# Lab1: Oscilloscope and Pulse generator

Objectives: 1. To learn how to use digital oscilloscope in order to measure different parameters of a signal. 2. To generate pulse of different amplitude and time period (or frequency) using pulse generator. Theory: Digital Oscilloscope The digital oscilloscope is a test and measuring device, similar to the analog oscilloscope. The digital oscilloscope uses a processor to sample, digitize, and display the incoming analog signal on the display screen. The digital oscilloscope has a user interface which allows the user to manipulate and measure the displayed signal. In our laboratory, we shall use TDS 220 digital oscilloscope. Taking Measurement The oscilloscope displays graphs of voltage versus time and also helps to measure the displayed waveform. There are mainly three ways to take the measurement. 1. Graticule: this method allows making a quick, visual estimate. We can take simple measurements by counting the major and minor graticule divisions involved and multiplying by the scale factor. For example: if there is five major vertical graticule divisions between the minimum and maximum values of a waveform and scale factor is of 100 mV/division, then peak-to-peak voltage can be calculated as, 5 divisions×100 mV/division = 500 mV. 2. Cursors: This method allows taking measurements by moving the cursors, which always appear in pairs, and reading their numeric values from display readouts. There are two types of cursors: Voltage and time. Voltage cursors: Voltage cursors appear as horizontal lines on the display and measure the vertical parameters. Time cursors: Time cursors appear as vertical lines on the display and measure the horizontal parameters. 3. Automated: In this type of measurements, the oscilloscope does all the calculating. This method is more accurate than graticule or cursor measurement because these measurements use the waveform record points. Automated measurements use readouts to show measurements results. These readouts are updated periodically as the oscilloscope acquires new data.

Pulse generator: It is electronic equipment used to generate rectangular pulses of different frequency and amplitude.
1

It has output amplitude control. Period Duration Amplitude Time Amplitude Time Amplitude Time Selector Selector period period period 1 20 ms 10 ms 2 2 ms 1 ms 3 0.2: Generate the pulse of following specification using PG 501 pulse generator and display the pulse on the TDS 220 digital oscilloscope. Fill table 1.1 S. cursor. we use PG501 pulse generator.1: Generate the pulse using PG501 pulse generator for different combination of period selector and duration selector as listed in table 1. Generation of pulse with various pulse period and pulse duration can be further controlled with the help of variable (Period) control and variable (Duration control). It has period selector and duration selector. Exercise 1.1 with the measurements that you take from oscilloscope using each method.2 μs 0.1 μs Exercise 1. with the help of which we can vary the amplitude of the generated pulse. and automated method.1. a) Pulse with amplitude 8V and pulse period 25 ms. Draw the figure from oscilloscope and note down the voltage scale (volts/div) and time scale (time/div). 2 . Display the pulse in digital oscilloscope TDS 220 and take the measurement using graticule. which are mechanically connected to each other.2 ms 0.In our laboratory.1 ms 4 20 μs 10 μs 5 0. Table1. With the help of these selectors we can generate the pulse with different pulse period ranging from 20 ms to 20 ns and pulse duration ranging from 10 ms to 10 ns. Pulse generator Graticule Cursor Automated No.

b) Pulse with amplitude 9V and pulse duration 15 ms. 3 .