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1 Objective a) To analyze the variation of torque produced by a Pelton wheel with the ratio of wheel speed to jet speed. b) To analyze the variation of shaft power produced by a Pelton wheel c) To analyze the variation of overall efficiency with the ratio of wheel speed to jet speed. d) To determine the maximum power produced and the maximum efficiency of the Pelton wheel. 4.2 Equipment set-up

Load springs Casing PVC pipe

Brake wheel

Bucket

Runner

Spear valve

Switch

Water inlet

Record the brake wheel radius. Record the Pelton wheel mean radius. Close the water supply valve and the spear valve. Switch on the pump. Slowly open completely the water supply valve. Slowly open the spear valve to the desired position, allowing the jet to drive the pelton wheel. Record the position of the valve. Measure the water discharge from the flow rate measurement device by using stopwatch. Record the values obtained. Release the load from the brake wheel (no load is applied). Measure the rotational speed of the wheel with a tachometer. Record the values obtained. Increase the load on the brake wheel by adjusting the knob above the right spring balance. Record both spring balances. Record both spring balances indicated force. Measure the rotational speed of the wheel with a tachometer. Record the values obtained. Slowly increase the load on the brake wheel until the wheel just stops. Record both spring balances indicated force. Repeat steps 5 to 12 for 3 different position of spear valve.

Table and data analysis Wheel Brake wheel radius, Rb Pelton wheel mean radius, Rw Nozzle Position of the spear valve Nozzle area, A Water discharge Volume observed, V Elapsed time, t Flow rate, Q Jet Velocity, vjet Power of the jet, Pjet

0.025m 0.1m

2 34.4 mm2

Measurement No.

F1 (N)

F2 (N)

Torque T (N.m)

Efficiency

N 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 5 6 7 8 9 1.50 2.00 2.25 2.50 3.00 3.50 (rpm) (rps) 365.3 6.0883 271.2 4.52 137.7 2.295 99.4 1.657 69.1 1.152 0 0 3.8254 2.84 1.442 1.0411 0.724 0 0.4846 0.36 0.1827 0.132 0.092 0 0.0625 0.075 0.094 0.1125 0.125 0.1375 2.39 2.13 1.355 1.17 0.905 0 0.2812 0.251 0.159 0.13765 0.1065 0

Wheel Brake wheel radius, Rb Pelton wheel mean radius, Rw Nozzle Position of the spear valve Nozzle area, A Water discharge Volume observed, V Elapsed time, t Flow rate, Q Jet Velocity, vjet Power of the jet, Pjet

0.025 0.1

2.5 41.1mm2

6.956m/s 6.9155w

Measurement No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

F1 (N)

F2 (N)

3 4 5 7 8 10 13.5

Tachometer N (rpm) (rps) 519.5 8.6583 376.0 6.267 308.0 5.133 227.0 3.78 178.0 2.967 132.0 2.20 0.0 0

Efficiency

Wheel Brake wheel radius, Rb Pelton wheel mean radius, Rw Nozzle Position of the spear valve Nozzle area, A

0.025m 0.1m

3 47.7mm2

Water discharge Volume observed, V Elapsed time, t Flow rate, Q Jet Velocity, vjet Power of the jet, Pjet Measurement No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 F1 (N) F2 (N)

7.3663 m/s 9.533 W Tachometer N (rpm) (rps) 511.1 8.52 392.3 6.54 253.0 4.22 187.4 3.12 111.5 1.858 99.1 1.652 0.0 0 Torque T (N.m) 0.05 0.0625 0.1 0.1125 0.14375 0.156 0 Power Pshaft (W) 2.6766 2.568 2.652 2.2054 1.678 1.62 0 Efficiency

3 4 6 7 9 10 12

Calculation

Water flow rate, Q= V/t (m3/s) where V=volume (m3) t=time (second) Calculation example: Q=(5/1000)/14.23s =3.514x 10-3 m3/s

Wheel speed, u= Rw =2 NRw (m/s) where = angular velocity of wheel (rad/s) Rw= pelton wheel mean radius, 0.1m N= rpm of wheel Calculation example: u= 2 x x 8.52 x 0.1 = 5.3533 m/s Velocity of jet, vjet = Q/ Anozzle (m/s) where Anozzle = area of the nozzle (m3) Calculation example: vjet= (3.514x 10-3 m3/s)/ 47.7x10-6) =7.3663 m/s Torque produced by the shaft, T=(F1-F2)Rb (N.m) where F= load acting on spring (N) Rb=brake wheel radius, 0.025m Calculation example : T= (3-1.25)0.025 =0.05 N.m Power produced by the shaft, Pshaft= T=2 N T where N=rps Calculation example: Pshaft=2 x8.52x 0.05 =2.6766 W Power supplied by the jet, Pjet=1/2(Anozzlevjet3) Calculation example: Pjet=1/2(1000x 47.7x10-6 x7.36633 =9.533W Efficiency of pelton wheel = Power transmitted to the wheel/power supplied from the jet =Power produced by the shaft / power supplied by the jet Calculation example : efficiency = 2.6766/9.533 =0.281/28.1%

Discussion

Torque(T) vs u/vjet

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Graph 4.1 Torque vs u/vjet From the graph, torque against u/vjet, we can see that the line in the graph is almost linear. When the wheel speed is closed to the velocity of jet input, the velocity ratio will near to 1. Therefore, the torque produced by the wheel will also decreased following to it by a constant linear slope. Thus, the torque is proportional to ratio of velocity.

Torque(T) vs u/vjet

0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Graph 4.2 Torque vs u/vjet Same with the characteristic of line in graph 4.1, the line in the graph 4.2 almost linear. When the velocity ratio increasing the torque produced to brake it decreasing. It found that the slope in graph 4.2 is greater than the slope in graph 4.1.

Torque(T) vs u/vjet

0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

Graph 4.3 Torque vs u/vjet Compared to graph 4.1, the slope of the line in graph 4.3 is greater than it but smaller than the slope in graph 4.2. It can be said that as area of the nozzle is increasing, the velocity of jet from pump will increasing too, so that mean the power supplied will following increased. Therefore , it can be prove that the torque will drop faster when there are increasing in the area of the nozzle.

Pshaft vs u/vjet

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Graph 4.4 Pshaft vs u/vjet Result on graph 4.4 show that there are having a curve in power produced in shaft against with ratio of the velocity. In graph 4.4, the maximum power produced in shaft at 2.715 x 10-4 m3/s is 2.39 Watt. Its curve of shape almost match with the ideal curve which shown in the lab manual. It can also defined as when the ratio of velocity is 0.5 the power produced in shaft is maximum.

Pshaft vs u/vjet

3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Graph 4.5 Pshaft vs u/vjet Compared to graph 4.4, the maximum point of the curve in graph 4.5 is a bit run away to left. The maximum power produced in shaft is 2.988 watt when the ratio of velocity is 0.45.

Pshaft vs u/vjet

3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

Graph 4.6 Pshaft vs u/vjet In graph 4.6, its maximum point is located at the right side of the centre compared to above.

0.3

efficiency vs u/vjet

0.2

0.1

Graph 4.7 efficiency vs u/vjet -( Result on graph 4.7 show that there are also having a curve in efficiency against with ratio of the velocity. In graph 4.7, the maximum efficiency is 0.28. Its curve of shape almost match with the ideal curve which shown in the lab manual too that maximum point at 0.5 ratio of velocity.

efficiency vs u/vjet

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Graph 4.8 efficiency vs u/vjet The maximum efficiency that can produced by 3.514 x 10-3 m3/s is around 0.4 to 0.5. The point of velocity ratio can said to be near to 0.5 when it is maximum efficiency

efficiency vs u/vjet

0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

Graph 4.9 efficiency vs u/vjet The point of maximum efficiency in graph 4.9 has a bit right to the curve which is 0.31 at the velocity ratio of 0.5 to 0.6.

Due to the result we get from the graph above, even though it is a practical result, it showed that there is a quite similar in linear shapes or curve shape compared to the ideal one. But in the result of efficiency, it is seems too low efficient compared to the ideal. It may be caused by some error when collecting the data from the equipment for example, technical problems and skill in getting data. There may also be the problem of equipment that have been old and not function well.

Conclusion Through this experiment, we still get the results that are approximately close to the ideal results. It have proven that the ratio of the wheel speed to velocity of jet is influenced the power produced in shaft and efficiency. However, there are still some errors occurred during the experiment and make us unable to get more information about it.

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