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Manchester

March, 2012

Assignment 1

Note: This assignment contributes 5% towards your final mark. This assignment is due by 4pm on Friday of Week 4 or via email or WebCT prior to that time. Submit your report to the assignment box on the 3rd floor outside of the drawing office in the Mechanical Engineering Building. Late assignments will not be marked unless accompanied by a valid special consideration form. Plagiarism will be dealt with in accordance with the University of Sydney plagiarism policy. You must complete and submit the compliance statement available at the end of this handout. The objective of this assignment is to link what was learnt in previous courses to the introductory material for this course. This assignment should take an average student 15 hours to complete. Total Marks: 100 The front page of your report should include: Your name and SID Your tutorial session time 1. The input and output equation [5 marks] of a system are related by the differential

d3y d2y dy d2x + 7 2 + 3 +10y = 2 2 + 5x dt 3 dt dt dt What is the transfer function ? 2. A system with input and output has a transfer function Y (s) (s + 2)(s +1) = X(s) s(s + 3)(s + 7) Write down the differential equation relating and [5 marks]

Kd

For a mass of 3kg with a spring constant K=100N/m and damper constant Kd=30Ns/m, answer the following questions [10 marks] a. What is the equation of motion that describes this system? b. What is the Laplace Transform relating the input, Y(s), to the applied force, F(s)? c. Use the inverse Laplace Transform to derive the equation of motion, y(t), for the natural, unforced motion (i.e. f(t)=0) with an initial displacement of 1m and initial velocity of 0.2m/s. Show the equation of motion and include a plot of the trajectory. d. What is the transfer function for the system Y(s)/F(s) (i.e. with zero initial conditions)? e. Use the transfer function to work out the motion of the system, y(t), for the following applied forces: i. f (t) = (t) (a delta dirac function with magnitude 1N) ii. f (t) = 20u(t) (a step input force of 20N) iii. f (t) = 8sin(t) (a sinusoidal input force of magnitude 8N) 4. Find the impulse response, h(t), to the following transfer functions. Determine the roots of the numerator, called the zeros, and denominator, called the poles, for each system and sketch them in the s-plane. Use the Matlab functions tf to model the system and step to plot the step response and comment on stability and oscillation with reference to the position of the poles for each system. You may use the Matlab function roots to find the roots of higher order polynomials. [10 marks]:

a. H(s) =

b. H(s) =

5. Consider the modelling of an automobile suspension system. The wheel can be modelled as a stiff spring with the suspension modelled as a spring and damper in parallel. A quarter car model of a suspension system is often used to analyse such a system. We are interested in describing the motion of the

mass in response to changing conditions of the road and would like to design the suspension to maximize ride comfort. [30 marks]

M

y(t)

Ks

Kd

Kw

u(t)

a. Draw a free body diagram for this system b. Generate the differential equations relating the road height u(t) to the position of the mass y(t) c. Calculate the transfer function for this system Y(s)/U(s) d. Use the matlab step function to calculate the response of this system to a step change of 0.2m in the road (similar to what might be experienced if you hit a curb). Use values of wheel stiffness Kw=220,000 N/m, suspension stiffness Ks= 25,000 N/m and suspension damping Kd= 8,000Nsec/m. The mass of the quarter car is 525kg and the mass of the wheel is 20kg. e. Describe how the step response changes as a function of the suspension parameters. Use the Matlab step function to plot the step responses for the following parameters and compare to the step response found in d. (consider using a script to plot comparisons). Comment on the ride comfort of each setup. i. Ks= 25,000 N/m and Kd= 4000Nsec/m ii. Ks= 25,000 N/m and Kd= 1000Nsec/m iii. Ks= 12,000 N/m and Kd= 8000Nsec/m iv. Ks= 12,000 N/m and Kd= 4000Nsec/m v. Ks= 12,000 N/m and Kd= 1000Nsec/m f. Does the wheel have a noticeable impact on the dynamics? Provide an analytical justification for your answer. 6. During the lectures, we have seen a number of examples of common control systems. There are many more examples of control systems that we rely on in everyday life. Considering the following examples of control systems, a. Adaptive cruise control (maintain constant distance to car in front) b. Flight pitch control system c. Home temperature regulation d. Pace maker e. Dialysis machine Your task is to investigate one of these control systems and prepare a brief (23 page) report describing its operation. Your report should provide insight into how the system works bearing in mind that we are interested in the application of feedback control. Provide adequate references to reflect your use of external sources. [40 marks] Your report should briefly address the following questions:

a. b. c. d.

What are the control system objectives and specifications? What actuators are used by the system? How is the feedback in the control system implemented? Draw a block diagram explaining the system. Label the sensors, actuators and feedback paths. e. Prepare a simplified mathematical model of the plant dynamics. Explain the assumptions you have made in preparing your model. Lab Preparation Question 7. You will complete Lab 1 during either Week 4 or 5 with your lab group. Sign up sheets for the lab will be available in the first tutorial and you should sign up with a group of 4 or 5 other students. As part of your preparation for undertaking this lab, read through the lab manuals and lab description available on-line. Also consider and prepare answers to the questions included in the lab preparation section of the lab descriptions. You should have one set of answers per group. Although these are not to be assessed as part of Assignment 1, you must show your answers to your tutor prior to starting your lab as they will be assessed before you start your lab with your group. Answers to these questions should also be included in your formal lab report to be assessed as part of Assignment 2.

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