Dr. John S. Seybold
November 9, 2004
IEEE Melbourne COM/SP AP/MTT Chapters

Acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging Radar can be thought of as a pair of one-way communication links, with the return link being the radar reflection. Consider the radar problem, where in general the transmitter and receiver are co-located and the received signal is a reflection The expression for power density at a distance d is,
W= PT ⋅ GT watts/m 2 4π d 2
RF Propagation 2

Transmitted signal Transmit and receive antenna Reflected signal Reflecting Target, apparent size

A typical radar system consists of a co-located pulsed transmitter and a receiver, usually sharing an antenna A pulse is transmitted and then the receiver listens for the return, similar to sonar The strength of the return signal depends upon the distance to the target and its (electrical) size The radar determines the distance to the target from the time delay before receiving the reflected pulse

RF Propagation

3

Free Space Propagation
The power density at a distance, d, is

W=

EIRP watts/m 2 4π d 2

The power available at the output of a receive antenna would be the product of the power density at that point times the antenna’s effective area

PR =

PT ⋅ GT ⋅ Ae 4π d 2

P ⋅G ⋅G ⋅λ 2 watts or PR = T T 2 R 2 (4π ) d

Substituting the expression for antenna gain yields the Friis free space loss equation

L=

PR GT ⋅ GR ⋅ λ 2 = (4π d ) 2 PT

RF Propagation

4

John S. when beam limited the clutter area is simply the area of the elliptical footprint Ac = R θ EL csc(ψ ) π 4 R 2θ ELθ AZ csc(ψ ) R θ AZ Copyright © September 2002. John S. All Rights Reserved RF Propagation 25 Area Clutter At steeper angles. All Rights Reserved RF Propagation 26 .Area Clutter So at shallow grazing angles. when pulse limited Actual Clutter Area Ac ≅ Rθ AZ cτ sec(ψ ) 2 cτ sec(ψ ) l= 2 W = Rθ AZ Estimated Clutter Area Copyright © September 2002. Seybold. Seybold.