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Space-Division Multiple-Access for Wireless MIMO Networks: A Game Theoretic Approach

Enzo Baccarelli, Mauro Biagi, Cristian Pelizzoni, Nicola Cordeschi

{enzobac, biagi, pelcris, cordeschi }@infocom.uniroma1.it

Enzo Baccarelli, Mauro Biagi, Cristian Pelizzoni and Nicola Cordeschi are with INFO-COM Dept., University of Rome ”La Sapienza”, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome, Italy. Ph. no. +39 06 44585466 FAX no. +39 06 4873330.This work has been partially supported by the Italian National project: ”Wireless 8O2.16 Multi-antenna mEsh Networks (WOMEN)” under grant number 2005093248.
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Abstract Optimized Space-Division Multiple-Access (SDMA) strategies for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Ad-hoc wireless networks are proposed in this paper, where noncooperating transmit/receive nodes are assumed to be affected by spatially colored Multiple Access Interference (MAI). The final task is to maximize the information throughput (in bits/slot) conveyed by each peer-to-peer link active in the network. For this purpose, the SDMA problem is modelled as an uncooperative strategic game, and the Game Theory approach is adopted for characterizing the nodes’ interactions and deriving out the conditions for the ”Nash Equilibrium” of the overall Ad-hoc networking game. The main contributions of this paper may be so summarized. Firstly, we develop a fully distributed scalable and asynchronous SDMA scheme combining both power-allocation and spatial data-shaping that maximizes (in a competitive sense) the information throughput sustained by each active peer-to-peer link under both Best-Effort and Contracted QoS access policies. Secondly, we characterize the convergence property of the proposed SDMA scheme under low and high traffic load offered to the network. Thirdly, based on the proposed SDMA scheme, we present two Connection Admission Procedures (CAPs) attaining an optimized (in a competitive sense) trade-off between number of allowed connections and throughput requested by each connection. Finally, for corroborating the carried out performance analysis, we present several numerical tests supporting superiority (in terms of conveyed peer-to-peer throughput) of the proposed SDMA scheme over more conventional collision-avoiding MAC schemes, such as TDMA and CSMA/CA.

Index Terms Multiple Antennas, Games Theory, MAI, SDMAC, Power-Allocation, Competitive Optimality, CAP, Self-reconfiguration, Fault-tolerant.

I. I NTRODUCTION Due to their capability to operate without any centralized infrastructure support, Ad-hoc wireless networks are considered to be main candidate to provide the distributed radio access facilities requested to support emerging high-throughput Personal Communication Services (PCSs) [9]. In order to meet the resulting QoS demands, lastly the utilization of the so-called ”smartantennas” in Ad-hoc networks gained consideration [9,23]. The term ”smart antennas” covers, indeed, a broad variety of Multi-Antenna Technological platforms that differ both in performance and transceiver complexity, such as the Switched-Beam and the Digital Adaptive Array (DAA)
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antenna systems [23,26]. A Switched-Beam antenna system exhibits a pre-assigned antenna array pattern that can be pointed out to any of a (small) number of spatial directions [23,26]. The ability of such antennas to convey power in a specified direction provides a directive gain that can be exploited for extending range (e.g., system coverage), or reducing radiated power [23]. However, due to their limited signal processing capabilities, switched-beam antenna systems are not able to adaptively null out MAI typically affecting Ad-hoc networks [23]. An adaptive array receiver constructively combines multiple copies of the desired received signal, so to give arise to array gain, which is the increase factor in the average SNR measured at the receiver output [26]. Furthermore, when the receive antennas are sufficiently far apart, then the likelihood of simultaneous deep fades decreases, so that an adaptive array receiver is able to provide also diversity gain [23,26]. Finally, an adaptive array receiver may attenuate the signal from an interfering source (adaptive nulling). Transmit DAA systems can also provide array and diversity gains, so to increase those already provided by receiver DAA platforms [17]. In addition, a transmit DAA system may generate multiple co-channel data streams, so to give arise to spatial multiplexing gain [10]. However, for achieving multiplexing gain, DAA systems must be employed at both ends of a point-to-point communication link, giving arise to the Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) technology [10]. The analysis and optimization (e.g., maximization) of the information throughput conveyed by each link active in an Ad-hoc MIMO network impaired by MAI, fading and MIMO channel-estimation errors are the focus of this work. The main output resulting from the carried out analysis is the optimized design of a novel fully distributed and asynchronous SDMA protocol (see Table III) allowing network nodes to maximize (in a competitive sense) the information throughput sustained by each peer-to-peer link active in the network. A. Flexibility Characteristics of the MIMO Physical Layer To attain the above mentioned goals, the SDMA protocol we develop exploits some flexibility characteristics that are unique to MIMO Physical Layer. These characteristics are Adaptive
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12]. or better reliability. Flexible MAI Suppression: Regardless of the location of interfering sources.g. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) is ”de-facto” the MAC protocol considered for Ad-hoc networks [9]. In turn. as desired. Motivations for novel distributed SDMA schemes Since Ad-hoc networks are characterized by topology-depending time-varying MAI and work without any central controller [9]. Adaptive Interference Suppression.-Throughput Trade-off. the receiver of a MIMO link is able to suppress interfering streams. Adaptive Resource Usage: A peer-to-peer MIMO link is able to exploit any radio resource not already spent to suppress MAI for increasing either array gains of the active streams. Robustness to Multipath fading [10. so to give arise to multiplexing gain [12].4 Resource Usage. an effective SDMA protocol should be able to adaptively exploit (in a combined way) the above mentioned flexibility characteristics of the MIMO Physical Layer by operating in a fully distributed. or power minimization. Robustness to Multipath Fading: Peer-to-peer MIMO systems do not require line-of-sight (LOS) propagation.. or the overall number of the spatially multiplexed streams (multiplexing gain) [21].-Throughput Trade-off : Instead of splitting the overall data flow into several parallel independent streams to be simultaneously radiated by transmit antennas. correlated streams can be output by transmit antennas.26]. as long as it has sufficient number of degrees of freedom to do so [23]. so to achieve transmit diversity gain [12]. Currently. even in the worst case of (r − 1) received interfering streams. Hence. MIMO systems effectively work in rich scattering and multipath environments [10]. scalable and asynchronous way. and are able to leverage multipath productively. In principle. B. Range-vs. this gain may be exploited for achieving range extension (e. Interestingly enough. Range-vs. increased system coverage). a receiver equipped with r antennas is still able to properly detect the desired data conveyed by a single transmit stream [10. a simple extension of CSMA/CA for 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT .

Furthermore... and.g. the key question we give insight in this contribution is: Is it possible for a more ”smart” SDMA scheme to attain better throughput performance by working in a fully distributed. collision-affected) scalable SDMA scheme able to exploit the capture effect is developed and implemented in fully distributed and asynchronous fashion. so that it is not able to fully exploit the advantages arising from the above mentioned flexible MAI-suppression capability of the MIMO Physical Layer. when compared to default single-antenna (e. in order to take full advantage from the potential offered by MIMO Physical Layer. indeed. In fact. Thus. Roughly speaking. r}-fold improvement in throughput performance compared to a Single-Input Single-Output (SISO) network (t is the number of antennas equipping each transmit node. C. while r indicates the number of antennas present at each receive node). and ii) a (possibly) non-orthogonal (e. and asynchronous fashion? The main conclusion arising from this contribution is that the answer to above question is.. Essentially. SISO) CSMA/CA. the key-rationale behind this conclusion is that CSMA/CA(s) is still a collision-free MAC scheme. indeed. We refer to this simple extension of CSMA/CA as CSMA/CA(s) [27]. the combined exploitation at the MAC layer of these two characteristics offered by MIMO Physical Layer requires that : i) the information throughput conveyed by each MAI-impaired peer-to-peer active link is evaluated.g. so to attain spatial multiplexing gain. yes. except that all transmissions are performed using s independent parallel streams. quite appealing. CSMA/CA(s) operates the same fashion as conventional CSMA/CA.g. in the proposed SDMA scheme each transmit node acquires and uses Channel State 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . while this s-fold improvement guaranteed by the collision-free CSMA/CA(s) is. adaptive spatial multiplexing). Such a protocol is still collision-free [27]. it is able to attain s times the throughput performance as the latter [27].5 MIMO links can be designed that can provide an s min {t. Proposed Contributions In this contribution we show that the potential gain arising from flexible MAI mitigation may be attained only in conjunction with adaptive radio resource usage (e. scalable.

Specifically. distributed.6 Information (CSI) to perform both optimized power-control and (statistical) spatial-shaping of the transmitted multiplexed streams. till now the application of the Game Theory for the analysis and optimized design of distributed SDMA schemes results. • The proposed SDMA scheme allows to implement both Best Effort and Contracted QoS access policies for sustaining multiple QoS traffic classes. at the best of the authors’ knowledge. In particular. it allows the maximization (in a competitive sense) of the information throughput sustained by each peer-to-peer active link. In addition. the main appealing features of the SDMA scheme we propose may be so summarized. Furthermore. • The proposed SDMA scheme is fully scalable. thus meaning that it is self-reconfiguring when nodes leave or new nodes join the network. Although the Game Theory approach has been already employed for solving power-control problems in wireless networks [1. we resort to the formal framework of the strategic non cooperative Game Theory [13] for modelling the mutual interactions between network nodes.5. Since no cooperation is assumed among nodes. and asynchronous.4. • The proposed SDMA scheme combines (in an optimized way) power-control and spatial signal-shaping (in a statistic sense) of the multiplexed data streams to be transmitted.28]. the proposed SDMA scheme is self-reconfiguring. so to match to the changes of the network topology induced by nodes mobility. the proposed SDMA scheme is also fault-tolerant.20]. to be new [27. indeed. since each transmit node dynamically updates the spatial shaping of the radiated streams. in this contribution the topic concerning the optimized estimate of the path-gain coefficients of each MIMO link active in the network is also addressed. and the effects of errors possibly affecting the channel-estimations available at the transmit/receive nodes is explicitly taken into account in the developed SDMA protocol. when the QoS users requirements (measured in terms of requested throughput) cannot be sustained by the 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . This feature of the presented SDMA scheme is still retained even when the channel estimates available at the transmit/receive nodes are affected by errors. So doing. Hence. nevertheless.

the Nash Equilibrium of the underlying strategic Game) are also provided in Sect. after shortly reviewing in Sect. Organization of the work The remainder of this paper is organized as follows.. specially in MAI-limited application scenarios. where some final hints for future investigations are also suggested. In Sect. in Sect.VII. capital letters denote 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT .g..g. the fully distributed and scalable feature of the presented SDMA scheme is employed to develop two novel Connection Admission Procedures (CAPs) for Ad-hoc networks.III. few words about the adopted notation.V the MAI model of [16] for Ad-hoc networks. MIMO TDMA.g.7 network. The performance of the proposed SDMA scheme in terms of conveyed network throughput is tested in Sect.. time-invariant) MAI. In the sequel. Thus. while the evaluation of conveyed information throughput of Ad-hoc networks affected by MAI is carried out in Sect. orthogonal) MAC schemes (such as CSMA/CA(s)..VI we present an iterative Game Theory-based SDMA algorithm for the optimal (e. The system model is given in Sect. Before proceeding. where its self-reconfiguring and faulttolerating capabilities are also pointed out. Analytical conditions for the convergence of the network state towards a stable point (e.II. Finally. • Several numerical tests are provided for supporting the carried out analysis. They lead to the conclusion that the proposed SDMA scheme outperforms the conventional collision-free (e. MIMO CDMA) in terms of peer-to-peer conveyed throughput.VI and proved in the final Appendices. The proposed CAPs are able to optimally balance (in a competitive sense) the number of allowed connections (fairness property) and the QoS requirements of each connection. the proposed SDMA scheme automatically shifts the working point of the network (represented by the delivered throughput) to the next-close-sustainable one.IV the optimized transmit power-allocation is characterized when a single transmit/receive pair is impaired by ”static” (e.VIII. MIMO FDMA. throughput maximizing) distributed and asynchronous power-allocation and signal-shaping of all peer-topeer active links. The above mentioned distributed CAPs are presented in the conclusive Sect. D.g.

for low-mobility applications. Each path gain hji ∈ C1 .8 matrices.16]. The MAI effect on the link of Fig. and by a MIMO slow-variant Rayleigh flat faded radio channel1 impaired by (additive) MAI caused by the neighboring active transmit nodes. from transmit antenna i to receive one j is modelled as a zero-mean unit-variance complex random variable (r. lower-case underlined symbols are for vectors. so that they are affected by MAI. Im denotes the (mxm) identity matrix.. while characters overlined by arrow → mean block-matrices and block-vectors. Furthermore.v. Apexes ∗ . II.1 is dependent on the network topology [16]. Finally. 1 ≤ i ≤ t..3. transposition and conjugate-transposition respectively. the path gains may be also considered time-invariant over T ≥ 1 signalling periods. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . ||A||E is the Euclidean norm of the matrix A [6]. Furthermore.) [2. while vect(A) is the (block) vector obtained by the ordered stacking of the columns of matrix A. T HE N ETWORK M ODEL The considered scenario is a wireless Ad-hoc network [9]. while lower-case letters indicate scalar quantities. serving quasi-static (or nomadic) users [11. the (complex base-band equivalent) point-to-point radio channel from a transmit node Tx to a receive one Rx is sketched in Fig. am ]. since the path gains {hji } and MAI may assume different values 1 By referring to Fig.1. Specifically. † are used for denoting conjugation.1. Anyway. n) is used for denoting the Kroenecker delta. A ⊗ B represents the Kronecker product [6]. It is composed by transmit and receive units equipped with t ≥ 1 and r ≥ 1 antennas respectively. 0m is the m-dimensional zero-vector. The resulting ”block-fading” model describes the main features of several packet-based networks. and in the considered scenario it is assumed to be constant over (at least) the transmission time of an overall packet [16]. T .1 [10]. det [A] and T ra[A] mean determinant and trace of the matrix A [a1 . lg indicates natural logarithm and δ(m. the assumption of flat fading may be considered reasonable when the RF bandwidth Bw of the radiated signals is less than the coherence bandwidth Bc of the MIMO forward channel of Fig. where multiple autonomous transmitreceive nodes need simultaneously to be linked over a limited-size hot-spot cell.11] and these gains may be assumed mutually independent when the antennas are properly far apart (see [10]). 1 ≤ j ≤ r.

during the Training Phase the transmit node of Fig. TL + 1 ≤ n ≤ TL + Ttr .9 over adjacent packets. to be used to estimate the (r × t) path gains {hji } of MIMO forward channel of Fig.1 is off.1.24] and. A. the transmitter Tx of Fig. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . we assume that all packets are composed by T ≥ 1 slots. Hence.II. The non-ideality is taken in account in [11] and it is not considered here. MAI plus thermal noise) may be evaluated by Rx during the Learning Phase via a sample average of the received signals and.11] 1 yj (n) = √ t t hji xi (n) + dj (n). 1 ≤ i ≤ t.1. it is communicated back to Tx via the (ideal)2 feedback link of Fig. (2) About this assumption it is reasonable to assume a separate channel for feedback signalling. so that the sampled (vector) signal received by Rx is just given by the combined effect of MAI and (white) thermal noise. the second Ttr ≥ 0 are employed for estimating the path gains {hji } of the MIMO channel (see Sect.1 do not know them at the beginning of each packet transmission. i=1 (1) where the corresponding overall disturbance (e. TL + 1 ≤ n ≤ TL + Ttr .. 1 ≤ j ≤ r} received by the j-th antenna of Rx during this phase may be modelled as [10.1 optimally shapes the pilot streams {xi (n) ∈ C1 . A comprehensive description of the Learning Phase may be found in [11. TL + 1 ≤ n ≤ TL + Ttr }.g. The resulting (sampled) signals {yj (n) ∈ C1 . 1 ≤ j ≤ r. at the end of the Learning Phase.B).II. and the last Tpay T − Ttr − TL are devoted to convey payload data (see Sect.A). The resulting (r × r) covariance matrix Kd of the overall disturbance (e. TL + 1 ≤ n ≤ TL + Ttr .g. due to space limitation. we suppose that Tx and Rx in Fig.. MAI vj (n) plus thermal noise wj (n) ) is given by dj (n) 2 vj (n) + wj (n). The Training Phase On the basis of the MAI covariance matrix Kd received at the end of the Learning Phase. will be not replicated here. 1 ≤ j ≤ r .14. where the first TL ≥ 0 are used by the receiver for learning the MAI statistics. During the Learning Phase.

g. The radiated pilot streams {xi (n)} in (1) are assumed power-constrained as in [10. independent identically distributed (i. The resulting MMSE channel estimation errors {εji ˆ hji − hji . it follows that the pilot matrix X in (5) must satisfy the power constrain T ra[XX ] ≤ tTtr P . and the (Ttr × r) matrix D {dj (n)} in (2) arising from MAI plus noise.. directly from (3). ˆ the resulting matrix estimate H is communicated back by Rx to the transmitter Tx of Fig. at n = TL + Ttr ). [h1 .10 is independent from the path gains {hji } of the forward MIMO channel. (3)) γj = P /kjj . † (6) ˜ As detailed in [11].i.d.. t where X H (5) [x1 .hr ] is the (t × r) matrix composed by the path gains {hji } in (1) of the considered [d1 . 1 ≤ j ≤ r. the resulting signal to interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) γj measured at the receive antenna j equates (see eqs. At the end of the Training Phase (e. the training observations Y in (5) are employed by the receive node Rx ˆ for computing the Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) matrix estimate H E{H|Y} of the MIMO channel matrix H in (5). j (6.... Hence. Thus.1) DRAFT . for any i.dr ] is composed by the disturbance samples MIMO channel... As shown in [10].(2). (4) where kjj is the j-th diagonal entry of the MAI covariance matrix Kd . TL + 1 ≤ n ≤ TL + Ttr .11] 1 Y = √ XH + D.1. complex.1 via the (ideal) feedback link of Fig.yr ] defined as in [10.xt ] is the (Ttr × t) matrix gathering the transmitted pilot symbols {xi (n)} in (1). i=1 (3) with P being the maximum power level radiable by each transmit antenna during the Training Phase.11] 1 t t ||xi (n)||2 ≤ P . 1 ≤ j ≤ r. the Ttr ×r (complex) samples in (1) received at the output of all receive antennas during the Training Phase may be collected into a (Ttr × r) observation matrix Y ≡ [y1 ... 1 ≤ i ≤ t} are zero-mean.) Gaussian random variables with variance 2 σε 29 agosto 2006 ˆ E{||εji ||2 } ≡ E{||hji −hji ||2 } = (1+a/t)−1 .

The statistical properties of {dj (n)} are the same ones we have described for the Learning Phase. 1 ≤ j ≤ r.. i=1 (8) then the resulting SINR γj measured at the output of j-th receive antenna equates γj = P/kjj . at n = TL + Ttr + 1). 1 ≤ j ≤ r. after assuming the payload streams power-constrained as in [2] 1 t t E{||φi (n)||2 } ≤ P. TL + Ttr + 1 ≤ n ≤ T.. TL + Ttr + 1 ≤ n ≤ T }. (7) where the sequences dj (n) vj (n) + wj (n). For this purpose. and φ(n) [y1 (n). The Payload Phase At the beginning of the Payload Phase (e.φt (n)]T be the (t×1) column vector of the (sampled) payload streams (9) radiated by the Tx node. and then radiate them.g. B. i=1 TL + Ttr + 1 ≤ n ≤ T. let y(n) in (7).. 1 ≤ j ≤ r. from 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT .dr (n)]T . Furthermore.g. The corresponding sampled signals {yj (n) ∈ C1 .. and it is going to transmit the current packet M (see Fig.. the Tx node of Fig. from (7) they are related as in 1 y(n) = √ HT φ(n) + d(n). where kjj is the j-th diagonal entry of MAI-plus-noise covariance matrix Kd .11 where a ˜ Ttr P T ra[K−1 ] d r (see [11] for more details on this point). 1 ≤ j ≤ r.11] 1 yj (n) = √ t t hji φi (n) + dj (n).1). t where {d(n) (10) [d1 (n).. received at Rx may be modelled as [10. TL + Ttr + 1 ≤ n ≤ T.1 ˆ has already acquired the current values of both Kd and H matrices. it has to ”shape” the corresponding payload streams {φi (n) ∈ C1 . Thus. Now. denote the overall disturbances (e. Furthermore. TL + Ttr + 1 ≤ n ≤ T }. TL +Ttr +1 ≤ n ≤ T } is the temporally-white spatially-colored Gaussian disturbance sequence with spatial covariance matrix given by Kd . and the disturbance samples in (7) are independent from the path gains {hji } and radiated payload streams {φi } [10]...yr (n)]T be the (r × 1) column vector collecting the r scalar quantities [φ1 (n). 1 ≤ i ≤ t. MAI vj (n) plus thermal noise wj (n)) received during n-th slot of the Payload Phase.

(8) the (t × t) spatial covariance matrix Rφ E{φ(n)φ(n)† } of the t-dimensional signal vector radiated by Tx over a slot time is power-constrained as in T ra[Rφ ] E{φ(n)† φ(n)} ≤ tP. (11) Finally.12 eq.NODE I NFORMATION T HROUGHPUT IN THE PRESENCE OF CHANNEL .yT (T ) . . the average Shannon’s capacity C of the MIMO channel (12) can be expressed as ˆ C = E{C(H)} ≡ ˆ where p(H) = 1 2 π(1−σε ) rt ˆ ˆ ˆ C(H)p(H)dH. we can compactly express the Tpay relationships in 1 → − → T − → − = √ [I y T pay ⊗ H] φ + d . (15) 1 ˆ†ˆ exp − (1−σ2 ) T ra[H H] is the Gaussian probability density function ε ˆ (pdf) of the channel estimates H [11].II used for modelling the MIMO channel of Fig. t (12) dT (TL + Ttr + 1) . so that the corresponding Shannon capacity C (nats/slots) dictates the ultimate information throughput conveyed by the MIMO link Tx → Rx of Fig..1 during the Payload Phase [7]. and the random variable ˆ C(H) 1 → → − ˆ sup I − . P ER .ESTIMATION ERRORS AND SPATIALLY COLORED MAI The block-fading model of Sect. φT (T ) T T T (10) as follows: → − where the (block) covariance matrix of the disturbance (block) vector d equates →→ − − E{ d ( d )† } = ITpay ⊗ Kd . by resorting to quite standard approaches [7]... Therefore. (14) III. (nats/slot).. by stacking the Tpay observed vectors in (10) into the corresponding (Tpay r × 1) block → vector − y yT (TL + Ttr + 1) . φ |H . (nats/slot) y Tpay → →→ − − †− φ :E{ φ φ }≤tTpay P (16) 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . → − while the squared average Euclidean norm of the (block) vector φ in (12) collecting the transmitted payload signals is bounded as in (see (11)) →→ − †− E{ φ φ } ≤ Tpay tP.1 results to be information stable [8].dT (T ) (13) φT (TL + Ttr + 1) . TL + Ttr + 1 ≤ n ≤ T. .

. In this case. the resulting → → − ˆ conditional mutual information I − . when no exact channel estimates are available (e. (19) DRAFT . (18) d t t when at least one of the following conditions is met: a) 29 agosto 2006 both Tpay and t are large. in the sequel we proceed to evaluate the sup in (16) under the assumption of Gaussian distributed input signals. Anyway. in general. → − the pdf of the input signals φ attaining the sup in (16) is currently unknown.g. φ |H in (16) resists closed-form computation [10]. However. Thus. the Tpay components {φ(n) ∈ Ct . Proposition 1.g. (nats/slot). Therefore. φ |H in (16) of the MIMO channel (12) when Gaussian y input signals are employed is given by the following closed-form relationship (see [11]): → → − ˆ I − . H = H ). going to evaluate TG (H) in (17). → → − ˆ the conditional mutual information I − . the above inequality ˆ is satisfied as equality when at least one of the above cited two operating conditions (e. Finally. so that we have TG (H) ≤ C(H). we know that Gaussian distributed input ˆ signals achieve the sup in (16) also when (H = H) as long as the length Tpay of the payload phase (largely) exceeds the number t of transmit antennas (see [10] about this asymptotic result). Therefore. y However. The corresponding information throughput ˆ TG (H) 1 Tpay → → − ˆ sup I − . y T ra[R ]≤P t φ (17) conveyed by the MIMO channel (12) for Gaussian input signals generally falls below the ˆ ˆ ˆ Shannon’ Capacity C(H) in (16). TL +Ttr +1 ≤ n ≤ T } in → − (10) of the overall signal vector φ in (12) are uncorrelated zero-mean proper complex Gaussian vectors.13 is the Shannon capacity of the MIMO link Tx → Rx of Fig.10]. H = H ˆ and/or Tpay >> t) is met. φ |H . in [11] the following result is proved. Unfortunately.1 conditioned on the current values ˆ H of the available channel estimates. φ |H = y 1 −1/2 ˆ T σ 2 Tpay −1 ∗ ˆ ∗ −1/2 2 = Tpay lg det Ir + Kd H Rφ H Kd +σε P K−1 −lg det Irt + ε (Kd ) ⊗Rφ . with correlation matrix Rφ meeting (11). even for the simplest case of spatially white MAI [2. Let the spatial correlation matrix Rφ in (11) be assigned. ·|·) in (16) denotes the mutual information ˆ operator [7].. we remark that. I(·.

according to (17).14] that an application of the Kuhn-Tucker conditions [7] allows to compute the powers {P (m).. where UA and VA are unitary matrices. will be not replicated here. . µr }. all SINRs γj . 0t−s }.. 1 ≤ j ≤ r. Towards this end... ≥ ks > 0 of A. we begin to indicate as Kd = Ud Λd U† . A be the corresponding SVD.14 b) c) ˆ H approaches H. in (14) vanish. and DA diag{k1 . .. after introducing the (t × r) matrix A ˆ ∗ −1/2 H Kd Ud . let A = UA DA V† .. (24) ˆ accounting for the effects of both imperfect channel estimate H and spatial MAI Kd . it can be proved [11. ks . 1 ≤ l ≤ r. Finally. 1 ≤ m ≤ s. IV.. for sake of brevity. O PTIMIZED P OWER -A LLOCATION AND S IGNAL -S HAPING IN THE PRESENCE OF COLORED MAI AND C HANNEL -E STIMATION ERRORS Therefore.1 for 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . let us also introduce the following dummy positions: αm 2 µm km . Thus.. (20) (21) A proof of Proposition 1 is given in [14] and. 2 t(µm + P σε ) βl 2 σε Tpay . let us carry out the power-constrained sup of the conditional throughput in (18). tµl (27) Thus. t} magnitude-ordered singular-values k1 ≥ k2 ≥ . 1 ≤ m ≤ t} to be radiated by t antennas of Tx in Fig. (23) (22) is the (r × r) diagonal matrix composed by the magnitude-ordered singular values of Kd . d the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of the MAI spatial covariance matrix Kd . (26) (25) is the (t × r) diagonal matrix built up by the s min{r. where Λd diag{µ1 .

(29) is set so to satisfy the following power constrain (see eq... m∈I(ρ) (30) where I(ρ) 2 {m = 1. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . ... Proposition 2... .P (s). (21) is met.1 is aligned along the right-eigenvectors of matrix A according to Rφ (opt) = UA diag{P (1). αm Furthermore.. d ρ 1 rρβmin − αm αm Tpay . A (32) so that the resulting maximum information throughput in (17) can be evaluated via the following closed-form relationship: r ˆ TG (H) = m=1 σ2P 1 1+ ε + lg(1 + αm P (m)) − µm Tpay m=1 s r lg 1 + βl P (m) l=1 (nats/slot). Finally. 0t−s }U† . These optimized powers are detailed by the following Proposition 2. (28) P (m) = 1 βmin L − 1 + 2βmin 2 when km > 1 + {βmin L}2 + 4βmin ρ − 2 σε P µm t 2 + σε T ra[K−1 ] . Let us assume that at least one of conditions (19). s : km > 1 + 2 σε P µm t 2 + σε T ra[K−1 ] }. d ρ (31) is the set composed by m indexes meeting the inequality in (29).. ..14].(8)): P (m) ≤ P t. while for m = 1. the radiated powers {P (m)} achieving the sup in (17) vanish. d ρ r Tpay (29) where βmin min{βl . r} and L 1− ρ− 1 . ..15 achieving the sup in (17).. . s they are given by the following expressions: 2 P (m) = 0. the resulting optimal spatial correlation matrix Rφ (opt) shaping the signal radiated by Tx in Fig. t. when km ≤ 1 + 2 σε P µm t 2 + σε T ra[K−1 ] . Thus. l = 1. for m = s + 1. the nonnegative scalar parameter ρ in (28). (20)... (33) A proof of the results reported by Proposition 2 may be found in [11.

1]. 1 ≤ f. More in detail. A T OPOLOGY-BASED MAI MODEL FOR M ULTI -A NTENNA AD . after denoting as l(f. +∞) is the Rice-factor of the link Txf → Rxg . Specifically. according to the fast-fading spatial interference model developed in [16]. pointto-point3 links Txf → Rxf . g)φ(f ) (n) + w(g) (n). g) = 1 represents the worst case where MAI induced by Txf on Rxg is maximal.f =g (g) l(g. Specifically. while rf is the number of the antennas equipping the corresponding Rxf node.v. φ(f ) (n) is the tf -dimensional (Gaussian distributed) signal radiated by Txf . g) in (34) denotes the Rice-distributed fast-fading phenomena of the link Txf → Rxg . In a realistic scenario each node can act as transmit/receive one. while the elements of the (tf × rg ) matrix H(sc) (f. g)HT (f. we may assume the coefficient χ(f. Therefore. The (tf × rg ) matrix H(f. g) H(sp) (f. so that the signal vector received by node Rxg is the combined effect of the desired MIMO signal radiated by Txg and the (n∗ − 1) interfering MIMO signals generated by all other transmit nodes.16]. accounting for the scattering phenomena present on the link Txf → Rxg . g) 1 H(sc) (f.2 that captures the keyfeatures of the spatial MAI affecting MIMO Ad-hoc networks [9. g) captures the shadowing effects4 impairing the link Txf → Rxg .2 is composed by n∗ noncooperative. In detail. 4 Without loss of generality.s. 1 + k(f. 1 ≤ f ≤ n∗ . mutually interfering.HOC N ETWORKS To test the actual effectiveness of the power-allocation and signal-shaping results previously reported in Proposition 2. the Ad-hoc network of Fig. g) (35) where k(f. g) ∈ [0. thus the resulting rg -dimensional disturbance d(g) (n) in (10) received by Rxg may be modelled as in (see [16]) N d (n) = f =1. each transmit node Txf is assumed to be equipped with tf antennas. tg (34) where w(g) (n) denotes the thermal noise. g) l(f. χ(f. according 3 Without loss of generality we assume transmitters and receivers separately. g) 4 1 √ χ(f. g) in (34) may be modelled as in (see [16]) H(f. g) + 1 + k(f. g) are mutually independent zero-mean unit-variance Gaussian r. So in this analysis the same results can be obtained by exchanging transmitters and receivers. g) falls into the interval [0.16 V. g ≤ n∗ . g). we consider the application scenario of Fig. g) the length of the link Txf → Rxg . 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . and χ(f. Furthermore. g) ≡ k(f. this channel matrix H(f. according to [16].

b(f.g) 4 χ2 (f. g) = [1. g) are the arrival and departure angles of the link Txf → Rxg (see Fig. more realistic than those generally adopted by the IEEE802. g) are the (tf × 1) and (rg × 1) column vectors describing the specular array responses of Rxg and Txf . g ≤ n∗ . g) in (35) accounts for the (MIMO) specular component of the signal received by Rxg . for example. [29] and references therein). exp(j2πν cos(θd (f. (36).17]. g)b (f. and φ by Txf .. and it can be modelled as in (see [16]) H(sp) (f. indeed. the (tf × rg ) matrix H(sp) (f. g)))]T .2). g)))]T . .g) l(f. 1+k(f. (36) where a(f.. respectively [16].g) P (f ) Irg + 1+k(f. g) .g) ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ (f ) ∗ k(f. where the transmission range of any transmit node is supposed circular and 5 Several measures support the conclusion that ν values of the order of 1/2 generally suffice to meet the above mentioned uncorrelation assumption among rays impinging the receive antennas. g) and b(f. In particular. g). g) = [1. basing on the model (35). at least in application scenarios as those here considered where the terminals are (approximately) co-located at the same level over the ground [10. (37) (38) where θa (f. Thus. g))). exp(j2πν(rf − 1) cos(θa (f.g) tf φ ⎪ ⎭ f =1 f =g ≡ ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ N0 + n∗ l(g.g) l(f. g)bT (f.g) χ2 (f. R (f ) E φ(f ) (n) φ(f ) (n) † is the spatial covariance matrix of the MIMO signals radiated The resulting spatial MAI model in (39) implies that each transmit node induces MAI on all receive nodes different from the intended one..11-oriented literature (see. .17 to [16]. N 0 (watt/Hz) is the thermal noise level at Rxg . We consider this model. g)a (f. the above vectors may be directly evaluated as [16] a(f. g) ≡ a(f. g).16. g)R b (f. 1 ≤ f. the resulting MAI covariance matrix Kd measured at Rxg is given by the following relationship: Kd = E d(g) (n) d(g) (n) ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ + n∗ 4 (g) ∆ † (g) ⎪ f =1 ⎩ f =g l(g. while ν is the antennas spacing in multiple of the RF wavelength5 . exp(j2πν(rg − 1) cos(θd (f. g))). exp(j2πν cos(θa (f.g) T T a(f.g) ⎪ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ (39) where P (f ) is the power radiated by Txf . when regularly spaced linear arrays with isotropic elements are used. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT .. θd (f.

g (40) Therefore. the MAI correlation matrix seen by each receive node varies with the signal correlation matrices generated by all (e. g ∈ N of possible actions for each player and a A1 × A2 × .13]: a finite {1. Being power-allocation and signalshaping performed by each transmit node depending on the MAI covariance matrix measured by the corresponding receiver. T HE S PATIAL P OWER -A LLOCATION M ULTI -A NTENNA (SPAM) G AME FOR AD . it is important to ensure the dynamic stability of the overall game. a−g ) maps6 each action profile a into a real number [13]. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . since there is no cooperation among the players. A concept related to this issue is the so-called Nash 6 The notation ug (ag . a−g ) emphasizes that the g-th player controls only own action ag . indeed. the main reason behind the MAI model we adopt here is that a (very) large number of interferes might cause negligible MAI individually. but their aggregate effect could straightly affect the quality of the on-going desired transmissions. A. this conclusion. Thus. according g to the following game rule [13]: a• ≡ maxag ∈Ag ug (ag . Hence. to properly model this nodes interaction. × An∗ the space of set of utility functions. . 2.HOC NETWORKS In an Ad-hoc network with multiple no cooperating mutually interfering peer-to-peer links. . a set Ag . after indicating by a ∈ A an action profile. . we can say that ug (a) ≡ ug (ag . We recall that a noncooperative and strategic game G set N N. By fact.13].18 beyond that range no MAI at all is assumed to be induced. . n∗ } of players. after denoting as A action profiles [13]. VI. Specifically. The numerical results we present in the sequel support. a−g ). {ug } has three components [5. let us indicate as ug : A → R the g-th player’s utility function. .g. thus a change in the transmit correlation matrix of one link induces changes in the signal correlation matrices of all other links. but his achieved utility depends also on the actions a−g taken by all other players [5. In particular.. . by ag ∈ Ag the players g’s action in a and by a−g the actions in a of the other (n∗ − 1) players. in a strategic noncooperative game each player chooses a suitable action a• from his action set Ag so to maximize its utility function. we resort to the analytical framework of the Strategic Game Theory [5]. desired plus interfering) transmit nodes.

. so we can pose φ Ag ≡ {R : 0 ≤ T ra[R ] ≤ tg Pg }.5]. Furthermore...5]. φ φ (g) (g) (g) (41) (42) This means that the generic action ag of Txg consists in the transmission of a Gaussian distributed payload sequence with covariance matrix R .g.. .2 composed by n∗ mutually interfering transmit/receive Multi-Antenna units. . an NE is an action profile a such that for all ag ∈ Ag the following inequality is satisfied [5. ∀ag ∈ Ag . an NE is a stable operating point of the Game. n∗ .. φ |Hg y φ φ φ Tpay 1 (g)−1/2 ˆ T (g) ˆ ∗ (g)−1/2 (g)−1 2 (Kd )Hg R Hg (Kd ) + σε (g)P (g) (Kd ) φ tf DRAFT (g) ≡ lg det Irg + 29 agosto 2006 . R ) ≡ I − (g) . we may model the interaction between transmit/receive pairs active over the network as a noncooperative strategic game [1. g = 1. R .(18)) ug (a) 1 → (1) (g) (n∗ ) → − (g) ˆ ug (R ... .) for the gφ th transmit/receive pair is the conditional throughput conveyed by the g-th link.13]..4. The considered networking Game Let us focus now on the Ad-hoc network of Fig. Simply stated.. .19 Equilibrium (NE). in the considered Ad-hoc networking scenario of Fig. the players’ set N is composed by the n∗ transmit/receive pairs. the utility function ug (. More formally. because no player has any profit to change his strategy [4. n∗ .2. the transmitters do not cooperate). i = g} and the Ad-hoc nature of the network does not allow transmitters to exchange information (e. while the set Ag of actions available to the the g-th player is the set of all the covariance matrices {R } meeting the power constraint (11). Since the signals radiated by the g-th transmitter induces MAI over all other receivers {Rxi . A. Specifically. a−g ). So. sustained by the corresponding link Txg → Rxg via suitable power-allocation and shaping of the signals radiated by Txg . a−g ) ≥ ug (ag . a Nash Equilibrium is an action profile a at which no player may gain by unilaterally deviating [5. The ultimate task of the g-th transmit/receive pair is to maximize the information throughput TG (g). g = 1.. so that we can write (see eq. 13]: ug (ag . ∀g ∈ N...

g = 1. few remarks about the considered network model of Fig. each player (e. to resort to the concept of contracted QoS. it is more reasonable.g. routing is no considered in our analysis. indeed. B.n∗ . Before proceeding. transmitter Txg ) chooses the action R maximizing the throughput φ (43) conveyed by own link. .. fading. Thus. the SDMA algorithm we present attempts to achieve the target throughput classes dictated by the MAC layer and. since the performance of the SDMA scheme we go to present depends only on the singlehop links quality. Firstly. Secondly.. Specifically. defined according to predefined multiple QoS classes. the main target of the proposed SDMA scheme is to maximize (in a competitive sense) the information throughput of each single-hop peer-to-peer link in the presence of MAI. we focus on single-hop (e.. in Adhoc networks with no centralized controllers it may be not possible to guarantee to any user the requested QoS.20 2 σε (g)Tpay (g) (g) ((Kd )−1 )∗ ⊗ R .2. shortcut) transmissions. thus meaning that broadcasting and multicasting are out of the scope of our analysis. some remarks about the considered QoS policies are in order. (44) (g)• Before proceeding. path loss. Specifically. A Competitive Optimal distributed SDMA Algorithm under the Best Effort and ContractedQoS access Policies In this sub-Section we present the algorithm for an optimized SDMA for the networking scenario of Fig. the packet generated by each transmit node is intended for a single receive node only. we assume that at any time. in place of guaranteed users’ QoS. i = φ g} of the signals radiated by the interfering transmitters as detailed by (39). and channel estimation errors. About the rule of the game.g. φ tg (i) − 1 Tpay lg det Irg tg + (g) (43) where the g-th MAI covariance matrix Kd depends on the spatial covariance matrices {R . the algorithm attempts to achieve the next lower QoS classes by decreasing the throughput requested by the 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT .2.. In fact. φ |Hg ≡ arg max y φ (g) Rφ ∈Ag Tpay . We consider the QoS from an information throughput point of view. In fact. if these classes are not achievable due to the MAI. so we can write (see (45)) 1 → (g)• → − (g) ˆ R I − (g) .

In the Steps from 18 to 22 the convergence of the SDMA algorithm towards the NE is checked. etc. Distributed and Asynchronous implementation of the SPAM Game Let us assume that the SDMA algorithm reported in Table I is iteratively run (possibly. the third one. Otherwise.B). see Sect. Finally. Txg reduces the overall radiated power of an assigned step-size ∆l and restarts the game. in an asynchronous way) by all transmit/receive pairs active over the network of Fig. If the obtained throughput is below the requested one T RT H . If it is compliant. the (1) (z) (z−1) (z) (z) 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . the transmitter Txg restarts the game with a target throughput T RT H lower than the original one T RT H . Specifically.2. in Table I the Steps from 0 to 11 are set-up procedures and eigen/singular values computations. the Nash Equilibrium exists. From this point of view.. Step 24 checks if the achieved throughput is compliant with the QoS requirement. It must be run by each transmit/receive pair active over the network of Fig. Hence. then the game stops. and at Step 23 the maximized information throughput sustained by g-th link is evaluated. Step 12 verifies that the Game is playable (e. In particular. and the Steps from 16 to 18 perform the competitive optimal power-allocation and spatial signal-shaping for the link Txg → Rxg .21 users. while Steps 13 and 14 set up the ρ parameter. Thus.g. The SDMA algorithm for achieving the maximal throughput over the g-th link under the above mentioned contracted QoS policy is reported in Table I. while T RT H (nats/slot) at the Step 0 is the target throughput defining the z-th QoS class. this algorithm is successively run by the second pair Tx2 → Rx2 . C.VI. I(ρ) and the step size ∆ requested to carry out the power-allocation procedure. the Best Effort strategy is a particular case of the contracted QoS one. The condition at Step 15 assures that the power meets the constraint (11). the first Tx1 → Rx1 pair begins to update its power-allocation and signal-shaping by running the algorithm of Table I. after measuring the impairing MAI covariance matrix Kd . where the number of QoS classes approaches infinity.2.

.. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . 1 ≤ g ≤ n∗ . the second one and so on7 . the g-th transmit/receive pair of Fig. tg3 . after indicating by Υ Υ2 . Proposition 3 . Thus. let following three conditions be met: (g)2 km > 1 + 2 σε (g)P (g) (g) µm t ρ(g) 2 + σε (g)T ra[(Kd )−1 ] .By referring to the asynchronous and distributed implementation of the SPAM Game reported by Table II. (46) (47) Thus. τ3 . {τ1 . 1 ≤ g ≤ n∗ . (45) (g) rg ≥ tg . possibly in a random way [13]. the key questions are: • • • Does Nash Equilibrium exist for the SPAM Game? Is the Nash Equilibrium unique? Does the above iterative algorithm converge towards the Nash Equilibrium? The following Proposition 3 gives sufficient conditions for the existence. . Tpay >> tg > 1 and/or 2 σε (g) → 0..22 algorithm is applied again by the first pair. Υn∗ sorted in increasing order. the distributed and asynchronous implementation of the SPAM Game of Table II converges to 7 In an asynchronous implementation of the game. Furthermore. the Nash Equilibrium of the SPAM Game of Table II exists and is unique. 1 ≤ g ≤ n∗ . about the asynchronous and distributed implementation of the SPAM Game reported in Table II. τ2 . tg2 . uniqueness and achievement of the Nash Equilibrium. 1 ≤ m ≤ min{rg .. Thus.} with tgi < tg( i+1) . in the fully asynchronous and distributed implementation of the SPAM Game. Formally.2 executes the power-control and signal-shaping algorithm of Table I at time instances given by the set Υg {tg1 . the updating ordering may also change from time to time. tg }..} the overall set of updating instants Υ1 the asynchronous and distributed implementation of the considered SPAM Game generates the sequence of power-allocations and signal-shapings following the iterative procedure detailed in Table II..

N UMERICAL TESTS ON THE CONVEYED NETWORK THROUGHPUT AND CONVERGENCE Numerical tests have been carried out in order to evaluate the the performance of the SPAM Game of Table II both in terms of achieved network throughput and self-reconfiguring/faulttolerating capability. At the beginning (e. VII. This point represents the (first) Nash Equilibrium for the considered squared topology and it has reached after 23 iterations (see Fig. Next.4.23 the NE from any starting point. we introduced an additional change in the network topology.4).V has been adopted to (numerically) generate the MAI. It is composed by two transmit/receive pairs equipped with t=4 and r=8 transmit/receive antennas and operating at SNR=10dB with Tpay = 120. 2) = 0. In this case. After. 2) = 0. A Proof of this proposition is reported in the final Appendix II. see Fig. the link Tx2 → Rx2 turns on. by running the SPAM Game we obtain an average information throughput around 18 bits/slots for the first link (see Fig.3). Next. at iteration 0). 1) = 1. so that χ2 (1. A. As it can be seen by Fig. so the throughput over the Tx1 → Rx1 link decreases (till to 13 bits/slots. the network self-reconfigures and new Nash Equilibrium (achieved at the 60th iteration) is characterized by different values of the achieved throughput over the active links. we considered an operating scenario with χ2 (1..3 depicts the basic squared network considered for the tests. only the first transmit/receive pair is assumed to be on (see Fig.g. 1) = 1. the network topology changes and a barrier is introduced between the the second transmitter and first receiver. while the throughput sustained by the second link Tx2 → Rx2 is (obviously) zero. The model of Sect. Next. The obtained results are detailed in the following sub-Sections.8 and χ2 (2. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . Conveyed Average Throughput and self-reconfiguring/fault-tolerating capability Fig.4). while the (average) throughput of the Tx2 → Rx2 link increases till the same value of 13 bits/slot. The numerical tests have been carried out under the Best Effort policy.4). the SPAM Game gives arise to an information throughput over the link Tx1 → Rx1 limited up to 14.4).3 bits/slot (see Fig. Thus.6 while χ2 (2.

. for a given statistical description of the network links and a set of constraints on the network input statistics (power.24 so that both receivers do not suffer from MAI (e. some considerations about this point may be found in [25]. 2) = χ2 (2.. However. n∗ active in the ad-hoc network of Fig..5 reports the achievable throughput regions of the considered squared network for different values of the shadowing factors χ2 (1. so that the network assumes an hexagonal topology (see Fig. the corresponding achievable throughput region of the overall network is the closure of all average information throughput n∗ -ples (TG (1). Thus. The new NE achieved by running the SPAM Game approaches 8. By fact. 1) = 0 in Fig.4). Finally. B. About the convergence property.13].19]. Fig.3). n∗ = 2) multi-antenna (e. χ2 (1. The Achievable Throughput Region The set of simultaneous average throughput achieved by the n∗ peer-to-peer links Txg → Rxg . closed-form analytical evaluation.. Barring some partial contributions. g = 1. . TG (2)) that the links active over the considered network may guarantee when the 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT .3 bits/slot for all active links (see Fig. till now no closed-form analytical formulas are available for the computation of the achievable throughput region of an interference network as that sketched in Fig. in this sub-Section we comment some results we have numerically obtained for a squared network composed by two (e.g. Specifically. etc. Roughly speaking.4). 1)... .g.. pdf.g. where the throughput conveyed by both links equates 19. active over the network [9. the sustained links throughput increase so to approach a new NE. indeed..3]. In this operating condition. TG (n∗ )) that can be simultaneously sustained by the peer-to-peer links Txg → Rxg ..18... this question is still open and till now the convergence rate seems to resist. n∗ . These regions represent the 2-ples of average information throughput (TG (1). an interesting still open question concerns the convergence rate of the SPAM Game towards the NE for increasing values of the number k of performed iterations (see Table III). 2) = χ2 (2. we assumed that a third pair of trasmit/receive units switch on.). t1 = t2 = r1 = r2 = 4) transmit/receive units.3).2 bits/slot (see Fig.2 may be described by resorting to the concept of achievable throughput region [2. .2 [12. g = 1.

C.. we may conclude that at χ2 (1.4 supports for the superiority of competitively optimal access strategies over collision-free ones.. by fact.5.-TDMA comparison of Fig.5). Thus. TG (2)) fall out of the achievable throughput region of Fig. being the implemented CSMA/CA(s) scheme collision-free (e. SPAM Game-vs.25 proposed SPAM Game is run. perfectly MAI-free) and fair access under the MAI model of Sect. the throughput loss due to the exchange of RTS/CTS packets has been no accounted for in the reported numerical plots. fully MAI-free). nevertheless the average throughput are less than those guaranteed by SPAM Game. the SPAM Game-vs. 2) = χ2 (2. Furthermore. specially in MAI limited application scenarios. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . Overall. After comparing the throughput regions achieved by the proposed SPAM Game with those of the CSMA/CA(s) orthogonal access method (see the inner square in Fig. Thus. at least in networking scenarios where the spatial-dimension of the system may be efficiently exploited to perform MAI suppression.5 sustainable by the network. although CSMA/CA(s) is. the transmit/receive nodes are not aware in advance about the throughput region of Fig.g. a key question concerns the convergence of the operating point of SPAM Game when the requested initial throughput (TG (1).V. An examination of Fig.g. under Best Effort policy. TG (2)) and converges to 8 (0) (0) (0) (0) To really guarantee both collision-free (e. 1) < 0.g. It can be proved (see Appendix III of [25]) that.4 that reports the corresponding CSMA/CA(s) average throughput for the same previously considered networking scenarios 8 .4 shows that. in the carried out numerical tests the CSMA/CA(s) scheme we implemented schedules a single peer-to-peer link at a time and activates the scheduled link at maximum allowed power for an n -th of the time. neither this region may be analytically evaluated in closed-form. the operating point of the SPAM Game moves from (TG (1). D. collision-free. the corresponding throughput region of Fig. Convergence Property of the SPAM Game toward the nearest allowable operating point In actual application scenarios.7 (e.-CSMA/CA: a throughput comparison The above conclusion is also supported by the dotted line of Fig.5 is the largest one attainable by the CSMA/CA(s) policy.in the presence of strong MAI) the proposed SPAM Game outperforms the CSMA/CA(s) one in terms of conveyed average throughput..

while the second one (referred as Soft Connection Admission Procedure (SCAP)) is designed to maximize the number of allowed connections. and a new connection service request is incoming with the QoS class equal to z. then a new NE is approached.g. no changes of MAI covariance matrices are recognized). under the Contracted QoS policy. Thus. The HCAP’s flow chart is given in Table III. Afterwards. the other nodes already joined the network compute their own interference covariance matrix too. VIII. we propose two distributed CAPs for Ad-hoc networks based on the SPAM Game of Table II. which also evaluates its current interference covariance matrix Kd . it may be of interest to develop distributed and scalable CAPs. latency) allowed for the (successful) transmission of each MAC PDU. TG (2)) point (see the dotted arrow of Fig. Thus. 9 (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) The value assumed by the waiting time may be set (possibly in an adaptive way) by the MAC layer on the basis of the maximum delay (e. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . If convergence is reached (e. the algorithm given in Table I is implemented by the incoming (new) transmit node. then user with QoS class z needs to wait for a zT period before passing to next lower (z − 1) QoS class. D ISTRIBUTED C ONNECTION A DMISSION P ROCEDURES (CAP S ) AND C ONCLUSIONS Since the Ad-hoc networks do not adopt any centralized controller and the number of active nodes is random. the operating point of the SPAM Game moves from (TG (1). Otherwise.g. About this last. Likewise. In Table IV the flow-chart of SCAP is shown. the power-allocation algorithm starts again (see Table III). TG (2)) and converges to the point on the QoS grid at minimum distance from (TG (1). In this Section. The SCAP approach is quite similar to HCAP. If the resulting MAI matrices change. TG (2)) (see the dashed grid of Fig. The first one (referred as Hard Connection Admission Procedure (HCAP)) is devoted to benefit users asking for higher QoS classes.5)... balancing QoS users’ requirements and aggregate networking throughput.5). let us assume the network has just approached the NE.26 the point on the boundary of the throughput region at the minimum Euclidean distance from the initial (TG (1). each user waits for a time zT which is function9 of his current QoS class.

nevertheless the resulting network throughput is the highest one. The number of connections allowed by SCAP is greater than that attained via HCAP. regardless of QoS issues. the effect of multi-hop routing and relays [24] on the performance of the proposed SPAM Game is a topic currently investigated by the authors. Overall.E XISTENCE OF A NASH E QUILIBRIUM FOR THE SPAM G AME In order to prove the existence of a Nash Equilibrium for the distributed and asynchronous implementation of the SPAM Game reported in Table II. the TDMA gives the worst performance. The number of users when both SCAP and HCAP are employed is decreasing as the QoS user percentage is increasing. Specifically.Existence of a Nash Equilibrium 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . while collision-free access methods (such as. in Fig. Specifically.7 the users’ number is evaluated and expressed as a function of QoS users’ percentage.27 The only difference is given by the waiting time (that is inversely proportional to the required QoS class) and by the reduced number of classes. in this approach the user with highest class is the first to reduce the request of QoS class. From this point of view. A PPENDIX I . 8 confirm the above mentioned properties of the proposed CAPs.8 the resulting aggregated network throughput is reported. we report the following result from [1.7.13]. The SCAP connection number is higher than HCAP one. In Fig. it is likelihood to retain that the results presented in this paper only grasp the tip of the iceberg and much remains to be done. VII. Being the ultimate task of SCAP to maximize the overall number of allowed connections. TDMA) admit all requiring connections. but the network throughput is lower. in terms of aggregate network throughput. Although the number of connections attained by HCAP is the lowest one. Proposition 4 . VIII is that the proposed SPAM Game represents a distributed Multi-Antenna access strategy able to outperform (in terms of peer-to-peer throughput) the conventional collision-free ones. Fig. the final conclusion that arises from the performance tests described in Sects.8 shows that. The numerical plots of Figs.

. an NE exists if. for all g = 1. This set is closed.g. Condition (48) .. In fact. (g) (g) (g) (52) Condition (49) . φ φ (g) the null and the maximum R (max) matrix) included into the Ag set. . 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . it suffices to test the continuity of the two terms enclosed by φ φ (g) the squared brackets in (43). (50) Thus. Since both these terms are continuous in the g-th argument R φ (g) −1 (i) and. Ag is also convex. i = g}. n∗ : (48) (49) a) the set Ag is not empty. a−g ) is quasi − concave10 in ag ∈ Ag f or any assigned a−g . c) the utility f uncion ug (ag . b). our task is to prove that the SPAM Game of Table II meets all above a).28 Given an uncooperative strategic Game G N. Thus. A.. the φ closure property makes the set Ag compact. 0 ≤ λ ≤ 1. Kd is also continuous in {R . where T ra[R (max)] ≡ tg Pg ..) in (43) with respect to the (matrix) arguments {R .For all g values. We only stress that a concave function is also quasi-concave [15]. in addition. after taking two elements R (1) and R (2) of Ag .Since the function lg det [M] is continuous in the elements of the matrix M.) in (43) meets φ the continuity property (49). As a consequence. compact and convex. the set Ag is convex. tg Pg ].R }. b) the utility f uncion ug (a) is continuous over a ∈ A. Furthermore. (1) (n∗ ) 10 See [15] for the definition and main properties of the quasi-concave functions. being its boundary (e.. φ φ (g) (g) (51) also falls into Ag .. {ug } . the set of actions Ag in (42) is limited between the null and R (max) matrix. in order to prove the continuity of the utility function ug (. since its trace T ra[Rφ ] = λT ra[R (1)] + (1 − λ)T ra[R (2)]. we conclude that ug (. φ φ falls into the interval [0. then the resulting combined matrix φ φ Rφ (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) λR (1) + (1 − λ)R (2). c) conditions.

.. we resort to some basic results reported in [1. R ) ¤ [B• ](R ... .. Formally.) in (53) constitutes a standard function when it meets the following three properties: Positiveness: a) ∀a Monotonicity: b) if R ¤ R .. R ) φ φ (1) (n∗ ) (i) [Rφ (1)• . for any assigned n∗ -ple φ (i) (g)• {R . it suffices to prove that the utility function ug (.. To φ accomplish this task. or when (g) (g) (g) Tpay is large. . (53) According to [1.. These last considerations complete the proof about the existence of a NE for the SPAM Game of Table II..4] for more details) [B• ](R .. R ) ¤ 0. φ φ φ φ φ φ (g) (g) (1) (n∗ ) (1) (n∗ ) (R . Therefore. Rφ (n∗ )• ]T . so that ug (. then [B• ](R . φ φ φ φ (1) (n∗ ) (1) (n∗ ) (54) (55) 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . or when all the inequalities in (45) are met. we simply observe that the lg det[M] function is concave in M. R ) ∈ A. i = g} of interfering covariance signal matrices.4] about the so called standard functions. A PPENDIX II . . . ... .. .After recalling that a concave function is also quasi-concave [15]. i = 1. from an analytical point of view the matrix [B• ](.) in (48) is concave in R for any assigned Kd ..4].. then [B• ](R . n∗ } we may collect the resulting terminals best responses {R .29 Condition (50) . according to a current taxonomy [1. An examination of (43) leads to the conclusion that this term becomes negligible 2 ˆ when the available channel estimates H are very reliable (e...4]. g = 1.) in (43) is concave in R when the term following the minus sign in (43) becomes φ negligible. R )..U NIQUENESS AND ACHIEVABILITY OF THE NE FOR THE SPAM G AME To prove the uniqueness of NE for the SPAM Game of Table II. σε (g) in (43) vanishes). for any assigned (n∗ − 1)-ple of spatial covariance matrices {R . the φ (g)• resulting maximizing R in (44) constitutes the so-called ”g-th terminal best response” to the φ (i) set {R . n∗ } φ φ • in (44) into the so called Matrix of Best Responses (MBR) [B ].. . formally defined as (see [1.g. i = g}.......

φ φ (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g)• (g)• (g)• (57) (58) For testing (57). Therefore. a) Positiveness . n∗ } in (53) are definite φ (g) positive for any assigned MAI matrices {Kd . log det (I + A) increases with {λa }. Kd ) ≤ ug (R . where {λa } are the (g) (g) eigenvalues of A.) for the SPAM Game of Table II. our next task is to prove that the MBR [B• ](. φ φ φ φ (1) (n∗ ) (1) (n∗ ) (56) where the expression Q£U (Q¤U) means that Q−U is a definite (semidefinite) positive matrix.) in (53) of the considered SPAM Game meets all the properties (54). g = 1.. then c[B• ](R . Kd ) ≤ ug (Rφ .. both these conditions are met when the inequalities (45). n∗ }. ∀m. since Theorem 1 of [4] assures the uniqueness of the NE when the corresponding MBR is a standard function (see also [1] for additional details on this topic).) in (43) with respect to R . So. (46) are fulfilled. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT ..30 Scalability: c) ∀ c ≥ 1. Now. (56). Kd ).. Kd ). we simply note that. it suffices to test that all the best response matrices {R .. By examining the expression of reported in (32).. ∀Rφ ¤ R .) decreases. b) Monotonicity . we have that this last can be re-written as: log((1 + λa )). . since the utility function in (43) is composed by the function log det (I + A).. By applying (g) the same proof-arguments to the matrix R ..In order to prove the positiveness of [B• ](. we directly arrive at test the monotonic increasing φ (g) behavior of the function ug (.. Thus. . .. tg } and all the R φ φ ∗ powers {Pg (m)} in (28)-(29) are strictly positive. .In order to prove the monotonicity property. we have to test the validity of the following inequalities: ug (R . we conclude that R is positive when tg ≤ sg min{rg . (55). and this proves the validity of the φ inequality (58). In turn.. φ φ ug (R . This implies that the eigenvalues of the matrix in (43) act as a reference to the matrix Kd (g)−1 (g)2 (g)2 (g) (g) . when Kd ¤ Kd . g = 1. we have that. ∀Kd ¤ Kd . cR ).. when Kd ¤ Kd . R ) ¤ [B• ](cR . thus ug (. we have that k m ≥ km .

40.. Kd )} £ arg max {ug (R . φ Therefore. [4] R. Jan. pp. pp. no. ” A framework for Uplink Power control in Cellular Radio Systems”.. Proc. [9] C. i = g}. D. on Inform.Tismetesky. Elements of Information Theory. on Comm. on Inf. of IEEE. n∗ . [7] R. J. N. R.Goodman. Globecom 2001. Wiley..60-70.Paulraj.B.Carleial. .A. Feb.Yates. IEEE Journ.S. vol. After proving the uniqueness of the NE for the SPAM Game in Table II. Mandayanan. .U. IEEE Trans.G.) in (43) increases for increasing Kd .1978. [6] P. ”An Overview of MIMO Communications: A Key to Gigabit Wireless”.1147-1157. let us indicate by Kd φ the resulting MAI covariance matrix computed according to the model (39) and let us denote as Kd the corresponding MAI matrix generated by the (n∗ − 1)-ple {cR .. the proof of the scalability property in (56) is equivalent to test the validity of the following inequality: c arg max {ug (R . ”Game Theory in Communications: Motivation.B. pp. [10] A. pp. pp.For any assigned (n∗ − 1)-ple {R . no. July 1994. [3] T.”A general Formula for channel Capacity”. [5] A. of Sel.Bolcskei. H. i = 1.MacKenzie. i = g}.24. we observe that.Saraydar. Explanation and Application to Power Control”.198-218.13. its reachability is directly guaranteed by the fact that the NE represents the unique stable operating point of the Game [13].1341-1347. Kd )}. 1991. Sept. ”Efficient Power control via pricing in wireless data networks”. no.2.Perkins.E.Gore.Gallagher. Theory. 2004.31 c) Scalability . 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . n∗ .Thomas. Information Theory and Reliable Communication.291-303. vol. [8] S. i = 1.A. D.M. Ad Hoc Networking. pp. then they satisfy the following chain of inequalities: cKd (g) Kd (g) Kd . φ φ R(g) ∈Ag R(g) ∈Ag φ φ (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (i) (i) (g) (59) Now. M. since we have already proved that ug (..1.2002. . R EFERENCES [1] C. T.821-825.. Addison Wesley. vol. 1968. (g) (g) (60) Therefore. g = 1.1995.. IEEE Trans. Wiley. ”Interference Channels”. Areas on Comm.Han. 1985. Academic Press.J.Nabar. 2000. The Theory of Matrices.Verdu’.J.50.Lancaster. 2nd Ed. IEEE Trans. vol.Wicker..B. n∗ . when Kd and Kd are computed according to the MAI model in (39). the validity of (59) directly arises from the inequality chain (60). Cover. by definition. Theory.6. [2] A. S. New York.B. Feb..

Ren. ”Topology Control of Multi-Hop wireless Networks using transmit power adjustment”. [28] M. ”Medium Access Control in Ad-Hoc Networks with MIMO Links: Optimmization Considerations and Algorithms”. Jan. ”On the Capacity of wireless Networks: the relay case”.it/ biagi/gamet. M. pp. pp.Zheng. IEEE INFOCOM’00. Chang. G.Gatspar. D. on Mob. [20] V..49.B. Smart Antenna Systems and Wireless LANs.. 2001. INFO-COM Tec.5. [25] E. D. pp. IEEE Infocom Proc. P.Kawadia. L. P.-Y.4. Feb.. IEEE Infocom Proc.Biagi.Osborne.uniroma1. IEEE Infocom Proc. pp.69-81 . Journ.1577-1586. IEEE Comm.317-330. R.Kumar.1360-1369. ”Seven kinds of convexity”.85-87.Litva.pdf : [26] J. C.9. ”Optimized Power Allocation and Signal Shaping for Interference-Limited Multi-Antenna ”ad-hoc” Networks”.Ponstein. ”Cooperation in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks”. ”Diversity and Multiplexing: A fundamental Tradeoff in Multiple-Antenna channels”. [19] M. A course in Game Theory. T. Sivakumar.2. M. pp.Kezys.16.Baccarelli. [29] R. Ramanathan. J. Sept. R. M. 2003. report.2004. 2003. report.F. on Inform. ”MIMO Ad Hoc Networks: Medium Access Control. [13] M. vol. [27] K.Nabar. March 2001.Farrokhi.Pelizzoni. IEEE Infocm Proc. 2002. no. [12] L. Sundaresan. [22] F. pp. 12. J..A. ”Mobility Increases the Capacity of ad-hoc Wireless Networks”.Tse.Pelizzoni ”Games Theory for Power allocation and Spatial Shaping in MIMO ad-hoc Networks”. SIAM Rev.Hu. Diversity and Channel Capacity”.32 [11] E. Proc.Paulraj.Lozano.Rosales-Hain.. on Networking. no.6. 350-365.Shad.D. Letters. Oct.Tse.Biagi. ”Dynamic Slot Allocation (DSA) in indoor SDMA/TDMA using a smart antenna base station”. [14] E. [21] I.3. R. Introduction to Space-Time Wireless Communications. pp.it/ biagi/gameext.Theory.pdf [15] J. vol. of Comm. no. [18] M. Comp. available at website http : //inf ocom. no. Saturation throughput.Rubinstein. 1999. and Prop. [17] A. vol. IEEE Tr. Dec. IEEE Infocom Proc.Baccarelli. D.Nuggehalli. [24] V. A. no. ”The Impact of Space Division Multiplexing on Resource Allocation: A Unified Approach”. T. T. C. pp. V. A.459-469.1. vol3. M.138-152. Ingram. ”Antenna Arrays in Mobile Communications: Gain. vol.Vetterli.9.A. pp.uniroma1.808-817..115-119. R.-Dec. and Optimal Hop Distance”.R. PWC2003 proc. no.5. 1073-1096.533-543. vol. Mag. pp. M.J. pp.Grossglauser. (JCN).42. IEEE Tr. no. Cambridge Press. pp.R.Koutsopoulos. [16] F.Chiasserini. ”Power Control and Clustering in Ad Hoc Netwroks”. IEEE Ant. IEEE/ACM Tr. MIT Press 1994. 2000. available at website http //inf ocom.R. ”Ad Hoc Game” INFO-COM Tec.Baccarelli. and Netw.Todd.Valenzuela.. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT .Foschini.2003. 2003. vol. May 2003.Zhang.1967.2001 [23] G.J.Biagi.Okamoto. Andersen. 2003. pp.Tassinulas.4. Kluver. R.Gore.1. C. April 2000.”Link-Optimal Space-Time Processing with Multiple Transmit and Receive Antennas”.Rao.Srinivasan.2004.

g ) Rx2 θ a (1..rotaludomeD H ˆ K 1 2 r H LENNAHC-DRAWROF OMIM ecnerefretnI sseccA elpitluM KNIL KCABDEEF trh 12h 11h 1 2 t sannetna t htiw rotaludoM dna redocnE emiT ecapS d K H ˆ egasseM ecruoS M ..g) . The model [16] considered for generating MAI.. g ) l(1. 29 agosto 2006 xR egasseM detceteD M ˆ d sannetna r htiw redoced dna rotamitse lennahc .. ˆ Multi-Antenna system equipped with imperfect (forward) channel estimates H and impaired by MAI with spatial covariance matrix Kd .g) Rx1 Tx2 l(2. xT .. Tx1 θd (1. g ) l(g.g) θa (2. g ) Rxn* Fig. DRAFT .g) l(n*. g ) Rxg Txn* θ d (n* . Txg θd (2. . 2...33 Fig.. g ) * θ a (n . 1.

29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . 4. g = 1. The network topology sequence considered in Sect. while Txg → Rxf . Average Information Throughput achieved by the SPAM Game and CSMA/CA(4) under the Best Effort policy for the network topology sequence of Fig.34 Tx2 Rx2 Tx2 Rx2 Tx1 Rx1 Tx1 Rx1 Tx1 Rx1 Rx2 Tx2 Tx1 Tx3 Rx3 Rx1 Tx2 Rx2 Tx2 Tx1 Tx1 Rx1 Fig. 3. Txg → Rxg .VII for the numerical tests. 2.3. Rx1 Rx2 CSMA/CA(4) Fig. g = f are the interfering ones. 3 are the desired links.

(g) 2 µm km /tg (µm + P (g) σε (g)). ks (g)2 } of Kd . βmax 2 > (µm + P (g) σε (g)) (g) 2 σε (g) (g) (g) 2 σε (g)Tpay √µmin tg rTpay (g) (g) . Compute and sort the r eigenvalues of Kd . 24.. Update the set I(ρ(g) ) via eq. (32). Set the step size ∆. µmin 12. 2 σε (g)Tpay /µl tg . 19. then fl(g)=0. 3. 15. } TABLE I A PSEUDO . Set the target throughput T RT H of the z-th QoS Classes . σε (g) (g) (g) (z) (1 + α(g) /tg )−1 . else 26. Compute the SVD of Hg Kd 8.. Update ρ(g) = ρ(g) + ∆. While { 16. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . φ φ 2.ALLOCATION AND SIGNAL .TH TRANSMITTER / RECEIVER PAIR UNDER THE ” CONTRACTED Q O S” POLICY. else 25.SHAPING ALGORITHM FOR THE (z) (z) (z) (g) (g) (g) (g) m∈I(ρ(g) ) (g) P (m) < P tg do g. if TG (g) > T RT H reduce the radiated power P (g) and go to Step 1. (29). ˆg ˆ ∗ (g)−1 HT . (g) ˜ 4. Compute the powers and the covariance matrix via eq. t) eigenvalues {k1 (g) (g) (g)2 . Set Ψ(g) := R (new) − R (old). If (||Ψ||2 ≤ 0. (g) (g)2 11. fl(g)=1. βl (g) (g) min(r. (g) 6. 17. if TG (g) = T RT H stop. Evaluate TG (g) via (33) for the g-th link.05||R (g) (old)||2 ) E E φ 21.(28). Set ρ(g) := 0 and I(ρ(g) ) := ∅. µmin µm (g) for all m and fl(g)=1 13. φ φ (g) 20. 7. 1. 18. .. d 2 5. Initialize R (new) := R (old) = [0tg ×tg ]. 14. else fl(g)=1. R (old):=R (new) φ φ } 23. α(g) (P Ttr /rg )T ra[(K )−1 ].35 0. if km { (g)2 (g) min1≤l≤r {µm }. 22. if TG (g) < T RT H lower the target class to z-1 and go to Step 1.CODE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE POWER . Sort the s 9. αm 10. (31). TG (g) = 0.

7. 3. go to Step 1. Power allocation for g-th user . else z (g) := z (g) − 1. 1. χ2 = 0 χ 2 = 0. 5. n∗ .7 χ2 = 1 CSMA/CA(4) Fig. New Request from user n∗ with QoS Class equal to z (n ) . 1) ≡ χ2 . and R Run the algorithm of Table I so to compute φ φ → − (g)• .36 For all k such that τk ∈ Υ { For all terminals g ∈ N such that τk ∈ Υg { Evaluate the MAI matrix Kd (g) → − (g)• (g)• . Radiate the signal vector φ .. TABLE III H ARD C ONNECTION A DMISSION P ROCEDURE (HCAP)... 4. 6. g = 1. The user g waits for z (g) T for the network equilibrium. g = 1.4 χ 2 = 0.. 2) ≡ χ2 (2. n∗ . Equilibrium for the network composed by (n∗ − 1) pairs of transmit/receive nodes.3 χ 2 = 0. Go to Step 3.. ∗ 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . n∗ .. 5. } } TABLE II A PSEUDO .. Regions of the average information throughput achieved by the proposed SPAM Game and CSMA/CA(4) squared network and different values of the shadowing factors χ2 (1. . ... If the network is in equilibrium. . g = 1. 2.CODE FOR THE A SYNCHRONOUS AND D ISTRIBUTED IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SPAM G AME OF TABLE I.

n∗ . 2) ≡ χ2 (2.. All the transmit nodes are equipped with t=r=4 transmit/receive antennas. n∗ . ∗ 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . 2.. Regions for the information throughput achieved by the proposed SPAM Game and CSMA/CA(4) for a squared (1) 0 network with χ2 (1.. n∗ . Go to Step 3. go to Step 1. If the network is in equilibrium.. g = 1. 3. P (1) = P (2) = 10−3 W . 6.4. 7. New Request from user n∗ with QoS Class equal to z (n ) . TABLE IV S OFT C ONNECTION A DMISSION P ROCEDURE (SCAP).. =N (2) 0 = 10−4 W . 1) ≡ 0. else z (g) := z (g) − 1. 5... N the considered QoS classes.. 4. g = 1. 6.37 CSMA/CA(4) Fig. . g = 1. The g-th user waits for (zmax − z (g) )T for the network equilibrium. . The dotted-dashed grid represents the throughput allowed by 1.. . Power allocation for the g-th user . Equilibrium for the network composed by (n∗ − 1) pairs of transmit/receive nodes. Rice factors equal to 10.

5 0.4. The QoS-classes are the same considered in Fig.5.7 0.1 0.2 0. 7.4 0. 120 Aggregate Network Throughput (bits/slot) 100 80 60 40 20 TDMA SCAP HCAP 0 0 0.1 0. The QoS-classes are the same considered in Fig. χ2 (f. SCAP and HCAP.7 0.3 0.6. SCAP and HCAP.9 1 Fig. Number of connected users for a random network topology.6 QoS users’ Percentage 0.38 12 10 8 Number of Active Users 6 4 2 TDMA SCAP HCAP 0 0 0. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . Performance comparison between TDMA.4 0.8 0. Rice factors equal to 10. Performance comparison between TDMA.5 while the system parameters are the same specified in Fig. N (g) 0 = 10−4 W have been considered for all users.6.3 0. 8. All the transmit/receive nodes are equipped with r=t=4 antennas. Aggregate Network Throughput for the same random network topology of Fig.5 0. g) ≡ 0.9 1 Fig.6 QoS users’ Percentage 0. and P (g) = 10−3 W .2 0.8 0. Furthermore.

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