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A comprehensive guide to ship eco-efficiency technologies and measures
THE GUIDE : SPONSORS SUPPORTING PARTNERS …efficiency. The shipping industry faces a new challenge fathom marine | energy | environment .
or any information storage and retrieval system. Chairman. Managing Partner.com www. IJ Partners Chairman of the Carbon War Room President of the Republic of Costa Rica (94-98) IMO’s work on ship efficiency Andreas Chrysostomou. electronic or mechanical. However. Tom Boardley. First published in 2011 by Fathom. No part of this publication may be reproduced or stored or transmitted by any means or in any form. This book is copyright under the Berne Convention. Foreword José María Figueres. without written permission which should be sought from publishers. including photocopying. Copyright © 2011 Fathom Eco-Consultants Ltd. xiii. 1 35 79 107 145 164 Technical chapters 1 2 3 4 5 Ship design Propulsion Machinery Strategies Scrubbers The Directory Fathom Beach House 89 Victoria Street Windsor Berkshire UK firstname.lastname@example.org | i. .fathomshipping. recording. to correct any errors or omissions in subsequent editions of this publication. All rights reserved. xxii. BIMCO and Johan De Jong Published by: Fathom Design: Matblack xvi. if informed. xxiv.Content overview Ship Efficiency: The Guide Editors: Peter Lockley and Alison Jarabo-Martin Supporting editors: Kunal Sharma and Jenny Hill Review by: Flemming Sandstrom Contributors: José María Figueres.fathomshipping.com THE CONTENTS www. Andreas Chrysostomou. ISBN: 978-0-9568259-0-2 Images: Every effort has been made to trace and contact the copyright holders of the images reproduced in this book. xxx. Marine Environmental Protection Committee Introduction to The Guide The Fathom Team Outlook for shipping Lloyd’s Register Ship emission regulation BIMCO A Framework for Energy Saving Device (ESD) decision making Propulsion and resistance related energy saving: Framework for Decision Making MARIN (Maritime Institute of Netherlands) xviii. the publishers would be pleased.
2.2 4.Detailed content Technical chapters 1 2 4 6 10 12 1 126.96.36.199 4.1.15 Batteries and fuel cells 96 96 101 104 107 108 109 3.4 1.2.10 Pulling thrusters THE CONTENTS www.188.8.131.52 2.1 89 3.4 2.1.12 Fixed sails 184.108.40.206 4.2 Technological Hull surface coating Hull cleaning (condition-based monitoring) Fuel additives Engine lubricants Water emulsion fuel Catalysts Biofuels Scrubbers Exhaust gas cleaning systems Introduction Regulatory background Types of exhaust gas cleaningsystems Selective Catalytic Reduction systems (SCR) CO2 removal Operating considerations Certification Systems providers 2.1 2.1 5.1.5 220.127.116.11 5.8 18.104.22.168.2 79 80 81 3 22.214.171.124.2.7 2.1.3 Propulsion Operations Propeller monitoring and maintenance Propeller coatings and paints Propulsion efficiency monitoring with condition-based maintenance 112 119 119 121 4.5 4.5 76 44 45 49 49 49 59 62 64 65 65 65 2.2.11 Towing kites 2.2.3 1.3 3.1 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 5.4 4. .2 184.108.40.206.2.2 1.1.9 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) 1.2.1 1.8 Optimisation of hull openings Shaft line arrangement Bulbous bow Optimisation of propeller/hull interface Lightweight construction Air lubrication Design speed reduction Smaller engine (newbuild) Engine de-rating (newbuild or retrofit) 29 32 35 36 37 37 37 1.7 1.1 Machinery Technology Main engine adjustments Common Rail® Diesel-Electric Drive Combined Diesel/electric and Diesel/ mechanical Drive (CODED) Main Engine Tuning Advanced power management Low loss power distribution (newbuild) Variable speed electric power generation Speed control of pumps and fans (power management systems Enhanced power management Hybrid Auxiliary Power Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) Reducing on-board power demand Solar power Strategies Operational Voyage optimisation Slow steaming Port turn-around time Optimum berthing/virtual arrival Weather routing Increase cargo load factor Energy saving awareness Autopilot upgrade/adjustment 122 123 129 133 139 141 142 144 145 146 148 149 150 151 152 152 153 154 4.2.6 4.fathomshipping.5 2.2.2 2.2.2 5.2 1.2.2 4.6 1.6 5.1.5 3.5 5.3 4.7 5 220.127.116.11.2.1 Ship design Operations Larger ships Optimisation of ballast and trim Technology Optimisation of hull dimensions New hulls Aft waterline extension (retrofit) Skeg shape/trailing edge (retrofit) 13 13 14 14 21 25 28 1.2 2.6 4 4.7 5.1 5.13 Flettner rotors 2.4 18.104.22.168 Aerodynamics of superstructure 2 2.1.3 4.14 Traditional sailing ships Additional Propulsion Methods Other 2.2.9 Upgrades (retrofit) Propeller-rudder combinations Advanced propeller blade sections Nozzles Winglets/Kappel propellers Propeller ducts Propeller boss cap fins Propeller modification Newbuilds Wing thrusters Contra-rotating propellers Additional Propulsion Methods Wind Power 71 71 71 76 2.1.1 22.214.171.124 2.2 126.96.36.199.1 2.1.4 3.2.com | iii.1 2.
1. larger ships rather than more. Designing larger ships. so uses less fuel per tonne-kilometre. SHIP DESIGN : OPERATIONS www. The use of larger ships also reduces overhead costs. For existing fleets.fathomshipping. will improve efficiency so long as there is sufficient transport demand to ensure they can be operated at or near full capacity. operators will derive gains from deploying fewer. increasing the size of the vessel improves the efficiency of transport work.com | 3–4 . subject to the constraints of operations such as port and canal dimensions.1 Larger ships As a first principle. smaller ships where the nature of the transport work allows. Regression analysis of recently built ships show that a 10% larger ship will give about 4–5% higher transport efficiency.CHAPTER ONE | 1.
fathomshipping. There are a myriad of factors that contribute towards the optimal positioning of a vessel.5% more orders 3–5% (container ship) In service. depending on vessel type 1–6%. Trim optimisation software packages can form part of a suite of vessel monitoring systems that are in place on-board a ship. Fathom recommends that all ship owners. Optimal position in the water can translate to reduced resistance and bunker fuel savings are there to be gained. several ship lines Sea trial completed In service. Abatement potential <5% (Wärtsilä 2008) Provider Decision3 Eniram Force Technology Futureship (GL) Product GreenSteam™ Dynamic Trimming Assistant (DTA) Seatrim Eco-Assistant Savings 2–4%.com | 5–6 . it important to note that the bunker fuel savings claims are based on information received from the company. In order to compute the effect of these complex variables a number of software packages are now available that can perform calculations that allow counter measures to be assessed and implemented should the optimised ballast and trim not be realised. speed and weather conditions.2 Optimisation of ballast and trim FUEL SAVINGS 4% UP TO Ballast. operators and managers seek additional information to determine the accuracy of fuel savings technology. vessels unknown Testimonials available Since 2009–2010 SHIP DESIGN : OPERATIONS www.CHAPTER ONE | 1. verification of 2. As ever. The table below outlines some of the companies and their stages of software development and maturity.1. (ROI 1–6 months) 1–5% Verification Maturity Independent vessel One fitted. Most recent software packages have real-time response to voyage conditions. design and geometry. including vessel type and size. cargo and bunker distribution and the relationship between these are fundamental to giving the modern ship its optimal position in the water – a crucial consideration in optimising fuel efficiency. claimed 3%.
If not. We can assess that this is a technology with steady and growing take-up and good customer satisfaction with real savings being achieved.fathomshipping. Trim optimisation is particularly effective for vessels with a diverse operating profile (such as speed. Seatrade Awards ’10 finalist. approximately €300. Seatrade Insider Cruise Awards shortlisted.000 Fitting Claimed saving ROI Case studies Carnival Cruise Lines (saving of 200 tonnes of fuel / $100. The Copenhagen-based company has developed a fast and efficient procedure for performing trim assignment tests that will evaluate the approximate gains on a vessel free of charge prior to starting a trim test assignment. The effectiveness increases with capability to change trim through load or water ballast distribution.5% Eniram – Dynamic Trimming Assistant (DTA) The Eniram Dynamic Trimming Assistant (DTA) is described by the company as a real-time vessel-based decision support system for monitoring and optimising the vessel trim. tankers. It also assesses shallow water effects in order to optimise trim. Crucially. quick guidance on where optimal trim can be found is given and the user can employ cargo or ballast water to adapt trim before leaving.000 tonnes of CO2. approximately 3. Hamburg Sud (saving of 3–5% fuel / $4million per year. www. it has demonstrated a worthwhile fuel saving.net Fathom comment: FutureShip offers a relatively low-cost technology with good ROI that is applicable on all vessel types. others unknown at sea up to 4% 2. www. This information is used to ensure that the optimal settings of controls are being used under various loading conditions.1.000 per year.forcetechnology.5% as compared to eight sister vessels. this information is then used in a relatively simple computer program that requires pre-sailing input of draught forward and aft and planned vessel speed. although Fathom was unable to verified the claimed savings. Ship types Fitting time Claimed saving ROI Cost all varies with the type of service chosen 1–5% a few months from €55.decision3. freight carriers and tankers at sea 1–6% for all ship types A vessel saved 1. rather than realtime measures. but the products continue to be marketed under the FutureShip brand as well as directly by GL. DTA is described by the company as “easy to use and install” with an intuitive graphical user interface designed especially for seafarers.2 Decision3 – GreenSteam™ GreenSteam™ is an on-board sensor that measures the relationship between a vessel’s speed and power consumption for propulsion to ensure that its position in the water is optimised. the system has been tested on one Norden A/S vessel and revealed verified fuel savings of 2.1.futureship. it does not provide real-time trim analysis once at sea. Note FutureShip was recently acquired by Germanischer Lloyd. the application is limited as it is pre-voyage only. continually giving new settings for trim and propeller RPM through a data feed supplied to a user interface on the bridge. Ship types Fitting Claimed saving Verified saving Other info Included in Nordic Cleantech 50 in 2009. GreenSteam™ effectively reacts dynamically to changes in the ship’s condition and environment.com | 7–8 . and the US.000 per ship per year). Ship types Large commercial vessels including cruise ships. SHIP DESIGN : OPERATIONS www.000 tonnes of fuel.eniram. ROI <12 months). Awards Red Herring ’10 finalist. The vessel’s overall trim can be seen by the user at one glance and appropriate ballast adjustments can be made. displacement and water depth in various operating conditions. Case studies are available that show examples of potential savings. The program then advises about the trim situation and advises if the trim is optimised. Ship types Fitting Claimed saving Cost none specified at sea up to 3% with data to support free of charge add-on to trim tests and trim calculations performed by FORCE Technology FutureShip (GL) – Eco-Assistant Eco-Assistant is a software package used to determine the optimum trim of the vessel based on parameters including speed. Stated to be <12 months (many customers <6 months) Force Technology – Seatrim Seatrim is effectively an extension to FORCE’s more in-depth vessel trim tests and trim calculation technologies. Following the trim test. Asia. According to the company.com Fathom comment: Although this technology is relatively new and has low take-up to date. Cleantech Connect. shortlisted.com Fathom comment: Force is a credible company specialist in complex vessel calculations and the product is free! However. Testimonials Numerous reference applications are available for projects in Europe. displacement).fi Fathom comment: This is a technology with steady and growing take-up and good customer satisfaction with real savings being achieved. www. www. Nordic Tech Tour ’10 shortlisted.2 CHAPTER ONE | 1. Particularly large fuel savings can be achieved with vessels with large bulbous bows operating at light loading conditions.CHAPTER ONE | 1.
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