Lubricants and Lubrication / D. Dowson et al. (Editors) 1995 Elsevier Science B.V.


Starvation and Cavitation Effects in Finite Grooved Journal Bearing
B. Vincent, P. Maspeyrot, J. F r b e
Laboratoire de M M q u e des Solides - URA CNRS Universite de POITIERS 40, Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 POITIERS Cedex

In this paper the effect of cavitation and starvation is analysed for a finite grooved journal bearing. The numerical procedure incorporates a cavitation algorithm based on the work of Elrod. Film rupture and reformation are predicted considering conservation of mass flow through the entire bearing. The effects of some degrees of starvation and lubricant supply pressure are studied in steady state conditions. A solution is proposed for dynamic loading conditions using the mobility method of Booker.


Analytical and numerical investigation have used many algorithms to predict cavitation. Dowson and Taylor [ 11 and Booker [2] presented a review of the recent developments. A large p r of these at studies d a t e s cavitation with negative pressures. Indeed, cavitation areas can be determine coupling pressure in the cavitation region and fluid density rate [3] or setting negative pressures to some fixed cavitation pressure [4]. Except for particular cases [5], the bearing orbit and the positive film pressure region are known with enough accuracy. Although, oil flow can not be determined as mass is not conserved within the cavitation area. Some mass conservative algorithms have been developed with finite difference or finite element formulation. Jones [6] used internodal flow to determine the degree of filling of the clearance space.However, the change in the boundaries of the cavitation regions is not explicitly determined. Elrod and Adams [7]and Elrod [8] developed, with finite difference, a generalised form of Reynolds

differential equation. With this equation, the cavitation is taken into account without references to rupture or reformation of the oil film. This new equation can be applied in both cavitated and full film region (introducing a switch function) and for steady state or transient cases. D o w n , Taylor and Miranda [9,10] used the Elrod algorithm to predict the steady-state performance of finite groove bearings and compared their results to experimental data. Brewe [ll] applied this algorithm to model vapor cavitation in dynamically loaded journal bearings. W o s and Brewe [12] od added multigrid techniques to the algorithm in order to improve solution speed. Vijayaraghavan and Keith [13,14] proposed a modification to the Elrod algorithm, specifically in the shear flow term, by introducing a type differencing procedure. This procedure automatically switches the form of differencing (central or upwind) of the shear flow terms in the full film and cavitated regions as required by the physics of the problems. Some authors [15,16] analysed noncircular journal bearing using this algorithm. The effects of groove

the predicted parameters are presented with reference to the known vertical load line. More over. Journal trajectories.Net d a c e velocity w . called the universal equation. Angular velocity of the bearing 0. the treatment of film rupture and reformation for the circular bearing is analysed. which is valid throughout both the fill film and cavitated regions. Elrod's universal differential equation is transformed into a generalised bolindary integral equation.Time u .Bearing radius . Both axial and circumferentialgrooves have been considered. The equation is solved using the Gauss-Seidel scheme and the mobility method of Booker [22]. The grooves are positioned in such a way that they are symmetrical about the centerline of the bearing. minimum film thickness and pressure profile are presented and compared to the calculation without Elrod's algorithm.Angular velocity of the load - - d. 1. ANALYTICAL FORMULATION Elrod et Adams developed a single equation. a laminar f o . The effects of circumferential grooves of finite dimensions is considered. The first algorithm using finite element cavitation has been developed by Kumar and Booker [19]. However. i .The misalignment considered varies in magnitude and direction with reference to the boundaries of the bearing. The authors [8] have discussed the development of this equation and for a two dimensional problem.Fluid density P c . In this paper. a connecting-rod bearing with and without groove is studied.Applied load Coordinate axis in circumferential direction x z Coordinate axis in axial direction a .when the mesh or the integration method changed ( Goenka and Paranjpe [20]).Mobility direction P .Bulk modulus Angular coordinate Y E Eccentricity ratio 4 .Fractional film content P .Lubricant supply pressure Cavitation pressure . This one Seems very simple to use and cavitation boundaries ( and subsequently regions ) are determined only with nodal pressure and densities.Fluid density at cavitation pressure 0 Angular velocity Angular velocity of the journal 0. which is applicable for both full film and cavitated regions of the bearing.456 inlet conditions coupled with misalignment of the shaft has been developed by Vijayaraghavan and Keith [17].- Angular velocity of the attitude angle 2. Yu and Keith [21] presented a new numerical algorithm to predict gaseous cavitation in various fluid film bearings. For dynamically loaded journal bearing.the Reynolds equation is written as: lw c h h - Radialclearance Filmthickness Nondimensional film thickness [WC] .Attitude angle 0 . groove number and groove location on the performance of a finite length journal bearing. some problems occur.Fluid viscosity P . The derivation of this equation is based on lw the continuity of mass f o through the entire bearing. A mass conservation algorithm [13] is used and is coupled with the motion of a journal center that include the mass acceleration effects. The authors [18]studied the effects of groove type. Recently.1 Notations mM P g Pal P o R t - Bearing length to diameter ratio Mobility vector Fluid pressure Switch function . The applied load is normal to the journal axis. a steady state load. some degrees of starvation and lubricant supply pressure are treated in steady state conditions.

g and p are defined as: e={ p/p. Eq.141.(-i&$ 12p.(l) is a F a l differential equation of an elliptic type that is best treated using central differencing. Eq.1) + V+I/Z gl-I(~./V.457 3. In the cavitation region produces (gi = 0). Eq.he a 2 [ (he)i -(he)i-l] Ax (4) 3. The development of the algorithm is discussed in Vijayaraghavan and Keith [ 13.A?? [ v + l / 2 &+I(@. (3) which does not take account of compressibility effects. In the following.(lf+IP + h?-I/Z) g. in full film regions V. the shear flow and the pressure induced flow components will be treated separately.this yield which upon integration gives P = P. in the cavitated region.(l) reduces to compressible form of the Reynolds equation.1 Static case In the full film. respectively. = 1) . . . +gPlnO V.(e.1. The boundary conditions for film rupture and reformation are implicitly applied by enforcing conservation of mass flow across these boundaries.2 Pressure induced flow 3. . is the total clearance volume and V.-l -41 (5) The expression in the z direction will be similar to the above and may be written by replacing x and i with z and j. In the cavitated region (g=O).+. is the volume occupied by the fluid. On the other hand.1) .1. in cavitated regions 1 when 0 2 1 g = { 0 when 8 < 1 In the full film (g. the pressure remains constant at the cavitation pressure and the flow is driven by shear. In the full film region (g=l). NUMERICAL FORMULATION The pressure induced flow term in the x direction is differenced as: h3 =- 3.(l) can be written as: where 8.1 Shear flow A finite difference version of Eq. the governing equation is hyperbolic that is best handled via upwind differencing. .(l) -(U ) i =ax --.

1 Convection f o lw The development of the algorithm is discussed in [13. At this point.14].2.2 Dynamic case 3.2 Dynamic case 3. Eq. The initially components of eccentricity. The system of equation for every node is solved using the Gauss-Seidel scheme. A real implicit finite difference scheme is used to numerically determine the distribution of 8 .2 Pressure induced f o lw The partial differential equation governing hydrodynamic lubrication may be written to include journal rotation.2. SOLUTION PROCEDURE 4.1 Static case where .(l) which incorporates Eq. Quation (7) is numerically solved to determine the current 8 distribution. The finite length journal bearing is considered. A finite difference version of Eq. cavitation journal bearing is examined. For these nodes the value of 8 is known. 4. 4. The switch function distribution is updated after every time step. Initially all nodes are assumed to be in the full film. the circumferential groove is extended through the entire circumference of bearing and is maintained at the lubricant supply pressure. Initially the bearing is assumed to be filled with lubricant at the ambient pressure and released at an arbitrary location. is discretized using the cavitation algorithm and . By this method. and at all non b o u n d a ~ ~ nodes (e=1 and e l ) except for the nodes located within the finite groove. the expression can be written as (7) where In this study.458 3. The cavitation pressure is taken to be absolute zero.=-0 2 + When the variables in Eq. mobility direction and attitude angle are given. journal center motion and Elrod's algorithm as follow The pressure induced flow term in the x and z directions are the same as those defined in the static case. corresponding to the lubricant supply and its value is maintained throughout the calculation.can be written at each node in a general form.(7) can be written in compact and efficient form as solved using the Gauss-Seidel scheme and the mobility method.(7). At every time The hydrodynamic "universal equation". the finite difference version of Eq. For the bearing with groove. the converged steady state had been reached.(6) are nondimensionalized and included the mobility method. The time march process is continued until the change in 8 between two time intervals was less than lo-' . The axial edge of the bearing is maintained at the ambient pressure.(2) and (9.

are shown in Fig. one can note that the formation of the film arises after the one in the middle section. The physical and operating parameters are given in Table 1. The procedure is repeated for every load increment. NUMERICAL EXAMPLE 5. The attitude angle is computed. If the attitude angle is not equal with the initially attitude angle.459 steps. Fig. The code developed is run on the DEC ALPHA A X P 3000-800 super computer. The trajectory of the journal and the minimum film thickness are recorded at specified time interval. submerged. the procedure is repeated. Both the graph are almost similar. while the Figure 4 presents the fractional film content profile. At the axial end of the bearing. For the bearing without groove. as well as the direction of the angular coordinate measurement. due to the axial leakage.0035 N/m2 P 5.1 Static case Some types of journal bearing lubricant supply. 3: Pressure profile . the inlet was assumed to be flooded at the atmospheric pressure.8 E 0 60 120 180 240 300 Angular coordinate (deg) 360 Fig. 2: Angular distribution of fractional film content Fig. The force components are computed from the pressure profile. ing data R C U E m 3. c . 1: Bearing Geometry The bearings were assumed to be at full film initially. Figure 2 is the 8 distribution at the bearing edge and the bearing middle section. Figure 3 show the classical profile of pressure for this bearing. 3 E d E "1 1E: 3 0. 1. The geometric arrangement.15 x 10' m m/S P P Pll - Pas Nlm' 0. Otherwise the mobility vector is changed and a new attitude angle is computed. At the edge of the bearing. The load is assumed to be applied along a vertical axis. the switch function distribution is updated. grooved and starved were modelled in this study.

4: Profile of fractional film content In the case of grooved journal bearing. one can note that the groove increases the volume of fluid (0 z 0. 6: Profile of fractional film content with two grooves ITable 2: Circumferential groove arrangements I I groove I start angle / I circumferential I axial I number I vertical axis I extent I extent 1'' I 45' I 90' I 0. In the middle one. For this case. Figure 5 gives the 8 distribution for two sections of the bearing.8). the film reformation and rupture boundaries are given and the film reformation occurs along the trailing edge of the grooves. at the edge of the bearing the minimum value of the fractional film content is near 0.2 ma. 5: Angular distribution of fractional film content with two grooves Fig.460 -ff Bearing middle scotion Fig. In the middle section. The grooves are positioned in such a way that they are symmetrical about the centerline of the bearing. two part~alcircumferential grooves are considered. Hence.3. at the edge of the bearing the fractional film content is lower than the case without groove. On the other hand. Fig. 7: Pressure profile of two grooves . In the grooves the lubricant inlet is assumed to be at the pressure supply of 0.the groove increases the side leakage. the 1 1 1 film is almost complete along the circumference as it is the line where the grooves are located. Figure 7 presents the pressure profile deduced from these distribution.2L Fig. Figure 6 permits to know the variation of the fractional film content in all the bearing. On this plot. The bearing data are those defined in Table 1 and the groove parameters are given in Table 2.

s N/m2 N/m2 rads N/m2 0. compared to the flooded For the bearing without groove. The film rupture is quite identical. The predicted minimum film thickness is 8.8~10~ 120- LOAD (1 0 N) ' 80I f / = PMAX (1' Pa) 0 = ATTITUDE 0 AXIAL FLOW(lod m' 1s) 0 0. (0.2 Dynamic case L 0(0.z)=1 . .4 Degree of Starvation 0. In fact the formation of the complete film occurs later when there is not enough fluid in the bearing.1~10' 62. The area of the full film reduces when the inlet condition is less than unity. when the inlet condition are starved I). The groove is maintained to a pressure supply equal to 0. This particular connecting-rod bearing is probably the most analysed bearing in the literature.6< However.1015 82.46 microns without Elrod's algorithm.55~10~ 0. In this case.0 15 0 4. The trajectory calculated with Elrod's algorithm is more flat that the one plotted not taking account of cavitation.84 (600 rpm) 1.22 microns taking account of cavitation. the performance parameters are in a drastic reduction.6 0. The minimum film thickness is presented in Figure 11.11 microns without cavitation algorithm as it is 3. The results are quite identical.2 Fig.626 0.8 1.2 0.6). 0 - 0" Fig.74 microns for the method considering cavitation and 8.41 MPa. except for the side leakage. for the inlet condition is low (W 0. The journal trajectory calculated with the Elrod's algorithm resembles to the trajectory predicted classically. 8: Pressure distribution for various e(0.z) uo LID R C Figure 8 indicates the location of reformation and rupture front for various degrees of starvation.oo1 The specific case chosen is the connecting-rod bearing of the Ruston and Hornsby VEB diesel engine. The gap between the two methods is very low. 9: Performance of journal bearing Figure 9 shows that the performance parameters do not appreciably change. the minimum film thickness variations predicted by the two methods are presented in Figure 13. the trajectories of the journal center of the connecting-rod axis are presented in Figure 10.0 1.46 1 values. the minimum film thickness is 3. The bearing data is given below in Table 3. Figure 12 is a presentation of the journal center orbit for the connecting-rod bearing with a full circumferential groove. 5. P O Pd 0 P P m m Pa.

in the dynamic case.60 Vijayaraghavan cavitation cavitation 3. Because. This method is not always stable considering cavitation. -+- with Elrod's algo. The procedure uses the mobility method to solve the problem. In the static case. Particularly. for low supply pressure.36 Goenka no cavitation 3. the effect of a finite grooved bearing for starved bearing has been analysed. The Elrod's algorithm method is enough simple to use and automatically implements cavitation boundary conditions at film rupture and reformation. & without Elrod's algo. CONCLUSION In the bearing. 0 120 240 360 480 600 Crank Angle (deg) 720 Fig. Table 4: Minimum film thickness (10"m) NO GROOVE no cavitation This study no cavitation This study cavitation FULL CIRCUMFERENTIALGROOVE no cavitation 3. this study can not be directly introduced for the problems of journal bearing under dynamic loaded. the area of cavitation is not fixed and moved inside the bearing after every time step.462 These values of minimum film thickness are list in Table 4 and compared with some results obtained in the literature considering or not cavitation effects. the black line represents the positive pressure boundaries. The agreement between all results is very good. the minimum film thickness are sliehtlv ereater when the calculations are done with the cavitation algorithm. 11: Minimum film thickness . Their are obtained for a crank angle equal to 68' and for a 1 1 1 circumferential groove. Nevertheless.11 This study 3.22 This study Figures 14 and 15 give the pressure profiles for the two method of calculation. Furthermore. 10: Trajectory of journal center 6. an inversion of the cavitated area at this time and there is not any pressure against the shaft moving. This is due to +without Elmd's algo. Over these figures. the velocity of the shaft becomes too important in the end of the load cycle. Fig. the study of gaseous cavitation area is essential.

"Cavitation in Bearings". --+- with Elrod's algo Fig.1979. pp. J.Bal1. 14: Pressure profile with Elrod's algorithm Fig. and Taylor. Khonsari. Eds.463 + without Elrod's algo. Current Research in Cavitating Fluid Films. +withElrod'salgo.401 W fi 35 +without Elrod's algo. 13: Minimum film thickness with groove .F. pp. Brewe. 2..M.39-40.E.3566. "Classic Cavitation Models for Finite Element Analysis". STLE Special Publication SP-28. 15: Pressure profile without Elrod's algorithm REFERENCES 1. D... 1990. 12: T a e t r ofjournal center with groove rjcoy . Annual Reviews o Fluid Mechanics. Booker. Palo Alto. I Fig. f Annual Reviews. Dowson.H. D. C. J. and M.M. 0 120 Crank Angle (deg) 240 360 480 600 720 Fig.

C. H.G. and Keith. Proceedings of 10th Leeds-Lyon Symposium of Tribology. London. Kumar and J. 1971 . Discussion of and the paper "A Finite Element Cavitation Algorithm" by A..Vijayaraghavan. "Implementation of an Algorithm Enabling the Determinationof Film Rupture and Reformation Boundaries in a Film Bearing". 22.. Vol.464 3. Q. Yu.98-106. 1989.. Booker. Dowson. Jr.. D. Vol. pp. STLE Tribology Transaction. Miranda.217-226. Tribology of Reciprocating Engines.J. "A Cavitation Algorithm". 1993. Mechanical Engineering Publications.225-233.83-88. lO. "Effects of Type and Location of Oil Groove on the Performance of Journal Bearings". 19... 107. 1. T. Oh..Kumar. J. A W E Journal of Tribology. Elrod. pp.M. 1989. 112. Goenka. and Taylor.G. STLE Tribology Transaction. pp. D. 1992. Part 11: Experimental Results". of the Elrod Algorithm for a Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearing Using Multigrid Techniques". No. 17. pp. Journal of Lubrication Technology.. 111. 1983. pp. 1974.. and Booker.284285. 108. Butterworths. D. A N E Journal of Tribology.M. T.F.505515.107. pp. A.P. Jr. Buttenvorths.32. Taylor. J.G.2.35. N0. ASME Journal of Tribology. Jones. A W E Journal of Tribology. "Effect of Outsf-Roundness on the Performance of a Diesel Engine Connecting-Rod Bearing".215-224.G.G. 112. "Development and Evaluation of a Cavitation Algorithm".93-Ill.S.K. and Booker.G. pp.Dowson. 1984. D. 2.. V01.K. and Brewe. pp. Paper III(ii). T. NO. 14.A. pp.. STLE Tribology Transaction.. and Keith... 113.G. 'I A Boundary Element Cavitation Algorithm". 13. J. R. 1990. M. D. C2. "The Elastohydrodymmc Solution of Journal Bearings under Dynamic Loading". LaBouff. Paranjpe.E. Vol. 103.. T. 1985. pp. P..F.. New York. K. and Keith.. D. Vol. "Numerical Prediction of Cavitation in Noncircular Journal Bearings". Jr....Vaidyanathaq K. Elrod. 5 . Vo1. Vol. "Theoretical Modeling of the Vapor Cavitation in Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearings". 18.A. pp.G. Vol. Jr. 1989.538-543. " A Finite Element Cavitation Algorithm".. H. ASME Journal of Tribology. "Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearings: Numerical Application of the Mobility Method". "Grid Transformation and Adaptation Techniques Applied in the Analysis of Cavitated Journal Bearings".. T. "Analysis of a Finite Grooved Misaligned Journal Bearing Considering Cavitation and Starvation Effects".K..32. ASME Journal of Tribology. A. T.113.. U.1991. D.L. 21.302-308. 2. 1994. ASME Journal of Tribology. 1991. Cavitation and Related Phenomena in Lubrication. 115.E.255260.60-68. A.. 1991. England. Vo1.G.. 8. Brewe. and Adams. D. J.37-41. 15. and Keith. pp. "A Computer Program for Cavitation and Starvation Problems". 6.276-284.. pp. 1985.. "A Finite Element Cavitation Algorithm: ApplicationNalidation". Proceedings of Institution of Mechanical Engineers.F. Institute of Mechanical Engineers. pp.Brewe.37. A. 4.M. Booker. T. 1985. pp.389-395.52-59. 12. and Goenka.. and Keith. G. ll. ASME. "The Solution od. STLE Tribology Transaction. and Miranda.Vijayaraghavan. Jr.. W o s C. 7. 16. 1990.. No. G. D.A.. Vol.Vijayaraghavan. ASME Journal of Tribology. Jr. No. Vol. pp. 113. pp. Jr.. Vol.M. Jr. Vol.. 1981. and Booker. 1986.199.F. "The Prediction of Liquid Film Journal Bearing Performance with Consideration of Lubricant Film Reformation Part I: Theoretical Results.M. ASME Journal of Tribology.Vijayaraghavan.. D. Vo1.628-637. 20. Vijayaraghavan.F. ASME Journal of Tribology.. Jr.E. "Crankshaft Bearings: Oil Film History". "Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearings: A Finite Element Treatment for Rigid and Elastic Surfaces". series F. Vol.. pp. C. pp 350-354. Kumar.. P.. and Keith. A W E Journal of Tribology. 9. 168-174. and Keith. Vol.

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