Introduction Economic growth in different patterns of income distribution and the difference is significant in many countries around the

world is a phenomenon that is not too easy to be explained by economists. Until now many studies in the literature that explore issues of economic growth experienced by countries in the world. In general, there are three issues most frequently discussed and related to each other in a matter of growth, there are world growth, country growth, and inequality of income level. Along with the increasing complexity of economic growth that happens, economists were already trying to develop a variety of growth models that attempt to explain why there are some countries rich and others poor. However, until now there is no model of economic growth that is powerful in explaining the factors that drive economic growth itself without making simplifying assumptions through less realistic in the real world. In the last half-century state in eastern Asia seems to be an embryo that has grown into a global giant and even Asia. This is evidenced by the rapid growth in the economic sector, human resources and income per capita. After the second world war-2, East Asia country began to clean with a centralized bureaucratic management (centralization) like Japan, China, and South Korea. Superiority is achieved by consistency in economic policy-making and resource development of government officers and human resource development. With a centralized system of government which gives freedom to the government for not a lot being in the social pressure to build a prosperous country. However, the strengthening of the functions supported by the ability of governments in managing the public administrators, it is becoming a very important point in the effort to build an advanced country to do when the delegation of authority for all kinds of public interests to the government, the government should be able accommodate to implement what has become obligations as officers of the State and will be eligible in accordance with what he did (rewards). Growth in East Asia country then became a research by many third world countries to apply. Nevertheless, there are some models of the conflict that will be discuses in this paper. East Asia and how the country can be independent and confident in their countries will change over local culture and local principle. Prior to any limitations in the writing of this paper is not to be too broad and coordinated with what you want covered. First, to answer the question what the actual model of development to the attention of the State east Asia as well as discussion and criticism of the model and the second is a comparative model of development on people's republic of china is a model of the state east Asia..
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1. Rebuild the country after the war and crisis. Build a country after the war and a state of crisis that hit the country East Asia is not an easy job, social capital needed to rebuild what was lost and running as it should. In addition to social capital needed to force the government to organize the process of governance to the community. For example, when Japan defeated devastated in World War II after the city of Nagasaki and Hiroshima was bombed by the American soldiers (see picture I). After they surrendered to the Allies, the Emperor Hirohito (1901-1989) to collect all the Generals who are still alive and asked them "how many teachers have left?‖ All General asked the emperor as he faced embarrassment over his defeat the allies: "why did the emperor asked the number of teachers who left, the remaining troops are still not sufficient to maintain the safety of the emperor to the death? And we all feel ashamed as a general of Emperor say that ". Emperor replied, "We have fallen, because we do not learn. We are strong in weapons and war strategy. Nevertheless, we do not know how to print a terrible bomb. If we all cannot learn, how we will pursue them? Then collect the remaining number of teachers in all parts of this kingdom, for now we will rest them, not the troop strength.

Nagasaki 1945 - Before and after

Picture I : Hiroshima and Nagasaki after Atomic bomb 1945

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Source: U.S. National Archives: RG 77-MDH (according to William Burr, The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II, and National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 162). Pictured above is evidence of that American anger is realized on the date of August 6, 1945 and 9 August 1945. On the both date, in order, the U.S. attacked Hiroshima and Nagasaki with atomic bombs. Damage caused by the bombing was much unexpected. Japan immediately paralyzed instantaneously, surrendered unconditionally to the Allies on August 14, 1945. This atom bomb had been killing as 140,000 people in Hiroshima and 80,000 in Nagasaki by the end of 1945. Since then, thousands have died due to injuries or illness related to radiation released by the bomb. (Source: d_Nagasaki#Hiroshima_during_World_War_II). A history of Korea, to split into two parts, that is South Korea and North Korea is a dark history of two countries in East Asia. Until now, the two countries that had civil war from 1950 - 1953 in the Korean Peninsula (See picture II). Civil war began on Jun 25, 1950, when North Korea attacked South Korea. This battle is developing with involvement of the United States and the People's Republic of China. This conflict is finished after the cease-fire was reached on July 27, 1953. As can be seen the figure below:

Picture II: Civil war in Korea

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"Red Korean Forces Invade South." This headline signified the beginning of the Korean War, which began when North Korea, backed by China, invaded South Korea. Another Korean War newspaper article said that this was the beginning of a civil war between the two territories as North Korea sent 60,000 troops into the south. The Korean War newspaper also discussed the fact that South Korea planned to request aid from the U.S., specifically from General MacArthur, who was the occupational commander for Japan from the end of World War II (Source: The San Antonio Sunday Light's June 25, 1950 Korean War newspaper edition) Korea was divided into two countries: North Korea and South Korea. The division of Korea into two states is a symbol of the legacy of ideological rivalry during the Cold War. At the end of the 1970s, North Korea and South Korea began to appear among the international community due to its success in economic growth and eliminate poverty in a short amount of time. Besides economic, Korea became the center of international attention because of conflict and rivalry between North Korea and South Korea are more sharply, by strengthening its defense system respectively. In 1988, South Korea successfully hosted the Olympic Games successfully, North Korea also managed to develop a wide range of modern weapons the program "plutonium based nuclear" and "highly-enriched-uranium (HEU) nuclear program". North Korea producing enough plutonium for making nuclear weapons. As stated that North Korea is a unique country, although most of the population lives in poverty, the government can still spend millions of dollars for weapons purposes (Yang Seung-Yoon and Mohtar Mas'oed, 2003: v). The success of the bamboo curtain cannot be separated from the long history of Chinese culture thousands of years old. History records the progress of China rise and fall in the international arena. China once had a highly developed culture of civilization in the Huang Ho and the Yang Tze, as well as progress in the Chin Dynasty. China is worst ever for hundreds of years, until finally bounced back after the economic reforms by the founding fathernya. To date, the majority of Chinese people uphold the country's founders. The success of the country with the world's largest population of the world in the 21st century now upon the determination and consistency of China's leaders in building Zhung Quo (Central Civilization). Since the economic reforms in 1978, the poverty rate of China's population fell from 53% in 1981 to 8% in 2001. In the year 2008, China has entered the age of 30 years since the 1978 economic reforms, which "threaten" the existence of Western hegemony in the world. China's economic development after the internal government crisis becomes an important learning how the existence of the State is required in all sectors of development for the betterment of society and
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the State in the international community. China's economic growth has started since a long time, as described by Mark Elvin in his book The Pattern of the Chinese Past and Shiba Yoshinobu, Sodai shogyoshik enkyui, abridged trans. by Mark Elvin as Commerce and Society in Sung China In China, an initial commercial revolution began during the tenth century as improvements in reverie transport combined with improvements in agriculture to support the expansion of merchant Organizations and long-distance trade (Mark Elvin: 1973) . The organization of markets, transportation networks, urbanization, and merchant practices have all been reconstructed from the primary sources available for the period. (Mark Elvin: 1968). Chinese civilization in the country's economy and growth cannot doubt a pilot now and is a concern how they prepare the master plan development persisting despite the communist ideology and the influence of global capitalism. Besides that, according to mark selden in the Journal of Asia pacific. He said the historical and contemporary factors facilitating rapid economic development, industrialization, substantial growth in per capita income and the formation of a vibrant multi-directional East Asian regional economy, the following seem particularly important: •The legacy of Asian economic and political strengths examined earlier in the epoch of Chinese preeminence, protracted peace, and the regional tributary-trade order of the 18th century, legacies that would become clear with the resurgence of Chinese strength at the center of an emergent East Asia. •The role of the Chinese, Japanese and Korean Diasporas in re-linking Asian and Western economies through trade, technology and investment networks that extend across the region and link East Asia globally. •Early postwar developmental and social change strategies throughout East Asia predicated on state-led accumulation and investment, social change strategies that pivoted on land reform, and measures that blocked takeover by international capital while creating firm foundations for the domestic economy. •The reuniting of the region bridging the divide that we have traced to the era of colonialism and regional disintegration and which continued in the era of US-Soviet conflict that defined global geopolitics and political economy in the immediate postwar decades. If intra-Asian factors are of primary importance, the resurgence of East Asia as a region has been shaped by global factors, notably the role of the United States in the Asia Pacific. During the immediate postwar decades the US played a key role not only in shaping such global institutions as the World Bank, IMF and United Nations, but also in structuring a bifurcated Asia Pacific, in plunging the
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region into protracted wars, and in assuring the primacy of bilateral over multilateral relations. Since 1970, it has facilitated the resurgence not only of the national economies of East Asia but also made it easier to transcend at least some of the divisions inherent in earlier East-West conflicts (Selden:2009) 2. The East Asian development model The most successful developing countries over the last half century have come from East Asia. In the early nineties, the World Bank published a very influential book attempting to explain this‖ East Asian Miracle‖ (World Bank, 1993). As the Asian Financial Crisis spread to this region in 1997, some structural and institutional weaknesses became apparent. Yet the resiliency, which East Asia revealed in fighting off and ultimately overcoming most of the negative consequences of the crisis, did not make the miracle vanish. It is important to emphasize that in most countries of East Asia as a surprise to the world, is also not separated from their intervention in the economic process is considered as invalid. This is especially true when rapid economic growth seems to validate the strategy of "developers" and developer of the overall status meant that the policy needed to 'catch' that is relatively easy to formulate. As a result, many East Asian countries could replicate the experience of the 'Developing' the world, facilitating adaptation to industrial development through technology and integrating national economies into the wider international system on favorable terms through the judicious use of trade and industrial policy. The current situation facing political elites of East Asia is a good deal more complex and the same role for states is less clear. In other hand East Asia success to improve their situation from poor countries being developing countries, based on stark article The East Asian development state as a reference model for transition economies In Central Asia – an analysis of institutional arrangements and exogenous constraints he said, There are extremely few examples of non-Western economies that were able to achieve sustainable economic growth over a long period of time. Looking for countries beyond Western Europe and North America that could serve as reference models for a successful industrialization, the eye turns almost invariably to East Asia, where most of the remarkable economic success stories have taken place: Japan’s rapid growth in the last decades of the 19th century and the years after World War II, the economic miracle of the ―Asian Tigers‖ in the second half of the 20th century and China’s economic success today.(2010:191) A part of that, many scientists make analyze to rethinking about East Asian development and how they going to be giant in the world in economic perspective and cultural terminology have strongly relationship. The world's attention has been focused on rapid economic growth and sustainability of China

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after the previous surge by Japan and Korea. However, development in East Asia cannot be underestimated but the accumulation of a strong culture and the "work ethic‖. The East Asian economic success has caught the attention of both policy makers and economists and lead to a vast number of scientific publications. Many of the earlier contributions explained the fast economic growth as the result of market-based policies that approximated laissez-faire (Akyüz et al., 1998: 5; Haggard, 2004: 54). However, that is big question how they develop their country and improving to fast? In this case, we have to find out what is the development model of East Asian. Furthermore, a rapid modernization and industrialization was successfully pursued with the aim of catching-up economically with the Western powers (Olson, 1982: 150-192). After the devastating defeat in the Second World War, the economy of the after-war period showed another impressive growth performance that became known as the Japanese miracle. In the second half of the 20th century, Japan had surpassed most western countries economically and became the world’s second largest economy behind the United States. East Asia being ―Miracle of Asia‖ in 20th century, and giving influence to Asian and African continent to changes and getting out from western approach to development state. However, what is development state? How this terminology can be imagine Japan, Korea, china and Taiwan being industrial country and control their economic in last three decades successfully. Besides that, we can see the Human Development Index 2011 in East Asia, the fact of East Asia success:

Pict III: Human Development Index 2011 in East Asia
Source: United Nation Development Programme (UNDP), Human Development Index 2011.

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3. Developmental State The successful implementation of the concept of the Developmental State in East Asia countries especially Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan are closely associated with authoritarian political system adopted by the majority of these countries. Statement appears that the only successful application of the Developmental State in countries whose governments are authoritarian. Related of that, the role of the state is one of the key issues of economic research. While economists usually agree on the regulatory functions of the state—e.g. its responsibility for establishing and enforcing the rule of law—it has been a much more controversial question whether the state should take an active role in promoting economic growth and development (Chang, 1999: 182-183) Developmental state is a paradigm that affects the direction and pace of economic development by directly intervene in the development process, which varies inversely with the ways of thinking that relies on market forces, in allocating economic resources. This paradigm is to build substantive social and economic objectives that guide the process of development and social mobilization. Characteristics of this paradigm are a powerful country, the dominant role of government, a technocratic rationality in economic policymaking, autonomous and competent bureaucracy, and regardless of political influence. Similarly, developmental state is a concept popularized by Chalmers Johnson to see a model of development in the countries of East Asia are quite successful as in Japan, Taiwan, South Korea. This concept is an answer to the dependency of the failure of the modernist view. In detail in Johnson's formulation (Pei-Shan Lee, 2002), that is a developmental state is one of the following: 1. Prioritize economic growth and production (the opposite of consumption and distribution) as the fundamental purpose of state activity. 2. Economic bureaucracy to recruit talented, cohesive and disciplined the basis of merit. 3. Concentrate the bureaucratic talents into a central agency (such as MITI in Japan) which is responsible for the transformation of industrial tasks. 4. Institutionalize relations with the elite bureaucracy in order to exchange business information and encourage cooperation in important decisions based on effective policy-making. 5. Policy makers to protect networks from commercial pressures and demands and other. 6. Implementing development policies with a combination of network government with the world industrial and public control over the source of resources power, such as finance. These roles are actually intended to prevent market failure that arises. However, many developing countries either in implementing it. What happens is

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that the dominance of the government is too powerful and affecting the market mechanism. The concept of developmental state that adopted by Japan, Taiwan, South Korea and Singapore it is a system that was born to answer the modernist failure to provide the state's role in regulating the economy effectively. The combination is very effective where the economics are not allowed to use the principle of Laissez Faire and the state has a very large role for economic development. The mention of the country with an authoritarian political system is often regarded as a condition of successful development is due to the authoritarian state will be easier to organize people so that the economy is more stable political conditions so that the investment would be easier to enter. As happened in Indonesia during the New Order government under Suharto's regime is no less authoritarian and even repressive, but in fact tends to not produce a steady state economy. This is caused by a foundation that is built is fragile because Indonesia relied economy to foreigners, namely the IMF and World Bank rather than on aspects such as strong domestic small industry and agriculture, the article of Indonesia's economy collapsed when hit by a hurricane of the 1997 financial crisis. Although, economic policy, including industrial policy, in the East Asian developmental state was primarily geared toward maximizing national productivity. In this respect, rapid economic growth constituted the ―development‖ in the developmental state model. The distribute, The Adaptive Developmental State utile consequences of economic growth were less important to the developmental state, provided that social inequality was never too severe and that the trickle-down effects of aggregate growth continued to be felt. This rather narrow conception of development—legitimated by the feelings of economic nationalism vested in East Asia’s catch-up model of development— therefore precluded more concerted efforts in redistributive social policy. The East Asian developmental states were social welfare laggards. The few social programs that existed were for bolstering national economic productivity, not socioeconomic redistribution per se. Ian Holliday appropriately termed the East Asian welfare regimes of the postwar period as ―productivity‖ in their economic orientation. Limited social insurance, health care, and housing were reserved for those who were working and thus economically productive. Citizens, who were less well off, particularly those who were unemployed, were excluded from these limited social programs. As often noted, the East Asian developmental states ―invested‖ most of their social capital into the provision of accessible education, which was justified as a means for human capital development and thus defined as an economic investment rather than as a social policy. Finally, whether the country adopted democratic or authoritarian, the main thing in the success of the developmental state is the capacity of the

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state (state capacity), the ability to formulate and implement development policies that create a strong economic system and to create economic independence in all aspects. 4. Does China follow the role of state?. The last section, we will discuss and make comparative argument among china and Japan especially in context of model of development. In the history of world war II, Japan was attacked china, and they make colonialism in china, basically Japan put the ethics and norm into economic china development model but on contrary the economic system and development planning of china adopted by another system, there are American and Maoist system by communism model principle from uni soviet long time ago. In addition, China shows two different sets of characteristics in development, the polemical oppositions in the debates on the East Asian development model may also be repeated in the discussion about the factors of China's rapid economic growth. On one hand, China's rapid economic growth may be ascribed to the market-oriented structure of the Chinese economy as emphasized by neo-classical economists (Balassa, 1988; World Bank, 1993). However, Characteristics of Chinese development display similarities as well as differences with "the East Asian development model." Like other "developmental states" in East Asia, the Chinese government also has guided the economy by controlling the financial system and channeling financial resources into specific targets. China is also incorporated into a triangular structure of intimation trade and division of labor among the USA, Japan and East Asia as a bottom to middle level participant. Planned economy has undertaken the role of industrial policy to promote heavy industry (Seung-Wook Baek:493). In another perception is two general issues are worth highlighting at the outset. First, like Japan, the People’s Republic of China’s (PRC) developmental project has been profoundly influenced by the wider geopolitical context in which it was embedded. In China’s case, of course, this has—until relatively recently, at least—been a major disadvantage: China found itself politically and economically marginalized in an increasingly integrated international political-economy dominated by the United States.56 In such circumstances, it is hardly surprising that China’s leaders initially ―leaned toward‖ the Soviet Union, its notional ideological ally. The second point which flows from this is that, although China is political and economic regime is very different from Japan’s, the PRC government has from its inception also been a developmental state, albeit one that was initially socialist and Maoist. In conclusion, the Chinese model of development is quite similarly to East Asia development model such as market based, the role of state, policy makers based on ―Street Level decision‖ but they have another principle how to build the

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strong foundation of economic and social life in China. Furthermore we can see the result of china model development in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) see picture IV.

Pict IV: China Nominal Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during 1952-2005 Another comparison of statistical data member of East Asian coun between other countries, These tables show China’s overall GDP in both nominal and PPP terms compared to other major economies :

Source: by : IMF,WorlBank and CIA World Fact book

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References :
Akyuz Y.; Chang H-J.; Kozul-Wright R. (1998). New perspectives on East Asian development, Journal of Development Studies, 34(6): 4-36. Balassa. Bela (1988) "The Lesson of East Asian Development: An overview." Economic Development and Cultural Change 36(3). Beeson M., (2009). Developmental States In East Asia:A Comparison Of The Japanese And Chinese Experiences* Asian Perspective, Vol. 33, No. 2, 539 Chang H-J. (1999). The Economic Theory of the Developmental State. in: WooCumings M. (ed.). The Developmental State. Cornell University Press. Elvin M.,(1973) The Pattern of the Chinese Past (Stanford, Calif., 1973), 113-99. Haggard S. (2004). Institutions and Growth in East Asia, Studies in Comparative International Development 38(4). Holliday I., (2000). ―Productivist Welfare Capitalism: Social Policy in East Asia,‖ Political Studies 48 Lee Pei-shan, (2002): ―Political Institutions and Economic Governance,‖ Journal of Social Sciences and Philosophy, 14, 1-31. Goodman R., White G., Kwon Huck-Ju, (1998) eds., The East Asian Welfare Model: Welfare Orientalism and the State ,London: Routledge Press Selden M., (2009) ―East Asian Regionalism and its Enemies in Three Epochs: Political Economy and Geopolitics”, 16th to 21st Centuries” The AsiaPacific Journal, Vol. 9-4-09, February 25, Seung-Wook Baek, (2005) ―Does China follow the East Asian development model?‖ Journal of Contemporary Asia , , Vol. 35 Issue 4, pp. 485-498. Seung-Y Y., Mas’oed M, (2003). Masyarakat, Politik, dan Pemerintahan Korea: sebuah pengantar, GMUP, 2003,Yogyakarta Stark M., (2010). The East Asian development state as a reference model for transition economies in Central Asia – an analysis of institutional arrangements and exogeneous constraints, Economic and Environmental Studies Vol. 10, No. 2,189-210 Thorbecke E., and Wan Jr H.,(2004) Revisiting East (and South East) Asia’s Development Model* Cornell Conference on ―Seventy Five Years of Development‖, Ithaca, NY, 7-9

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U.S. National Archives : RG 77-MDH (according to William Burr, The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 162). United Nations Development Programme., (2011). Human Development Report 2011, Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All ,New York Wong J., (2004), The Adaptive Developmental State in East Asia, Journal of East Asian Studies Vol. 4., 345–362 Wong, R. Bin., (2002). The Search for European Differences and Domination in the Early Modern World: A View from Asia. The American Historical Review 107.2 World Bank (1993) The East Asian Miracle :Economic Growth and Public Policy. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press. Yoshinobu S., Sodai shogyoshik enkyui, abridged trans. by Mark Elvin as Commercea nd Society in Sung China (Tokyo and Ann Arbor, Mich., 1968, 1970).

Internet Sources : oshima_during_World_War_II by: IMF,WorlBank and CIA World Fact book

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