UMTS Optimization 

Prepared By Legend Technologies

Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010

Course Content 
• WCDMA Features 
– – – – – – – Idle Mode Behavior  Radio Link Supervision  Power control  Load sharing Handover  Capacity management  Capacity management Channel switching  

• 3G KPIs Monitoring and analysis

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WCDMA Features 
• Course Objective  j Upon completion of this part you be able to 
• Explain the main parts of idle mode behavior  • E l i h t i th Explain what is the radio link supervision and what are its  di li k ii d h t it benefits  • Explain the different types of power control  • Explain how can we control the capacity to maximize it Explain how can we control the capacity to maximize it  under minimum interference  • Explain Different Handover types and scenarios  • Explain how and why do we need for Load sharing and Explain how and why do we need for Load sharing and • Explain the main types of channel switching we have   • Explain the Main 3G KPIs and how to analyze them 

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WCDMA Radio Network Features  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Idle Mode Behavior  • • • • • PLMN selection  PLMN selection Cell Selection / Reselection  Paging  i Location Update and Routing area update  System Information  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

. IDLE MODE 3.What is Idle Mode?  1. OFF Mode 2. CONNECTED MODE  UE in IDLE MODE has the following properties : • UE is Powered ON . updating Network with its LAC . Accordingly UE can access the Network request services . 2010 . gy q UE is registered on the network .  Accordingly UE becomes reachable by the network Accordingly UE becomes reachable by the network • Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. while it doesn't have connection to the Radio Network  • UE is synchronized with Radio Network and can read broadcast  information .

Services Types in Idle Mode  • Normal Service • When the UE select accepted level cell in its HPLMN  • Limited Service • When the UE didn’t find any accepted level cells at its  home PLMN it selects any accepted level cell at any  other PLMN h PLMN • Operator reserved services • The operator can reserve any cell for testing only and  this through two parameters cell reserved and Access  classNbarred   Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

2010 .PLMN Selection  • PLMN Selection PLMN Selection  – What is it ? And When it happens ? What are the  types of PLMN selection  types of PLMN selection • PLMN Selection is the process in which the UE decide  which PLMN it should register in and this process  happens when the Mobile turned on or when the  mobile returned back from limiting service  – Automatic PLMN selection Automatic PLMN selection – Manual PLMN selection  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

 the stored neighbors before off) • Mobile search the strongest signal cells and read its  system information to get (MCC and MNC)  • If h h If the chosen cell is accepted the mobile try to do the  ll i d h bil d h registration  • If the last chosen cell not available or there is no stored If the last chosen cell not available or there is no stored  info in the mobile USIM then the mobile might select  any accepted PLMN automatically or manually  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .Automatic PLMN selection  • When the mobile powered on When the mobile powered on  • The mobile uses information about the last registered  PLMN (Freq.

• In the automatic selection if no last register PLMN  g exists or available the Mobile will select the PLMN that  is available and allowed as follow  – HPLMN if not previously selected due to RAT HPLMN if not previously selected due to RAT – Each PLMN in User controlled PLMNs list in the USIM. in order  of priority  – Each PLMN in operator controlled PLMN list in the USIM. 2010 . in  h i ll d li i h S i order of priority   – Other PLMNs according to the high quality criteria randomly  the minimum CPICH RSCP power is ‐95dBm  h i i CPICH RSCP i 95dB – Other PLMNs that don’t fulfill high quality criteria   Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

8 1 1.2 0.6 0.4 1.2 0.6 1.6 0.8 Frequency 7 x 10 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.8 x 107 f1 II PLMN PLMN PLMN I II III I II III Power Spectrum Magnitude (dB) Power Spectrum Magnitude (dB) 80 60 40 20 0 PLMN A B C D E F III PLMN USIM PLMN PLMN 2110 2170 MHz IV PLMN PLMN PLMN ‐20 ‐40 0.4 0.6 1.4 0.8 1 1.8 Frequency 7 x 10 PLMN A PLMN B PLMN D PLMN E PLMN B PLMN E PLMN D PLMN A 80 60 40 20 0 V PLMN PLMN PLMN ‐20 ‐40 0. 2010 .6 1.8 1 1.2 Frequency 1.Initial Cell Selection – Automatic Mode I Power Spectrum Magnitude (dB) USIM HPLMN USIM Strongest cell St t ll 80 60 40 20 0 ‐20 ‐40 0.2 1.4 0.2 0.6 0.2 1.4 1.4 1.

2010 .Manual PLMN Selection  • UE displays all the available PLMNS after UE displays all the available PLMNS after  carriers scanning  • All the available PLMNs will appear regardless All the available PLMNs will appear regardless  it is allowed or not and ignoring the forbidden  LACs  LACs Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

6 1.6 0.4 1.8 1 1.4 0.2 Frequency 1. 2010 .f1 Strongest cell Power Spectrum Magnitude (dB) 80 60 40 20 0 ‐20 ‐40 0.2 0.8 x 10 7 f2 • • fn PLMN A PLMN B HPLMN PLMN E Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Roaming  • It is the services in which the user will be able It is the services in which the user will be able  to obtain services from another PLMN  – Same country (national roaming) Same country (national roaming) – Another country (international roaming)  • E Every 30 minutes the UE try to reselect its  30 i t th UE t t l t it home PLMN   Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Cell Search  Start  Start Detecting slot synchronization  Detecting slot synchronization Detecting frame synchronization and primary scrambling code  group Detecting frame synchronization and primary scrambling code group Detecting primary scrambling  and read system information  gp y g y End Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

2010 .667 uSec Pilot Symbol Data (10 symbols per slot) P CCPCH P-CCPCH 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 1 Frame = 15 slots = 10 mSec CPICH always take code 0 from SF 256 tree Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.Broadcast Channels SCH P-CCPCH PICH Pilot Channel 1 timeslot = 2560 Chips = 10 symbols = 20 bits = 666.

Cell selection procedure  • Squal = Qqualmeas – qQualMin (For WCDMA) Squal = Qqualmeas  qQualMin  (For WCDMA) – Qqualmeas is CPICH Ec/No – qQualMin is minimum required Ec/No qQualMin is minimum required Ec/No • Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas ‐ qRxlevMin – Pcompensation  (For all cells) (F ll ll ) – Qrxlevmeas is CPICH RSCP – qRxlevMin is minimum required RSCP Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

0) Pcompensation Max(maxTXpowerUL P . 0)  • P is maximum O/P power of the UE accoring to its class  • maxTXpowerUL is maximum power used in accessing • The cell consider as accepted if  p – Squal > 0   and – Srxlev > 0 Srxlev  0 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.– Pcompensation=Max(maxTXpowerUL‐P . 2010 .

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• Cell selection occurs when Cell selection occurs when • When UE is switched on  • When UE in idle mode has had a number of failed RRC  connection request  • When a UE returns to idle mode from the connection  mode on common channel (cell‐FACH) after a number  d h l ( ll FACH) f b of failed cell update  • UE returns to idle mode from connected mode (cell‐ UE returns to idle mode from connected mode (cell DCH) • When a UE returns to idle mode after an emergency  call on any PLMN  ll Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

2010 .Cell reselection procedure  • When it occurs When it occurs  – When cell on which it is camping is no longer  suitable  suitable – When there is any neighbor with better quality  than the selected one  than the selected one – When the UE in the limited service state on an  acceptable cell  p – When the UE is in cell _FACH state  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 . Intra frequency measurements starts when  f h Squal <= Sintrasearch i. Measurement rules for cell reselection 1. SintraSearch : Controls when intra‐frequency measurements are performed Si S h C l h i f f d (0 dBm) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. In order to perform cell ranking.  the UE measures the serving cell and neighbor cells listed in SIB11  according to the measurement rules .• According to the cell reselection criteria.

2. Inter frequency measurements starts when  Squal <= SinterSearch S l Si S h Sintersearch : Controls when intra‐frequency measurements are performed (0 dBm) 3.  GSM measurements starts when  Squal <= sRatSearch OR   Srxlev <= SHcsRat sRatSearch : Controls  quality Threshold at which GSM measurements are performed (4 dBm) SHcsRat : Controls  Signal Strength Threshold at which GSM measurements are performed (3 dBm) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

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dBm) GSM measurements can also be triggered by low RSCP -14 14 sRatSearch = 4dB -112 qQualMin = -18 qRxLevMin+P = -115 sHcsRat = 3dB (negative values are interpreted as 0) i t t d WCDMA measurements WCDMA & GSM measurements WCDMA & GSM WCDMA measurements measurements Time ( ) (s) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. Qq almeas (EcN0 dB) Qrxlevmeas (RSCP.Qqualmeas (EcN0. 2010 .

n) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.• When the UE triggers a cell reselections When the UE triggers a cell reselections  procedure it starts ranking for the cell satisfy  S criteria (Squal > 0 and Srxlev > 0) and the  S‐criteria (Squal > 0 and Srxlev > 0) and the ranking will be according R‐criteria – R(serving)= Qmeas(s)+qHyst(s) – R(neighbor)= Qmeas(n)‐qOffset(s. 2010 .

2010 .• Qmeas: is the quality value of the received Qmeas: is the quality value of the received  signal which is derived from  • CPICH Ec/No or CPICH Ec/No or  • CPICH RSCP  • qHyst(s): hystersis value sent to mobile in qHyst(s): hystersis value sent to mobile in  system information used to delay the  reselection as possible on the LA boarders  reselection as possible on the LA boarders – qHyst1  if the ranking based on CPICH RSCP – qHyst2 if the ranking based on CPICH Ec/No qHyst2 if the ranking based on CPICH Ec/No Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

• qOffset(s. 2010 .n): is the offset between the serving and qOffset(s. – qOffset2sn : if the ranking based on Ec/No  • qualMeasQuantity is the parameter that determine  if we will do the ranking based on RSCP or Ec/No  • The UE reslect the better cell if it stay better for time  interval more than Treselection Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.n): is the offset between the serving and  the neighbor cell also used to shift the cell boarder  – qOffset1sn : if the ranking based on RSCP. there  q g . are 2 qOffset1sn one for WCDMA neighbor and  the other one for GSM neighbor.

UMTS to UMTS cell  Reselection Qmeas (dBm) Qmeas(n) R(n) qOffset2sn 0 qOffset2sn=0 qHyst2 = 4 R(s) Qmeas(s) Cell reselection R(n)>R(s) treSelection time Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

UMTS to GSM cell Reselection Qmeas (dBm) Qmeas(n) qRxLevMin* qOffset1sn qHyst1 R(n) q qRxLevMin*+ sHcsRat R(s) Qmeas(s) WCDMA&GSM measurements Ranking time Cell reselection treSelection R(n)>R(s) * Pcompensation is assumed to be 0 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

1.….2. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.• FACH‐connected cell reselection  – During the FACH‐connected mode the UE use secondary  common control physical channel (SCCPCH) – The parameters used to control the measurement The parameters used to control the measurement  fachMeasOccaCycLenCoeff and interFreqFddMeasIndicator – fachMeasOccaCycLenCoeff (K) used to show when the UE has  to do this measurment this value should be greater than 0 and  to do this measurment this value should be greater than 0 and this value send to mobile via system information  – FACH measurment occasions are defined as being the frame  where the following equation is fulfilled  SFN= C‐RNTI mod n*2^K C-RNTI C RNTI is the cell UE identity (16 bits) & n is the frame number 0 1 2 0. 2010 .

2010 .– InterFreqFddMeasIndicator is a value set to True is a value set to True  or False if it set to True the UE will perform the  reselection criteria on inter frequency or inter RAT  and if it is set false it will not do  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

  • If the LAI or RAI read on system information If the LAI or RAI read on system information  has been changed then the UE tries to do RA  or LA registration Update  or LA registration Update • During the idle mode when the UE changes its  location or routing area it should do LAU or  location or routing area it should do LAU or RAU • LAU d RAU LAU and RAU managed by CN  d b CN Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .Location area Update and  Routing area Update  Routing area Update • After a UE has found a suitable cell it tries to  make PLMN registration.

  when the UE is in connected mode and the timer  expired then the UE wait until enter idle mode again to  i d th th UE it til t idl d i t perform the periodic LA  – Normal Normal  • Occurs when the UE change its LA or RA. the UE  discover the changes after comparing the new Cell RAC  or LAC with the stored values in the USIM  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. the value of the timer sent to the UE over  for RAU the value of the timer sent to the UE over BCCH in the IMSI attach or in RAU . 2010 . it is CN parameter.• Types of Updates  – P i di Periodic  • Occurs periodically after timer T3212 for LAU or T3312  for RAU.

– IMSI attach and detach • IMSI tt h IMSI attach occurs when the UE activated in the same  h th UE ti t d i th LA in which it was before deactivation and the detach  occurs when UE deactiated  • This function used to prevent unnecessary paging for  the off UEs   • IMSI IMSI attach is an optional function and it is managed by  hi i lf i di i db cell parameter called ATT sent to UE over BCCH    – If ATT set to 1 it means the UE should do IMSI attach and  detach  – When the UE is turned on it sent registration request indicate  IMSI attach to find out if the LA changed or not if changed it  send normal LA update Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

2010 .Paging • Is the process through it the CN inform the UE  there is a service request or RAN inform all the  UEs that the System information has been  updated also to initiate the channel switch  from URA‐PCH to Cell‐FACH state • Paging occurs in the following states  – Idle  – URA‐PCH  – Cell‐FACH  – Cell‐DCH   Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .• Paging in Idle mode and URA‐PCH  – PICH and S‐CCPCH are used to page the UE  • PICH used to tell the UE when to read S‐CCPCH  • S‐CCPCH used to carry RRC message type1 which  includes actual paging info and the number of times  i l d l i i f d h b f i the WCDMA RAN will retransmit the paging  (noOfPagingRecordTransm)  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .• DRX DRX  – In the Idle mode the UE should in order to save its  power consumption to listen to the PICH in certain  power consumption to listen to the PICH in certain predefined times 288 bits for paging indication b0 b1 12 bits (undefined) b287 b288 b299 One radio frame (10 ms) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .– 288 bits are divided to number of PIs each PI 288 bits are divided to number of PIs each PI  related to one paging group and each paging  group related to one user  – The number of PIs in a PICH frame is given by  parameter named PichMode • If PichMode is 72 that mean we have 72 PIs and each  one 4 bits – Th UE The UE monitors one PI in one paging occasion  it PI i i i per DRX cycle  • The length of DRX cycle is given by 2^k * 10(ms)  The length of DRX cycle is given by 2^k   10(ms) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

• Where k is the DRX cycle Length coefficient defined by Where k is the DRX cycle Length coefficient defined by  cnDRXcycleLengthCS (PS) • Different DRX cycle for CS. 2010 . PS and URA‐PCH  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

• Updated System information  – RRC message “paging type1” sent to the UE in the  RRC message  paging type1 sent to the UE in the idle mode to inform it about the updated SI  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.• Paging in cell‐FACH and cell‐DCH Paging in cell FACH and cell DCH – When the establish connection between UE and  RAN is existing Paging type 2 message are sent to  RAN is existing Paging type 2 message are sent to the user it is carried on DCCH so it is only for one  user. 2010 .

System Information  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Mode – Timer expires for SIBs with expiration time. 2010 . Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.• The UE read System information when The UE read System information when  – Powered on  – Cell change in idle mode or Cell FACH Cell change in idle mode or Cell‐FACH – UE informed that change occurred in system  information while it is in idle mode or Cell‐FACH information while it is in idle mode or Cell‐FACH – UE switches from Dedicated mode to Common  Mode.

2010 .Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .Radio Connection Supervision  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .Radio Connection Supervision  • Supervision of the UE in State Cell‐FACH and Supervision of the UE in State Cell FACH and  URA‐PCH  • Supervision of the UE in Cell‐DCH  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

 the reason of this is to check if the  UTRAN still control the UE or not and to prevent  UTRAN till t l th UE t dt t undue charging and increase the efficiency of  resources usage. 2010 .  Occurs in both of Uplink and Downlink  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.• What is the radio link supervision What is the radio link supervision  Is the algorithm supervises the radio connection between the UE and the UTRAN during all the  between the UE and the UTRAN during all the connected states.

 The timer t305 indicates how  often the UE has to send a Cell Update message.Supervision in Cell‐FACH and  URA PCH  URA‐PCH • In CELL_FACH state. p p y g periodic Cell Update messages sent by the UE. supervision is provided by monitoring  . 2010 . The timer is stopped if the UE  enters CELL_DCH state and is reset to zero (but not stopped)  upon receipt of a Cell Update from the UE. or upon transmission of a Cell Update  CELL FACH state or upon transmission of a Cell Update CONFIRM message to the UE. Upon expiry of the  timer.  g The time set on cchWaitCuT is longer than the one set on timer t305. the overall release of the connection shall be triggered. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. The timer  cchWaitCuT is started whenever the UE enters the  CELL_FACH state.

2010 Timer Should stopped if UE Enters CELL-DCH .Cell Update Message will be sent either when t305 expires or when the UE change its serving cell In URA PCH state the UE sent URA_Update Message instead of Cell_ Update as in Cell FACH case T305 expires CCHWAITCUT starts Cell Update Confirmation Overall Connection Release Cell Update Message CCHWAITCUT Expire CCHWAITCUT Reset UE Enters Cell FACH Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

  supports the Radio Connection Supervision  supports the Radio Connection Supervision Evaluation algorithms.Supervision in Cell‐DCH  • In CELL DCH state the Radio Connection In CELL_DCH state. located in the RBS. located in the SRNC Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. the Radio Connection  Supervision functionality is provided by means  of two different algorithms: the Radio Link Set  of two different algorithms: the Radio Link Set Supervision algorithm. 2010 .

The Radio Link consider failed if and only if radio link failure indication send from the 2 RBSs Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

• Radio Connection Supervision (RCS) Radio Connection Supervision (RCS)  Evaluation The Radio Connection Supervision  Evaluation algorithm keeps track of the  Evaluation algorithm keeps track of the synchronization status of the whole radio  connection by assigning a tag to every RLS. 2010 . connection by assigning a tag to every RLS Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

the RLS is considered in‐sync and Radio Link Restore is reported to the SRNC. When  the RLS is out‐of‐sync and nInSyncInd number of frames are  in sync.• Radio Link Set (RLS) Supervision ( ) p The RLS Supervision function supervises the synchronization  status of the RLS provided by the RBS to the radio connection.  and reports any changes to the SRNC. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 . When nOutSyncInd  d t h t th SRNC Wh O tS I d number of consecutive frames are out‐of‐sync a timer  rlFailureT is started and at expiry the RLS is considered out‐ of‐sync and Radio Link Failure is reported to the SRNC. the RLS is considered in sync and Radio Link Restore  in‐sync.

666 mSec) Pilot (FSW: is some of Pilot Bits) TFCI Q 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 Frame = 15 slots = 10 mSec Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 10 x 2^k bits.666 mSec) Coded Data. 2010 . k=0…6 (10 to 640 bits) I FBI TPC Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH) Slot (0.• Uplink DPDCH/DPCCH Uplink DPDCH/DPCCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) Slot (0.

 This means that when the  hsDschRcLostT timer expires. has been  out‐of‐sync for a time given by the parameter  out of sync for a time given by the parameter hsDschRcLostT. For a  connection that includes HSDPA.• The connection is considered lost by the RCS when  the last RLS. 2010 . an Iu Release will be requested to all  involved CNs. y for a time given by the parameter dchRcLostT. for the connection. has been out‐of‐sync  . an Iu Release will be requested to the PS CN and when the dchRcLostT  timer expires. the PS part of the  connection is considered lost by the RCS when the  RLS that contains the Serving HS‐DSCH cell. . an Iu Release will be  hsDschRcLostT timer expires. Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

SRNC  dchRcLost Starts d hR L t T St t Radio Link out of sync sent to SRNC Radio Link Restore T. 2010 N. Number of good frames = nInSyncInd Good Frame Bad Frame #1 rlFailure T lF il starts rlFailure T Expires What is the BER of this frame (CRC decoding) UE sends FSW in each Time Slot in DPCCH Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.S 1 Number of Bad T.S 15 frames = nOutSyncInd ……………………….B if number of good frame that decoded by NB before rlFailureT timer expiration equal to nInSyncInd then the RL consider ok and the timer should stopped id k d th ti h ld t d .

Power Control 

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Power Control types 
Power control  Power control



Open Loop  Power Control 

Closed Loop  Power Control

Initial Power  Initial Power settings for  Power

Closed loop  Power control 

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Setting Of common Channel  Power  Power
Channel Name  CPICH  BCH  AICH FACH (control)  FACH (control) FACH (Traffic) PCH PICH P‐SCH S‐SCH Parameter Name  PrimaryCpichPower bchPower aichPower maxFach1Power maxFach2Power pchPower pichPower i hP schPower1 schPower2 Default Power  Setting 300 ‐31 ‐6 18 15 ‐4 ‐7 7 ‐18 ‐35 Meaning 30dBm ‐3.1dB  ‐6dB  1.8dB  1.8dB 1.5dB ‐0.4dB  ‐0.7dB 0 7dB ‐1.8dB =3.5dB 

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2010 .Open Loop Power Control  • UL SIR UL SIR  – SIR=Ec/No X SF  = RSCP/RTWP X SF = RSCP/RTWP X SF = RSCP‐RTWP + 10log SF  – RSCP=SIR + RTWP – 10log SF • SIR h t SIR has target value depend on service and Channel t l d d i d Ch l • SF has value related to the used service  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

– SIR TARRGET RACH – 10log SF + C is constant SIR_TARRGET_RACH  10log SF + C  is constant  parameter called (constantValueCprach)  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.RACH preamble Power setting  • P‐PRACH = RSCP + Losses P PRACH = RSCP + Losses.  – RSCP = SIR+RTWP – 10log SF. – Losses = CPICH Power CPICH RSCP Losses = CPICH_Power – CPICH_RSCP. – P_PRACH = SIR_TARGET_RACH + RTWP – 10 log SF  + CPICH_Power (pimaryCpichPower)  – + CPICH Power (pimaryCpichPower) – CPICH_RSCP. 2010 .

2010 .ConstantValueCprach . PrimaryCPICHPower and  ConstantValueCprach PrimaryCPICHPower and RTWP are sent to the UE through BCCH Now the UE can transmit the Preamble using  P_PRACH calculated Value   P PRACH l l d V l Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Power Ramping 

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Parameter  PowerOffsetPO PowerOffsetPpM PreambleRetansMax

Range 1 to 8 ‐5to10 1 to 64

Default 3 ‐4 8

Description 3dB ‐4dB 8 step of increase  before the  before the recalculation of  P_PRACH 4 trials for P_PRACH  calculation before  giving access failure 


1 to 32


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RACH Message Power 

RACH Data Slot (0.666 mSec) Random Access Message (10, 20, 40, or 80 bits per slot) RACH Message Slot (0.666 mSec) Pilot (8 bits) TFCI (2 bits)



Control Part Power = P_PRACH+ PowerOffsetPpm
















1 Frame = 15 slots = 10 mSec

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Control Power/ Data Power = 20 log (GFc/GFd) Control Power/ Data Power = 20 log (GFc/GFd) GFc: is standard gain factor related to control   G i d d i f l d l part GFd: is standard gain factor related to data part  This 2 parameters will be different according to  This 2 parameters will be different according to the type of carried information   Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Gain Factor  GFc (Control) GF (C t l) GFd (Control) GFc (Data) GFd (D t ) (Data) Range 0 t 15 to 15 0 to 15 0 to 15 0 t 15 to 15 Default  11 15 10 15 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

or 16 bits TFCI or DTX Data Pilot Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. or 8 bits 20 to 1256 bits 0. 2. 8.FACH Power Setting  • As mentioned earlier FACH power is initially As mentioned earlier FACH power is initially  reserved relative to CPICH power The question Now is that do every part of FACH  message has the same power as the reserved  h h h d value  0. 2010 .

2010 .• TFCI Power = FACH Power + FO1 TFCI_Power = FACH_Power + FO1 – FO1 Default Value is  0 dB  • Pilot_Power = FACH_Power + FO2  – FO2 Default Value is  0 dB  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .Initial Setting of DL_DPDCH In case of inter frequency non blind handover cBackoff will be replaced by cNbifho (modified parameter to enhance the performance of IFHO Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

DPDCH DPCCH DPDCH DPCCH Data 1 TPC TFCI Data 2 Pilot Default Values ( ) p PO1 (00) Step 0.25 Value 3dB PO3 (12) Step 0.25 Value 3dB Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .25 Value 0dB PO2 (12) Step 0.

Downlink Power Ramping  Upper Power Limit P_DL_DPDCH Calculated 2nd power step size 1st power steps x steps Used only when the NBAP indicates it should be used via parameter first RLS indicator 1st power Ramp 2nd power increase Lower Power Limit Inner loop Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

RAB with SF=16 or 8 = 8.g. 2010 .9 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.7dB.1 dB steps default = 300 (30 dBm) ulInitSirTarget : has different values for different services e. SF 4 SF 16 and for RAB with SF= 32 or higher =4. RAB with SF=4 = 9.2 .2 dB 5. SRB =5.7dB.Setting of initial UL_DPDCH  power  power • Power UL DPCCH initial= Power_UL_DPCCH_initial=  PrimaryCpichPower + RTWP+uLInitSirTarget ‐ 10log(SF_DPCCH) + CPO  10l (SF DPCCH) + CPO –RSCP_PCPICH (dBm) Measured by the UE DPCCH_power_offset Sent to UE by RBS in RRC connection setup Message cPO= -30 to 30 in 0.5 dB steps default = 0 (0 dB) PrimaryCpichpower = -100 to 500 in 0.

2010 .666 mSec) Pilot TFCI I FBI TPC Q 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 Frame = 15 slots = 10 mSec Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 10 x 2^k bits.• Uplink DPDCH/DPCCH p / Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) Slot (0. k=0…6 (10 to 640 bits) Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH) Slot (0.666 mSec) Coded Data.

2010 .P_DPDCH power calculation DPCCH power/ DPDCH power = Bc/Bd DPCCH power – DPDCH power= 20 log (Bc/Bd) DPDCH power  DPCCH power‐ 20log(Bc/Bd)  DPDCH power = DPCCH power 20log(Bc/Bd) Bc: DPCCH gain factor Bd: DPDCH gain factor Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

46 DPCCH power + 5.7 DPCCH power + 2.46 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.46 p DPCCH power + 5. 2010 .Radio Bearer Signaling Speech CS 64  PS 64/64 PS 64/384 DPCCH gain Factor 11 11 8 8 8 DPDCH gain factor  15 15 15 15 15 DPDCH power  DPCCH power +2.7 DPCCH power + 5.

2010 .Inner loop power control • Up Link inner loop power control Up Link inner loop power control  DPDCH/DPCCH (pilot + Data +TFCI +TPC + Data) TPC_Command = (UP) or (Down) DPCCH (Pilot + TFCI + TPC) DPDCH RBS measure SIR_UL_RLS of the pilot Data then compare it with Target value Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .DPCCH TPC_cmd=‐1 (Down) or +1 (UP) DPCCH change =     TPC X TPC_cmd dB DPDCH power related to DPCCH power SIR_UL_RLS>= SIR_TARGET SIR_UL_RLS < SIR_TARGET TPC command = “down” TPC command = “UP” Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

UL Power control during  compressed mode  compressed mode 10 mSec Frames (15 slots) ( ) Normal Operation 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Compressed-Mode. 2010 . single-frame method 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 Transmission Gap Compressed period used for IRAT measurements and BSIC decoding and confirmation Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .SIR_target in CM  SIR_target + 1dB SIR_target + 0.5dB SIR_target 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 14 15 Transmission Gap Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

prev/Npilot.curr) DPCCH= TPC X TPC_cmd + Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 Pilot .TPC command in CM  TPC = 2 dB TPC = 1 dB 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 14 15 Transmission Gap Recovery Period 7 slots after the Gap pilot = 10 log (Npilot.

Down link inner loop power  control  control DPDCH/DPCCH (pilot + Data +TFCI +TPC + Data) DPCCH (Pilot + TFCI + TPC) DPDCH MS measure SIR_DL_RLS of the pilot Data then compare it with Target value Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 TPC_Command = (UP) or (Down) .

TPC command (UP or Down) present power P(K)= P(k‐1) + Ptpc(K) present power P(K)= P(k 1) + Ptpc(K) P_TPC(K) = +1 dB if (TPC_CMD is Up) or -1 dB if (TPC CMD is down) (TPC_CMD SIR_UL_RLS>= SIR_TARGET SIR_UL_RLS < SIR_TARGET TPC command = “down” TPC command = “UP” Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

2010 RBS 2 .Downlink Power Balancing Power Drift SRNC UE RBS 1 Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Over the next 8 frames cycle the power of each RL is adjusted back to this reference value Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 . which is the average of all radio link powers is calculated.8 frame cycle Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3 Frame 4 Frame 5 Frame 6 Frame 7 Frame 8 Reference value SRNC RBS 1 RBS 2 UE At the beginning of each cycle a reference power.

2010 .dlPcMethod 1 no DL power  balance and no  inner loop power  control  2  No balancing only inner  loop power control is used 3   Balancing is  working  4 fixed power  balancing algorithm  is used fixed Dl  reference value  P(K) = P(K-1) + Pbalance Pbal = +1 dB increase the power -1 dB decrease the power Power balancing is configured to work on 8 frame cycle Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Downlink power control in  compressed mode  compressed mode P(K)= P(K 1) Ptpc(K) P(K) P(K-1) + Pt (K) + P bal(K) + P sir (K) dB b l(K) i dBm P(k-1): P(k 1): previous DL power Ptpc (K): +1(UP) or -1(down) X TPC PSIR(K) = 4dB TPC(K) = 1 dB 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 12 PSIR(K) = 3. 2010 .5dB TPC(K) = 2 dB 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 14 15 Transmission Gap Recovery Period 7 slots after the Gap Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Outer Loop Power control  • The outer loop power control algorithm performed for DL in  pp g p the UE and for the UL in the RNC  • The Main idea behind the outer loop power control is to set  proper SIR target  SIR t t • SIR target value change according to blerQualitytargetDl • SIR target value should be between SIR Max 173 (17 3 dB) and SIR target value should be between SIR Max 173 (17. 2010 0 constant step .2 dB) • UL outer loop power control could be either jump regulator or  constant step regulator by ulOuterLoopRegulator parameter   1 Jump Regulator Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.3 dB) and  SIR min ‐82(‐8.

2010 .1 step default 10 (1 dB) •X = Number of Transport blocks that have CRC OK •Z= Total Number of received Transport blocks •Y= Number of transport blocks that have CRC NG •UPDOWNSTEPRATIO= (1/blerQualityTargetUL * 0.01) Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.5) -1 default value is 199 •blerQualityTargetUL = -63 to 0 default is -2 (0.Jump Regulator  SIRtarget= SIRtarget + ulSirStep(-x/(z*UPDOWNSTEPRATIO)+Y/Z) Where: •ulSirStep = 0 to 50 in 0.

1 dB to prevent excessive Iub signaling.9 …………………………………………………………………………………. 2010 .9 dB SIR T t 59 CRC=OK Will continuo to drop until receive bad CRC The SRNC will Update the SIR target value for the UL in resolution of 0.9 SIRTarget= 4. NG frame received Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.9+1(-0/(199*1) +1/1) = 5. ulInitSirTaget = 4.SIR_Target=5.

2010 NG CRC .Step Regulator If ulOuterLoopRegulator set to 0 the Step regulator will work  Idea of step regulator is as following :  d f l i f ll i •The SIR target should increased by “ulSirStep” when one NG CRC have  been Received  • And decreased by “ulSirStep” if number of good CRC equal to   y p g q (1/(1.5blerQualityTargetUL) (0.5) Default 133  133 Good CRC ulSirStep ulSirInitTarget NG CRC Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Handover  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

2010 .Handover Type  HO Types  Hard  Handover  Soft Handover  Soft Handover IRAT handover  Inter  Frequency HO Core Network  Hard HO Soft HO Softer HO  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 UE Radio Link Add/Remove / Replace .Soft/ Softer HO  RNC Measurement Control message DCCH Perform measurement  UE Evaluation  RNC Evaluation  RL addition  dd Active Set Update DCCH Radio Link Removal  RNC Evaluation   RNC Evaluation Active Set Update Complete Measurement Control message DCCH Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Reported Measurement Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

2010 .Measurements Elaboration Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .RRC Measurement initial Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .Handover triggering type • Event Triggering Event Triggering  – Measurement to be sent whenever the levels of  cells enters the reporting range  cells enters the reporting range • Periodic triggering  – Measurement report should be sent to the RNC by Measurement report should be sent to the RNC by  the UE periodically  Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .Event Description Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .Event 1A Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Event 1B Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

2010 .Event 1C Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .Event 1D Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

Event 1E Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Event 1F Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Event 2D/2F 2B/2C 3A/3C Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

Compressed Mode Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

2010 .Compressed mode • Realization Methods Realization Methods  – SF/2 – Rate matching/puncturing Rate matching/puncturing – Higher layer scheduling Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .Load Control Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .PUC Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .ICAC Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

2010 .Cell Resource Decision Copy Rights © LEGEND Co.

The algorithm Chooses UEs for Pre‐emption Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

LDR Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

OLC Copy Rights © LEGEND Co. 2010 .

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