Slab manufacturing system must allow bottom weld inserts Beam and slab weld anchors must align with allowances for tolerance Erection Considerations: with headed P.C. or C.I.P. concrete stud anchors Connections can be completed by follow-up beam crew Access for welding may require ladders or scaffold Spacer may be required to make weld Fig. 5.3.13 Design Considerations: Field bend This detail is not recommended because of into slab Topping installation difficulties which may result in an keyway and if reqd. unreliable connection grout Fabrication Considerations: Great difficulty aligning bars with keyways Bearing Erection Considerations: strip Longitudinal Potential difficulties in bending bars bar as reqd. Possible fracture of bent bars Second rebar bend may be required to align P.C. or C.I.P. with slab joints concrete Cast-in-place concrete required around beam reinforcement DO NOT USE Edge forming required Fig. 5.3.14Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities.5- -8

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87. 5.4 Typical Details with Walls Design Considerations: Reinforcement Can transfer diaphragm shear grouted in Wall Can be designed as structural integrity tie slab keyway Can provide lateral brace for wall Grout Consider axial force path through slab ends Opposing slab joints must line up Topping if required Fabrication Considerations: Clean and simple for slabs Small tolerance for placement of bars in walls Tolerance on length of slabs to accommodate bars in joint Bearing Longitudinal strip bar as reqd Erection Considerations: Dowels as P.C. or C.I.P. With longitudinal bar, have potential congestion required concrete Slab erection must consider tight tolerance on wall butt joint gap With precast walls, consider method of installing vertical dowel Fig. 5.4.1 Design Considerations: Can transfer diaphragm shear Reinforcement grouted in Longitudinal Can be designed as structural integrity tie slab keyway bar as reqd Can provide lateral brace for wall Opposing slab joints must line up Topping if required Grout Fabrication Considerations: Clean and simple for slabs Bearing Erection Considerations: strip Clean and simple Wall is not braced until grout is placed and P.C. or C.I.P. cured Dowels as concrete required wall Fig. 5.4.2Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities. 5- -9 88. 5.4 (Continued) Design Considerations: Can transfer diaphragm shear Can provide lateral brace for wall with proper Mortar bed bar detailing to level Consideration should be given to forces block course developed as slab ends rotate Topping if required Fabrication Considerations: Clean and simple Erection Considerations: Reinforcement Bearing grouted in Simple for slab erection wall slab keyway The mason can set bars independent of the slab joints Bearing Some block cutting may be required for bars Grouted strip from keyways bearing course Fig. 5.4.3 Design Considerations: Can transfer diaphragm shear Mortar bed Can provide lateral brace for wall with proper to level detailing block course Consideration should be given to forces Topping if developed as slab ends rotate required Fabrication Considerations: Clean and simple Erection Considerations: Bearing Hooked bar wall grouted in Simple for slab erection slab keyway Bearing The mason can set bars independent of the Solid strip slab joints Grout at slab end may be difficult to place bearing Hooked bar course in wall Fig. 5.4.4Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities.5- -10 89. 5.4 (Continued) Bar to be field Design Considerations: bent into slab keyway or field This detail is not recommended because of drilled into wall installation difficulties which may result in Topping an unreliable connection if reqd Fabrication Considerations: Erection Considerations: Bearing Bearing Mason will have great difficulty locating bars at wall strip slab joints Potential difficulties to field bend bars including fracture Second bend may be required to align bars with joints DO NOT USE Fig. 5.4.5 Design Considerations: Wall will not be braced at this level Topping if reqd Fabrication Considerations: Clean and simple Clearance Erection Considerations: Non-bearing wall Small tolerance in slab layout Fig. 5.4.6Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities. 5- -11 90. 5.4 (Continued) Design Considerations: Walls may not be laterally braced Clearance Consideration should be given to forces for camber developed from deflections or camber growth Drypack may be required under slab for axial Allow Topping load transfer if reqd Fabrication Considerations: Clean and simple Wall Erection Considerations: Allowance must be made for slab camber Wall will not be laterally braced at this level Small tolerance in slab layout Fig. 5.4.7 Design Considerations: Deformed bar Can transfer diaphragm shear or steel strap Can provide lateral brace for wall Consideration should be given to forces Grout Topping developed from deflection or camber growth if reqd Consider axial load path Fabrication Considerations: If not done in field, slots and holes must be cut for steel Wall Grout In stack casting system slots and holes might not be practically cut in plant Erection Considerations: Allowance must be made for slab camber If not done in plant, holes and slots must be cut for steel Wall is not braced until steel is grouted Fig. 5.4.8Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities.5- -12 91. 5.4 (Continued) Design Considerations: Wall thrust from earth pressure can be resisted Can transfer diaphragm shear only with special for camber detailing of keyway and reinforcement Allow For long spans consider effects of restraint of vertical movement Fabrication Considerations: Clean and simple Erection Considerations: P.C. or C.I.P. Edge joint must be grouted which may not concrete be standard practice wall Fig. 5.4.9 Design Considerations: Can transfer diaphragm shear Can provide lateral brace for wall Consideration should be given to forces Reinforcement developed from deflections or camber growth grouted into broken core Topping Fabrication Considerations: if reqd If not done in field, edge core must be cut Grout at open bars In stack casting operation, holes might not be practically cut in plant Erection Considerations: Wall If not done in plant, holes must be field cut into edge core Mason may have to cut block to install reinforcement Fig. 5.4.10Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities. 5- -13 92. 5.4 (Continued) Design Considerations: Can transfer diaphragm shear Can provide lateral brace for wall Connection capacity must be verified by test Reinforcing Bar Driven In Hole Fabrication Considerations: Field Drill Clean and simple Bearing Bond Strip Erection Considerations: Beam Minimum edge distances must be maintained No interfacing tolerances Fig. 5.4.11 Design Considerations: Can transfer diaphragm shear Can provide lateral brace for wall Consider effects of vertical restraint Reinforcing Bar Connection capacity must be verified by test Driven In Hole Field Drill Fabrication Considerations: Clean and simple Dry Pack Bond Beam Erection Considerations: Minimum edge distances must be maintained No interfacing tolerances Fig. 5.4.12Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities.5- -14

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93. 5.5 Typical Details with Steel Beams Design Considerations: Top beam flange should be considered 1" Min. joint unbraced 2" (Min.) topping if required Fabrication Considerations: Clean and simple for slabs Beam flange width must be sufficient for slab bearing length Erection Considerations: 5" Min. flange Unsymmetrical loading may cause beam 6" Recommended flange instability Steel beam Note: Top flange is unbraced Fig. 5.5.1 Design Considerations: Can transfer internal diaphragm forces Provides lateral brace for steel beam 2" Joint Grout Fabrication Considerations: Reinforcement grouted in Topping Slab layout must align slab joints slab keyway if reqd Stabilizer bars might be field or shop installed depending on local regulations or agreements Beam flange width must be sufficient for minimum slab bearing Erection Considerations: Steel beam with stabilizer bars Grouting of slabs must include the butt joint to brace top flange Steel erection may require that stabilizer bars be field installed Steel beam will not be laterally braced until grout cures Unsymmetrical loading may cause beam Fig. 5.5.2 instabilityMany connection details shown perform similar functions. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy and designcapabilities. 5- -15 94. 5.5 (Continued) Design Considerations: Can transfer internal diaphragm forces Provides lateral brace for steel beam Will develop volume change restraint forces Grout Weld plate that must be considered in design of (weld at alternate connection Topping ends of slabs) if reqd Fabrication Considerations: Slab manufacturing system must allow for installation of bottom weld anchors Erection Considerations: Steel beam Welding of slabs to beam should be done as erection proceeds to laterally brace beams Fig. 5.5.3 Design Considerations: Can transfer diaphragm shear 1" (Min.) past centerline Provides lateral brace for steel beam of beam Potential torsion on steel beam should be considered Weld plate (weld at alternate ends) Will develop volume change restraint forces Topping that must be considered in design of if reqd connection Fabrication Considerations: Slab manufacturing system must allow for installation of bottom weld anchors Steel beam Erection Considerations: Welding of slabs to beam should be done as erection proceeds to brace beam Spacer may be required to make weld Fig. 5.5.4Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities.5- -16 95. 5.5 (Continued) Design Considerations: Can transfer diaphragm shear Provides lateral brace for steel beam Deformed bar grouted in slab keyway Fabrication Considerations: Clean and simple Erection Considerations: Steel beam Welding of bars must be coordinated with slab erection for alignment Depending on forces to be transferred concrete may have to be cast along edge Beam will not be braced until keyway grout cures Fig. 5.5.5 Design Considerations: 1" 1" Internal diaphragm forces can be Additional Clr. Clr. transferred only through topping reinforcement 2" (Min.) topping Provides lateral brace for steel beam over steel if required Consider potential torsion on beam during beam slab erection 1/2" Clr. Fabrication Considerations: Beam flange width must be sufficient for Notch slab minimum slab bearing Steel Beam (as required) 6" Min. flange Slab notching will require a hand operation in field or, preferably, in plant 8" Recommended flange Note: Difficult erection if Erection Considerations: this detail occurs at both ends of slab Slab erection will be very difficult with this detail on both slab ends. Slabs must be slid into beams possibly through access holes in flanges Fig. 5.5.6 Beams will not be braced during slab erectionOther connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities. 5- -17 96. 5.5 (Continued) Design Considerations: Additional 1" 1" reinforcement Clr. Clr. Internal diaphragm forces can be transferred over steel 2" (Min.) topping only through topping beam if required Provides lateral brace for steel beam Consider potential torsion in beam during slab erection 1/2" Clr. Fabrication Considerations: Optional Continuous s Angle legs must be sufficient for minimum slab reinforcement welded to steel bearing grouted in beam Beam depth must be sufficient for clearance slab keyway Steel Beam under top flange 3" Min. Leg 4" Recommended leg Erection Considerations: Note: Difficult erection if Slab erection will be very difficult if this detail this detail occurs at occurs at both slab ends. Slabs will have to both ends of slab be slid into beams possibly through access holes in flanges Beams will not be braced during slab erection Fig. 5.5.7 Design Considerations: Torsion design must consider erection tolerance Lintel must be securely anchored at span ends Connection to slab may be required to brace lintel Topping if reqd Fabrication Considerations: Wall Clean and simple Erection Considerations: Channel and Watch for stability of lintel prior to slab erection plate lintel Fig. 5.5.8Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities.5- -18 97. 5.5 (Continued) Design Considerations: Butt joint must be grouted to brace vertical angle legs Lintel must be securely anchored at span ends Topping if reqd Fabrication Considerations: Clean and simple Erection Considerations: Double angle (min. 4" leg) or WF (min. 8" flange) Lintel must be securely anchored prior to lintel setting slabs Fig. 5.5.9 Design Considerations: Clearance must be allowed for slab camber Beam will not be braced until topping is cast Topping Fabrication Considerations: for camber Camber must be monitored to stay within Additional Allow clearance reinforcement Erection Considerations: Erection may be very difficult if slab support beams are also raised Fig. 5.5.10Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities. 5- -19 98. 5.6 Typical Cantilever Details Design Considerations: Wall bracing or transmitting diaphragm shear Cores filled with would only be accomplished by questionable insulation over friction exterior wall Additional structural integrity ties may be required Fabrication Considerations: None other than top reinforcement required for Bearing cantilever strip Wall Erection Considerations: Clean and simple Fig. 5.6.1 Design Considerations: Can transfer diaphragm shear Insulation Dowel grouted in Provides lateral brace for wall slabs at keyway Fabrication Considerations: If not field drilled, slots in keyways and aligning holes in masonry are required Bearing If not field drilled, alignment will be difficult strip Wall Erection Considerations: If not preformed, holes must be drilled through slabs into masonry Wall may not be braced until grout cures Grout placement may be

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difficult Fig. 5.6.2Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities.5- -20 99. 5.6 (Continued) Design Considerations: Dowels field bent and grouted in This detail is not recommended because of slab keyways installation difficulties which may result in an unreliable connection Fabrication Considerations: Bearing strip Wall Erection Considerations: Mason will have great difficulty aligning dowels with slab joints Most keyway configurations will require notches for dowels Field bending of dowels into keyways will be very difficult DO NOT USE Fig. 5.6.3 Design Considerations: Verify max. dimension Wall will not be braced by slabs with slab supplier Depending on end support conditions wall may have to support edge slab Keyway filled No thermal break provided between interior with grout and exterior Fabrication Considerations: Depending on bearing conditions the overhang dimension may be limited by the producers ability to install transverse reinforcement Allow for camber Bearing wall Erection Considerations: beyond Non-bearing None wall Preferred end of bearing wall Fig. 5.6.4Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities. 5- -21 100. 5.6 (Continued) Design Considerations: Wall will not be braced by slabs Verify max. dimension Depending on end support conditions wall may with slab supplier have to support edge slab Steel strap (weld to No thermal break provided between interior top anchors or expansion and exterior bolt to slabs) Fabrication Considerations: When transverse reinforcement cannot be installed, steel strap must serve as external reinforcement Allow for camber Anchorage of a steel strap to the slabs will Bearing wall depend on the producers ability to install top beyond weld anchors Non-bearing wall Erection Considerations: Preferred end of bearing wall Depending on end support conditions temporary shoring may be required until steel strap is installed and keyways are grouted Fig. 5.6.5Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities.5- -22 101. 5.7 Miscellaneous Details Bearing Feather edge Hollow core with latex, conceal slab in wall, or recess when no topping Header angles "A" SECTION "A-A" "A" PLAN HEADER DETAIL Fig. 5.7.1Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities. 5- -23 102. 5.7 (Continued) Bearing Hollow core slab "B" "B" Header angles SECTION "A-A" "A" "A" Feather edge with latex, conceal in wall, or recess when no topping PLAN SECTION "B-B" HEADER DETAIL Fig. 5.7.2Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities.5- -24 103. 5.7 (Continued) Hanger thru bolt; Expansion bolt; Toggle bolt; for heavy loads only with sufficient only for vertical bottom thickness loads Light straps; for ceiling and duct work Fig. 5.7.3Other connection details perform functions similar to those shown. Consult the local PCI producer for information on relative economy anddesign capabilities. 5- -25 104. CHAPTER 6 FIRE RESISTANCE OF ASSEMBLIES MADE WITH HOLLOW CORE SLABS6.1 Introduction building code requirements. One of the attributes of hollow core slabconstruction is excellent fire resistance. More 6.2 Heat Transmission Through Floors orthan 30 standard fire tests (ASTM E119) have Roofsbeen conducted on hollow core floor assemblies. The standard fire test method, ASTM E119,The January, 1994 issue of Underwriters Labora- limits the average temperature rise of the unex-tories, Inc. Fire Resistance Directory includes posed surface, i.e., the surface of floor or roof notmore than 50 design numbers for hollow core exposed to fire, to 250 degrees F (120 degrees C)slabs which qualify for ratings of 1, 2, 3, or 4 during a fire test. This criterion is often called thehours. Constructions which conform to these de- heat transmission end point.signs are assigned ratings by most U.S. building For solid concrete slabs, the temperature rise ofcodes. the unexposed surfaces depends mainly on the As an alternative to UL ratings, model codes slab thickness and aggregate type. Figure 6.2now include prescriptive requirements which can shows the relationship between slab thickness andbe used to establish fire endurance ratings. For fire endurance as determined by the heat transmis -each fire endurance rating, strand cover and sion end point criterion.equivalent thickness provisions are given. Use of 6.2.1 Equivalent Thicknesssuch provisions eliminates the need for fire tests The information in Figure 6.2 is applicable toor UL ratings. hollow core slabs by entering the graph with the Most U.S. building codes will also assign rat- equivalent thickness of the unit instead of theings to hollow core assemblies which do not conthickness. Equivalent thickness can be calculatedform with the UL designs if it can be shown by cal- by dividing the net area of the cross section of aculations made in accordance with procedures hollow core unit by the width of the unit.given in the PCI manual, Design for Fire Resis-tance of Precast, Prestressed Concrete (PCI Fig. 6.2 Fire endurance (heat transmission) ofMNL 124-89)38 that they qualify for the required hollow core unitsfire endurance. Readers can obtain more detailed 5information from that manual on fire resistance ofhollow core slab assemblies as well as informa-tion on fire resistance of concrete beams, walls, 4 cf)and protection of connections. Ag cf) 0p ate p eg (10 In Canada, The National Building Code of 15 gr t (1 Fire Endurance, Hr htCanada requires that fire resistance ratings be de- eig 3 ate igh htw on etermined either on the basis of results of tests con- tw te rb Lig ga igh Caducted in accordance with CAN/ULC-S101-M, e gr -L g nd 2 AStandard Methods of Fire Endurance Tests of s Sa e ouBuilding Construction and Materials, or on the lic Sibasis of Appendix D, Fire Performance Rat- 1ings. While the general principles set forth in thisManual are fully valid in that they are based onmaterials properties and structural engineering 0procedures, users of the Manual are cautioned that 1-1/2 2 3 4 5 6 7in Canada, fire resistance ratings should be deter- Equivalent Thickness, in., of Hollow Core Unitmined strictly in accordance with applicable 6- -1 105. In Figure 6.2, concrete aggregates are desig- for two hours or more. The addition of toppings,nated as lightweight, sand-lightweight, carbon- undercoatings, fire resistive ceilings, roof insula-ate, or siliceous.

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Lightweight aggregates include tion, or filling the cores with dry aggregates willexpanded clay, shale, slate, and slag which pro- increase the heat transmission fire endurance.duce concretes having unit weights between about Figure 6.2.2.1 shows graphically the thickness of95 and 105 pcf (1520 - 1680 kg/m3) without sand spray applied undercoating required for heatreplacement. Lightweight concretes in which transmission fire endurances of 2, 3 and 4 hours.sand is used as part or all of the fine aggregate and Figure 6.2.2.2 shows the thickness of sand-light-weigh less than about 120 pcf (1920 kg/m3) are weight concrete, insulating concrete and highdesignated as sand-lightweight. For normal strength gypsum concrete overlays required for 2,weight concrete, the type of coarse aggregate in- 3 and 4 hours. Figure 6.2.2.3 shows data for 2 andfluences the fire endurance; the type of fine aggre- 3 hr. roofs with mineral board or glass fiber boardgate has only a minor effect. Carbonate aggre- insulation with 3-ply built-up roofing. Datagates include limestone, dolomite, and limerock, shown in Figures 6.2.2.1, 6.2.2.2 and 6.2.2.3 ap-i.e., those consisting mainly of calcium or magne- ply directly to hollow core slabs made with sili-sium carbonate. Siliceous aggregates include ceous aggregates and are conservative for slabsquartzite, granite, basalt, and most hard rocks oth- made with carbonate aggregates or with light-er than limestone or dolomite. weight aggregates.6.2.2 Toppings, Undercoatings, or Roof Example 6.2.1 Equivalent Thickness Insulation Determine the thickness of topping required toAll 8 in (200 mm) deep hollow core units which provide a 3 hr. fire endurance (heat transmission)are currently manufactured in North America for the generic hollow core slab shown in Figurequalify for at least a one-hour fire endurance as 1.7.1. Both the slab and the topping are made withdetermined by heat transmission and some qualify carbonate aggregate concrete. Fig. 6.2.2.1 Hollow core units undercoated with spray applied materials (Heat transmission fire endurance) Hollow core slab made with siliceous aggregate concrete Sprayed mineral fiber or vermiculite cementitous material 1.0 0.8 Thickness of SMF 4h or VMC, in. r 0.6 3h r 0.4 0.2 2h r 0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 Equivalent Thickness, in. of Hollow Core Unit6- -2 106. Fig. 6.2.2.2 Floors with overlays of sand-lightweight concrete (120 pcf maximum), insulating concrete (35 pcf maximum), and high strength gypsum concrete Overlay Hollow Core slab made with siliceous aggregate concrete Sand-Lightweight Concrete Insulating Concrete Overlay Overlay 2.5 4h r Overlay Thickness, in. 2.0 4h r 1.5 3h r 3h r 1.0 2h 2h r r 0.5 0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 Equivalent Thickness, in., of Hollow Core Units High Strength Gypsum Concrete Overlay 4 lay Fire Endurance, Hr. 3 ver . C. O erla y .G 1 in .C . Ov in. G 1/2 2 1 0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 Equivalent Thickness, in., of Hollow Core Units 6- -3 107. Fig. 6.2.2.3 Roofs with insulation board and 3-ply built-up roofing (Heat transmission fire endurance) 3-Ply built-up roofing Mineral board or glass fiber board insulation Hollow core slab made with siliceous aggregate concrete 0.75 Thickness, in., of Mineral Board or Glass Fiber Board 0.50 3h r 0.25 2h r 0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 Equivalent Thickness, in., of Hollow Core UnitSolution: the required thickness would be even less. Thus,Equivalent thickness the roof qualifies for a fire endurance significantlyteq = Area/width longer than 2 hours. = 154/36 6.2.3 Ceilings = 4.28 in Gypsum wallboard used as ceilings increases From Figure 6.2, the thickness of carbonate ag- the fire endurance of the assemblies. Very few firegregate concrete required for 3 hr. is 5.75 in. Thus, tests have been conducted utilizing concretethe thickness of topping needed is: floors with gypsum wallboard ceilings, and no 5.75 - 4.28 = 1.47 in - such tests have been conducted utilizing hollow core units. To be effective, gypsum wallboard must remain in place throughout most of the fireExample 6.2.2 endurance period. Because most hollow core Determine if a hollow core slab roof will quali- units by themselves have heat transmission firefy for a 2 hr. fire endurance (heat transmission) if endurances of one hour to two hours and longer,the slabs are made with carbonate aggregate con- the wallboard must remain in place during fire ex-crete, have an equivalent thickness of 4.28 in, and posure for long periods of time. For a fire endur-the roof insulation consists of a layer of 3/4 in thick ance of 3 hours, a layer of 5/8 in (16 mm) Type Xmineral board. The roofing is a standard 3-ply gypsum wallboard can be used. The wallboardbuilt-up roof. should be installed as shown in Figure 6.2.3.Solution: From Figure 6.2.2.3 it can be seen that with anequivalent thickness of 4.28 in, a layer of mineral 6.3 Structural Fire Endurance of Floor or Roofboard 0.16 in thick with 3-ply roofing qualifies for Assemblies2 hours even if the slabs are made with siliceous During standard fire tests, specimens must supaggregates. With carbonate aggregate concrete, port the anticipated superimposed loads through-6- -4 108. Fig. 6.2.3 Details of 3 hr. assembly consisting of hollow core slabs with a gypsum wall board ceiling 1 4 3 5 Max. 4 Restrained Unrestrained 3 1 1 6 7/8" 5/8" 3/4" 6 4 5 5 End Joint Side Joint 1. Precast concrete hollow core slabs - Minimum equivalent thickness = 2.75 in 2. Grout - (Not Shown) - Sand-cement grout along full length of joint. 3. Hanger Wire - No. 18 SWG galvanized steel wire. Hanger wire used to attached wallboard furring channels to precast concrete units. Wire to be located at each intersection of furring channels and joints between hollow core slabs, but not to exceed 4 ft o.c. 4. Wallboard Furring Channels - No. 26 ga. galvanized steel, 7/8 in high, 2 3/4 in base width, 1 3/8 in face width and 12 ft long. Channels to be installed perpendicular to hollow core slabs and spaced 24 in o.c., except at wallboard butt joints where they are spaced 6 1/2 in o.c. Channels secured to concrete units with double strand of hanger wire looped through fasteners. At furring channel splices, chan- nels to be overlapped 6 in and tied together with hanger wire at each end of splice. 5. Wallboard - 5/8 in thick, 4 ft wide, Type X, installed with long dimension perpendicular to furring channels. Over butt joints, a 3 in wide piece of wallboard to be inserted with ends extending a minimum 6 in beyond board width. 6. Wallboard Fasteners - 1 in long, Type S, bugle head screws. Fasteners spaced 12 in on center along each furring channel except at butt joints where fasteners spaced 8 in on center. At butt joints, fasteners located 3 1/4 in from board edge. Along side joints, fasten- ers located 3/4 in from board edge. 7. Joint System - (Not Shown) Paper tape embedded in cementitious compound over joints, and covered with two layers of cementi- tious compound with edges feathered out. Wallboard fastener heads covered with two layers of cementitious compound.out the fire endurance period. Failure to support the ultimate moment capacity is constant through-the loads is called the structural end point. out the length: The most important factor affecting the struc- Mn = Apsfps(dp - a/2) - (Eq. 6.3.1)tural fire endurance of a floor or roof assembly is See Chapter 2 for evaluating fps.the method of support, i.e., whether the assembly If the slab is uniformly loaded, the moment dia-is simply

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supported and free to expand (unre- gram will be parabolic with a maximum value atstrained) or if the assembly is continuous or ther- midspan of:mal expansion is restricted (restrained). M = w 26.3.1 Simply Supported Slabs (Eq. 6.3.2) 8 Figure 6.3.1.1 illustrates the behavior of a sim-ply supported slab exposed to fire from beneath.Because strands are parallel to the axis of the slab, 6- -5 109. Fig. 6.3.1.1 Moment diagrams for simply sup- Where ported beam or slab before and w = dead plus live load per unit of length, during fire exposure k/in = span length, in As the material strengths diminish with elevated temperatures, the retained moment capacity Fire becomes: Mn = Apsfps(dp - a /2) - (Eq. 6.3.3) in which signifies the effects of high tempera- @ 0 Hr tures. Note that Aps and dp are not affected, but fps is reduced. Similarly, a is reduced, but the con- M = applied moment crete strength at the top of the slab, fc, is generally not reduced significantly because of its lower temperature. Mn = moment capacity @ 2 Hr applied M = moment M n = reduced moment capacityFig. 6.3.1.2 Temperature-strength relationships for hot-rolled and cold -drawn steels 100 High strength alloy steel bars (tensile strength) 80 Hot-rolled steel (yield strength) Percent of Strength At 70 F 60 o 40 Cold-drawn prestressing steel 250 or 270 ksi (tensile strength) 20 0 70 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 o Temperature, F6- -6 110. Fig. 6.3.1.3 Temperatures within Fig. 6.3.1.4 Temperatures within carbonate aggregate concrete siliceous aggregate concrete slabs during fire tests slabs during fire tests 1600 1600 Siliceous Aggregate Carbonate Aggregate Concrete 1500 1500 Concrete (Normal Weight) (Normal Weight) 1400 1400 1300 1300 . n. e in c 4i rfa 4 1/ 1/ e fac Su . 1200 in 1200 r in. F F d Su 2 se 1/ oo 1/2 d po se po Ex 1100 Temperature, 1100 Temperature, Ex m . ro om in Fr .F 1 1000 n. n. 1000 1i in . 4i in 4 3/ 3/ in. 1/ 2 u= = 900 1/2 900 1- u 1- . in 800 n. 800 2 2i 700 700 . in n. 3i 3 600 600 . n. in 4i 4 500 500 1/2 1 1-1/2 2 3 4 1/2 1 1-1/2 2 3 4 Fire Test Time, Hr Fire Test Time, Hr Flexural failure can be assumed to occur whenMn is reduced to M. From this expression, it can Fig. 6.3.1.5 Temperatures within sand- lightweight concrete slabsbe seen that the fire endurance depends on the ap- during fire testsplied loading and on the strength-temperaturecharacteristics of the steel. In turn, the duration of 1600the fire before the critical steel temperature is Sand-Lightweight 1500 Concretereached depends upon the protection afforded tothe reinforcement. 1400 Test results have shown that the theory dis1300cussed above is valid, not only for hollow core . ce in rfa 4floors, but also for roofs with insulation on top of 1200 1/ Su . in F dthe slabs. 2 1/ se o po 1100 Temperature, Ex Figure 6.3.1.2 shows the relationship between m rotemperature and strength of various types of steel. .F 1000 . in inFigure 6.3.1.3, 6.3.1.4 and 6.3.1.5 show tempera- 1 4 3/ =tures within concrete slabs during standard fire 900 u . intests. The data in those figures are applicable to 2 1/ 800 1-hollow core slabs. By using the equations given . inabove and the data in Figure 6.3.1.2 through 700 26.3.1.5, the moment capacity of slabs can be cal- 600 .culated for various fire endurance periods, as il- in 3lustrated in the following example: 500 1/2 1 1-1/2 2 3 4 Fire Test Time, Hr 6- -7 111. Example 6.3.1 wL = w - wD = 170 - 54 = 116 psf - -Determine the maximum safe superimposed load (d) Calculate maximum allowable wL at roomthat can be supported by an 8 in deep hollow coreslab with a simply supported unrestrained span of temperature25 ft and a fire endurance of 3 hr.Given:h = 8 in; u = 1.75 in; six 1/2 in 270 ksi strands; fps = 270 1 0.28 0.918 270 0.80 366.25 5 Aps = 6(0.153) = 0.918 in2; b = 36 in; dp = 8 - 1.75 - = 249 ksi= 6.25 in; wD = 54 psf; carbonate aggregate con-crete; = 25 ft 0.918249 a = = 1.49 inSolution: 0.85536(a) Estimate strand temperature at 3 hr. from Fig- Mn = 0.9(0.918)(249)(6.25 0.75)/12 - ure 6.3.1.3, s at 3 hr. at 1.75 in above fire-ex- posed surface = 925 degrees F. = 94.3 ft-kips(b) Determine fpu from Figure 6.3.1.2. For 894.31000 wu = = 402 psf cold-drawn steel at 925 degrees F: (25) 23 fpu = 33% fpu = 89.1 ksi With load factors of 1.4 (dead load)(c) Determine Mn and w + 1.7 (live load): fps = 89.1 1 0.28 0.918 89.1 0.80 366.25 5 wL = 402 1.454 1.7 = 192 psf Conclusion: wL = 116 < 192; 116 psf governs = 86.8 ksi Note: Fire endurance for heat transmission 0.91886.8 should also be checkeda = = 0.52in 0.85536 Table 6.3.1 shows values of u for simply sup-Mn = 0.918(86.8) (6.25 - 0.52/2)/12 - ported unrestrained hollow core slabs for various = 39.8 ft-kips moment ratios and fire endurance of 1, 2, and 3 hours. The values shown are based on 839.81000w = = 170 psf Apsfpu/bdpfc = 0.05 and can be reduced by 1/16 in (25) 23 for Apsfpu/bdpfc = 0.10. Table 6.3.1 u inches, for simply supported unrestrained hollow core slabs* Fire Aggregate Type Endurance M/Mn Siliceous Carbonate SandLightweight (hr) (in) (mm) (in) (mm) (in) (mm) 1 0.50 1 1 /4 (32) 1 1/16 (27) 1 1/16 (27) 1 0.40 1 1/16 (27) 15/ 16 (24) 15/ 16 (24) 1 0.30 15/ (24) 13/ (21) 13/ (21) 16 16 16 2 0.50 15/ 1 16 (49) 1 13/16 (46) 1 13/16 (46) 2 0.40 1 3 /4 (44) 1 9/16 (40) 1 9/16 (40) 2 0.30 1 9/16 (40) 1 5/16 (33) 1 5/16 (33) 3 0.50 2 1 /2 (64) 2 5/16 (59) 2 1 /8 (54) 3 0.40 2 3/16 (56) 2 (51) 1 15/16 (49) 3 0.30 1 15/16 (49) 1 11/16 (43) 1 11/16 (43) *u is distance between center of strands and bottom of slab with all strands having same u. Based on Apsfpu/bdpfc = 0.05; conservative for values greater than 0.05.6- -8 112. Fig. 6.3.2 Equivalent concrete cover thickness for spray-applied coatings 5 4 ) Equivalent Concrete Cover Thickness, in. sla bs )( M ( VC rial ate 3 sM bs ) tiou ( sla men F) Ce SM lite r( be icu Fi rm ral 2 Ve ine e dM ray Sp 1 0 0 1/4 1/2 3/4 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 Thickness of Spray-Applied Insulating Material, in.6.3.2 Effect of SprayApplied Coatings Fig. 6.3.3.1 Moment diagrams for continuous 2- The fire endurance of hollow core slabs can be span beam before and during fireincreased by the addition of a spray-applied coat- exposureing of vermiculite cementitious material orsprayed mineral fiber. Figure 6.3.2 shows therelationship between thickness of spray-appliedcoatings and equivalent concrete cover. Thus, ifstrands are centered 3/4 in (19 mm) above the bot-tom of a hollow core slab and if 1/4 in (6 mm) ofsprayed mineral fiber is applied, the u distance to Fire Firebe used in Figures 6.3.1.3, 6.3.1.4 or 6.3.1.5 is 3/4in (19 mm) plus the equivalent cover of 0.9 in (23 M- nmm) obtained from Figure 6.3.2. - M6.3.3 Structurally Continuous Slabs Continuous members undergo changes in M +stresses when subjected to fire, resulting from At 0 Hr M+ ntemperature gradients within the structural mem- Mbers, or changes in strength of the materials at high ntemperatures, or both. x0 Figure 6.3.3.1 shows a continuous beam whose -underside is exposed to fire. The bottom of the Mbeam becomes hotter than the top and tends to ex- + At 3 Hrpand more than the top. This differential tempera- M + n x1ture causes the ends of the beam to tend to lift fromtheir supports thereby increasing the reaction at 6- -9

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113. Fig. 6.3.3.2 Uniformly loaded member Fig. 6.3.3.3 Symmetrical uniformly loaded mem- continuous at one support ber continuous at both supports M- M- n M- n n w w x M- n M- n 2 M + 8 w n x1 x2 x0 M+ n x0 x2 x0the interior support. This action results in a redis- simply supported at the other. Also shown is thetribution of moments, i.e., the negative moment at redistributed applied moment diagram at failure.the interior support increases while the positive Values for M + can be calculated by the proce- nmoments decrease. dures given for Simply Supported Slabs. During the course of a fire, the negative mo- Values for M and xo can be calculated: n ment reinforcement (Figure 6.3.3.1) remains 2M + M = w w 2 2 ncooler than the positive moment reinforcement n (Eq. 6.3.4)because it is better protected from the fire. Thus, 2 w 2the increase in negative moment can be accom- M nmodated. Generally, the redistribution that occurs xo =2 (Eq. 6.3.5) wis sufficient to cause yielding of the negative mo- In most cases, redistribution of moments oc-ment reinforcement. The resulting decrease in curs early during the course of a fire before thepositive moment means that the positive moment negative moment capacity has been reduced byreinforcement can be heated to a higher tempera- the effects of fire. In such cases, the length of xo isture before a failure will occur. Therefore, the fire increased, i.e., the inflection point moves towardendurance of a continuous concrete beam is gen- the simple support. For such cases,erally significantly longer than that of a simply 2M nsupported beam having the same cover and loaded xo = (Eq. 6.3.6) wto the same moment intensity. Figure 6.3.3.3 shows a symmetrical beam or It is possible to design the reinforcement in a slab in which the end moments are equal. In thatcontinuous beam or slab for a particular fire en- case:durance period. From Figure 6.3.3.1, the beam M = w 28 M + n n (Eq. 6.3.7)can be expected to collapse when the positive mo-ment capacity, M +, is reduced to the value indi- wx 2 n and 2 = M+ n (Eq. 6.3.8)cated by the dashed horizontal line, i.e., when the 8redistributed moment at point x1, from the outer In negative moment regions, the compressivesupport, M x1 = M +. zone is directly exposed to fire, so calculations for n d and a must be modified by (a) using fc from Figure 6.3.3.2 shows a uniformly loaded beam Figure 6.3.3.4 and (b) neglecting concrete hotteror slab continuous (or fixed) at one support and than 1400 degrees F (760 degrees C).6- -10 114. Fig. 6.3.3.4 Compressive strength of concrete at high temperatures 70 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 120 120 Carbonate Percent of Original Compressive Strength 100 100 Sand-Lightweight 80 80 Siliceous 60 60 40 40 Original Strength = f c 20 Average f = 3900 psi c 20 Stressed to 0.4f during heating c 0 0 70 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 o Temperature, F6.3.4 Detailing Precautions Example 6.3.2 It should be noted that the amount of moment Determine the amount of negative moment re-redistribution that can occur is dependent upon inforcement needed to provide a 3 hr. fire endur-the amount of negative reinforcement. Tests have ance for sand-lightweight hollow core slabs, 8 inclearly demonstrated that the negative moment re- deep, 5 ksi concrete, 48 in wide, with six 7/16 in 270inforcement will yield, so the negative moment ksi strands and 2 in (4 ksi) composite topping.capacity is reached early during a fire test, regard- Slabs span 25 ft of an exterior bay (no restraint toless of the applied loading. The designer must ex- thermal expansion). Dead load = 65 psf, live loadercise care to ensure that a secondary type of fail- = 100 psf. Strands are centered 1 3/4 in above bot-ure will not occur. To avoid a compression failure tom of slab. The value for M + can be calculated nin the negative moment region, the amount of neg- (by using the procedure discussed for simply sup-ative moment reinforcement should be small ported slabs) to be 39.0 ft-kips. From Eq. 6.3.4enough so that , i.e., Asfy /b d fc, is less than (for use in Eq. 6.3.4):0.30, before and after reductions in fy, b, d and fc w 2 = 4(65 + 100) (25)2/1000are taken into account. Furthermore, the negativemoment bars or mesh must be long enough to ac- = 412.5 ft-kipscommodate the complete redistributed momentand change in the inflection points. It should be M = 412.5 412.5 2 n 2 (39.0) 412.5noted that the worst condition occurs when the ap- = 26.9 ft-kipsplied loading is smallest, such as dead load plus Determine As neglecting concrete above 1400 de-partial or no live load. It is recommended that at grees F in negative moment region. From Figureleast 20% of the maximum negative moment rein- 6.3.1.5 neglect 3/4 in above bottom, and assumeforcement be extended throughout the span. steel centered in topping. d = 10 - 3/4 - 1 = 8.25 in - - 6- -11 115. Assume fc in compressive zone = 0.8fc = 4 ksi Fig. 6.4.1 Moment diagrams for axiallyAssume d - a/2 = 8.1 in - restrained beam during fire exposure. 26.912 Note that at 2 hr. Mn is less than MAs = = 0.66 in2 and effects of axial restraint permit 608.1 beam to continue to support load. 0.6660 dTcheck a = = 0.24 in 0.85448 T Td - a /2 = 8.25 - 0.12 = 8.13 in 8.1 OK - - FireUse 6 x 6 - W2.1 x W2.1 WWF throughout plus #4Grade 60 at 16 in in negative moment region.As = 80.021 + 48 0.20 = 0.768 in2 @ 0 Hr, T=0 Mn 16 MCalculate xo for dead load plus one-half live load. @ 2 Hr.M = 0.768 (26.9) = 31.3 ft-kips n M n 0.66 MT =loading = 4(0.065 + 0.050) = 0.46 k/ft; T(d T - _ - ) a 2Mn = 34.0 ft-kips (calculated for room tem- (curved due to beam deflection)peratures)From Eq. 6.3.6 temperature rise of the unexposed surface rather than by structural considerations, even though the 2M n 2(34.0)xo = = = 5.91 ft steel temperatures often exceed 1200 degrees F w 0.46(25) (650 degrees C).Half of #4 bars should extend 7 ft each side of inte- The effects of restraint to thermal expansionrior support and half 5 ft. can be characterized as shown in Figure 6.4.1.Use #4 Grade 60, 12 ft long at 16 in and stagger. The thermal thrust, T, acts in a manner similar to an external prestressing force, which tends to in-6.4 Restraint to Thermal Expansion crease the positive moment capacity. If a fire occurs beneath a portion of a large floor Methods for calculating fire endurance of re-or roof, such as beneath a concrete floor slab in strained floors or roofs are given in PCI MNLone interior bay of a multi-bay building, the 124-89. It is seldom necessary to make such cal-heated portion will expand and push against the culations, as noted below. The beneficial effectssurrounding unheated portion. In turn the un- of restraint are recognized in ASTM E119. Theheated portion exerts compressive forces on the standard presents a guide for determining condi-heated portion. The compressive force, or thrust, tions of restraint. The guide includes Figure 6.4.2.acts near the bottom of the slab when the fire In most cases, the interior bays of multi-bay floorsstarts, but as the fire progresses, the line of thrust and roofs can be considered to be restrained andrises and the thermal gradient diminishes and the the magnitude and location of the thrust are gener-heated concrete undergoes a reduction in elastic ally of academic interest only. It should be notedmodulus. If the surrounding slab is thick and that Figure 6.4.2 indicates that adequate restraintheavily reinforced, the thrust forces can be quite can occur in

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interior bays and exterior bays oflarge, but they will be considerably less than those framed buildings when:calculated by use of elastic properties of concrete The space between the ends of precast unitsand steel, together with appropriate coefficients of and the vertical faces of supports, or between theexpansion. At high temperatures, creep and stress ends of solid or hollow core slab units does not ex-relaxation play an important role. Nevertheless, ceed 0.25 percent of the length for normal weightthe thrust is generally great enough to increase the concrete members or 0.1 percent of the length forfire endurance significantly, in some instances by structural lightweight concrete members.more than 2 hours. In most fire tests of restrained Sketches illustrating typical conditions de-assemblies, the fire endurance is determined by scribed above are shown in Figure 6.4.3.6-12 116. Fig. 6.4.2. Examples of typical restrained and unrestrained construction classifications (from Appendix X3 of ASTM E119-88) I. Wall Bearing: Single span and simply supported end spans of multiple baysa (1) Open-web steel joists or steel beams, supporting concrete slab, precast units or metal decking unrestrained (2) Concrete slabs, precast units or metal decking unrestrained Interior spans of multiple bays: (1) Open-web steel joists, steel beams or metal decking, supporting continuous concrete slab restrained (2) Open-web steel joists or steel beams, supporting precast units or metal decking unrestrained (3) Cast-in-place concrete slab systems restrained (4) Precast concrete where the potential thermal expansion is resisted by adjacent constructionb restrainedII. Steel Framing: (1) Steel beams welded, riveted, or bolted to the framing members restrained (2) All types of cast-in-place floor and roof systems (such as beam-and-slabs, flat slabs, pan joints, and waffle slabs) where the floor or roof system is secured to the framing members restrained (3) All types of prefabricated floor or roof systems where the structural members are secured to the framing members and the potential thermal expansion of the floor or roof system is resisted by the framing system or the adjoining floor or roof constructionb restrainedIII. Concrete Framing: (1) Beams securely fastened to the framing members restrained (2) All types of cast-in-place floor or roof systems (such as beam-and-slabs, flat slabs, pan joists, and waffle slabs) where the floor system is cast with framing members restrained (3) Interior and exterior spans of precast systems with cast -in-place joints resulting in restraint equivalent to that which would exist in condition III(1) restrained (4) All types of prefabricated floor or roof systems where the structural members are secured to such systems and the potential thermal expansion of the floor or roof system is resisted by the framing system or the adjoining floor or roof constructionb restrainedIV. Wood Construction All Types unrestrained aFloor and roof systems can be considered restrained when they are tied into walls with or without tie beams, the walls being designed and detailed to resist thermal thrust from the floor or roof system. bFor example, resistance to potential thermal expansion is considered to be achieved when: (1) Continuous structural concrete topping is used. (2) The space between the ends of precast units or between the ends of units and the vertical face of supports is filled with concrete or mortar. (3) The space between the ends of precast units and the vertical faces of supports, or between the ends of solid or hollow core slab units does not exceed 0.25 percent of the length for normal weight concrete members or 0.1 percent of the length for structural lightweight concrete members.Fig. 6.4.3. Typical examples of restrained floors or roofs of precast construction Hollow-Core Slabs or Double Tees c1 c2 HollowCore or Solid Slabs c1 c2To be considered as restrained: c1 + c2 < 0.0025 for normal weight concrete c1 + c2 < 0.0010 for lightweight concreteExample: Determine maximum value of c1 + c2 for normal weight hollow core slabs with a clear span of 30 ftSolution: c1 + c2 = 0.0025(30 x 12) = 0.90 in 6- -13 117. Example 6.4.1 strength, the assembly will generally be satisfac- Hollow core floor slabs were installed in a tory structurally.building several years ago when a 1 hr. fire endur-ance was required. The occupancy of the buildingwill be changed and the floors must qualify for a 3hr. fire endurance. What can be done to upgradethe fire endurance?Given: Slabs are 4 ft wide, 8 in deep, prestressed withfive 3/8 in 270 ksi strands located 1 in above thebottom of the slab, and span 24 ft. Slabs are madewith 5000 psi siliceous aggregate concrete, havean equivalent thickness of 3.75 in, and weigh 47psf. The slabs are untopped and the superimposedload will be 50 psf.Solution: There are a number of possible solutions. Theappropriate solution will depend on architecturalor functional requirements and economics. For some parts of the building, the slabs mightbe made to qualify as restrained in accordancewith Figure 6.4.2 and Figure 6.4.3, in which casethose slabs would qualify structurally for 3 hours,but would still have to be upgraded to qualify for 3hours by heat transmission. A gypsum wallboard ceiling installed as shownin Figure 6.2.3 would provide three hours bothstructurally and for heat transmission. Calcula-tions of the ultimate capacity and stresses shouldbe made to assure that the added weight of the ceil-ing can be adequately supported. A spray-applied undercoating of vermiculitecementitious material or sprayed mineral fibercan also be used. For heat transmission, the re-quired thickness for three hours of undercoating is0.6 in (see Figure 6.2.2.1). From Figure 6.3.2, itcan be seen that with a thickness of 0.6 in of VCMor SMF, the equivalent thickness of concrete cov-er is more than 2 in. Thus, the equivalent u dis-tance is more than 2 in plus 1 in or more than 3 in.From Figure 6.3.1.4, with u more than 3 in, thestrand temperature will be less than 600 degrees Fat three hours, so the strength of the prestressingsteel will be 65% of its 70 degrees F strength (Fig-ure 6.3.1.5) or more than 0.65 x 270 = 175.5 ksi.Calculations can be made in accordance with theprocedures in the section headed Simply Sup-ported Slabs, but if the strand strength is reducedless than about 50% of its room temperature6- -14 118. CHAPTER 7 ACOUSTICAL PROPERTIES OF HOLLOW CORE FLOOR SLABS7.1 Glossary Room Criteria (RC) Curves - a revision of the NCAirborne Sound - sound that reaches the point of curves based on empirical studies of backgroundinterest by propagation through air. sounds.Background Level - the ambient sound pressure Sabin - the unit of measure of sound absorptionlevel existing in a space. (ASTM C423).Decibel (dB) - a logarithmic unit of measure of Sound Absorption Coefficient () - the fraction ofsound pressure or sound power. Zero on the deci- randomly incident sound energy absorbed orbel scale corresponds to a standardized references otherwise not reflected off a surface (ASTMpressure (20 Pa) or sound power (10-12 watt). C423). Sound Pressure Level (SPL) - ten times the com-Flanking Transmission - transmission of sound by mon logarithm of the ratio of the square of theindirect paths other than through the primary bar- sound pressure to the

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square of the standard refer-rier. ence pressure of 20 Pa. Commonly measuredFrequency (Hz) - the number of complete vibra- with a sound level meter and microphone, thistion cycles per second. quantity is expressed in decibels.Impact Insulation Class (IIC) - a single figure rat- Sound Transmission Class (STC) - the singleing of the overall impact sound insulation merits number rating system used to give a preliminaryof floor-ceiling assemblies in terms of a reference estimate of the sound insulation properties of acontour (ASTM E989). partition system. This rating is derived from mea- sured values of transmission loss (ASTM E413).Impact Noise - the sound produced by one object Sound Transmission Loss (TL) - ten times thestriking another. common logarithm of the ratio, expressed in deci-Noise - unwanted sound. bels, of the airborne sound power incident on the partition that is transmitted by the partition and ra-Noise Criteria (NC) - a series of curves, used as diated on the other side (ASTM E90).design goals to specify satisfactory background Structureborne Sound - sound that reaches thesound levels as they relate to particular use func- point of interest over at least part of its path bytions. vibration of a solid structure.Noise Reduction (NR) - the difference in decibelsbetween the space-time average sound pressure 7.2 Generallevels produced in two enclosed spaces by one or The basic purpose of architectural acoustics ismore sound sources in one of them. to provide a satisfactory environment in which de-Noise Reduction Coefficient (NRC) - the arithme- sired sounds are clearly heard by the intended lis-tic average of the sound absorption coefficients at teners and unwanted sounds (noise) are isolated or250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz expressed to the near- absorbed.est multiple of 0.05 (ASTM C423). Under most conditions, the architect/ engineer can determine the acoustical needs of the spaceReverberation - the persistence of sound in an en- and then design the building to satisfy thoseclosed or partially enclosed space after the source needs. Good acoustical design utilizes both ab-of sound has stopped. sorptive and reflective surfaces, sound barriers 7- -1 119. and vibration isolators. Some surfaces must re- introduce resilient layers or discontinuities intoflect sound so that the loudness will be adequate in the barrier.all areas where listeners are located. Other sur- Sound absorbing materials and sound insulat-faces absorb sound to avoid echoes, sound distor- ing materials are used for different purposes.tion and long reverberation times. Sound is iso- There is not much sound absorption from an 8 inlated from rooms where it is not wanted by se- (200 mm) hollow core concrete slab; similarly,lected wall and floor-ceiling constructions. high sound insulation is not available from a po-Vibration generated by mechanical equipment rous lightweight material that may be applied tomust be isolated from the structural frame of the room surfaces. It is important to recognize that thebuilding. basic mechanisms of sound absorption and sound Most acoustical situations can be described in insulation are quite different.terms of: (1) sound source, (2) sound transmis-sion path, and (3) sound receiver. Sometimes the 7.4 Sound Transmission Losssource strength and path can be controlled and the Sound transmission loss measurements arereceiver made more attentive by removing dis- made at 16 frequencies at one-third octave inter-traction or made more tolerant of disturbance. vals covering the range from 125 to 4000 Hz. TheAcoustical design must include consideration of testing procedure is ASTM Specification E90,these three elements. Laboratory Measurement of Airborne Sound Transmission Loss of Building Partitions. To sim-7.3 Approaching the Design Process plify specification of desired performance charac- Criteria must be established before the acousti- teristics, the single number Sound Transmissioncal design of a building can begin. Basically a sat- Class (STC) was developed.isfactory acoustical environment is one in which Airborne sound reaching a floor or ceiling pro-the character and magnitude of all sounds are duces vibration in the slab and is radiated with re-compatible with the intended space function. duced intensity on the other side. Airborne sound Although a reasonable objective, it is not al- transmission loss of a floor-ceiling assembly is aways easy to express these intentions in quantita- function of its weight, stiffness and vibrationtive terms. In addition to the amplitude of sound, damping characteristics.the properties such as spectral characteristics, Weight is concretes greatest asset when it iscontinuity, reverberation and intelligibility must used as a sound insulator. For sections of similarbe specified. design, but different weights, the STC increases People are highly adaptable to the sensations of approximately 6 units for each doubling of weightheat, light, odor, sound, etc. with sensitivities va- as shown in Figure 7.4.1.rying widely. The human ear can detect a sound Fig. 7.4.1 Sound Transmission Class as aintensity of rustling leaves, 10 dB, and can tolerfunction of weight of floorate, if even briefly, the powerful exhaust of a jetengine at 120 dB, 1012 times the intensity of the 65 Sound Transmission Class (STC)rustling sound. 607.3.1 Dealing with Sound Levels hollow core slabs 55 The problems of sound insulation are usuallyconsiderably more complicated than those of 50sound absorption. The former involves reduc- STC = 0.1304 W + 43.48tions of sound level, which are of the greater or- statistical tolerance + 2.5 STC _ 45ders of magnitude than can be achieved by absorp-tion. These reductions of sound level from spaceto space can be achieved only by continuous, im- 40 40 50 60 70 80 90 100pervious barriers. If the problem also involves Weight Per Unit Area, psfstructure borne sound, it may be necessary to7- -2 120. Fig. 7.4.2 Acoustical test data of hollow core slabs (normal weight concrete) Sound Transmission Loss Impact Insulation 70 70 8 in. hollow core (bare).IIC-28 6 in. hollow core (bare).IIC-23 60 60 8 in. hollow core. STC-50 Impact Sound Pressure Level dB Sound Transmission Loss, dB 50 50 40 40 6 in. hollow core 6 in. hollow core. STC-48 with carpet and pad. IIC-69 30 30 8 in. hollow core with carpet and pad. IIC-73 20 20 10 10 125 315 125 315 100 160 200 250 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 4000 5000 100 160 200 250 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 4000 5000 Frequency, Hz Precast concrete floors and roofs usually do not The test method used to evaluate systems forneed additional treatments in order to provide ad- impact sound insulation is described in ASTMequate sound insulation. If desired, greater sound Specification E492, Laboratory Measurement ofinsulation can be obtained by using a resiliently Impact Sound Transmission Using the Tappingattached layer(s) of gypsum board or other build- Machine. As with the airborne standard, mea-ing material. The increased transmission loss oc- surements are made at 16 one-third octave inter-curs because the energy flow path is now in- vals but in the range from 100 to 3150 Hz. For per-creased to include a dissipative air column and formance specification purposes, the single num-additional mass. ber Impact Insulation Class (IIC) is used. The acoustical test results of both airborne Hollow core floors in combination with resil-sound transmission loss and impact insulation of 6 ient materials effectively control impact sound.and 8 in

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(150 and 200 mm) hollow core slabs are One simple solution consists of good carpeting onshown in Figure 7.4.2. Table 7.4.1 presents the resilient padding. Table 7.4.1 shows that a carpetratings for various floor-ceiling assemblies. and pad over a bare slab will significantly increase the impact noise reduction. The overall efficiency varies according to the characteristics of the car-7.5 Impact Noise Reduction peting and padding such as resilience, thickness Footsteps, dragged chairs, dropped objects, and weight. So called resilient flooring materials,slammed doors, and plumbing generate impact such as linoleum, rubber, asphalt vinyl, etc. arenoise. Even when airborne sounds are adequately not entirely satisfactory directly on concrete, norcontrolled there can be severe impact noise prob- are parquet or strip wood floors when applied di-lems. rectly. Impact sound also may be controlled by 7- -3 121. Table 7.4.1 Airborne sound transmission and impact insulation class ratings from laboratory tests of hollow core slab floor-ceiling assemblies Assembly No. Description STC IIC 1. 6 in (150 mm) hollow core slabs 48 23 2. Assembly 1 with carpet and pad 48 69 3. Assembly 1 with 1/2 in (13 mm) wood block flooring adhered directly 48 48 4. Assembly 1 with 1/2 in (13 mm) wood block flooring adhered to 1/2 in (13 mm) sound-deadening board underlayment adhered to concrete 49 49 5. Assembly 1 with 3/4 in (19 mm) gypsum concrete 50 41 6. Assembly 1 with 3/4 in (19 mm) gypsum concrete on 1/2 in (13 mm) sound- deadening board underlayment adhered to concrete 50 50 7. Assembly 1 with carpet and pad on 3/4 in (19 mm) gypsum concrete on 1/ in (13 mm) sounddeadening board underlayment adhered to concrete 50 72 2 8. 8 in (200 mm) hollow core slabs 50 28 9. Assembly 8 with carpet and pad 50 73 10. Assembly 8 with 1/2 in (13 mm) wood block flooring adhered directly 51 47 11. Assembly 8 with 1/2 in (13 mm) wood block flooring adhered to 1/2 in (13 mm) sound-deadening board underlayment adhered to concrete 52 54 12. Assembly 8 with 1/2 in (13 mm) wood block flooring adhered to 1/2 in (13 mm) plywood adhered to 7/16 in (11 mm) sound-deadening board underlayment adhered to concrete 52 55 13. Assembly 8 with 5/16 in (8 mm) wood block flooring adhered to 1/4 in (6 mm) polystyrene underlayment adhered to concrete 50 51 14. Assembly 8 with vinyl tile adhered to 1/2 in (13 mm) plywood adhered to 7/ in (11 mm) sound-deadening board underlayment adhered to concrete 50 55 16 15. Assembly 8 with vinyl tile adhered to 1/4 in (6 mm) inorganic felt supported cushion underlayment adhered to concrete 50 51 16. Assembly 8 with vinyl tile adhered to 1/8 in (3 mm) polyethylene foam under- layment adhered to concrete 50 58 17. Assembly 8 with 1 1/2 in (38 mm) concrete topping with carpet and pad 50 76 18. Assembly 8 with 1 1/2 in (38 mm) concrete topping with vinyl tile adhered to concrete 50 44 19. Assembly 8 with 1 1/2 in (38 mm) concrete topping with vinyl tile adhered to 3/8 in (9 mm) plywood adhered to 1/2 in (13 mm) sound-deadening board adhered to concrete 52 55 20. Assembly 8 with 1 1/2 in (38 mm) concrete with 1/2 in (13 mm) wood block flooring adhered to 1/2 in (13 mm) sound-deadening board adhered to concrete 51 53 21. Assembly 8 with 1 1/2 in (38 mm) concrete with 5/16 in (8 mm) wood block flooring adhered to foam backing adhered to concrete 51 54 22. Assembly 8 with 3/4 in (19 mm) gypsum concrete with 5/16 in (8 mm) wood block flooring adhered to foam backing adhered to concrete 50 53 23. Assembly 11 with acoustical ceiling 59 61 24. Assembly 8 with quarry tile, 1 1/4 in (32 mm) reinforced mortar bed with 0.4 in (10 mm) nylon and carbon black spinerette matting 60 54 25. Assembly 24 with suspended 5/8 in (16 mm) gypsum board ceiling with 3 1/2 in (90 mm) insulation 61 627- 4 122. providing a discontinuity in the structure such as same, regardless of the original sound pressurewould be obtained by adding a resilient-mounted level and depends only on the absorption ratio.plaster or drywall suspended ceiling. This is due to the fact that the decibel scale is itself a scale of ratios, rather than difference in sound7.6 Absorption of Sound energy. A sound wave always loses part of its energy as While a decibel difference is an engineeringit is reflected by a surface. This loss of energy is quantity which can be physically measured, it istermed sound absorption. It appears as a decrease also important to know how the ear judges thein sound pressure of the reflected wave. The change in sound energy due to sound condition-sound absorption coefficient is the fraction of en- ing. Apart from the subjective annoyance factorsergy incident but not reflected per unit of surface associated with excessive sound reflection, the eararea. Sound absorption can be specified at indi- can make accurate judgments of the relative loud-vidual frequencies or as an average of absorption ness between sounds. An approximate relationcoefficients (NRC). between percentage loudness, reduction of re- A dense, non-porous concrete surface typically flected sound and absorption ratio is plotted inabsorbs 1 to 2% of incident sound and has an NCR Figure 7.6.2of 0.015. In the case where additional sound ab- The percentage loudness reduction does not de-sorption of precast concrete is desired, a coating pend on the original loudness, but only on the ab-of acoustical material can be spray applied, acous- sorption ratio. (The curve is drawn for loudnesstical tile can be applied with adhesive, or an acous- within the normal range of hearing and does nottical ceiling can be suspended. Most of the spray apply to extremely faint sounds.) Referring againapplied fire retardant materials used to increase to the absorption ratio of 5, the loudness reductionthe fire resistance of precast concrete and other is read from Figure 7.6.2 as approximately 40 per-floor -ceiling systems can also be used to absorb cent.sound. The NCR of the sprayed fiber types rangefrom 0.25 to 0.75. Most cementitious types have 7.7 Acceptable Noise Criteriaan NCR from 0.25 to 0.50. As a rule, a certain amount of continuous sound If an acoustical ceiling were added to Assem- can be tolerated before it becomes noise. An ac-bly 11 of Table 7.4.1 (as in Assembly 23), the ceptable level neither disturbs room occupantssound entry through a floor or roof would be re- nor interferes with the communication of wantedduced 7dB. In addition, the acoustical ceiling sound.would absorb a portion of the sound after entry The most widely accepted and used noise crite-and provide a few more decibels of quieting. Use ria today are expressed as the Noise Criterionof the following expression can be made to deter- (NC) curves, Figure 7.7.1a. The figures in Tablemine the intra-room noise or loudness reduction 7.7.1 represent general acoustical goals. They candue to the absorption of sound. also be compared with anticipated noise levels in Ao + Aa specific rooms to assist in evaluating noise reduc- NR = 10 log (Eq. 7.6.1) Aa tion problems.where The main criticism of NC curves is that they are NR = sound pressure level reduction, dB too permissive when the control of low or high Ao = original absorption, Sabins frequency noise is of concern. For this reason, Room Criterion (RC) Curves were developed Aa = added absorption, Sabins (Figure 7.7.1b).39,40 RC curves are the result of Values for Ao and Aa are the

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products of the ab- extensive studies based on the human response tosorption coefficients of the various room materi- both sound pressure level and frequency and takeals and their surface areas. into account the requirements for speech intelligi- A plot of this equation is shown in Figure 7.6.1. bility.For an absorption ratio of 5, the decibel reduction A low background level obviously is necessaryis 7dB. Note that the decibel reduction is the where listening and speech intelligibility is im- 7- -5 123. Fig. 7.6.1 Relation of decibel reduction of Fig. 7.7.1b RC (Room Criteria) Curves reflected sound to absorption ratio Octave Band Sound Pressure Level, dB re 20 micropascals 90 14 A 12 80 B 10 SPL Reduction, dB 70 8 6 60 4 50 RC 2 40 50 0 C 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 45 Absorption Ratio, A2 /A1 30 40 35 20 30Fig. 7.6.2 Relation of percent loudness reduction 25 of reflected sound to absorption ratio 10 16 31.5 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 Octave Band Center Frequencies, Hz Percent Loudness Reduction 60 50 Region A: High probability that noise-induced vibration levels in 40 lightweight wall/ceiling constructions will be clearly feelable; antic- 30 ipate audible rattles in light fixtures, doors, windows, etc. Region B: Noise-induced vibration levels in lightweight wall/ceil- 20 ing constructions may be moderately feelable; slight possibility of rattles in light fixtures, doors, windows, etc. 10 Region C: Below threshold of hearing for continuous noise. 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Absorption Ratio, A 2 /A 1 portant. Conversely, higher levels can persist in large business offices or factories where speechFig. 7.7.1a NC (Noise Criteria) Curves communication is limited to short distances. Often it is just as important to be interested in the Octave Band Sound Pressure Level, dB re 20 micropascals 90 minimum as in the maximum permissible levels of Table 7.7.1. In an office or residence, it is desir- 80 able to have a certain ambient sound level to as- 70 sure adequate acoustical privacy between spaces, NC-65 thus, minimizing the transmission loss require- 60 NC-60 ments of unwanted sound (noise). NC-55 These undesirable sounds may be from an exte- 50 NC-50 NC-45 rior source such as automobiles or aircraft, or they 40 NC-40 may be generated as speech in an adjacent class- NC-35 room or music in an adjacent apartment. They 30 NC-30 may be direct impact-induced sound such as foot- Approximate threshold of NC-25 falls on the floor above, rain impact on a light- 20 hearing for NC-20 continuous NC-15 weight roof construction or vibrating mechanical noise 10 equipment. 63 125 250 500 2000 8000 Octave Band Center Frequencies, Hz7- -6 124. Thus, the designer must always be ready to ac- Table 7.7.1 Recommended category classi-cept the task of analyzing the many potential fication and suggested Noisesources of intruding sound as related to their freCriteria range for steady back-quency characteristics and the rates at which they ground noise as heard in variousoccur. The level of toleration that is to be expected in-door functional activityby those who will occupy the space must also be areas*39established. Figures 7.7.2 and 7.7.3 are the spec- NC OR RCtral characteristics of common noise sources. TYPE OF SPACE CURVEFig. 7.7.2 Sound pressure levels - exterior noise 1. Private residences 25 to 30sources 2. Apartments 30 to 35 120 3. Hotels/motels jet aircraft takeoff 500 ft a. Individual rooms or suites 30 to 35 b. Meeting/banquet rooms 30 to 35 100 bus c. Halls, corridors, lobbies 35 to 40 d. Service/support areas 40 to 45 Sound Pressure Level, dB propeller aircraft 80 takeoff-500 ft 4. Offices heavy truck - 20 ft a. Executive 25 to 30 60 b. Conference rooms 25 to 30 automobiles - 20 ft c. Private 30 to 35 40 d. Open-plan areas 35 to 40 e. Computer/business machine areas 40 to 45 20 f. Public circulation 40 to 45 5. Hospitals and clinics 0 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000 a. Private rooms 25 to 30 Frequency, Hz. b. Wards 30 to 35 c. Operating rooms 25 to 30 d. Laboratories 30 to 35Fig. 7.7.3 Sound pressure levels - interior noise e. Corridors 30 to 35 sources f. Public areas 35 to 40 6. Churches 25 to 30** 120 7. Schools riveting a. Lecture and classrooms 25 to 30 b. Open-plan classrooms 30 to 35** 100 8. Libraries 30 to 35 stero phonograph teenager level 9. Concert Halls ** Sound Pressure Level, dB typical office 80 10. Legitimate theatres ** 11. Recording studios ** 60 business machine 12. Movie theatres 30 to 35 tabulating room bed or dining room * Design goals can be increased by 5 dB when 40 kitchen dictated by budget constraints or when noise intrusion from other sources represents a lim- 20 iting condition. **An acoustical expert should be consulted for 0 guidance on these critical spaces. 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000 Frequency, Hz. 7- -7 125. Sound Pressure Level - (dB) Frequency (Hz) 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000 Stereo Source Noise (teenager) 60 72 84 82 82 80 75 60 (Figure 7.7.3) Bedroom Room Criteria 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 RC 30 (Figure 7.7.l) Required Insulation 10 27 44 47 52 55 55 45 Sound Pressure Level - (dB) Frequency (Hz) 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 Required Insulation 27 44 47 52 55 55 8 in H.C. (Figure 7.4.2) 34 39 46 53 59 64 Deficiencies -- -- 5 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- With these criteria, the problem of sound isola- termined analytically by (1) identifying exteriortion now must be solved, namely, the reduction and/or interior noise sources, and (2) by establish-process between the high unwanted noise source ing acceptable interior noise criteria.and the desired ambient level. For this solution,two related yet mutually exclusive processes must Example 7.8.1be incorporated, i.e., sound transmission loss and Assume a precast prestressed concrete apart-sound absorption. ment building with hollow core floor slabs. The first step is to determine the degree of acoustical7.8 Establishment of Noise Insulation objec- insulation required of the floor-ceiling assembly tives by using Figures 7.4.1 and 7.7.3 Often acoustical control is specified as to the The 500 Hz requirement, 47 dB, can be used asminimum insulation values of the dividing parti- the first approximation of the floor STC category.tion system. Municipal building codes, lending The selected floor should meet or exceed theinstitutions and the Department of Housing and insulation needs at 11 frequencies. However, toUrban Development (HUD) list both airborne achieve the most efficient design conditions, cer-STC and impact IIC values for different living en- tain limited deficiencies can be tolerated. Experi-vironments. For example, the HUD minimum ence has shown that the maximum deficienciesproperty standards41 are: are 3 dB on one frequency point. LOCATION STC IIC 7.9 Leaks and Flanking The performance of a building section with anBetween living units 45 45 otherwise adequate STC can be seriously reducedBetween living units and 50 50 by a relatively small hole or any other path whichpublic space allows sound to bypass the acoustical barrier. All noise which reaches a space by paths other than Once the objectives are established, the design- through the primary barrier is called flanking.er then should refer to available data, e.g., Fig. Common flanking paths are openings around7.4.2 or Table 7.4.1 and select the system which doors or windows, at electrical outlets, telephonebest meets these requirements. In this

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respect, and television connections, and pipe and duct pe-concrete systems have superior properties and netrations. Suspended ceilings in rooms wherecan, with minimal effort, comply with these crite- walls do not extend from the ceiling to the roof orria. When the insulation value has not been speci- floor above allow sound to travel to adjacentfied, selection of the necessary barrier can be de- rooms.7- -8 126. Fig. 7.9.1 Effect of safing insulation seals structure is much less than in one of steel or wood frame. concrete floor In addition to using basic structural materials, inorganic mineral wool flanking paths can be minimized by: insulation 1. Interrupting the continuous flow of energy with dissimilar material, i.e., expansion or con- exterior wall trol joints or air gaps. steel bent plate gap 2. Increasing the resistance to energy flow with floating floor systems, full height and/or Combined double partitions and suspended ceilings. Transmission Loss No closure 14 STC 7.10 Human Response to Building Vibrations With steel vent plate closure 28 STC Modern buildings often use components with With 4 in thick safing insulation 30 STC steel bent plate added 42 STC low weight-to-strength ratios, which allow longer With 6 in thick safing insulation 38 STC spans with less mass. This trend increasingly re- steel bent plate added 45 STC sults in transient vibrations which are annoying to the occupants. Unlike equipment vibration, a per- son often causes the vibration and also senses it. Anticipation and prevention of leaks begins at These vibrations usually have very small ampli-the design stage. Flanking paths (gaps) at the pe- tudes (less than 0.05 in [1 mm]) and were not not-rimeters of interior precast walls and floors are iced in older structures with heavier framing andgenerally sealed during construction with grout or more numerous and heavier partitions, which pro-drypack. In addition, all openings around pe- vided greater damping and other beneficial dy-netrations through walls or floors should be as namic characteristics.small as possible and must be sealed airtight. The This problem is not well understood. Predict-higher the STC of the barrier, the greater the effect ing human response to floor motion and the dy-of an unsealed opening. namic response to floor motion and the dynamic Perimeter leakage more commonly occurs at response of a floor system to moving loads are de-the intersection between an exterior curtain wall veloping technologies. A number of discomfortand floor slab. It is of vital importance to seal this criteria have been published44-51, but they oftengap in order to retain the acoustical integrity of the give contradictory results.system as well as provide the required fire stop beThe vibration problem is most effectivelytween floors. One way to achieve this seal is to treated by modifying the structural system. Theplace a 4 pcf (64 kg/m3) density mineral wood natural period (or its inverse, frequency), stiff-blanket between the floor slab and the exterior ness, mass, and damping are the structural param-wall. Figure 7.9.1 demonstrates the acoustical eters related to vibration control. Stiffness is in-isolation effects of this treatment. creased by providing greater section properties In exterior walls, the proper application of seal- than may be required for supporting loads. An in-ant and backup materials in the joints between crease in mass improves the natural frequency, butunits will not allow sound to flank the wall. increases deflections and stresses, so by itself is If the acoustical design is balanced, the maxi- only partially effective in controlling vibrations.mum amount of acoustic energy reaching a space For example, increasing the depth of a flexuralvia flanking should not equal the energy trans- member will aid greatly in vibration control, butmitted through the primary barriers. increasing the width will not. Although not easily quantified, an inverse rela- Recent research has emphasized the effect thattionship exists between the performance of an ele- damping plays in the human perception of vibra-ment as a primary barrier and its propensity to tion. In a study of 91 floor systems it was contransmit flanking sound. In other words, the prob- cluded that with damping greater than 5.5 to 6 per-ability of existing flanking paths in a concrete cent of critical, structural systems were accept- 7- -9 127. able; systems with less were not46. Damping is From the above, the required static deflectionusually attributed to the existence of partitions, of an isolator can be determined as follows:supported mechanical work, ceilings and similaritems, but is really not well understood. Guides fn = fd/3 = 188 1 i orfor quantifying damping effect are scarce, and i = (564/fd)2 (Eq. 7.11.2)those that are available are very approximate49-51. and:7.11 Vibration Isolation for Mechanical Equipment f 0.15 i (Eq. 7.11.3) Vibration produced by equipment with unbal- where:anced operating or starting forces can usually beisolated from the structure by mounting on a fd = driving frequency of the equipmentheavy concrete slab placed on resilient supports.This type of slab, called an inertia block, provides f = static deflection of the floor system causeda low center of gravity to compensate for thrusts by the weight of the equipment, includingsuch as those generated by large fans. inertia block, at the location of the equip- For equipment with less unbalanced weight, a ment.housekeeping slab is sometimes used below theresilient mounts to provide a rigid support for themounts and to keep them above the floor so theyare easier to clean and inspect. This slab may also Example 7.11.1 - Vibration Isolationbe mounted on pads of precompressed glass fiber Given:or neoprene. A piece of mechanical equipment has a driving The natural frequency of the total load on resil- frequency of 800 CPM.ient mounts must be well below the frequency Problem:generated by the equipment. The required weightof an inertia block depends on the total weight of Determine the approximate minimum deflec-the machine and the unbalanced force. For a long tion of the isolator and the maximum deflection ofstroke compressor, five to seven times its weight the floor system that should be allowed.might be needed. For high pressure fans, one to Solution:five times the fan weight is usually sufficient. Isolator, i = (564/800)2 = 0.50 in. A floor supporting resiliently mounted equip- Floor, f = 0.15(0.50) = 0.07 in.ment must be much stiffer than the isolation sys-tem. If the static deflection of the floor ap- Additional Bibliographyproaches the static deflection of the mounts, the L.L. Beranek; Noise Reduction, McGraw-Hillfloor becomes a part of the vibrating system, and Book Co., New York, 1960.little vibration isolation is achieved. In general,the floor deflection should be limited to about 15 Ceramic Tile Institute of America and Americanpercent of the deflection of the mounts. Enka Company unpublished floor/ceiling tests. Simplified theory shows that for 90% vibrationisolation, a single resilient supported mass (isola- C.M. Harris, Handbook of Noise Control,tor) should have a natural frequency of about 1/3 McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1967.the driving frequency of the equipment. The natu-ral frequency of this mass can be calculated by:52 C.M. Harris, C.E. Crede; Shock & Vibration Handbook - 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co.,fn = 188 1 i (Eq. 7.11.1) New York, 1976.where: A. Litvin, H.W. Belliston; Sound Transmissionfn = natural frequency of the isolator, CPM Loss Through Concrete and Concrete Masonryi = static deflection of the isolator, in Walls, ACI Journal, December, 1978.7- -10

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128. CHAPTER 8 GUIDE SPECIFICATION FOR PRECAST, PRESTRESSED HOLLOW CORE SLABS This Guide Specification is intended to be used as a basis for the development of an office master specification or in the preparation of specifications for a particular project. In either case, this Guide Specification must be edited to fit the conditions of use. Particular attention should be given to the deletion of inapplicable provisions. Necessary items related to a particular project should be included. Also, appropriate requirements should be added where blank spaces have been provided The Guide Specifications are on the left. Notes to Specifiers are on the right. GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS NOTES TO SPECIFIERS1. GENERAL1.01 DescriptionA. Work Included: 1.01.A This Section is to be in Division 3 of Construction Specifications Institute format. 1. These specifications cover manufacture, transportation, and erection of precast, prestressed concrete hollow core slabs in- cluding grouting of joints between adja- cent slab units.B. Related Work Specified Elsewhere: 1. Cast-in-Place Concrete: Section 1.01.B.1 Includes structural or non-structural _________. topping. See Section 2.5 for discussion of com- posite, structural topping. 2. Architectural Precast Concrete: Section _________. 3. Precast Structural Concrete: Section 1.01.B.3 Beams, columns, etc. _________. Prestressed concrete may be specified in Section _________. 4. Structural Metal Framing: Section 1.01.B.4 Includes support framework not sup- _________. plied by Hollow Core Slab Manufacturer. 5. Masonry Bearing Walls: Section 1.01.B.5 Include any inserts or anchoring de- _________. vices required for slab connections. 6. Underlayments: Section_________. 1.01.B.6 Underlayment may be any of the follow- ing general types: asphaltic concrete, gypsum concrete, latex concrete, mastic underlayment. 8- -1 129. GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS NOTES TO SPECIFIERS 7. Caulking and Sealants: Section 1.01.B.7 Caulking between slab edges at exposed _________. underside of floor members and/or perimeter caulking may be included in this section. 8. Holes for Mechanical Equipment: Sec- 1.01.B.8 Holes may be drilled or cut and trimmed tion _______. with a chisel. Cut outline of hole through lower portion of slab from underside, after which the top side may be removed from above. Do not cut pre- stressing strand without permission of engineer. 9. Painting: Section _________. 1.01.B.9 Prime coat should be a latex base paint. Finish coat may be an oil base, flat wall or emulsi- fied finish 10. Carpet and Pad: Section _________. 1.01.B.10 Specify minimum 55 oz. pad when no cast-in-place topping is used 11. Roofing and Roof Insulation: 1.01.B.11 Non-absorbent rigid board insulation Section _________. 1 or more in thickness should be used on roofs. Check local energy code for exact requirements.1.02 Quality AssuranceA. The precast concrete manufacturing plant 1.02.A Structural Precast Products must meet the shall be certified by the Precast/Prestressed requirements of PCI Manual, MNL116. Concrete Institute (PCI) Plant Certification Program. Manufacturer shall be certified at In Canada, the manufacture, transportation and the time of bidding in Category C2. erection of precast prestressed hollow core slabs is governed by the Canadian Standards Associa- tion Standard A23.4-94, Precast Concrete - Ma- terials and Construction. Assurance of plant capability to produce quality precast concrete products is set by the CSA Stan- dard A23.4-94. This Standard forms the basis of a certification program which sets rigid capability criteria for precast manufacturers, their person- nel and operations.B. Erector Qualifications: Regularly engaged 1.02.B Usually 2 to 5 years. for at least _______ years in the erection of precast structural concrete similar to the requirements of this project.C. Qualifications of Welders: In accordance 1.02.C Qualified within the past year. with AWS D1.1.D. Testing: In general compliance with applica- ble provisions of Precast/Prestressed Con- crete Institute MNL-116, Manual for Quality Control for Plants and Production of Precast Prestressed Concrete Products.8- -2 130. GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS NOTES TO SPECIFIERSE. Requirements of Regulatory Agencies: All 1.02.E Always include the specific year or edi- local codes plus the following specifications, tion of the specifications, codes and standards standards and codes are a part of these specifi- used in the design of the project and made part of cations: the specifications. Fire safety and resistance re- 1. ACI 318-Building Code Requirements quirements are specified in local or model codes. for Structural Concrete. When required, fire rated products shall be clear- 2. AWS D1.1-Structural Welding Code - ly identified on the design drawings. Steel. For projects in Canada, the National Building 3. AWS D1.4-Structural Welding Code - Re- Code of Canada governs design. Canadian Stan- inforcing Steel. dards Association Standards A23.3-94, Design 4. ASTM Specifications - As referred to in of Concrete Structures and A23.4-94, Precast Part 2 - Products, of this Specification. Concrete Materials and Construction also ap- ply. Fire resistance is specified in the National Building Code and the National Fire Code.1.03 SubmittalsA. Shop Drawings 1. Erection Drawings a. Plans locating and defining all hollow 1.03.A.1.a Openings shown on erection draw- core slab units furnished by the ings are considered in the slab design. Verify slab manufacturer, with all openings larger adequacy for any other openings with the Engithan 10 in (250 mm) shown and lo- neer of Record. cated. b. Sections and details showing connec- tions, edge conditions and support conditions of the hollow core slab units. c. All dead, live and other applicable loads used in the design. d. Estimated cambers. 1.03.A.1.d Floor slabs receiving cast-in-place topping. The elevation of top of floor and amount of concrete topping must allow for camber of pre- stressed concrete members. 2. Production Drawings 1.03.A.2 Production drawings are normally sub- a. Plan view of each hollow core slab mitted only upon request. unit type. b. Sections and details to indicate quanti- ties, location and type of reinforcing steel and prestressing strands. c. Lifting and erection inserts. d. Dimensions and finishes. e. Prestress for strand and concrete strength. 8- -3 131. GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS NOTES TO SPECIFIERS f. Estimated camber at release. g. Method of transportation.B. Product Design Criteria 1.03 B and C Contract drawings normally will be 1. Loadings for design prepared using a local precast prestressed con- a. Initial handling and erection stresses. crete hollow core slab manufacturers design data b. All dead and live loads as specified on and load tables. Dimensional changes which the contract drawings would not materially affect architectural and c. All other loads specified for hollow structural properties or details usually are per- core slab units where applicable. missible. 2. Design calculations of products not com- Be sure that loads shown on the contract draw- pleted on the contract drawings shall be ings are easily interpreted. For instance, on mem- performed by a registered engineer expe- bers which are to

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receive concrete topping, be rienced in precast prestressed concrete sure to state whether all superimposed dead and design and submitted for approval upon live loads on precast prestressed members do or request. do not include the weight of the concrete topping. 3. Design shall be in accordance with ACI It is best to list the live load, superimposed dead 318 or applicable codes. load, topping weight, and weight of the member,C. Permissible Design Deviations all as separate loads. Where there are two differ- 1. Design deviations will be permitted only ent live loads (e.g., roof level of a parking struc- after the Architect/Engineers written ap- ture) indicate how they are to be combined. proval of the manufacturers proposed de- Where additional structural support is required sign supported by complete design cal- for openings, design headers in accordance with culations and drawings. hollow core slab manufacturers recommenda- 2. Design deviation shall provide an installa- tions. tion equivalent to the basic intent without incurring additional cost to the owner.D. Test Report: Reports of tests on concrete and other materials upon request.2. PRODUCTS2.01 Materials 2.01 Delete or add materials that may be re- quired for the particular job.A. Portland Cement: 1. ASTM C150 - Type I or IIIB. Admixtures: 2.01.B Verify ability of local producer to use ad- mixtures 1. Air-Entraining Admixtures: ASTM C260. 2. Water Reducing, Retarding, Accelerat- ing, High Range Water Reducing Admix- tures: ASTM C494.C. Aggregates: 1. ASTM C33 or C330.8- -4 132. GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS NOTES TO SPECIFIERSD. Water: Potable or free from foreign materials in amounts harmful to concrete and embedded steel.E. Reinforcing Steel: 1. Bars: 2.01.E.1 When welding of bars is required, weld- Deformed Billet Steel: ASTM A615. ability must be established to conform to AWS Deformed Rail Steel: ASTM A616. D1.4. Deformed Axle Steel: ASTM A617. Deformed Low Alloy Steel: ASTM A706. 2. Wire: Cold Drawn Steel: ASTM A82.F. Prestressing Strand: 2.01.F Low-relaxation strand is the predominant 1. Uncoated, 7-Wire, Stress-Relieved strand in use. References to stress-relieved strand Strand: ASTM A416 (including supple- are from the ASTM titles. ment) - Grade 250K or 270K. 2. Uncoated, Weldless 2- and 3-Wire Strand: ASTM A910 3. Indented, 7-Wire, Stress-Relieved Strand: ASTM A886 (including supplement)G. Welded Studs: In accordance with AWS D1.1.H. Structural Steel Plates and Shapes: ASTM 2.01.H When required for anchorage or lateral A36. bracing to structural steel members, some meth- ods of manufacturing hollow core slabs preclude the use of anchors and insertsI. Grout: 2.01.I Grout strengths of 2000 psi to 3000 psi 1. Cement grout: Grout shall be a mixture of (13.8 - 20.7 MPa) can generally be achieved with not less than one part portland cement to the proportions noted. Rarely is higher strength three parts fine sand, and the consistency grout required. Non-shrink grout is not required shall be such that joints can be completely for satisfactory performance of hollow core slab filled but without seepage over adjacent systems. surfaces. Any grout that seeps from the joint shall be completely removed before it hardens.J. Bearing Strips: 1. Random Oriented Fiber Reinforced: 2.01.J.1 Standard guide specifications are not Shall support a compressive stress of 3000 available for random-oriented, fiber-reinforced psi (20.7 MPa) with no cracking, splitting pads. Proof testing of a sample from each group or delaminating in the internal portions of of 200 pads is suggested. Normal design working the pad. One specimen shall be tested for stresses are 1500 psi (10.3 MPa), so the 3000 psi each 200 pads used in the project. (20.7 MPa) test load provides a factor of 2 over design stress. The shape factor for the test specimens should not be less than 2. 8- -5 133. GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS NOTES TO SPECIFIERS 2. Plastic: Multi-monomer plastic strips 2.01.J.2 Plastic pads are widely used with hollow shall be non-leaching and support core slabs. Compression stress in use is not nor- construction loads with no visible overall mally over a few hundred psi and proof testing is expansion. not considered necessary. No standard guide specifications are available. 3. Tempered Hardboard. 2.01.J.3 Hardboard bearing strips should not be used in areas where undesirable staining is pos- sible or where bearing strips may be continually wet. 4. Untempered Hardboard2.02 Concrete MixesA. 28-day compressive strength: Minimum of 2.02.A and B Verify with local manufacturer. ____ psi. 5000 (35 MPa) psi for prestressed products is nor-B. Release strength: Minimum of ____ psi. mal practice, with release strength of 3000 psi (20.7 MPa).C. Use of calcium chloride, chloride ions or oth- er salts is not permitted.2.03 ManufactureA. Manufacturing procedures shall be in com- pliance with PCI MNL-116.B. Manufacturing Tolerances: Manufacturing tolerances shall comply with PCI MNL-116.C. Openings: Manufacturer shall provide for 2.03.C This paragraph requires other trades to those openings 10 in (250 mm) round or field drill holes needed for their work, and such square or larger as shown on the structural trades should be alerted to this requirement drawings. Other openings shall be located through proper notation in their sections of the and field drilled or cut by the trade requiring specifications. Some manufacturers prefer to them after the hollow core slab units have install openings smaller than 10 in (250 mm) been erected. Openings and/or cutting of pre- which is acceptable if their locations are properly stressing strand shall be approved by Archi- identified on the contract drawings tect/Engineer and manufacturer before dril- ling or cutting.D. Patching: Will be acceptable providing the structural adequacy of the hollow core unit is not impaired.3. EXECUTION3.01 Product Deliver, Storage, and HandlingA. Delivery and Handling:8- -6 134. GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS NOTES TO SPECIFIERS 1. Hollow core slab units shall be lifted and supported during manufacturing, stock- piling, transporting and erection opera- tions only at the lifting or supporting point, or both, as shown on the shop draw- ings, and with approved lifting devices. Lifting inserts shall have a minimum safe- ty factor of 4. Exterior lifting hardware shall have a minimum safety factor of 5. 2. Transportation, site handling, and erec- tion shall be performed with acceptable equipment and methods, and by qualified personnel.B. Storage: 1. Store all units off ground. 2. Place stored units so that identification marks are discernible. 3. Separate stacked members by battens across full width of each slab unit. 4. Stack so that lifting devices are accessible and undamaged. 5. Do not use upper member of stacked tier as storage area for shorter member or heavy equipment.3.02 ErectionA. Site Access: The General Contractor shall be responsible for providing suitable access to the building, proper drainage and firm level bearing for the hauling and erection equip- ment to operate under their own power.B. Preparation: The General Contractor shall be 3.02.B Construction tolerances for cast-in-place responsible for: concrete, masonry, etc., should be specified in those

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sections of the specifications. 1. Providing true, level bearing surfaces on all field placed bearing walls and other field placed supporting members. 2. All pipes, stacks, conduits and other such 3.02.B.2 Should be in Electrical, Mechanical, items shall be stubbed off at a level lower and Plumbing sections of project specifications. than the bearing plane of the prestressed concrete products until after the latter are set. 8- -7 135. GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS NOTES TO SPECIFIERSC. Installation: Installation of hollow core slab units shall be performed by the manufacturer or a competent erector. Members shall be lifted by means of suitable lifting devices at points provided by the manufacturer. Bearing strips shall be set, where required. Temporary shoring and bracing, if necessary, shall com- ply with manufacturers recommendations. Grout keys shall be filled.D. At Slab Ends (where shown on Drawings): 3.02.D If a bearing wall building, special care Provide suitable end cap or dam in voids as re- must be taken. Delete when end grouting is not re- quired. quired.E. For areas where slab voids are to be used as 3.02.E Delete when voids not used for electrical electrical raceways or mechanical ducts pro- or mechanical. vide a taped butt joint at end of slabs, making sure the voids are aligned.F. Alignment: Members shall be properly 3.02.F Tolerances should comply with industry aligned and leveled as required by the ap- tolerances published in Tolerances for Precast proved shop drawings. Variations between and Prestressed Concrete, Prestressed Concrete adjacent members shall be reasonably leveled Institute, JR307, 1985. 3 out by jacking, loading, or any other feasible method as recommended by the manufacturer and acceptable to the Architect/Engineer.3.03 Field WeldingA. Field welding is to be done by qualified weld- ers using equipment and materials compatible with the base material.3.04 AttachmentsA. Subject to approval of the Architect/Engineer, hollow core slab units may be drilled or shot provided no contact is made with the prestressing steel. Should spalling occur, it shall be repaired by the trade doing the drilling or the shooting.3.05 Inspection and AcceptanceA. Final observation of erected hollow core slab units shall be made by Architect/Engineer for purposes of final payment.8- -8 136. REFERENCES1. PCI Design Handbook - Precast and Pre- bers, ACI Journal, March, 1977, pp stressed Concrete, Fifth Edition, Precast/ 136-137. Prestressed Concrete Institute, Chicago, IL 12. Discussion and Closure, An Assurance 1997. Criterion for Flexural Bond in Preten-2. ACI Committee 318, Building Code Resioned Hollow Core Units, ACI Journal, quirements for Structural Concrete (ACI March, 1977, pp 137-140. 31895) and Commentary (ACI 13. Zia, Paul and Mostafa, Talat, Develop- 318R-95), American Concrete Institute, ment Length of Prestressing Strands, PCI Farmington Hills, MI, 1995. JOURNAL, September-October, 1977, pp3. PCI Committee on Tolerances, Toler- 54-65. ances for Precast and Prestressed Con- 14. Discussion and Closure, Development crete, PCI JOURNAL, Vol. 30, No. 1, Length of Prestressing Strands, PCI JanuaryFebruary, 1985, pp. 26-112. JOURNAL, July-August, 1978, pp4. PCI Technical Activities Council, PCI 97-107. Committee on Building Code, PCI Stan- 15. Buckner, C. Dale, A Review of Strand dard Design Practice, PCI JOURNAL, V. Development Length for Pretensioned 42, No. 2, March-April 1997, pp 34-51. Concrete Members, PCI JOURNAL, V.5. Zia, Paul, Preston, H. Kent, Scott, Norman 40, No. 2, March-April, 1995, pp 84105. L, and Workman, Edwin B., Estimating 16. Discussion and Closure, A Review of Prestress Losses, Concrete International, Strand Development Length for Preten- June, 1979, pp 32-38. sioned Concrete Members, PCI JOUR-6. Martin, L.D., A Rational Method for Es- NAL, V. 41, No. 2, March-April, 1996, pp timating Camber and Deflection of Pre- 112-116. cast, Prestressed Concrete Members, PCI 17. Martin, Leslie D. and Korkosz, Walter J., JOURNAL, January-February, 1977. Strength of Prestressed Concrete Mem-7. ACI Committee 301, Standard Specifica- bers at Sections Where Strands are not tions for Structural Concrete (ACI Fully Developed, PCI JOURNAL, V. 40, 301-96), American Concrete Institute, No. 5, September-October, 1995, pp Farmington Hills, MI, 1996. 58-66.8. Scott, Norman L., Performance of Pre- 18. Brooks, Mark D., Gerstle, Kurt H., and cast, Prestressed Hollow Core Slab with Logan, Donald R., Effective of Initial Composite Concrete Topping, PCI Strand Slip on the Strength of Hollow JOURNAL, March-April, 1973, pp 64-77. Core Slabs, PCI JOURNAL, V. 33, No.9. Martin, Leslie D. and Scott, Norman L., 1, January-February, 1988, pp 90111. Development of Prestressing Strand in 19. LaGue, David J., Load Distribution Tests Pretensioned Members, ACI Journal, Au- on Precast Prestressed Hollow Core Slab gust 1976, pp 453-456. Construction, PCI JOURNAL, Novem-10. Anderson, Arthur R., and Anderson, Rich- ber-December, 1971, pp 10-18. ard G., An Assurance Criterion for Flex- 20. Van Acker, A., Transversal Distribution ural Bond in Pretensioned Hollow Core of Linear Loadings in Prestressed Hollow Units, ACI Journal, August, 1976, pp Core Floors, BMA/MKT 84/006, Sep- 457-464. tember, 1983.11. Discussion and Closure, Development of 21. Johnson, Ted and Ghadiali, Zohair, Load Prestressing Strand in Pretensioned Mem- Distribution Test on Precast Hollow Core 137. Slabs with Openings, PCI JOURNAL, 31. PCI Manual for Structural Design of Ar- September-October, 1972, pp 9-19. chitectural Precast Concrete, PCI MNL-121-77, Prestressed Concrete Insti-22. Pfeifer, Donald W. and Nelson, Theodore tute, Chicago, 1977. A., Tests to Determine the Lateral Dis- tribution of Vertical Loads in a Long-Span 32. Uniform Building Code, Structural Engi- Hollow Core Floor Assembly, PCI neering Design Provisions, V. 2, Interna- JOURNAL, Vol. 28, No. 6, November-De- tional Conference of Building Officials, cember, 1983, pp. 42-57. Whittier, CA, 1994.23. Aswad, Alex and Jacques, Francis J., Be- 33. The BOCA National Building Code, havior of Hollow Core Slabs Subject to Thirteenth Edition, Building Officials & Edge Loads, PCI JOURNAL, V. 37, No. Code Administrators International, Inc., 2, March-April, 1992, pp 72-83. Country Club Hills, IL, 1996. 34. Cosper, Steven J., Anderson, Arthur R.,24. Stanton, John F., Response of Hollow Core Slab Floors to Concentrated Loads, Jobse, Harold J., Shear Diaphragm Ca- pacity of Untopped Hollow Core Floor PCI JOURNAL, V. 37, No. 4, July-Au- Systems, Concrete Technology gust, 1992, pp 98-113. Associates, Technical Bulletin 80B3,25. Stanton, John F., Proposed Design Rules 1981. for Load Distribution in Precast Concrete 35. Clough, D.P., Design of Connections for Decks, ACI Structural Journal, V. 84, No. Precast Prestressed Concrete Buildings for 5, September-October, 1987, pp 371-382. the Effects of Earthquake, National Sci-26. Rosenthal, I., Full Scale Test of Continu- ence Foundation, 1985. ous Prestressed Hollow Core Slab, PCI 36. Moustafa, Saad E., Effectiveness of JOURNAL, Vol. 23, No. 3, MayJune, Shear-Friction Reinforcement in Shear Di- 1978, pp. 74-81. aphragm Capacity of Hollow Core Slabs,27.

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Harris, Harry G., and Iyengar, Srikanth, PCI JOURNAL, Vol. 26, No. 1, January- Full Scale Tests on Horizontal Joints of February, 1981, pp 118-132. Large Panel Precast Concrete Buildings, 37. Design and Detailing of Untopped Hollow PCI JOURNAL, Vol 25, No. 2, March- Core Slab Systems for Diaphragm Shears, April, 1980, pp. 72-92. Structural Engineers Association of Ari-28. Johal, L.S. and Hanson, N.W., Design for zona, 1981/82. Vertical Load on Horizontal Connections 38. PCI Fire Committee, Design for Fire Re- in Large Panel Structures, PCI JOUR- sistance of Precast Prestressed Concreter- NAL, Vol. 27, No. 1, January-February, Second Edition, Precast/Prestressed Con- 1982, pp 62-79. crete Institute, Chicago, IL, 1989.29. PCI Committee on Precast Bearing Wall 39. ASHRAE: ASHRAE Systems Handbook Buildings, Considerations for the Design for 1984. American Society of Heating, of Precast Concrete Bearing Wall Build- Refrigerating & Air Conditioning Engi- ings to Withstand Abnormal Loads, PCI neers, Inc., New York, 1984. JOURNAL, Vol. 21, No. 2., MarchApril, 40. Blazier, W.E., Revised Noise Criteria for 1976, pp. 18-51. Design and Rating of HVAC Systems,30. Fintel, Mark and Schultz, Donald M., A paper presented at ASHRAE Semiannual Philosophy for Structural Integrity of Meeting, Chicago, IL, January 26, 1981. Large Panel Buildings, PCI JOURNAL, 41. Berendt, R.D., Winzer, G.E., Burroughs, Vol. 21, No. 3, May-June, 1976, pp. 46-69. C.B.; A Guide to Airborne, Impact and 138. Structureborne Noise Control in Multi- 46. Murray, T.M., Acceptability Criterion for family Dwellings, prepared for Federal Occupant-Induced Floor Vibration, Housing Administration, U.S. Govern- Sound and Vibration, November, 1979. ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 47. Design and Evaluation of Operation 1975. Breakthrough Housing Systems, NBS42. Sabine, H.J., Lacher, M.B., Flynn, D.R., Report 10200, Amendment 4, September, Quindry, T.L.; Acoustical and Thermal 1970, U.S. Department of Housing and Performance of Exterior Residential Urban Development, Washington, D.C. Walls, Doors & Windows, National Bu- 48. Wiss, J.F. and Parmelee, R.H., Human reau of Standards, U.S. Government Print- Perception of Transient Vibrations, Jour- ing Office, Washington D.C., 1975. nal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 100, No. ST4, April, 1974.43. IITRI; Compendium of Materials for 49. Guide to Floor Vibrations, Steel Struc- Noise Control, U.S. Department of tures for Buildings-Limit States Design Health, Education & Welfare, U.S. GovCSA S16.1-1974, Appendix G. Canadian ernment Printing Office, Washington, Standards Association, Rexdale, Ontario. D.C., 1980. 50. Guide for the Evaluation of Human Ex-44. Vibrations of Concrete Structures, Pubposure to Whole-Body Vibration, In- lication SP-60, American Concrete Insti- ternational Standard 2631, International tute, Detroit, MI. Organization for Standardization, 1974.45. Galambos, T.V., Gould, P.C., Ravindra, 51. Murray, T.M., Design to Prevent Floor M.R., Surgoutomo, H., and Crist, R.A., Vibration, Engineering Journal, AISC, Structural Deflections - A Literature and Third Quarter, 1975. State-of-the-Art Survey, Building Sci- 52. Harris, C.M. and Crede, C.E., Shock and ence Series, Oct., 1973, National Bureau Vibration Handbook, 2nd Edition, of Standards, Washington, D.C. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 1976. 139. INDEX A Decibel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7---1, 7---5, 7---6 Deflection . . . . . . . . . 1---3, 1---4, 3---1, 3--10, 3---12Acoustical properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---3, 7---1 Deflections . 2---1, 2---5, 2---11 to 2---16, 4---3, 4--7,Admixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---1, 1---2, 8---4 4---9Aggregates . . . . . . . . . . 1---2, 6---1, 6---2, 6---4, 8--4 Design responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---5, 4---1Air entrainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---1 Design strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---2, 2---19, 2---20Allowable live load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---5 Details - Cantilevers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5---20 Details - Concrete beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5---2 B Details Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5---23 Details - Steel beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5---15Bearing strips . . . . . . 3---12, 3---13, 8---5, 8---6, 8---8 Details - Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5---9Bonding agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---16 Development length . . . 2---19 to 2---21, 3---9, 3---12Boundary element . . . . . . . . . . . 4---4 to 4---8, 4---15 Diaphragm flexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4---2 to 4---4 Diaphragms . 1---3, 2---15, 2--16, 3---10, 3---14, 4---1, C to 4---9, 5---1Camber . . 1---4, 1---14, 2---3, 2---11 to 2---13, 2---14, Differential shrinkage . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---15, 2---16 2---15, 2---16, 8---3, 8---4 Drag strut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4---4, 4---5, 4--7, 4---8Cantilevers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3---10 to 3---12 Dy-Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---1, 1--8Caulking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8---2 Dynaspan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---1, 1--8Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8---2Chord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4---4, 4---5, 4---8 ECollector . . . . . . . . . . . . 4---4, 4---5, 4---7, 4---8, 4---9 Effective resisting section . 3---2, 3---3, 3---6 to 3--8Composite ties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---16 Elematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---1, 1--9Composite topping 1---3, 2---13, 2---15, 2---16, 3---10, End restraint . . . . . . . 1---3, 6---5, 6---8, 6---12, 6---13 4--9 End slip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---20, 2---21Connections 1---3, 1---5, 3---10, 4---1, 4---2, 4---4, 4---7 to 4---9, 5---1 Equivalent live load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---5Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3---10, 6---5, 6--9, 6---10 Equivalent thickness . 1---2, 1---3, 6---1, 6---2, 6---4, 6---14Contract documents . . . 1---3, 1---5, 4---1, 8--4, 8---6 Equivalent uniform load . . . . . . . . 1---5, 1---6, 3---7Control joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2--16 Erection drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---5, 8---3Cracking moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---19 Extruder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---1, 2---9Creep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---11 to 2---16, 6--12Creep losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---1, 2---3, 2---5Curling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---16 F Finishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---4 Fire endurance 3---10, 6---1, 6---2, 6---4, 6---5, 6---7 to D 6---14Damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7---2, 7---9, 7---10 Fire rating . . . . . . . . . . . 1---2, 1---3, 1---5, 1---6, 8--3Debonded strands . . . . . . 2---2, 2---20, 3---10, 3---11 Fixed form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---1 140. Flanking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7---1, 7---8, 7---9 MFlexicore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---1, 1--9 Manufacturing . . 1---1, 1---5, 1---8, 2---2, 2---3, 2---9,Flexural bond length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---19, 2---20 3--1, 3---10, 8---1, 8---2, 8---5, 8---6Flexural design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---1Flexural strength . . 1---6, 2---1, 2---6, 2---9, 2---19 to N 2---21, 4---8 Non-shrink grout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---2, 8---5 Normal end slip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---21 GGrout . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---2, 2---16, 3---12, 4---6, 8---5 OGrout column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3---12, 3---13 Openings . 1---3, 1---5, 3---1, 3---8, 3---9, 3---15, 4---9, 8---3, 8---4, 8---6 H PHeaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3---8 Partially developed strand . . . . . . . . 2---19 to 2--21Heat transmission 1---3, 6---1, 6---2, 6---4, 6---8, 6---14 PCI Standard Design Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---1 Production drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8---3Horizontal joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3---12 to 3---

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15Horizontal shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---16, 4---8, 4---9 Q Quality assurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---15, 8---2 IImpact insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7---3 RImpact Insulation Class . . . . . 1---3, 7---1, 7---3, 7---4 Release strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---2, 2---3Impact noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7---1, 7--3Inclined shear . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---10, 3---4, 3---6, 3---7 S Sandwich panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---4 K Seating losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---1 Seismic base shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4--2Keyways . . . 1---2, 1---3, 3---1, 3---10, 4---5, 4---6, 4---8 Service load stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---1, 2---3, 2---5 Shear friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4---5 to 4---8 L Shear reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . 2---9, 2---11, 3---7 Shrinkage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---2, 2---15, 2---16Lateral loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4---1, 4---4 to 4---6 Shrinkage cracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---2, 3---1, 4---11Lateral-resisting elements . . . . . . . . . . 4---1 to 4---9 Shrinkage losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---1, 2---3Load concentrations . . . . . . 2---20, 3---1, 3---3, 3---8 Slab thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---3, 1---5, 1---6, 3---11Load distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3---1 to 3---3 Slip form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---1, 1---2Load tables . . . . . . . 1---3, 1---5 to 1---7, 2---1, 2---16 Slump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---1, 1---2, 2---20Longitudinal shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4---6, 4---7 Sound absorption . . . . . . . . . . 7---1, 7---2, 7---5, 7---8Loss of Prestress . . 2---1, 2---3 to 2---5, 2---11, 2---13 Sound insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7---1 to 7---3 141. Sound transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---3 Transfer stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---1, 2--2Sound Transmission Class . . . 1---3, 7---1, 7---2, 7---4 Transverse bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3---1, 3--3Sound transmission loss . . . . . . . . 7---1 to 7---3, 7---8 Transverse reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3--1Span-depth ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3---3Spancrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---1, 1---10 USpray-applied coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6---9, 6---14 Ultra-Span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---1, 1--11Steel relaxation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---1, 2---4 Unit weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---2, 1--14Strain compatibility 2---6, 2---7, 2---9, 2---20, 2---21, 3---11Stress-strain diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---7, 2--8 VStructural end point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6---5 Vibration isolators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7---2, 7--10Structural integrity . . 3---10, 3---14, 4---1, 4---4, 4---5 W T Wall panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---1, 1--4Tolerances . . . 1---4, 1---6, 1---14, 1---15, 8---6 to 8---8 Water-cement ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2--20Topping 1---3, 1---4, 2---13, 2---15, 2---16, 3---10, 4---5 4---9, 6---2, 6---4, 6---11, 8---1 to 8---4 Web shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2---18, 3---4, 3---7Torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3---1, 3---2, 3---8 Weep holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---4Transfer length . . . . . . 2---10, 2---19 to 2---21, 3---12 Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1---2, 1---6

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