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htm l PL/SQL Collections
The chart below lists the properties of the three collection types on a set of parameters such as size, ease of modification, persistence, etc. Index By Tables Nested Tables Varrays Bounded i.e. holds a declared number of elements, though this number can be changed at runtime Sequential numbers, starting from one Can be stored in the database using equivalent SQL types, and manipulated through SQL (but with less ease than nested tables) Standard subscripting syntax e.g. color(3) is the 3rd color in varray color

Size Unbounded i.e. the number Unbounded i.e. the of elements it can hold is not number of elements it pre-defined can hold is not predefined Subscript Can be arbitrary numbers or Characteristics strings. Need not be sequential. Database Index by tables can be used Storage in PL/SQL programs only, cannot be stored in the database. Sequential numbers, starting from one Can be stored in the database using equivalent SQL types, and manipulated through SQL.

Referencing Works as key-value pairs. and lookups e.g. Salaries of employees can be stored with unique employee numbers used as subscripts sal(102) := 2000;

Similar to one-column database tables. Oracle stores the nested table data in no particular order. But when you retrieve the nested table into a PL/SQL variable, the rows are given consecutive subscripts starting at 1. Almost like index-by tables, except that

Flexibility to Most flexible. Size can changes increase/ decrease

Not very flexible. You must retrieve and

dynamically. Elements can be added to any position in the list and deleted from any position. Mapping with Hash tables other programming languages

subscript values are not as flexible. Deletions are possible from noncontiguous positions. Sets and bags

update all the elements of the varray at the same time. Arrays

Which Collection Type to Use?
You have all the details about index by tables, nested tables and varrays now. Given a situation, will one should you use for your list data? Here are some guidelines. Use index by tables when:
• • • • •

Your program needs small lookups The collection can be made at runtime in the memory when the package/ procedure is initialized The data volume is unknown beforehand The subscript values are flexible (e.g. strings, negative numbers, non-sequential) You do not need to store the collection in the database

Use nested tables when:
• • • • •

The data needs to be stored in the database The number of elements in the collection is not known in advance The elements of the collection may need to be retrieved out of sequence Updates and deletions affect only some elements, at arbitrary locations Your program does not expect to rely on the subscript remaining stable, as their order may change when nested tables are stored in the database.

Use varrays when:
• • • •

The data needs to be stored in the database The number of elements of the varray is known in advance The data from the varray is accessed in sequence Updates and deletions happen on the varray as a whole and not on arbitrarily located elements in the varray

Sample Code

Associative Array
Declare

Nested Table

Varray

Declare a collection variable.
aa_0 p.aa_type ;

nt_0 p.nt_type ;

va_0 p.va_type ;

Declare, initialize, and load a collection variable.
aa p.aa_type ; -- cannot load values in -- declaration begin nt p.nt_type := p.nt_type( 'a', 'b' ) ; va p.va_type := p.va_type( 'a', 'b' ) ;

Let's inspect the variables to see what they look like at this point (NULL means the variable is not initialized).
p.print( p.print( p.print( p.print( p.print( 'aa_0 is ' ); aa_0 ); ' ' ); 'aa is ' ); aa ); p.print( p.print( p.print( p.print( p.print( 'nt_0 is ' ); nt_0 ); ' ' ); 'nt is ' ); nt ); p.print( p.print( p.print( p.print( p.print( 'va_0 is ' ); va_0 ); ' ' ); 'va is ' ); va );

aa_0 is NOT NULL .first = .last = .count = .limit = aa is NOT NULL .first = .last = .count = .limit =

and empty NULL NULL 0 NULL and empty NULL NULL 0 NULL

nt_0 is NULL nt is (1) a (2) b .first .last .count .limit

va_0 is NULL va is (1) a (2) b .first .last .count .limit

= = = =

1 2 2 NULL

= = = =

1 2 2 10

Initialize a collection after it has been declared.5) . nt. p.last = . -.limit = and empty NULL NULL 0 NULL va_0 := p.count = . -.count = 7 . va(3) := 'c' . -.create two copies -.add 2 rows nt.add 1 row at a time aa(1) := 'a' . NOT NULL .extend .limit = = = = 1 7 7 NULL (1) a (2) b (3) c (4) d (5) e (6) e (7) e .limit = = = = 1 7 7 NULL (1) a (2) b (3) c (4) d (5) e (6) e (7) e .extend(2.count .add 2 rows va.va_type(). -.first . aa(2) := 'b' .print( aa ).first = 1 .count . -. select into from where val nt(2) t val = 'B' .5) . -. aa(3) := 'c' .last .count = . va(4) := 'd' .limit = 10 Load a single value from the database into a collection row.print( nt ).add 1 row nt.first = .extend(2. p. nt(5) := 'e' . p. aa(7) := 'e' .extend(2) .nt_type() .extend . va(5) := 'e' . select into from where val va(2) t val = 'B' . nt(3) := 'c' .of row #5 va.print( nt_0 ). -.create two copies -.of row #5 aa(6) := 'e' . p. NOT NULL .n/a nt_0 := p. aa(5) := 'e' .first = . (1) a (2) b (3) c (4) d (5) e (6) e (7) e .limit = and empty NULL NULL 0 10 Add individual rows to a collection. select into from where val aa(2) t val = 'B' .last = . nt(4) := 'd' . p.add 1 row va. .first .print( va_0 ).extend(2) .print( va ). -. aa(4) := 'd' .last = 7 .last .

tf( aa.exists(9) ) ).count = 7 .print ( 'va.exists(9) is FALSE nt.tf( nt.first = 1 .exists(3) ) ). (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D (5) E (6) F (7) G .exists(3) is '|| p.print ( 'va.exists(9) is FALSE va.print( aa ).limit = NULL .exists(3) is TRUE aa. (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D (5) E (6) F (7) G . p.first = 1 .print ( 'aa.print( nt ).exists(9) is '|| p.limit = = = = 1 7 7 NULL (1) a (2) B (3) c (4) d (5) e (6) e (7) e .count = 7 p.p. (1) a (2) B (3) c (4) d (5) e (6) e (7) e .first = 1 .tf( aa.exists(3) is TRUE nt.first = 1 . aa.print( aa ). ).exists(3) is TRUE va.exists(3) ) ).tf( va. ). p. p.count .print( nt ).last = 7 . select val bulk collect into nt from t . select val bulk collect into va from t .last = 7 .count .count = 7 p.exists(3) is '|| p.limit = = = = 1 7 7 NULL (1) a (2) B (3) c (4) d (5) e (6) e (7) e .print( va ).last = 7 . p.exists(9) is FALSE .limit = 10 Test a row's existence by subscript.limit = NULL . p.print ( 'aa.last .last .print( va ).first .print ( 'nt.first .tf( va.limit = 10 Initialize a collection and load it with multiple database values (pre-existing contents will be lost).exists(9) is '|| p.print ( 'nt.exists(9) ) p. (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D (5) E (6) F (7) G . p.last = 7 .exists(3) is '|| p.tf( nt.exists(9) ) p. p.count = 7 .exists(3) ) ). select val bulk collect into aa from t .exists(9) is '|| p.

p. 'C' member of nt is TRUE 'X' member of nt is FALSE Compare two collections for equality.tf( 'X' member of nt ) -.Test a row's existence by content. (1) a (2) B (3) c (4) D (5) E (6) F (7) G .two varrays end if.use a loop (see below) p.print ( '''C'' member of nt is '|| p.tf( 'C' member of nt ) ). equal Update a collection row.limit = NULL .first = 1 . aa(3) := 'c' . else p.print( 'equal' ).first = 1 . nt(1) := 'a' .count = 7 p.last = 7 . -.use a loop (see below) ).limit = 10 Remove rows from the middle of a collection. -. va(3) := 'c' .last = 7 . (1) a (2) B (3) c (4) D (5) E (6) F (7) G . va(1) := 'a' . aa(1) := 'a' . -.print( va ). .cannot use "=" with if nt_0 = nt then p.two associative arrays nt_0 := nt .count = 7 . (1) a (2) B (3) c (4) D (5) E (6) F (7) G .print( nt ). -. nt(3) := 'c' .limit = NULL .print ( '''X'' member of nt is '|| p.print( 'not equal' ).cannot use "=" with -.first = 1 .print( aa ).count = 7 p. p.last = 7 .

G 1.4). while i is not null loop p. (1) a (5) E (6) F (7) G . (4) D .trim. nt.first = 4 .limit = 10 Loop through all rows in the collection. G 7. nt.first = 4 . p.print( aa ).count = 1 p. 2. (1) a (2) B (3) c (4) D (5) E (6) F (7) G .last = 7 . (4) D .6).last = 7 . a 5. E 6.-1) loop p.first ..delete(2).count = 1 p. 6.last = 7 .next(i) .delete(3. aa.count = 7 .first = 1 . 7.first = 1 . aa. -.first = 4 .print( nt ). for i in nvl(va. F 7.count = 4 p. i := nt. nvl(va.4).limit = NULL . begin i := nt.delete(5.next(i) . aa. end.limit = NULL . i := aa.limit = NULL .0) .print ( i ||'. nt.trim. end loop. 4. '|| nt(i) ).print( aa ).aa.not possible p. declare i binary_integer .limit = NULL . end loop.last = 4 .trim(2). a 5. 1. (1) a (5) E (6) F (7) G . '|| aa(i) ).first = 4 . a B c D E F va.trim(2).print ( i ||'.last.print( nt ). G Remove row(s) from the end of a collection.delete(2).print( va ). F end.print( va ).last = 4 .delete(3. E 6. va. (1) a (2) B (3) c (4) D . 5. nt.first .count = 4 p. declare i binary_integer .first.print ( i ||'.delete(7). end loop. 3. while i is not null loop p. begin i := aa. 1. '|| va(i) ).

trim" .call ".3.last = .print( va ). nt(4) := 'D' . nt(3) := 'C' .count = 7 (1) a (2) B (3) c (4) D (5) E (6) F (7) G .count = 7 .extend(3) va(5) := 'E' va(6) := 'F' va(7) := 'G' p.extend" first since 5.last = 4 . NOT NULL .count = and empty NULL NULL 0 p.extend(3) nt(5) := 'E' nt(6) := 'F' nt(7) := 'G' .2.count = and empty NULL NULL 0 p. -. . NOT NULL . nt.. ----we need to call ".extend" for rows -.7 -.we do need to call -. p.6. aa(7) := 'G' . aa(6) := 'F' . aa.4 which were -.last = 7 .delete" nt(2) := 'B' .delete . . p.extend" for rows 5.3.7 were removed with ".first = . va.first = 1 .trim" nt.".limit = 10 Reuse rows left vacant by earlier delete operations (rows 2.print( aa ).last = . .count = 7 (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D (5) E (6) F (7) G . .first = .print( nt ).". aa(4) := 'D' .delete . (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D (5) E (6) F (7) G . -.count = and empty NULL NULL 0 .removed with ".print( nt ). .4) and trim operations (rows 5.limit = NULL .first = 1 . aa(2) := 'B' .delete .print( va ).last = 7 . aa(5) := 'E' .first = 1 . NOT NULL .7). p.count = 4 . .print( aa ).6. va.note we do not need to -.last = 7 .limit = 10 Delete all rows in the collection (frees memory too).last = .limit = NULL .which were removed with -.6. aa(3) := 'C' .first = .

.8.nt_type . Associative Characteristic Array The entire collection can be saved in a database column. any -2**31."nt := null" will not -.print( va ). end. use a null -.e.not possible -.variable instead declare va_null p.3.e... use a null -. NULL end.g. begin nt := nt_null .g.variable instead declare nt_null p. -. Rows in the collection retain their order when the entire n/a collection is saved in a database column. i. There can be gaps between subscripts. (for Integers) The collection can be defined to hold a predefined maximum number of rows.limit = 10 Set a collection to NULL. begin va := va_null ."va := null" will not -. NULL / The next table presents operational characteristics of each collection type. e.work. end.print( nt ). p. MULTISET UNION. a constructor).2**31 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y . The collection can be manipulated in PL/SQL with MULTISET Operators e.2**31 Legal subscript value ranges. MULTISET INTERSECT. Y The collection must be initialized before used. The collection can be initialized with multiple rows of data using a single command (i.limit = NULL . p. 1.2**31 Varray Y Y Integer 1. The collection must be extended before a new row is added. -.limit = NULL .work. Two collections can be compared for equality with the "=" operator. uninitialized state. Nested Table Y Integer 1. Legal subscript datatypes.. The collection can be unnested in a query using the TABLE() collection expression.va_type .

To achieve the same effect with DECODE.1.The Difference Between DECODE and CASE DECODE and CASE statements in Oracle both provide a conditional construct. CASE is capable of more logical comparisons such as < > etc.6. ranges of data had to be forced into discrete form making unwieldy code. though. . which DECODE cannot – which we’ll see in this article. of this form: if A = n1 then A1 else if A = n2 then A2 else X Databases before Oracle 8. more meaningful and more powerful function.1. CASE can work with logical operators other than ‘=’ DECODE can do an equality check only. CASE was introduced in Oracle 8. CASE can. There is a lot more that you can do with CASE. case 3 when sal < 1000 4 then 'Grade I' 5 when (sal >=1000 and sal < 2000) 6 then 'Grade II' 7 when (sal >= 2000 and sal < 3000) 8 then 'Grade III' 9 else 'Grade IV' 10 end sal_grade 11 from emp 12 where rownum < 4. An example of putting employees in grade brackets based on their salaries – this can be done elegantly with CASE. SQL> select ename 2 . as a standard.6 had only the DECODE function. Everything DECODE can do. 1.

'SMITH'. ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES EMP_CATEGORY ----------------Top Bosses General Employees Top Bosses Managers 3.put_line('fair'). 2 case 3 -.predicate with "in" 4 -. 8 when 'c' then dbms_output. illustrating these two uses of CASE. SQL> select e. 5 case grade 6 when 'a' then dbms_output. An example of categorizing employees based on reporting relationship. SQL> declare 2 grade char(1).ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD SAL_GRADE --------Grade I Grade II Grade II 2. CASE can be a more efficient substitute for IFTHEN-ELSE in PL/SQL.'WARD') 6 then 'Top Bosses' 7 -.put_line('excellent'). CASE can work with predicates and subqueries in searchable form. 9 when 'd' then dbms_output.mgr = e. .mark the category based on ename list 5 when e.put_line('poor').empno) 11 then 'Managers' 12 else 13 'General Employees' 14 end emp_category 15 from emp e 16 where rownum < 5.put_line('good').identify if this emp has a reportee 9 when exists (select 1 from emp emp1 10 where emp1.searchable subquery 8 -.ename. 3 begin 4 grade := 'b'. CASE can work as a PL/SQL construct DECODE can work as a function inside SQL only.ename in ('KING'. 7 when 'b' then dbms_output. CASE can work with predicates and searchable subqueries DECODE works with expressions which are scalar values only.put_line('very good'). 10 when 'f' then dbms_output.

SQL> SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 create or replace procedure proc_test (i number) as begin dbms_output. end.3. / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. END. 'NULL' 3 . / Procedure created. 'NOT NULL' 4 ) null_test 5 from dual. SQL> exec :a := 'THREE'. while DECODE cannot. null. column 7: PL/SQL: Statement ignored SQL> exec proc_test(case :a when 'THREE' then 3 else 0 end). 4. SQL> exec proc_test(decode(:a. SQL> select decode(null 2 . end case. BEGIN proc_test(decode(:a. NULL ---NULL .put_line('no such grade').'THREE'.11 12 13 14 else dbms_output. * ERROR at line 1: ORA-06550: line 1. output = 3 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. CASE can even work as a parameter to a procedure call. Careful! CASE handles NULL differently Check out the different results with DECODE vs NULL.3.'THREE'.0)). SQL> var a varchar2(5). PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.0)). column 17: PLS-00204: function or pseudo-column 'DECODE' may be used inside a SQL statement only ORA-06550: line 1. end.put_line('output = '||i).

'2'. 3 '3') t 4 from dual. when '2' then '2' * ERROR at line 2: ORA-00932: inconsistent datatypes: expected NUMBER got CHAR 6. 2 '2'.1. CASE expects data type consistency.1. T ---------2 SQL> select case 2 when 1 then '1' 2 when '2' then '2' 3 else '3' 4 end 5 from dual. though. .SQL> select case null 2 when null 3 then 'NULL' 4 else 'NOT NULL' 5 end null_test 6 from dual. SQL> select case 2 when null is null 3 then 'NULL' 4 else 'NOT NULL' 5 end null_test 6* from dual SQL> / NULL_TES -------NULL 5. CASE is ANSI SQL-compliant CASE complies with ANSI SQL. NULL_TES -------NOT NULL The “searched CASE” works as does DECODE. DECODE is proprietary to Oracle. CASE gives a data type mismatch error. SQL> select decode(2. DECODE does not Compare the two examples – DECODE gives you a result.

ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD DEPARTMENT ---------Research Sales Sales In complex situations. unreadable code – while the same can be achieved elegantly using CASE. Complicated processing in DECODE. and SQL> -. 3 20. 'Research'. . is a recipe for messy.7. 'Sales'. CASE is shorter and easier to understand. as in: SQL> -. case deptno 3 when 10 then 'Accounting' 4 when 20 then 'Research' 5 when 30 then 'Sales' 6 else 'Unknown' 7 end as department 8 from emp 9 where rownum < 4. 5 'Unknown') as department 6 from emp 7 where rownum < 4.An example where DECODE and CASE SQL> -. DECODE is shorter and easier to understand than CASE. 10. The difference in readability In very simple situations. decode (deptno.can work equally well. ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD DEPARTMENT ---------Research Sales Sales SQL> select ename 2 . 4 30. even if technically achievable.DECODE is cleaner SQL> select ename 2 . 'Accounting'.

grp_b . max( val ). max( val ).---------b1 2 20 30 b2 3 50 120 b3 3 32 66 Parentheses may be added around the GROUP BY expression list. GRP_B ) order by grp_a. grp_b. select grp_a. select grp_a. count(*). count(*). GRP_A COUNT(*) MAX(VAL) SUM(VAL) ---------.---------. sum( val ) from t GROUP BY GRP_A.---------b1 10 b1 20 b2 30 b2 40 b2 50 b3 12 b3 22 b3 32 GROUP BY allows us to group rows together so that we can include aggregate functions like COUNT.Grouping Rows with GROUP BY GROUP BY Consider a table like this one. select grp_a. grp_b . sum( val ) from t GROUP BY ( GRP_A. count(*).---------. . Doing so has no effect on the result. grp_b. sum( val ) from t GROUP BY GRP_A order by grp_a . grp_b.---------. GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a2 a2 a2 GRP_B VAL ---------. and SUM in the result set. GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a2 GRP_B COUNT(*) MAX(VAL) SUM(VAL) ---------. val from t order by grp_a. max( val ).---------.---------a1 5 50 150 a2 3 32 66 We can specify multiple columns in the GROUP BY clause to produce a different set of groupings. MAX. select grp_a. grp_b . GRP_B order by grp_a.

GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a2 GRP_B ---------b1 b2 b3 . like this. the same result is usually produced by specifying DISTINCT instead of using GROUP BY. select DISTINCT grp_a.---------8 50 216 GROUP BY and DISTINCT We can use GROUP BY without specifying any aggregate functions in the SELECT list. sum( val ) from t . grp_b .GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a2 GRP_B COUNT(*) MAX(VAL) SUM(VAL) ---------.---------. grp_b from t GROUP BY GRP_A. select count(*).---------. COUNT(*) MAX(VAL) SUM(VAL) ---------. GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a2 GRP_B ---------b1 b2 b3 However. select count(*).---------b1 2 20 30 b2 3 50 120 b3 3 32 66 The GROUP BY expression list may be empty.---------. sum( val ) from t GROUP BY () . select grp_a. This groups all rows retrieved by the query into a single group.---------8 50 216 The last example is equivalent to specifying no GROUP BY clause at all. COUNT(*) MAX(VAL) SUM(VAL) ---------. grp_b from t order by grp_a. GRP_B order by grp_a. max( val ). Parentheses are mandatory when specifying an empty set. grp_b . max( val ).---------.

) GROUP BY and Ordering . GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a1 a2 a2 GRP_B ---------b1 b2 b3 b1 b2 b3 (We will learn about the CUBE and GROUPING_ID features later in this tutorial. grp_b ) having grouping_id( grp_a. 2 . grp_b from t order by 1. Queries that use DISTINCT are typically easier to understand. grp_b from t union all select distinct grp_a.According to Tom Kyte the two approaches are effectively equivalent (see AskTom "DISTINCT VS. null as grp_b from t union all select distinct null. grp_b from t group by cube( grp_a. For example. but the GROUP BY approach can provide an elegant solution to otherwise cumbersome queries when more than one set of groupings is required. grp_b ) != 3 order by 1. select grp_a. GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a1 a2 a2 GRP_B ---------b1 b2 b3 b1 b2 b3 but a GROUP BY query could produce the same result with fewer lines of code. GROUP BY"). to produce a result set that is the union of: • distinct values in GRP_A • distinct values in GRP_B • distinct values in GRP_A + GRP_B the following query would be required if we used DISTINCT select distinct grp_a. 2 .

---------b1 2 b2 3 b3 3 The results are still ordered. '12' ) . this query select grp_a.columns have been reversed order by grp_a. grp_b.this time we insert rows into T using a different order from that -. 'c2'. select grp_a. . GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a2 GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------. Note how the same query now returns rows in a random order given new conditions. count(*) from t group by grp_a.---------b1 2 b2 3 b3 3 Gotcha: GROUP BY with no ORDER BY The last two snippets used the same ORDER BY clause in both queries. Some programmers interpret this as meaning that GROUP BY returns an ordered result set. '32' ) . insert into t values ( 'a2' . count(*) from t GROUP BY GRP_B. 'b3' . count(*) from t GROUP BY GRP_A. 'c2'. GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a2 GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------. 'd2'. grp_b. What happens if we use no ORDER BY clause at all? select grp_a. 'd2'. 'c2'. -. 'd2'. truncate table t. 'b3' .All other things being equal. For example. grp_b . This is an illusion which is easily proved with the following snippet. 'b3' . GRP_A -. GRP_B order by grp_a.of the Setup topic insert into t values ( 'a2' .---------b1 2 b2 3 b3 3 returns the same results as this one. grp_b . GRP_A -----a1 a1 a2 GRP_B COUNT(*) -----. grp_b. changing the order in which columns appear in the GROUP BY clause has no effect on the way the result set is grouped. insert into t values ( 'a2' . grp_b . '22' ) .

'50' '40' '30' '20' '10' ) ) ) ) ) . . . count(*) from t group by grp_a.---------b2 3 b1 2 b3 3 -. use the ORDER BY clause. . select grp_a." (See AskTom . 'c1'. upper(grp_a).---------a1 A1 5 . count(*) from t group by GRP_A order by grp_a . 'd1'. GRP_A ---------a1 a2 UPPER(GRP_ COUNT(*) ---------.---------A1 5 A2 3 If we did include the same column two or more times in the GROUP BY clause it would return the same results as the query above. 'b2' 'b2' 'b2' 'b1' 'b1' . . 'c1'. 'd1'. . select grp_a. grp_b. .(your results may vary) The actual behaviour of GROUP BY without ORDER BY is documented in the SQL Reference Manual as follows.insert insert insert insert insert commit. 'c2'. "The GROUP BY clause groups rows but does not guarantee the order of the result set. grp_b . into into into into into t t t t t values values values values values ( ( ( ( ( 'a1' 'a1' 'a1' 'a1' 'a1' . select grp_a. count(*) from t group by GRP_A. 'd1'. . 'c1'. Group by behavior in 10GR2 for another discussion of this issue. . 'c1'. upper(grp_a).) Duplicate Columns If a column is used more than once in the SELECT clause it does not need to appear more than once in the GROUP BY clause. To order the groupings. GRP_A order by grp_a . . GRP_A UPPER(GRP_ COUNT(*) ---------. 'd1'. . GRP_A -----a1 a1 a2 GRP_B COUNT(*) -----. . 'd1'.---------. .

grp_b order by grp_a. count(*) from t GROUP BY GRP_B . 123 ---------123 123 123 'XY --XYZ XYZ XYZ SYSDATE ---------2009-06-07 2009-06-07 2009-06-07 GRP_A -----a1 a1 a2 GRP_B COUNT(*) -----. grp_b . SYSDATE. 'XYZ'. grp_b. select grp_a. 'XYZ'. count(*) * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00979: not a GROUP BY expression Constants The rules for columns based on constant expressions differ slightly from those for table columns. As with table based columns we can include constant columns in the GROUP BY clause select 123. grp_b . as with GRP_A in this example. count(*) from t . like GRP_B in the example below. GRP_B order by grp_a. count(*) from t group by 123. select GRP_A.a2 A2 3 While there is no practical use for the latter syntax in the upcoming topic GROUP_ID we will see how duplicate columns in a GROUPING SETS clause do produce different results than a distinct column list. SELECT Lists We may group by table columns that are not in the SELECT list.---------b1 2 b2 3 b3 3 and we can GROUP BY constant columns that are not in the SELECT list.---------a1 2 a1 3 a2 3 However we may not select table columns that are absent from the GROUP BY list. select GRP_A. grp_b. GRP_A COUNT(*) -----. grp_a. select grp_a. count(*) from t group by grp_a. SYSDATE. grp_a.

grp_b. count(*) from t GROUP BY GRP_A. select grp_a. This allows us to use WHERE conditions involving columns like GRP_B in the query below. grp_b .group by 123. the following will not work. WHERE COUNT(*) > 4 * ERROR at line 3: . count(*) from t WHERE GRP_B in ( 'b2'. select grp_a.---------b1 2 b2 3 b3 3 Unlike table based columns we can select constant columns that are absent from the GROUP BY list. grp_a. grp_b order by grp_a. 123 ---------123 123 123 'XY --XYZ XYZ XYZ SYSDATE ---------2009-06-07 2009-06-07 2009-06-07 GRP_A -----a1 a1 a2 GRP_B COUNT(*) -----. GRP_A COUNT(*) ---------. GRP_B order by grp_a. SYSDATE.---------a1 3 a2 3 Thia does. select 123. 'XYZ'. however. GRP_A -----a1 a1 a2 GRP_B COUNT(*) -----. 'XYZ'. 'b3' ) group by grp_a order by grp_a . prevent us from using conditions that involve aggregate values like COUNT(*) that are calculated after the GROUP BY clause is applied. grp_a. grp_b . SYSDATE. which is not listed in the GROUP BY clause.---------b1 2 b2 3 b3 3 Note how all three queries returned the same number of rows. HAVING When Oracle processes a GROUP BY query the WHERE clause is applied to the result set before the rows are grouped together. count(*) from t WHERE COUNT(*) > 4 group by grp_a order by grp_a . For example.

GRP_A COUNT(*) ---------. count(*) from t WHERE GRP_A = 'a2' group by grp_a order by grp_a . select grp_a. GRP_A COUNT(*) ---------.---------a2 3 but doing so yields the same result as using a WHERE clause. select grp_a. count(*) from t group by grp_a HAVING VAL > 5 order by grp_a . count(*) from t group by grp_a HAVING COUNT(*) > 4 order by grp_a . HAVING VAL > 5 * ERROR at line 4: ORA-00979: not a GROUP BY expression It can. select grp_a.---------a2 3 . on the other hand. select grp_a.ORA-00934: group function is not allowed here For these types of conditions the HAVING clause can be used. GRP_A COUNT(*) ---------.---------a1 5 Note that the HAVING clause cannot reference table columns like VAL that are not listed in the GROUP BY clause. count(*) from t group by grp_a HAVING GRP_A = 'a2' order by grp_a . reference table columns like GRP_A that are in the GROUP BY clause.

GROUPING SETS There are times when the results of two or more different groupings are required from a single query. GRP_A NULL COUNT(*) ---------. grp_b. like this select grp_a. say we wanted to combine the results of these two queries. if not all.---------b1 2 b2 3 b3 3 UNION ALL could be used. 2 . count(*) from t group by grp_b order by grp_b . count(*) from t group by grp_b order by 1. For example. count(*) from t GROUP BY GROUPING SETS ( GRP_A. count(*) from t group by grp_a UNION ALL select null. With it the last query can be written as follows.---------a1 5 a2 3 b1 2 b2 3 b3 3 but as of Oracle 9i a more compact syntax is available with the GROUPING SETS extension of the GROUP BY clause. count(*) from t group by grp_a order by grp_a . select grp_a.---------. GRP_A COUNT(*) ---------. GRP_B ) . grp_b. GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------.---------a1 5 a2 3 select grp_b. select grp_a. cases.Given a choice between the last two snippets I expect using a WHERE clause provides the best performance in most. null.

---------a1 5 a2 3 . GRP_A N COUNT(*) ---------. select grp_a. Composite Columns.---------a1 5 a2 3 b1 2 b2 3 b3 3 It is important to understand how the clause grouping sets( grp_a.---------. grp_b .---------b1 2 b2 3 b3 3 Note how the last query returned different rows than the GROUPING SETS query did even though both used the term (GRP_A. and Empty Sets Composite Columns You can treat a collection of columns as an individual set by using parentheses in the GROUPING SETS clause. GRP_B ) order by grp_a. GRP_B). to write a query that returns the equivalent of these two queries select grp_a. count(*) from t GROUP BY GRP_A. GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a2 GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------.---------b1 2 b2 3 b3 3 select grp_a. grp_b ) in the next query. grp_b. grp_b ) used in the last query differs from the clause group by ( grp_a. GROUPING SETS. count(*) from t GROUP BY ( GRP_A. GRP_A GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------. grp_b .order by grp_a. GRP_B order by grp_a. count(*) from t GROUP BY GRP_A order by grp_a . null. grp_b. For example.. GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a2 GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------. grp_b .

GRP_A order by grp_a.we could use the following GROUPING SETS clause.---------b1 2 b2 3 b3 3 returns the same results as this query .---------b1 2 b2 3 5 b3 3 3 The term (GRP_A. GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a2 GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------. GRP_B) is no different than the same expression without parentheses. grp_b. GRP_B). grp_b. count(*) from t GROUP BY (GRP_A. grp_b . GRP_A ) order by grp_a.---------b1 2 b2 3 b3 3 8 Gotcha . count(*) from t GROUP BY GROUPING SETS ( (GRP_A. GRP_B). specified as (). Empty Sets To add a grand total row to the result set an empty set. can be used. select grp_a. For example this query select grp_a. GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a2 GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------. grp_b . count(*) from t GROUP BY GROUPING SETS ( (GRP_A. grp_b. GRP_B). grp_b . GRP_B) is called a "composite column" when it appears inside a GROUPING SETS. select grp_a. () ) order by grp_a.Parentheses without GROUPING SETS Outside a GROUPING SETS clause (or ROLLUP or CUBE clauses) a parenthesized expression like (GRP_A. or CUBE clause. GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a1 a2 a2 GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------. ROLLUP. In the example below the last row is generated by the empty set grouping.

GRP_A GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------. count(*) from t GROUP BY GRP_A. 0 ) order by grp_a. I later learnt that an empty set term. GRP_B order by grp_a. like this. grp_b . grp_b . select grp_a. GRP_B.---------b1 2 b2 3 b3 3 Gotcha: GROUPING SETS with Constants When I first started using GROUPING SETS I used constants to produce grand total rows in my result sets. grp_b . grp_b . .---------. After all. "()". grp_b.---------b1 2 b2 3 b3 3 which in turn has the same result set as this one. count(*) from t GROUP BY GROUPING SETS ( GRP_A. grp_b.---------a1 5 a2 3 b1 2 b2 3 b3 3 8 The last row in the result set is generated by the "0" grouping. GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a2 GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------. both approaches seemed to produce the same results. count(*) from t GROUP BY GRP_A.select grp_a. GRP_B. GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a2 GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------. GRP_A order by grp_a. was actually a more appropriate syntactic choice than a constant but I continued to use constants out of habit. select grp_a .

grp_b . grp_b grp_a. count(*) from t GROUP BY GROUPING SETS ( GRP_A. count(*) . grp_b . 0 ) nvl2_grp_b . 1. Query 1 set null '(null)' Query 2 set null '(null)' select select grp_a grp_a . 0 ) nvl2_grp_b . GRP_B. This is because "0" appears in both the SELECT list and the GROUP BY clause. grp_b . GRP_A GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------. nvl2( grp_b. 1. GRP_B.---------. .---------a1 5 a2 3 b1 2 b2 3 b3 3 8 However.---------(null) 0 5 (null) 0 3 b1 1 2 b2 1 3 b3 1 3 (null) 0 8 GRP_A -----a1 a2 (null) (null) (null) (null) GRP_B -----(null) (null) b1 b2 b3 (null) NVL2_GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------.---------. () ) GROUPING SETS ( GRP_A. GRP_A -----a1 a2 (null) (null) (null) (null) GRP_B NVL2_GRP_B COUNT(*) -----. nvl2( grp_b. grp_b . grp_b . () ) order by grp_a. I later ran into a case where the two actually produced different results. Readers who want to understand more about why these two queries differ can reverse engineer the two into their . count(*) from from t t GROUP BY GROUP BY GROUPING SETS ( GRP_A.select grp_a .---------(null) 5 (null) 3 1 2 1 3 1 3 0 8 Note how Query 2 returns "(null)" in the NVL2_GRP_B column and Query 1 does not. GRP_B. 0 ) order by order by grp_a.

grp_b ) . 3 . 2. grp_b . set null '(null)' select grp_a . grp_c ) . select grp_a . () ) order by 1. grp_c . ( grp_a ) . When aggregates are required at each level a query like this can be used. grp_b . GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a2 a2 a2 (null) GRP_B ---------b1 b1 b2 b2 b2 (null) b3 b3 (null) (null) GRP_C COUNT(*) ---------. ( grp_a.always use an empty set term to generate a grand total row. Here is how the query above looks when implemented with ROLLUP. grp_b. ROLLUP It often happens that a query will have a group A which is a superset of group B which in turn is a superset of group C. It uses the ROLLUP operator. grp_c . Readers who don't simply need to remember this rule of thumb . do not use a constant.UNION ALL equivalents using the instructions at Reverse Engineering GROUPING BY Queries. count(*) from t group by grouping sets ( ( grp_a. count(*) from t .---------c1 2 (null) 2 c1 2 c2 1 (null) 3 (null) 5 c2 3 (null) 3 (null) 3 (null) 8 This arrangement is common enough that SQL actually provides a shortcut for specifying these types of GROUPING SETS clauses.

grp_b. ( grp_b. GRP_B. 3 . ( grp_a. 3 . 2. set null '(null)' select grp_a . GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 GRP_B ---------b1 b1 b2 b2 b2 GRP_C COUNT(*) ---------.group by ROLLUP( GRP_A.---------c1 2 (null) 2 c1 2 c2 1 (null) 3 (null) 5 c2 3 (null) 3 (null) 3 (null) 8 CUBE There are times when all combinations of a collection of grouping columns are required. as in this query. count(*) from t group by grouping sets ( ( grp_a. grp_c . ( grp_a ) .---------c1 2 (null) 2 c1 2 c2 1 (null) 3 . () ) order by 1. grp_c ) . GRP_C ) order by 1. grp_b . ( grp_a. grp_b ) . ( grp_c ) . GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a2 a2 a2 (null) GRP_B ---------b1 b1 b2 b2 b2 (null) b3 b3 (null) (null) GRP_C COUNT(*) ---------. grp_c ) . 2. ( grp_b ) . grp_c ) .

Here is how the query above looks after re-writing it to use CUBE. GRP_B. count(*) from t group by CUBE( GRP_A. GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a2 a2 a2 a2 (null) (null) (null) (null) (null) (null) (null) (null) GRP_B ---------b1 b1 b2 b2 b2 (null) (null) (null) b3 b3 (null) (null) b1 b1 b2 b2 b2 b3 b3 (null) GRP_C COUNT(*) ---------. grp_b . grp_c .a1 a1 a1 a2 a2 a2 a2 (null) (null) (null) (null) (null) (null) (null) (null) (null) (null) (null) (null) (null) b3 b3 (null) (null) b1 b1 b2 b2 b2 b3 b3 (null) (null) (null) c1 c2 (null) c2 (null) c2 (null) c1 (null) c1 c2 (null) c2 (null) c1 c2 (null) 4 1 5 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 3 3 3 4 4 8 This arrangement is common enough that SQL provides a shortcut called the CUBE operator to implement it. 3 . 2. select grp_a .---------c1 2 (null) 2 c1 2 c2 1 (null) 3 c1 4 c2 1 (null) 5 c2 3 (null) 3 c2 3 (null) 3 c1 2 (null) 2 c1 2 c2 1 (null) 3 c2 3 (null) 3 c1 4 . GRP_C ) order by 1.

( grp_a.---------. With it one can re-write a query like this one. GRP_A GRP_B GRP_C COUNT(*) ---------. 2. select grp_a . grp_c ) order by 1. grp_b ) . set null '(null)' select grp_a . grp_c . grp_b . 3 . 2. count(*) from t group by grouping sets ( ( grp_a. grp_c ) ) order by 1.---------b1 2 b2 3 c1 4 c2 1 b3 3 c2 3 into one like this. which effectively performs a cross-product of GRP_A with GRP_B and GRP_C. GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a1 a1 a2 a2 GRP_B GRP_C COUNT(*) ---------. 3 . grp_b .---------. count(*) from t group by grp_a .(null) (null) (null) (null) c2 (null) 4 8 Concatenated Groupings The last type of grouping shortcut we will examine is called a Concatenated Grouping. grp_c .---------.---------- . grouping sets( grp_b.

grp_c . ( grp_a. grp_b . grouping sets( grp_c. grp_d ) order by 1. grp_d ) order by . grp_b ) . ( grp_b. 3 . grp_b . select grp_a . grp_d . count(*) from t group by grouping sets( grp_a. GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a1 a2 a2 (null) (null) (null) (null) (null) (null) (null) ) ) ) ) GRP_B ---------(null) (null) (null) (null) (null) b1 b1 b2 b2 b2 b3 b3 GRP_C COUNT(*) ---------. ( grp_b. 2. count(*) from t group by grouping sets ( ( grp_a. grp_c .---------c1 4 c2 1 (null) 5 c2 3 (null) 3 c1 2 (null) 2 c1 2 c2 1 (null) 3 c2 3 (null) 3 is re-written into one like this.a1 a1 a1 a1 a2 a2 b1 b2 (null) (null) b3 (null) (null) (null) c1 c2 (null) c2 2 3 4 1 3 3 The cross-product effect is more apparent when a query like this one select grp_a . grp_c . grp_c .

2. Concatenated groupings can.---------c1 4 c2 1 (null) 5 c2 3 (null) 3 c1 2 (null) 2 c1 2 c2 1 (null) 3 c2 3 (null) 3 GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a1 a2 a2 (null) (null) (null) (null) (null) (null) (null) Personally I have never found the need to use concatenated groupings. GRP_A COUNT(*) ---------.---------a1 5 a1 5 a1 5 a2 3 a2 3 a2 3 . GRP_A COUNT(*) ---------.---------a1 5 a1 5 a2 3 a2 3 select grp_a. GRP_A.. GROUP_ID Unlike a regular GROUP BY clause. count(*) from t GROUP BY GROUPING SETS ( GRP_A. prove useful in data warehouse queries that deal with hierarchical cubes of data. I find that specifically listing the desired groupings in a single GROUPING SETS clause or using a single ROLLUP or CUBE operator makes my queries easier to understand and debug. count(*) from t GROUP BY GROUPING SETS ( GRP_A. GRP_A ) order by grp_a . 1. GRP_A ) order by grp_a . however. 3 GRP_B ---------(null) (null) (null) (null) (null) b1 b1 b2 b2 b2 b3 b3 GRP_C COUNT(*) ---------. select grp_a. including the same column more than once in a GROUPING SETS clause produces duplicate rows. See Concatenated Groupings for more information.

---------. GROUP_ID() from t GROUP BY GROUPING SETS ( GRP_A. GROUP_ID() from t GROUP BY GROUPING SETS ( GRP_A. Note that GROUP_ID will always be 0 in a result set that contains no duplicates. set null '(null)' select * from t2 order by grp_a. GRP_B ) order by grp_a.---------a1 5 0 a1 5 1 a1 5 2 a2 3 0 a2 3 1 a2 3 2 In the trivial example above it seems there would be little practical use for GROUP_ID. grp_b. grp_b .---------a1 5 0 a2 3 0 b1 2 0 b2 3 0 b3 3 0 Grouping by NULL Values In the examples used thus far in the tutorial our base table had no null values in it. There are times when more complex GROUP BY clauses can return duplicate rows however.---------.The GROUP_ID function can be used to distinguish duplicates from each other. select grp_a.---------X1 10 X2 40 (null) 20 (null) 30 (null) 50 . GRP_A ) order by grp_a. count(*). select grp_a. GRP_A GRP_B COUNT(*) GROUP_ID() ---------. GRP_A. count(*). grp_b . GRP_A ---------A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 GRP_B VAL ---------. group_id() . Let's now look at grouping a table that does contain null values. It is in such queries that GROUP_ID proves useful.---------. GRP_A COUNT(*) GROUP_ID() ---------.

GRP_A ) order by grp_a. grp_b .---------X1 1 X2 1 (null) 3 (null) 1 So far so good. count(*) from t2 GROUP BY GROUPING SETS( (GRP_A. 'n/a' ) AS GRP_B . count(*) from t2 GROUP BY GROUPING SETS( (GRP_A. one representing the null values stored in T2. GRP_A ---------A1 A1 A1 A1 A2 GRP_B TEST COUNT(*) ---------. GRP_B). like this select grp_a . GRP_A ---------A1 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------.---------X1 1 X2 1 (null) 3 (null) 5 (null) 1 (null) 1 We now have two rows with "(null)" under GRP_B for each GRP_A value. NVL( t2. select grp_a. GRP_A ---------A1 A1 A1 A2 GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------.grp_b. grp_b . grp_b order by grp_a. nvl2( t2.GRP_B and the other representing the set of all values in T2.NVL and NVL2 One might expect that NVL() or NVL2 could be used to distinguish the two nulls.---------. select grp_a. Gotcha . grp_b.GRP_B. 0 ) as test . grp_b . count(*) from t2 group by grp_a. GRP_A ) order by grp_a. but let's use GROUPING SETS next and see what happens. grp_b.GRP_B.A2 (null) 60 Now consider the following GROUP BY query. GRP_B).---------X1 1 1 X2 1 1 n/a 0 5 n/a 0 3 n/a 0 1 . 1.

decode ( GROUPING( GRP_B ) . set null '(null)' select grp_a . grp_a ) order by 1 . In the next topic we see how the GROUPING function can help us distinguish the two types of nulls.---------. not before. grp_b . count(*) as "Count" . GROUPING can be used with DECODE to insert labels like "Total" into the result set. Here is one example. grp_b).-------------X1 1 0 0 X2 1 0 0 (null) 3 0 0 (null) 5 0 1 (null) 1 0 0 (null) 1 0 1 Of course adding a column with zeros and ones to a report isn't the most user friendly way to distinguish grouped values. However. ROLLUP. In the output of the following query two of the four nulls represent the set of all GRP_B values. 'Total:' . GROUPING The GROUPING function tells us whether or not a null in a result set represents the set of all values produced by a GROUPING SETS. grp_b ) as "Group B" . 1. select grp_a as "Group A" . 2 . GROUPING( GRP_B ) GROUPING_GRP_B from t2 group by grouping sets( (grp_a. or CUBE operation.-------------. A value of "1" tells us it does. a value of "0" tells us it does not. GRP_A ---------A1 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 GRP_B COUNT(*) GROUPING_GRP_A GROUPING_GRP_B ---------. count(*) . GROUPING( GRP_A ) GROUPING_GRP_A .A2 n/a 0 1 but this is not the case because functions in the SELECT list operate on an intermediate form of the result set created after the GROUP BY clause is applied.

In the ORDER BY GROUPING( GRP_B ) clause one might expect the "GRP_B" term to refer to the table column. hence the ORA00979 error.from t2 group by grouping sets( (grp_a. decode( grouping( grp_b ). 'Total:'.ORA-00979 When using ORDER BY we need to be careful with the selection of column aliases. but Oracle interprets it as referring to the column alias. 1. grp_a ) order by grp_a . grp_a ) order by grouping( GRP_B ) . say we attempted this query. 'Total:'. decode( grouping( grp_b ). grp_b ) AS GRP_B * ERROR at line 3: ORA-00979: not a GROUP BY expression Note how the table has a column called GRP_B and the SELECT list has a column alias also called GRP_B. grp_b ) AS GRP_B . GROUPING( GRP_B ) . grp_b). . count(*) from t2 group by grouping sets( (grp_a. To work around the error we can either prefix the column name with its table name select . Group A ---------A1 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 Group B Count ---------. Gotcha . grp_b).---------X1 1 X2 1 (null) 3 Total: 5 (null) 1 Total: 1 Nulls and Aggregate Functions In this topic we explored working with null values in GROUP BY columns. To learn how aggregate functions like COUNT() and SUM() deal with null values in non-GROUP BY columns see Nulls and Aggregate Functions. 1. select grp_a . For example. grp_b .

---------(null) 3 X1 1 X2 1 (null) 1 Total: 5 Total: 1 GROUPING_ID In the preceding topic we saw how the GROUPING function could be used to identify null values representing the set of all values produced by a GROUPING SETS.---------(null) 3 X1 1 X2 1 (null) 1 Total: 5 Total: 1 or change the column alias.grp_a . 'Total:'. decode( grouping( grp_b ). grp_a ) order by grouping( GRP_B ) . decode( grouping( grp_b ). GRP_A ---------A1 A1 A1 A2 A1 A2 GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------. or CUBE operation. 1. ROLLUP. What if we wanted to distinguish entire rows from each other? We could use a number of different GROUPING() calls like this column bit_vector format a10 select TO_CHAR( GROUPING( GRP_A ) ) || TO_CHAR( GROUPING( GRP_B ) ) AS BIT_VECTOR . 'Group "' || GRP_A || '" Total' . select grp_a as "Group A" . grp_b ) AS GRP_B . count(*) from t2 group by grouping sets( (grp_a. grp_a ) order by grouping( T2. grp_b ) AS "Group B" . '01'. count(*) as "Count" from t2 group by grouping sets( (grp_a. grp_b). 'Total:'. Group A ---------A1 A1 A1 A2 A1 A2 Group B Count ---------.GRP_B ) . DECODE ( TO_CHAR( GROUPING( GRP_A ) ) || TO_CHAR( GROUPING( GRP_B ) ) . 1. grp_b).

grp_a . grp_b.this column is only included for clarity . ) . grp_b .---------. grp_b . '10'.GRP_B) GRP_A GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------. () ) order by GROUPING_ID( GRP_A.---------. grp_a . 'Grand Total' NULL AS LABEL count(*) from t2 group by grouping sets ( grp_a. grp_b. Fortunately for us the GROUPING_ID function exists. GROUPING( GRP_B ) .---------Group "A1" Total 5 Group "A2" Total 1 Group "X1" Total 1 Group "X2" Total 1 Group "" Total 4 Grand Total 6 but if the number of grouping sets were large concatenating all the required GROUPING() terms together would get cumbersome. It yields the decimal value of a bit vector (a string of zeros and ones) formed by concatenating all the GROUPING values for its parameters. GRP_B ) .---------01 1 A1 5 01 1 A2 1 10 2 X1 1 10 2 X2 1 10 2 4 . BIT_VECTOR GROUPING_ID(GRP_A. select to_char( grouping( grp_a ) ) || to_char( grouping( grp_b ) ) as bit_vector -. . grp_b . The following example shows how it works. GROUPING_ID( GRP_A. count(*) from t2 group by grouping sets ( grp_a. .. () order by GROUPING( GRP_A ) . GRP_B ) . grp_a . BIT_VECTOR ---------01 01 10 10 10 11 ) LABEL COUNT(*) -----------------------.-----------------------. 'Group "' || GRP_B || '" Total' '11'.

11 3 6 Here is how we could use GROUPING_ID to streamline our original query. grp_b . grp_b . grp_b. 2. grp_a . 3 . GRP_B ) . grp_a . grp_a. 2 . count(*) from t2 group by grouping sets ( grp_a. grp_b). () ) order by GROUPING_ID( GRP_A. NULL ) AS LABEL .---------X1 1 X2 1 . GRP_B ) . grp_b. GRP_B). select DECODE ( GROUPING_ID( GRP_A. count(*) from t2 group by grouping sets ( (grp_a. (GRP_A. 'Grand Total' . GRP_B ) . 'Group "' || GRP_A || '" Total' .GRP_B) -----------------------0 0 GRP_A ---------A1 A1 ) GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------. 'Group "' || GRP_B || '" Total' . () order by 1 . 1. is included in the GROUPING SETS clause.---------Group "A1" Total 5 Group "A2" Total 1 Group "X1" Total 1 Group "X2" Total 1 Group "" Total 4 Grand Total 6 Composite Columns The following example shows how GROUPING_ID works when a composite column. GROUPING_ID(GRP_A. LABEL COUNT(*) -----------------------. select GROUPING_ID( GRP_A. 3.

grp_a . 2. we started with a query like this one select grouping_id( grp_a. GRP_B ) != 3 order by . grp_b ) . select grouping_id( grp_a.0 0 1 1 2 2 2 3 A1 A2 A1 A2 X1 X2 3 1 5 1 1 1 4 6 GROUPING_ID and HAVING GROUPING_ID can also be used in the HAVING clause to filter out unwanted groupings. 3 . grp_b . grp_b ) . count(*) from t2 group by cube( grp_a. Say. GROUPING_ID(GRP_A. We simply add a HAVING clause as follows. for example. grp_b ) HAVING GROUPING_ID( GRP_A. grp_a . grp_b ) order by 1.GRP_B) -----------------------0 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 2 3 GRP_A ---------A1 A1 A1 A2 A1 A2 GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------. count(*) from t2 group by cube( grp_a. grp_b .---------X1 1 X2 1 3 1 5 1 X1 1 X2 1 4 6 and then we wanted to exclude the empty set grouping (the one with a GROUPING_ID of "3").

GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a1 a2 a2 (null) GRP_B ---------b1 b2 (null) b3 (null) (null) NVL_GRP_A_ NVL2_GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------. nvl2( grp_b. 0 ) as nvl2_grp_b .---------b1 1 2 b2 1 3 a1 0 5 b3 1 3 a2 0 3 (null) 0 8 is not simply the result of unioning together three identical subqueries with different GROUP BY clauses. GRP_B ) order by grp_a . for example. 3 GRP_A ---------A1 A1 A1 A2 A1 A2 GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------. grp_b . nvl( grp_b.GRP_B) -----------------------0 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 2 Reverse Engineering GROUPING BY Queries At times we are faced with a complex GROUP BY query written by someone else and figuring out the equivalent UNION ALL query can help us better understand its results.. 1. set null '(null)' select grp_a . A query like this. This is not as easy as it first may seem. set null (null) select grp_a .---------X1 1 X2 1 3 1 5 1 X1 1 X2 1 4 GROUPING_ID(GRP_A. 2.---------. grp_b . count(*) from t GROUP BY ROLLUP ( GRP_A. 1. nvl( grp_b. grp_b . grp_a ) as nvl_grp_a_b . grp_a ) as nvl_grp_a_b .

grp_a ) as nvl_grp_a_b . grp_b . nvl2( grp_b. 0 ) as nvl2_grp_b . 1. nvl( grp_b. count(*) from t GROUP BY ( GRP_A. grp_b . GRP_B ) order by . grp_a ) as nvl_grp_a_b . grp_a ) as nvl_grp_a_b .. count(*) from t GROUP BY ( GRP_A ) UNION ALL select grp_a . 0 ) as nvl2_grp_b . 1. In our example the query select grp_a . 1. 1. Step 1 Replace any ROLLUP or CUBE operators with their equivalent GROUPING SETS operator. count(*) from t GROUP BY () UNION ALL select grp_a . To determine the real equivalent UNION query we can use the following algorithm. grp_a * ERROR at line 2: ORA-00979: not a GROUP BY expression As you can see. grp_b . count(*) from t GROUP BY ROLLUP ( GRP_A. nvl( grp_b. nvl2( grp_b. 0 ) as nvl2_grp_b . nvl2( grp_b. 0 ) as nvl2_grp_b . nvl2( grp_b. nvl( grp_b. such a query produces an error because the first and second subqueries select columns that are not in the GROUP BY clause. grp_b . GRP_B ) order by grp_a .

nvl2( grp_b. grp_b .---------. 0 ) as nvl2_grp_b . GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a1 a2 a2 (null) GRP_B ---------b1 b2 (null) b3 (null) (null) NVL_GRP_A_ NVL2_GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------.grp_a . grp_b . nvl( grp_b. 0 ) as nvl2_grp_b .---------b1 1 2 b2 1 3 a1 0 5 b3 1 3 a2 0 3 (null) 0 8 is replaced with select grp_a . grp_a ) as nvl_grp_a_b .---------b1 1 2 b2 1 3 a1 0 5 b3 1 3 a2 0 3 (null) 0 8 Step 2a Next start with a query that groups by only the first term in the GROUPING SETS clause. grp_b . grp_a ) as nvl_grp_a_b . nvl( grp_b. GRP_B ) ) order by grp_a . count(*) from t GROUP BY GROUPING SETS ( () .---------. count(*) from t . nvl2( grp_b. ( GRP_A. GRP_A ---------a1 a1 a1 a2 a2 (null) GRP_B ---------b1 b2 (null) b3 (null) (null) NVL_GRP_A_ NVL2_GRP_B COUNT(*) ---------. grp_b . 1. ( GRP_A ) . select grp_a . which is an empty set in our example. 1.

nvl2( NULL. nvl( grp_b. grp_b . count(*) from t GROUP BY ( GRP_A ) . select grp_a . nvl( NULL. select grp_a . 1. 0 ) as nvl2_grp_b .----------. count(*) from t GROUP BY ( GRP_A ) . count(*) from t GROUP BY () .---------a1 (null) a1 0 5 . 1.-----. In the query above both GRP_A and GRP_B are absent from the GROUP BY clause so we replace all occurrences of these columns in the SELECT list with NULL.---------.-----. NULL as grp_b .---------(null) (null) (null) 0 8 Step 2b Now we repeat the first step using the second term in the GROUPING SETS clause. NULL ) as nvl_grp_a_b . We therefore need to replace GRP_B with NULL. column column column column grp_a grp_b nvl_grp_a_b nvl2_grp_b format format format format a6 a6 a11 999999999 select NULL as grp_a . 0 ) as nvl2_grp_b . 1. GRP_A GRP_B NVL_GRP_A_B NVL2_GRP_B COUNT(*) -----.---------. nvl( NULL.----------. nvl2( NULL. If the SELECT list contains columns that are not in the GROUP BY clause then replace those columns with NULL. 0 ) as nvl2_grp_b . GRP_A GRP_B NVL_GRP_A_B NVL2_GRP_B COUNT(*) -----.GROUP BY () . grp_a ) as nvl_grp_a_b . This time GRP_B is in the SELECT list but it is not in the GROUP BY list. NULL as grp_b . nvl2( grp_b. ( GRP_A ). grp_a ) as nvl_grp_a_b .

nvl2( grp_b.---------. nvl2( grp_b. We can use the original SELECT list as-is. count(*) from t group by () UNION ALL select grp_a . 1. select NULL as grp_a . NULL as grp_b . grp_b . nvl( NULL. nvl( grp_b. 1. GRP_A -----a1 a1 a2 GRP_B -----b1 b2 b3 NVL_GRP_A_B NVL2_GRP_B COUNT(*) ----------. nvl2( NULL. NULL ) as nvl_grp_a_b . count(*) from . grp_b . 1. select grp_a . count(*) from t group by ( grp_a ) UNION ALL select grp_a . NULL as grp_b . grp_a ) as nvl_grp_a_b .---------b1 1 2 b2 1 3 b3 1 3 Step 3 The next step is to combine the three step 2 queries with UNION ALL and add an ORDER BY clause. nvl( grp_b. nvl( NULL. 0 ) as nvl2_grp_b . GRP_B ) . 0 ) as nvl2_grp_b . grp_a ) as nvl_grp_a_b . count(*) from t GROUP BY ( GRP_A.a2 (null) a2 0 3 Step 2c For the last set in the GROUPING SETS clause all selected columns are listed in the GROUP BY clause so no further transformation is needed. 1. 0 ) as nvl2_grp_b . grp_a ) as nvl_grp_a_b . 0 ) as nvl2_grp_b . nvl2( NULL.

count(*) from t group by ( grp_a ) union all select grp_a . GRP_A GRP_B NVL_GRP_A_B NVL2_GRP_B COUNT(*) . NULL ) and nvl2( NULL . grp_b . grp_a ) as nvl_grp_a_b . NULL AS NVL_GRP_A_B . 0 AS NVL2_GRP_B . grp_b ) ORDER BY GRP_A . GRP_A AS NVL_GRP_A_B . count(*) from t group by ( grp_a. nvl2( grp_b. 1.t group by ( grp_a.---------. 0 ) to simpler.---------b1 1 2 b2 1 3 a1 0 5 b3 1 3 a2 0 3 (null) 0 8 Step 4 (Optional) Lastly we reduce expressions like nvl( NULL. GRP_A -----a1 a1 a1 a2 a2 (null) GRP_B -----b1 b2 (null) b3 (null) (null) NVL_GRP_A_B NVL2_GRP_B COUNT(*) ----------. null as grp_b . null as grp_b . grp_b . count(*) from t group by () union all select grp_a . GRP_B . grp_b ) order by grp_a . select null as grp_a . 0 ) as nvl2_grp_b . 0 AS NVL2_GRP_B . equivalent terms. 1. nvl( grp_b.

val number ) . grp_b . count(*) from t GROUP BY ROLLUP ( GRP_A.---------b1 1 2 b2 1 3 a1 0 5 b3 1 3 a2 0 3 (null) 0 8 Result The end result of the last step is a query which returns the same rows as the original GROUPING SETS query. 'd1'. . grp_d varchar2(10) . 'd1'. . 'd2'. . . . grp_b . . . 'd1'. '10' '20' '30' '40' '50' '12' ) ) ) ) ) ) . GRP_B ) order by grp_a . 'c1'. 'b1' 'b1' 'b2' 'b2' 'b2' 'b3' . grp_c varchar2(10) . . 'd1'.---------. insert insert insert insert insert insert into into into into into into t t t t t t values values values values values values ( ( ( ( ( ( 'a1' 'a1' 'a1' 'a1' 'a1' 'a2' . 'c2'. . 'c2'. etc. select grp_a . . . GRP_A -----a1 a1 a1 a2 a2 (null) GRP_B -----b1 b2 (null) b3 (null) (null) NVL_GRP_A_B NVL2_GRP_B COUNT(*) ----------. . . 'c1'. create table t ( grp_a varchar2(10) .---------b1 1 2 b2 1 3 a1 0 5 b3 1 3 a2 0 3 (null) 0 8 Setup Run the code on this page in SQL*Plus to create the sample tables. nvl( grp_b. . grp_a ) as nvl_grp_a_b . used by the examples in this section. 'd1'. data.-----a1 a1 a1 a2 a2 (null) -----b1 b2 (null) b3 (null) (null) ----------.---------. . 1. 0 ) as nvl2_grp_b . grp_b varchar2(10) . 'c1'. which is repeated below for your convenience. . nvl2( grp_b. 'c1'.

'c2'. create table t2 ( grp_a varchar2(10) . . procedures. . 'b3' . '22' ) . '10' '40' '20' '30' '50' '60' ) ) ) ) ) ) . . . grp_b varchar2(10) . . . created in earlier parts of this section. To clear session state changes (e. commit . COLUMN. 'd2'. Cleanup Run the code on this page to drop the sample tables. those made by SET. 'c2'. insert into t values ( 'a2' .insert into t values ( 'a2' . . exit . '32' ) . . val number ) . . . and VARIABLE commands) exit your SQL*Plus session after running these cleanup commands.g. drop table t2 . insert insert insert insert insert insert into into into into into into t2 t2 t2 t2 t2 t2 values values values values values values ( ( ( ( ( ( 'A1' 'A1' 'A1' 'A1' 'A1' 'A2' . 'X1' 'X2' null null null null . . . 'b3' . . etc. . commit . . 'd2'. drop table t .

An example of hierarchical data is shown below. KEY_INDENTED --------------nls demo mesg server bin config log ctx admin data delx enlx eslx mig KEY_PATH ------------------------/nls /nls/demo /nls/mesg /server /server/bin /server/config /server/config/log /server/ctx /server/ctx/admin /server/ctx/data /server/ctx/data/delx /server/ctx/data/enlx /server/ctx/data/eslx /server/ctx/mig In this tutorial we explore various Oracle mechanisms for working with hierarchical data.Hierarchical Data This section presents various topics related to hierarchical data (also known as "tree structured" data). /nls /nls/demo /nls/mesg . KEY ---------nls demo mesg server bin config log ctx admin data delx enlx eslx mig PARENT_KEY ---------(null) nls nls (null) server server config server ctx ctx data data data ctx It is often useful to order and display such rows using the hierarchical relationship. Doing so yields a result set that looks like this (KEY values are indented to highlight the hierarchy). Connecting Rows Say we wanted to take the following directory names from a file system and store them in a database table.

/server /server/bin /server/config /server/config/log /server/ctx /server/ctx/admin /server/ctx/data /server/ctx/data/delx /server/ctx/data/enlx /server/ctx/data/eslx /server/ctx/mig To do this we could use a table with a KEY column. which holds the directory name. . level from t START WITH parent_key is null CONNECT BY parent_key = prior key .) select * from t . starting from the root rows (those with no parents) on down through to the leaf rows (those with no children). select key . The following snippet returns rows sorted hierarchically. which connects the directory to its parent directory. START WITH identifies the topmost rows in the hierarchy. (Directory names like these would not typically be used as primary keys. KEY ---------nls demo mesg server bin config log ctx admin data delx enlx eslx mig PARENT_KEY ---------(null) nls nls (null) server server config server ctx ctx data data data ctx NAME ---------NLS DATA DEMO SERVER BIN CONFIG LOG CTX ADMIN DATA DELX ENLX ESLX MESG To connect and order the data in this table using the PARENT_KEY hierarchy we can create a Hierarchical Query using the START WITH and CONNECT BY clauses of the SELECT command. and a PARENT_KEY column. CONNECT BY identifies all subsequent rows in the hierarchy. We are bending the rules here for illustrative purposes.

level-1 ) || key as key_indented . level-1 ) || key as key_indented . It can be used outside the CONNECT BY clause if required.-----nls 1 demo 2 mesg 2 server 1 bin 2 config 2 log 3 ctx 2 admin 3 data 3 delx 4 enlx 4 eslx 4 mig 3 The LEVEL pseudocolumn in the previous result indicates which level in the hierarchy each row is at. level from t START WITH parent_key is null CONNECT BY parent_key = prior key . select lpad( ' '.KEY LEVEL ---------.-----nls 1 demo 2 mesg 2 server 1 bin 2 config 2 log 3 ctx 2 admin 3 data 3 delx 4 enlx 4 eslx 4 mig 3 The PRIOR operator in hierarchical queries gives us access to column information from the parent of the current row. To better illustrate hierarchical relationships the LEVEL column is commonly used to indent selected values. select lpad( ' '. The topmost level is assigned a LEVEL of 1. . like this. KEY_INDENTED LEVEL --------------.

KEY_INDENTED --------------nls demo mesg server bin config log ctx admin data delx enlx eslx mig PRIOR_KEY ---------(null) nls nls (null) server server config server ctx ctx data data data ctx as prior_key as prior_name . level-1 ) || key as key_indented .PRIOR key PRIOR name from t start with parent_key is null connect by parent_key = prior key .-----delx 1 data 2 ctx 3 server 4 Gotchas . from leaf to root. select lpad( ' '. level from t START WITH KEY = 'delx' connect by key = PRIOR PARENT_KEY . simply choose a leaf row as the starting point and apply the PRIOR operator to the PARENT_KEY column instead of the KEY column. PRIOR_NAME ---------(null) NLS NLS (null) SERVER SERVER CONFIG SERVER CTX CTX DATA DATA DATA CTX Changing Direction To traverse the tree in the opposite direction. KEY_INDENTED LEVEL --------------.

level-1 ) || key as key_indented . 1. Filter Condition in CONNECT BY select lpad(' '. CONNECT BY clause 4. level-1 ) || key as key_indented . START WITH clause 3. level from t --start with key = 'server' CONNECT BY parent_key = prior key and LEVEL != 3 . select lpad( ' '. The following two snippets demonstrate how this order of operations affects query results when filter conditions are in the WHERE clause versus when they are in the CONNECT BY clause.-----delx 1 data 2 ctx 3 server 4 Order of Operations The clauses in hierarchical queries are processed in the following order.CONNECT BY conditions are not applied to rows in level 1 of the hierarchy. WHERE clause conditions that are not joins. level from t WHERE LEVEL != 3 start with key = 'server' connect by parent_key = prior key -. join conditions (either in the FROM clause or the WHERE clause) 2. Filter Condition in WHERE select lpad(' '. In the following snippet note how the KEY <> 'delx' condition did not filter out the row with a KEY value of 'delx'. level from t start with key = 'delx' connect by key = PRIOR PARENT_KEY and KEY <> 'delx' . KEY_INDENTED LEVEL --------------. level-1 ) || key as key_indented . .

-----server 1 bin 2 config 2 ctx 2 delx 4 enlx 4 eslx 4 KEY_INDENTED LEVEL --------------.KEY_INDENTED LEVEL --------------. . given data with the following hierarchies KEY_INDENTED --------------nls demo mesg server bin config log ctx admin data delx enlx eslx mig the ORDER BY clause in the hierarchical query on the left below destroys the hierarchical order. such as ORDER BY or GROUP BY. Hierarchical Query select key from t start with parent_key is null connect by parent_key = prior key ORDER BY NAME . Regular Query select key from t ----ORDER BY NAME .-----server 1 bin 2 config 2 ctx 2 Sorting Since START WITH and CONNECT BY apply a hierarchical sorting scheme to your data. It yields the same results as if CONNECT BY was not used at all. you should generally not use any features that apply other sorting schemes. For example. Doing so would negate the need for START WITH and CONNECT BY in the first place. in your hierarchical queries.

It allows you to control the sort order of all rows with the same parent (aka "siblings"). KEY_INDENTED --------------server ctx mig data eslx enlx delx admin config log bin nls mesg . KEY_INDENTED --------------nls demo mesg server bin config log ctx admin data delx enlx eslx Descending Siblings select lpad(' '. level-1) || key as key_indented from t start with parent_key is null connect by parent_key = prior key ORDER SIBLINGS BY KEY ASC . Ascending Siblings select lpad(' '. the ORDER SIBLINGS BY clause will not destroy the hierarchical ordering of queries. level-1) || key as key_indented from t start with parent_key is null connect by parent_key = prior key ORDER SIBLINGS BY KEY DESC .KEY ---------admin bin config ctx data demo delx mesg enlx eslx log mig nls server KEY ---------admin bin config ctx data demo delx mesg enlx eslx log mig nls server ORDER SIBLINGS BY Unlike ORDER BY and GROUP_BY. The following examples show how ORDER SIBLINGS BY can be used to sort siblings in ascending and descending order respectively.

key v_parent_key. ). v_key t. -----------------------------------------------------------create or replace function KEY_PATH ( p_key t. Ascending Siblings Descending Siblings select select lpad(' '.mig demo Oracle 8i and Earlier The ORDER SIBLINGS BY clause is only available in Oracle version 9i or greater.In a real application more robust code would be needed -. -. / show errors No errors. p_separator ) || p_separator || v_key end if. v_key t key = p_key .parent_key%type . For earlier versions a custom. -. p_separator varchar2 default '/' ) return varchar2 is v_parent_key t. if v_parent_key is null then return ( p_separator || v_key ).Note: --.key%type .This function is only for demonstration purposes. level-1) || key as key_indented as key_indented .etc.to guard against things like separator characters -. hierarchical loops in the data. ------------------------------------------------------------. begin select into from where parent_key. recursive PL/SQL function can be used in place of ORDER SIBLINGS BY.key%type .appearing in KEY values. exception when no_data_found then return( null ). level-1) || key lpad(' '. else return ( KEY_PATH( v_parent_key. end.

'/' ).KEY 2.KEY ("~" in this example). select lpad(' '. does not exist in values under T.KEY For descending siblings the code RPAD( KEY_PATH( KEY. KEY_INDENTED --------------server ctx mig data eslx enlx delx admin config log bin nls mesg demo Gotchas KEY_PATH's p_separator character should be a character that 1. level-1 ) || key as key_indented . KEY_INDENTED --------------nls demo mesg server bin config log ctx admin data delx enlx eslx mig from t start with parent_key is null connect by parent_key = prior key ORDER BY RPAD( KEY_PATH( KEY. '/' ).from t start with parent_key is null connect by parent_key = prior key ORDER BY KEY_PATH( KEY. '~' ) DESC . CONNECT_BY_ISLEAF The CONNECT_BY_ISLEAF pseudocolumn returns 1 if the current row is a leaf of the tree defined by the CONNECT BY condition. 50. Violating these rules can result in incorrectly sorted output. 50. sorts lower than all characters that exist in T. '~' ) should use a length larger than any possible KEY_PATH value ("50" in this example) and it should use a padding character that sorts higher than all characters contained in T. '/' ) ASC . CONNECT_BY_ISLEAF from t start with key = 'server' connect by parent_key = prior key . 0 otherwise.

the order of evaluation of the CONNECT BY and WHERE clauses can also affect the behaviour of the CONNECT_BY_ISLEAF pseudo column. not the CONNECT BY clause as above.----------------server 0 bin 1 config 1 ctx 1 As we saw happen with the LEVEL column in the preceding tutorial. connect_by_isleaf . " LEVEL <= 2 " is placed in the WHERE clause. select lpad(' '. level-1 ) || key as key_indented . They are filtered out by the " LEVEL <= 2 " condition. For example. level-1 ) || key as key_indented . select lpad(' '.. In it.filters out descendents of "config" and "ctx" . KEY_INDENTED CONNECT_BY_ISLEAF --------------. causing CONNECT_BY_ISLEAF to be 0 for "config" and "ctx" even though those rows look like leaf nodes in the end result. not that of the underlying table data. in table T the rows with a KEY of 'config' and 'ctx' have descendents (children and grandchildren) and are therefore not leaf nodes in that context.----------------server 0 bin 1 config 0 log 1 ctx 0 admin 1 data 0 delx 1 enlx 1 eslx 1 mig 1 It is important to recognize that CONNECT_BY_ISLEAF only considers the tree defined by the CONNECT BY condition. those same rows are considered leaf nodes (they have a CONNECT_BY_ISLEAF value of 1) because none of the descendents exist in the tree as defined by the CONNECT BY clause. In the following query however. KEY_INDENTED CONNECT_BY_ISLEAF --------------. The following example illustrates this. connect_by_isleaf from t start with key = 'server' CONNECT BY parent_key = prior key and LEVEL <= 2 -.

filter out descendents of "config" and "ctx". KEY_INDENTED CONNECT_BY_ISLEAF --------------. LEVEL <= 2 -. name .-----. CONNECT_BY_ROOT name as root_name from t start with parent_key is null connect by parent_key = prior key . key .this time using the WHERE clause start with key = 'server' connect by parent_key = prior key . KEY_INDENTED LEVEL KEY --------------. level-1 ) || key as key_indented .---------nls 1 nls demo 2 demo mesg 2 mesg server 1 server bin 2 bin config 2 config log 3 log ctx 2 ctx admin 3 admin data 3 data delx 4 delx enlx 4 enlx eslx 4 eslx mig 3 mig NAME ---------NLS DATA DEMO SERVER BIN CONFIG LOG CTX ADMIN DATA DELX ENLX ESLX MESG ROOT_KEY ---------nls nls nls server server server server server server server server server server server ROOT_NAME ---------NLS NLS NLS SERVER SERVER SERVER SERVER SERVER SERVER SERVER SERVER SERVER SERVER SERVER Gotchas . level .----------------server 0 bin 1 config 0 ctx 0 CONNECT_BY_ROOT The CONNECT_BY_ROOT operator returns column information from the root row of the hierarchy.from t WHERE -. select lpad(' '. CONNECT_BY_ROOT key as root_key .

KEY_INDENTED LEVEL ROOT_KEY --------------. level-1 ) || key as key_indented . using CONNECT_BY_ROOT in the CONNECT BY condition can be useful and. which already operates on the root row itself. level-1 ) || key name . select lpad(' '. In the following example we use CONNECT_BY_ROOT in the CONNECT BY condition to prevent any rows beyond level 3 under only the "server" root row from being included in the results.The manual page for CONNECT_BY_ROOT states You cannot specify this operator in the START WITH condition or the CONNECT BY condition. actually works in some cases (as tested in Oracle 10g). level . CONNECT_BY_ROOT key as root_key from t start with parent_key is null connect by parent_key = prior key and not ( level > 3 and connect_by_root key = 'server' ) . select lpad(' '.---------nls 1 nls demo 2 nls mesg 2 nls server 1 server bin 2 server config 2 server log 3 server ctx 2 server admin 3 server data 3 server mig 3 server The fact that the query above contradicts the documentation yet works without error in 10g suggests a bug in either the documentation or the SQL engine. . as key_indented .-----. The Gotchas section of topic CONNECT BY LEVEL Method has an example where using CONNECT_BY_ROOT in CONNECT BY does not work so well. in practice. While there would be little use for CONNECT_BY_ROOT in the START WITH condition. SYS_CONNECT_BY_PATH The SYS_CONNECT_BY_PATH function returns a single string containing all the column values encountered in the path from root to node.

This function is only for demonstration purposes. -----------------------------------------------------------create or replace function KEY_PATH ( p_key t. p_separator varchar2 default '/' ) return varchar2 is v_parent_key t. '/' ) SYS_CONNECT_BY_PATH( name.etc. . KEY_PATH ------------------------/nls /nls/demo /nls/mesg /server /server/bin /server/config /server/config/log /server/ctx /server/ctx/admin /server/ctx/data /server/ctx/data/delx /server/ctx/data/enlx /server/ctx/data/eslx /server/ctx/mig NAME_PATH ------------------------/NLS /NLS/DATA /NLS/DEMO /SERVER /SERVER/BIN /SERVER/CONFIG /SERVER/CONFIG/LOG /SERVER/CTX /SERVER/CTX/ADMIN /SERVER/CTX/DATA /SERVER/CTX/DATA/DELX /SERVER/CTX/DATA/ENLX /SERVER/CTX/DATA/ESLX /SERVER/CTX/MESG SYS_CONNECT_BY_PATH is only available in Oracle version 9i or greater. recursive PL/SQL function can be used in place of SYS_CONNECT_BY_PATH. begin select parent_key.appearing in KEY values. v_key t.parent_key%type . '/' ) from t start with parent_key is null connect by parent_key = prior key .to guard against things like separator characters -.Note: --.key%type . hierarchical loops in the data. -.key%type .In a real application more robust code would be needed -. -. For earlier versions a custom.SYS_CONNECT_BY_PATH( key . v_key key = p_key . key from t into where v_parent_key. KEY_INDENTED --------------nls demo mesg server bin config log ctx admin data delx enlx eslx mig NAME ---------NLS DATA DEMO SERVER BIN CONFIG LOG CTX ADMIN DATA DELX ENLX ESLX MESG as key_path as name_path . ------------------------------------------------------------.

other than a path is required then the START WITH and CONNECT BY clauses can be omitted since KEY_PATH already knows how to traverse the hierarchy.). were required. select lpad(' '. KEY_PATH( key. if v_parent_key is null then return ( p_separator || v_key ). exception when no_data_found then return( null ). KEY_INDENTED --------------nls demo mesg server bin config log ctx admin data delx enlx eslx mig NAME ---------NLS DATA DEMO SERVER BIN CONFIG LOG CTX ADMIN DATA DELX ENLX ESLX MESG KEY_PATH ------------------------/nls /nls/demo /nls/mesg /server /server/bin /server/config /server/config/log /server/ctx /server/ctx/admin /server/ctx/data /server/ctx/data/delx /server/ctx/data/enlx /server/ctx/data/eslx /server/ctx/mig With this approach an additional function would be needed if the path for another column. / show errors No errors. LEVEL. like NAME. name . name . else return ( KEY_PATH( v_parent_key. '/' ) as KEY_PATH from t start with parent_key is null connect by parent_key = prior key . select key . end. p_separator ) || p_separator || v_key end if. If no hierarchical information. level-1 ) || key as key_indented . .g. e.

'delx' . 'mig' . ). ). ). . ). . 'DEMO' . ). ). varchar2(10) . . ). . . insert into t values ( 'nls' insert into t values ( 'demo' insert into t values ( 'mesg' insert insert insert insert insert insert insert insert insert insert insert commit. t varchar2(10) . varchar2(10) . used by the examples in this section. 'log' . 'data' . 'nls' null 'server' 'server' 'config' 'server' 'ctx' 'ctx' 'data' 'data' 'data' 'ctx' . 'enlx' . ). . . 'DATA' . 'admin' . 'NLS' . ).KEY_PATH( key. ). etc. 'eslx' . . 'bin' . ). create table ( key parent_key name ). null . . 'config'. '/' ) as KEY_PATH from t order by KEY_PATH . . 'ctx' . ). ). column level format 99999 column key_indented format a15 column root_key format a10 into into into into into into into into into into into t t t t t t t t t t t values values values values values values values values values values values ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 'server'. . data. KEY ---------nls demo mesg server bin config log ctx admin data delx enlx eslx mig NAME ---------NLS DATA DEMO SERVER BIN CONFIG LOG CTX ADMIN DATA DELX ENLX ESLX MESG KEY_PATH ------------------------/nls /nls/demo /nls/mesg /server /server/bin /server/config /server/config/log /server/ctx /server/ctx/admin /server/ctx/data /server/ctx/data/delx /server/ctx/data/enlx /server/ctx/data/eslx /server/ctx/mig Setup Run the code on this page in SQL*Plus to create the sample tables. 'SERVER' 'BIN' 'CONFIG' 'LOG' 'CTX' 'ADMIN' 'DATA' 'DELX' 'ENLX' 'ESLX' 'MESG' ). 'nls' .

and VARIABLE commands) exit your SQL*Plus session after running these cleanup commands. drop function KEY_PATH . those made by SET. procedures.g. exit . etc. COLUMN. created in earlier parts of this section.column root_name column key_path column name_path set null '(null)' format a10 format a25 format a25 variable v_target_key varchar2(10) Cleanup Run the code on this page to drop the sample tables. To clear session state changes (e. drop table t .

Materialized Views were originally known as "Snapshots" in early releases of Oracle. Terminology With relational views the FROM clause objects a view is based on are called "base tables". Materialized views can be used for many purposes. After completing it you should have enough information to use materialized views effectively in simple applications. This tutorial explores materialized view basics. The power of materialized views comes from the fact that. once created. You may still see this term in some Oracle 11g materialized view error messages.Materialized Views A Materialized View is effectively a database table that contains the results of a query. but should not be used in new code. e. thus remaining consistent with relational view terminology. updatable materialized views. Oracle can automatically synchronize a materialized view's data with its source information as required with little or no programming effort. For more complex applications links at the end of the tutorial will point to information on advanced features not covered here. Since SQL Snippets is concerned mainly with relational uses of materialized views we will avoid the contradictory terms "master" and "detail" all together and instead use the term "base tables". This keyword is supported for backward compatibility. refresh groups. With materialized views. including: • • • • Denormalization Validation Data Warehousing Replication. . on the other hand. these objects are either called "detail tables" (in data warehousing documentation) or "master tables" (in replication documentation and the Oracle Database SQL Reference guide). partitioning.g.

materialized views allow you to store the definition of a query in the database. Table View create view v as select * from t . select * from MV .Views vs Materialized Views Like its predecessor the view. KEY ---------1 2 3 4 VAL ----a b c select * from V . KEY ---------1 2 3 4 VAL ----a b c . select * from T . KEY ---------1 2 3 4 VAL ----a b c Materialized View create materialized view mv as select * from t .

differ from those of the table. or automatically by Oracle in some cases. KEY ---------1 2 3 4 VAL ----a b c View Materialized View Note how. indicating the view returns the exact same data stored in the table. KEY ---------1 2 3 4 VAL ----A B C View select * from V . . KEY ---------1 2 3 4 VAL ----A B C execute dbms_mview. Refreshing can either be done manually. ROWID -----------------AAAgY9AAEAAAAVfAAA AAAgY9AAEAAAAVfAAB AAAgY9AAEAAAAVfAAC AAAgY9AAEAAAAVfAAD Materialized View select rowid from MV order by rowid . on the other hand. materialized views also store the results of the query in the database.Unlike views.refresh( 'MV' ). KEY ---------1 2 3 4 VAL ----A B C Materialized View select * from MV . Data in materialized views must be refreshed to keep it synchronized with its base table. ROWID -----------------AAAgY9AAEAAAAVfAAA AAAgY9AAEAAAAVfAAB AAAgY9AAEAAAAVfAAC AAAgY9AAEAAAAVfAAD View select rowid from V order by rowid . KEY ---------1 2 3 4 VAL ----A B C select * from MV . ROWID -----------------AAAgZFAAEAAADyEAAA AAAgZFAAEAAADyEAAB AAAgZFAAEAAADyEAAC AAAgZFAAEAAADyEAAD The difference between views and materialized views becomes even more evident than this when table data is updated. KEY ---------1 2 3 4 VAL ----A B C select * from V . select * from T . Table select rowid from T order by rowid . however. the view data matches the table data but the materialized view data does not. The rowids of the materialized view. after the update. In the following queries note how the rowid's for the table and the view are identical. Table update t set val = upper(val). Table select * from T . This indicates the materialized view is returning a physically separate copy of the table data. Now that the materialized view has been refreshed its data matches that of its base table. as below.

KEY ---------1 2 3 4 VAL ----a b c ROWID -----------------AAAWgHAAEAAAAIEAAE AAAWgHAAEAAAAIEAAF AAAWgHAAEAAAAIEAAG AAAWgHAAEAAAAIEAAH Note how the rowids in the second query differ from those of the first. If a materialized view contains many rows and the base table's rows change infrequently refreshing the materialized view completely can be an expensive operation. REFRESH COMPLETE There are various ways to refresh the data in a materialized view. drop view v . METHOD => 'C' ). The REFRESH COMPLETE clause tells Oracle to perform complete refreshes by default when a materialized view is refreshed. commit. In such cases it would be better to process only the changed rows.REFRESH procedure to initiate it. even when the new result set is identical to the old one. for Complete refresh. This is because complete refreshes create a whole new set of data. even though the data in table T was unchanged throughout. rowid from mv . select key. Let's see a complete refresh in action now. val. When a complete refresh occurs the materialized view's defining query is executed and the entire result set replaces the data currently residing in the materialized view. KEY ---------1 2 3 4 VAL ----a b c ROWID -----------------AAAWgHAAEAAAAIEAAA AAAWgHAAEAAAAIEAAB AAAWgHAAEAAAAIEAAC AAAWgHAAEAAAAIEAAD execute DBMS_MVIEW. The "list" parameter accepts a list of materialized views to refresh (in our case we only have one) and the "method" parameter accepts a "C". val. the simplest way being a complete refresh. select key. update t set val = lower(val).Cleanup drop materialized view mv . create materialized view mv REFRESH COMPLETE as select * from t . rowid from mv . We will explore this type of refresh next. .REFRESH( LIST => 'MV'. We will use the DBMS_MVIEW.

KEY column mirrors the base table's primary key column T. This is called fast refreshing. but showing it here helps illustrate materialized view log behaviour. Fortunately there is a way to refresh only the changed rows in a materialized view's base table. Materialized View Logs As mentioned earlier. describe T Name Null? Type -------------------------------------------. complete refreshes of materialized views can be expensive operations.Cleanup drop materialized view mv .-------KEY SNAPTIME$$ DMLTYPE$$ OLD_NEW$$ CHANGE_VECTOR$$ Type ---------------------NUMBER DATE VARCHAR2(1) VARCHAR2(1) RAW(255) The MLOG$_T. select * from MLOG$_T . Rows are automatically added to MLOG$_T when base table T is changed. Note how the materialized view log is not given a name. Before a materialized view can perform a fast refresh however it needs a mechanism to capture any changes made to its base table. The other MLOG$ columns are system generated. In practice developers other than Dizwell never actually need to reference this table. UPDATE t set val = upper( val ) where KEY = 1 . describe MLOG$_T Name Null? -------------------------------------------.------------------------------------KEY NOT NULL NUMBER VAL VARCHAR2(5) create materialized view log on t . T. like this. no rows selected The query above shows that a materialized view log is initially empty upon creation. so a name is not required. We can create a materialized view log on our test table. This mechanism is called a Materialized View Log.KEY. . To see what a materialized view log looks like we can examine the table used to implement it. This is because a table can only ever have one materialized view log related to it at a time.

T.INSERT into t ( KEY. WITH ROWID To include rowids instead of primary keys WITH ROWID can be specified. . Rollback complete. create materialized view log on t WITH ROWID . so are the changes to MLOG$_T. 'e' ). val ) values ( 5. drop materialized view log on t . KEY ---------1 5 DMLTYPE$$ ---------U I If the changes affecting T are rolled back. dmltype$$ from MLOG$_T . which did not have a WITH clause. dmltype$$ from MLOG$_T .-------KEY SNAPTIME$$ DMLTYPE$$ OLD_NEW$$ CHANGE_VECTOR$$ Type --------------------NUMBER DATE VARCHAR2(1) VARCHAR2(1) RAW(255) Note how MLOG$_T contains T's primary key column. rollback . select key. desc mlog$_t Name Null? -------------------------------------------. create materialized view log on t WITH PRIMARY KEY . no rows selected WITH PRIMARY KEY To include the base table's primary key column in a materialized view log the WITH PRIMARY KEY clause can be specified. drop materialized view log on t . column dmltype$$ format a10 select key.KEY. This materialized view log is equivalent to the one created earlier in this topic. because WITH PRIMARY KEY is the default option when no WITH clause is specified.

which contains rowids from table T.desc mlog$_t Name Null? -------------------------------------------.-------M_ROW$$ SNAPTIME$$ DMLTYPE$$ OLD_NEW$$ CHANGE_VECTOR$$ Type --------------------VARCHAR2(255) DATE VARCHAR2(1) VARCHAR2(1) RAW(255) Note how the KEY column was replaced by the M_ROW$$ column. INSERT into T2 values ( 60. WITH SEQUENCE A special SEQUENCE column can be include in the materialized view log to help Oracle apply updates to materialized view logs in the correct order when a mix of Data Manipulation (DML) commands. select SEQUENCE$$. insert. INSERT into T values ( 5. 300 ). drop materialized view log on t . e. create materialized view log on t2 WITH SEQUENCE . create materialized view log on t WITH ROWID. A materialized view log can also be created with both a rowid and a primary key column. SEQUENCE$$ KEY DMLTYPE$$ . are performed on multiple base tables in a single transaction. commit.------------------------------------KEY M_ROW$$ SNAPTIME$$ DMLTYPE$$ OLD_NEW$$ CHANGE_VECTOR$$ Type NUMBER VARCHAR2(255) DATE VARCHAR2(1) VARCHAR2(1) RAW(255) In this case both KEY and M_ROW$$ appear in the log table. create materialized view log on t WITH SEQUENCE .g. update and delete. drop materialized view log on t . UPDATE T2 set amt = 333 where key = 60 . UPDATE T set val = upper(val) where key = 5 . 'e' ). 3. dmltype$$ from mlog$_T . key. PRIMARY KEY . desc mlog$_t Name Null? -------------------------------------------.

key. SEQUENCE$$ KEY DMLTYPE$$ ---------. create materialized view log on t WITH ( VAL ). KEY ---------1 2 3 4 5 VAL ----a b c E Type NUMBER VARCHAR2(5) DATE VARCHAR2(1) VARCHAR2(1) RAW(255) UPDATE t set val = 'f' where key = 5 ." -.from Creating Materialized Views: Materialized View Logs" WITH Column List The WITH clause can also contain a list of specific base table columns.------------------------------------KEY VAL SNAPTIME$$ DMLTYPE$$ OLD_NEW$$ CHANGE_VECTOR$$ select * from t . desc mlog$_t Name Null? -------------------------------------------.---------. or DELETE operations on multiple tables). In fact. column old_new$$ format a10 .---------60081 5 I 60083 5 U select SEQUENCE$$. Oracle recommends it.---------. In the next snippet we include the VAL column.---------. UPDATE. "Oracle recommends that the keyword SEQUENCE be included in your materialized view log statement unless you are sure that you will never perform a mixed DML operation (a combination of INSERT.---------60082 60 I 60084 60 U Since mixed DML is a common occurrence SEQUENCE will be specified in most materialized view logs. drop materialized view log on t . dmltype$$ from mlog$_T2 .

create materialized view log on t with sequence.---------. create materialized view log on t with sequence ( VAL ) INCLUDING NEW VALUES . We can do that using the INCLUDING NEW VALUES clause. There is no need to store the new value for an update because it can be derived by applying the change vector (a RAW value stored in CHANGE_VECTOR$$. SEQUENCE$$ KEY VAL ---------.g.----. "( VAL )". update t set val = 'g' where key = 5 . primary key . However this does not appear to be the case when the component is a column list. KEY VAL OLD_NEW$$ ---------. The OLD_NEW$$ column identifies the value as either an old or a new value. old_new$$ from mlog$_t . VAL. drop materialized view log on T . ( VAL ). ( VAL ). aka the "old" value. which Oracle uses internally during refreshes) to the old value. key. old_new$$ from mlog$_t order by sequence$$ .----60085 5 f 60086 5 g OLD_NEW$$ --------O N Note how both the old and the new values are stored in the same column. like this. create materialized view log on t with sequence. val.---------5 E O INCLUDING NEW VALUES Clause In the last snippet we see that the VAL column contains values as they existed before the update operation. Gotcha .Commas The syntax diagrams for the CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG command indicate a comma is required between each component of the WITH clause. it helps to have both the old value and the new value explicitly saved in the materialized view log. primary key * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00922: missing or invalid option Omitting the comma before the column list works better. drop materialized view log on t .select key. . e. column old_new$$ format a9 select sequence$$. val. In some situations. which we will identify in later topics.

primary key.2) . online redefinition is restricted to changes in physical properties. refreshes where only the individual materialized view rows affected by base table changes are updated.e. Materialized view log created. nor are any column transformations. First we use the REFRESH FAST clause to specify that the default refresh method should be fast. • For materialized view logs and queue tables. -. This is also called "incremental" refreshing.1) . Now let's see what happens to a materialized view's rowids after a fast refresh. . insert into t select * from t_backup . the subsequent refresh of any dependent materialized view must be a complete refresh. online redefinition is restricted to changes in physical properties.from Oracle® Database Administrator's Guide 10g Release 2 (10. commit. -. delete t . drop materialized view log on t2 . i. nor are any column transformations.Restrictions for Online Redefinition of Tables Cleanup delete t2 . REFRESH FAST Now that we know how materialized view logs track changes to base tables we can use them to perform fast materialized view refreshes. Gotcha . Earlier in this tutorial we saw how the rowids for each row in a materialized view changed after a complete refresh. No horizontal or vertical subsetting is permitted. • For materialized view logs and queue tables. In Oracle 10g these restrictions are: • Tables with materialized view logs defined on them cannot be redefined online. The only valid value for the column mapping string is NULL. The only valid value for the column mapping string is NULL.Restrictions for Online Redefinition of Tables In Oracle 11g they are: • After redefining a table that has a materialized view log.from Oracle® Database Administrator's Guide 11g Release 1 (11. No horizontal or vertical subsetting is permitted. drop materialized view log on t .DBMS_REDEFINITION The DBMS_REDEFINITION package has certain restrictions related to materialized view logs.create materialized view log on t with sequence ( VAL ). insert into t2 select * from t2_backup .

execute dbms_mview. KEY ---------1 2 3 4 VAL ----a b XX ROWID -----------------AAAWm+AAEAAAAaMAAA AAAWm+AAEAAAAaMAAB AAAWm+AAEAAAAaMAAC AAAWm+AAEAAAAaMAAD . select key. select key. method => 'F' ). select key. create materialized view mv REFRESH FAST as select * from t . val. val.create materialized view log on t with sequence . with a fast refresh the materialized view data is not touched when no changes have been made to the base table.refresh( list => 'MV'. commit.refresh( list => 'MV'. execute dbms_mview. rowid from mv . KEY ---------1 2 3 4 VAL ----a b c ROWID -----------------AAAWm+AAEAAAAaMAAA AAAWm+AAEAAAAaMAAB AAAWm+AAEAAAAaMAAC AAAWm+AAEAAAAaMAAD Now we refresh the materialized view. KEY ---------1 2 3 4 VAL ----a b c ROWID -----------------AAAWm+AAEAAAAaMAAA AAAWm+AAEAAAAaMAAB AAAWm+AAEAAAAaMAAC AAAWm+AAEAAAAaMAAD The rowids did not change. update t set val = 'XX' where key = 3 . The "F" value for the "method" parameter ensures the refresh will be a Fast one. method => 'F' ). rowid from mv . Thus. Now let's update a row in the base table. val. unlike a complete refresh where each row would have been created anew. rowid from mv .

rowid from mv . even though MV was created above with the REFRESH FAST clause. execute dbms_mview. telling us that row 3 was updated during the refresh. all its rowids change after the refresh.Still no change in the rowids. select key. Defaults The REFRESH FAST clause of the CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW command tells Oracle what type of refresh to perform when no refresh option is specified. method => 'C' ). method => 'F' ).refresh( list => 'MV'. select key. drop materialized view mv .refresh( list => 'MV'. select key. A materialized view created with REFRESH FAST can still be refreshed completely if required though. val. KEY ---------1 2 3 4 VAL ----a b XX ROWID -----------------AAAWnBAAEAAAAaMAAA AAAWnBAAEAAAAaMAAB AAAWnBAAEAAAAaMAAC AAAWnBAAEAAAAaMAAD execute dbms_mview. KEY ---------1 2 3 4 VAL ----a b XX ROWID -----------------AAAWm+AAEAAAAaMAAE AAAWm+AAEAAAAaMAAF AAAWm+AAEAAAAaMAAG AAAWm+AAEAAAAaMAAH Similarly a materialized view created with REFRESH COMPLETE can be fast refreshed (assuming the materialized view is capable of being fast refreshed. rowid from mv . In the following example note how. KEY ---------1 2 VAL ----a b ROWID -----------------AAAWnBAAEAAAAaMAAA AAAWnBAAEAAAAaMAAB . val. This indicates that a complete refresh was performed. we'll learn more about this later). rowid from mv . create materialized view mv REFRESH COMPLETE as select * from t . In row 3 we can see that VAL changed from "c" to "XX" though. val.

In the example below note how the log table is empty after the refresh. drop materialized view log on t . COUNT(*) ---------0 insert into t values ( 5. indicating a fast refresh. .refresh( list => 'MV'. 'e' ) .PURGE_LOG If a materialized view log needs to be purged manually for some reason a procedure called DBMS_MVEW. select count(*) from mlog$_t . create materialized view mv refresh fast as select * from t . Purging Materialized View Logs Oracle automatically purges rows in the materialized view log when they are no longer needed. Cleanup drop materialized view mv . select count(*) from mlog$_t .PURGE_LOG can be used. commit .3 XX 4 AAAWnBAAEAAAAaMAAC AAAWnBAAEAAAAaMAAD Note how none of the rowids in MV changed. COUNT(*) ---------1 execute dbms_mview. create materialized view log on t . update t set val = 'c' where key = 3 . commit. select count(*) from mlog$_t . COUNT(*) ---------0 DBMS_MVEW. method => 'F' ).

* ERROR at line 1: ORA-12034: materialized view log on "SCOTT". select count(*) from mlog$_t . method => 'F' ). COUNT(*) ---------1 execute DBMS_MVIEW. END. method => 'C' ). COUNT(*) ---------0 update t set val = 'X' where key = 5 .refresh( list => 'MV'. line 2537 ORA-06512: at "SYS. method => 'F' ). See the PURGE_LOG manual page for further details.PURGE_LOG( master => 'T'. COUNT(*) ---------0 The "num" and "flag" parameters can be used to partially purge the log. Attempting a fast refresh will raise an error. line 2743 ORA-06512: at "SYS.refresh( list => 'MV'. execute dbms_mview.DBMS_SNAPSHOT".DBMS_SNAPSHOT".refresh( list => 'MV'. flag => 'delete' ) . select * from mv . . commit. Once a materialized view log has been purged any materialized views dependent on the deleted rows cannot be fast refreshed. KEY ---------1 2 3 4 5 VAL ----a b c e execute dbms_mview. line 2712 ORA-06512: at line 1 Such materialized views will need to be refreshed completely. BEGIN dbms_mview."T" younger than last refresh ORA-06512: at "SYS.DBMS_SNAPSHOT". select count(*) from mlog$_t . select * from mv . num => 9999.select count(*) from mlog$_t .

Materialized views based on T cannot therefore be fast refreshed. create materialized view MV REFRESH FAST as select * from t2 .KEY ---------1 2 3 4 5 VAL ----a b c X Cleanup delete from t where key = 5 . 3. drop materialized view mv . as select * from t2 * ERROR at line 3: ORA-23413: table "SCOTT".---------10 1 100 20 1 300 30 1 200 40 2 250 . For the first case Oracle will raise an error if you try to create such a materialized view with its refresh method defaulted to REFRESH FAST. commit."T2" does not have a materialized view log For the second case materialized views are created without error. KEY T_KEY AMT ---------. The next example demonstrates why. drop materialized view log on t . It can never be fast refreshed. obviously.---------. 1. If we attempt to create such a materialized view we get an error. REFRESH FAST Categories There are three ways to categorize a materialized view's ability to be fast refreshed. It can always be fast refreshed. It can be fast refreshed after certain kinds of changes to the base table but not others. and will always be fast refreshed unless a complete refresh is explicitly requested. The third case is a little trickier. In the example below table T does not have a materialized view log on it. 2. select * from t2 .

We created a materialized view log and created a materialized view with fast refresh as its default refresh method.50 2 150 create materialized view log on t2 with primary key.---------. execute dbms_mview. The view was fast refreshed (the rowid's did not change after the DBMS_MVIEW. Let's try inserting a row into the base table. method => 'F' ). delete from t2 where key = 5 .---------.refresh( list => 'MV'. END.DBMS_SNAPSHOT". execute dbms_mview.DBMS_SNAPSHOT". t_key.DBMS_SNAPSHOT". line ORA-06512: at "SYS. amt ) including new values . create materialized view mv REFRESH FAST as select t_key. commit.---------AAAhMzAAEAAAEG8AAA 1 300 AAAhMzAAEAAAEG8AAB 2 250 So far everything works as expected."MV" ORA-06512: at "SYS. 500 ). line ORA-06512: at line 1 unsupported after deletes/updates 2255 2461 2430 .refresh( list => 'MV'. commit. insert into t2 values ( 5. line ORA-06512: at "SYS. max( amt ) amt_max from t2 group by t_key . method => 'F' ). ROWID T_KEY AMT_MAX -----------------.REFRESH command) and the materialized view correctly shows 500 as the maximum value for rows with T_KEY = 2. method => 'F' ).---------AAAhMzAAEAAAEG8AAA 1 300 AAAhMzAAEAAAEG8AAB 2 500 Again.refresh( list => 'MV'. amt_max from mv . Now let's try deleting a row from the base table. 2. select rowid. sequence ( t_key. ROWID T_KEY AMT_MAX -----------------. BEGIN dbms_mview. select rowid. rowid. amt_max from mv . * ERROR at line 1: ORA-32314: REFRESH FAST of "SCOTT". it worked as expected. t_key.

sometimes. aggregates.---------. DBMS_MVIEW. method => 'C' ). They are documented in various sections of a few different manuals and are too numerous and complex to repeat here. select rowid.e.) To synchronize an insert-only materialized view after a delete we need to do a complete refresh.EXPLAIN_MVIEW. execute dbms_mview. ALL. The following links can help you find them if required though. not updates or deletes.FAST Clause General Restrictions on Fast Refresh Restrictions on Fast Refresh on Materialized Views with Joins Only Restrictions on Fast Refresh on Materialized Views with Aggregates Restrictions on Fast Refresh on Materialized Views with UNION ALL Restrictions for Materialized Views with Subqueries . Here are some of them.---------AAAhMzAAEAAAEG8AAC 1 300 AAAhMzAAEAAAEG8AAD 2 250 Restrictions on Fast Refresh So how do we know whether a materialized view can be fast refreshed each time. • • • • • • CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW .refresh( list => 'MV'.This time we received an error when we attempted a fast refresh. it is only fast refreshable for inserts and direct loads. t_key. amt_max from mv . or never? One way would be to learn all the documented restrictions for fast refreshable materialized views. The reason is because this type of materialized view is an "insert-only" materialized view. etc. In general materialized views cannot be fast refreshed if the base tables do not have materialized view logs or the defining query: • contains an analytic function • contains non-repeating expressions like SYSDATE or ROWNUM • contains RAW or LONG RAW data types • contains a subquery in the SELECT clause • contains a MODEL clause • contains a HAVING clause • contains nested queries with ANY. or NOT EXISTS • contains a CONNECT BY clause • references remote tables in different databases • references remote tables in a single database and defaults to the ON COMMIT refresh mode • references other materialized views which are not join or aggregate materialized views. (We will see why it is an insert-only view in the next topic. subqueries. ROWID T_KEY AMT_MAX -----------------. i. UNION ALL. • There are even more restrictions for materialized views containing joins.

The full. related_num number . via a table or via a varray. The material below will help you use the utility effectively. DBMS_MVIEW.EXPLAIN_MVIEW . Here is an abridged version.Using MV_CAPABILITIES_TABLE (see Gotcha for a related bug). msgno integer . running DBMS_MVIEW. It is also available in Oracle's documentation at Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide .• • • Restrictions for Materialized Views with Unions Containing Subqueries Restrictions for Using Multitier Materialized Views Restrictions for Materialized Views with Collection Columns Fortunately there is a second.EXPLAIN_MVIEW As we saw in the preceding topic.EXPLAIN_MVIEW utility can simplify this task however. drop materialized view log on t2 . simpler alternative for determining whether a materialized view is fast refreshable or not. VARRAY Output Using DBMS_MVIEW. create table MV_CAPABILITIES_TABLE ( statement_id varchar(30) . possible character(1) .Basic Materialized Views .EXPLAIN_MVIEW with the table output method typically involves 1. To use the table method the current schema must contain a table called MV_CAPABILITIES_TABLE. mvowner varchar(30) .sql.EXPLAIN_MVIEW. predicting whether or not a materialized view is fast refreshable can be complicated. related_text varchar(2000) . mvname varchar(30) . It uses the DBMS_MVIEW.EXPLAIN_MVIEW utility which we will explore next. capability_name varchar(30) . seq number ) . Cleanup drop materialized view mv . MV_CAPABILITIES_TABLE There are two ways to get the output from DBMS_MVIEW. msgtxt varchar(2000) . documented CREATE TABLE command for MV_CAPABILITIES_TABLE can be found on UNIX systems at $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utlxmv. The DBMS_MVIEW. Full details on how the utility works are available at the preceding link. deleting old rows from MV_CAPABILITIES_TABLE 2.

Typical Usage: --set long 5000 -select my_mv_capabilities( 'MV_NAME' ) as mv_report from dual .Parameters: --p_mv -o this value is passed to DBMS_MVIEW.3.ExplainMVArrayType .com/en/topic-12884.capabilities like REFRESH_FAST_PCT are not included in the report --p_linesize -o the maximum size allowed for any line in the report output -o data that is longer than this value will be word wrapped --. -or a materialized view name --p_capability_name_filter -o use either REFRESH. p_capability_name_filter in varchar2 default '%' . CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW command text. p_linesize in number default 80 ) return clob as -------------------------------------------------------------------------------. create or replace function my_mv_capabilities ( p_mv in varchar2 . PCT. any value big enough to contain the -report output will do -------------------------------------------------------------------------------pragma autonomous_transaction . p_include_pct_capabilities in varchar2 default 'N' . or the default --p_include_pct_capabilities -Y . REWRITE.new line v_previous_possible char(1) := 'X' .From http://www.sqlsnippets. -. v_nl constant char(1) := unistr( '\000A' ).capabilities like REFRESH_FAST_PCT are included in the report -N . selecting new rows from MV_CAPABILITIES_TABLE.EXPLAIN_MVIEW's varray output option instead and supplement it with a custom function called MY_MV_CAPABILITIES.html --. --o the value 5000 is arbitraty. . v_capabilities sys. To save time in this tutorial we will use DBMS_MVIEW.EXPLAIN_MVIEW's "mv" parameter -o it can contain either a query.

msg_array => v_capabilities ) . end if.v_output clob . seq ) loop ------------------------------------------------------------.print section heading -----------------------------------------------------------if v_capability. begin dbms_mview. v_previous_possible := v_capability. msgtxt from table( v_capabilities ) where capability_name like '%' || upper( p_capability_name_filter ) || '%' and not ( capability_name like '%PCT%' and upper(p_include_pct_capabilities) = 'N' ) order by mvowner .possible when 'T' then 'Capable of: when 'Y' then 'Capable of: when 'F' then 'Not Capable when 'N' then 'Not Capable else v_capability.possible end || v_nl . ------------------------------------------------------------. possible .explain_mview( mv => p_mv. mvname . possible desc .print section body -----------------------------------------------------------declare ' ' of: ' of: ' || ':' .possible <> v_previous_possible then v_output := v_output || v_nl || case v_capability. for v_capability in ( select capability_name .possible . related_text .

' \1' || v_nl ) .print capability name indented 2 spaces v_output := v_output || v_nl || ' ' || v_capability.{1. end. '(. begin -.msgtxt is not null then v_output := v_output || regexp_replace ( v_capability. commit . ' \1' || v_nl ) .related_text || ' ' .capability_name || v_nl .' || v_indented_line_size || '} |.print message text indented 4 spaces and word wrapped if v_capability.' || v_indented_line_size || '})' .msgtxt || ' ' .5 ). '(. end.{1. -.print related text indented 4 spaces and word wrapped if v_capability.{1.' || v_indented_line_size || '})' .v_indented_line_size varchar2(3) := to_char( p_linesize . . end if.related_text is not null then v_output := v_output || regexp_replace ( v_capability. return( v_output ). end if. -.' || v_indented_line_size || '} |. end loop.{1.

T the detail table does not have a materialized view log REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ONETAB_DML see the reason why REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT is disabled REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ANY_DML see the reason why REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ONETAB_DML is disabled (Descriptions of each capability name are available at Table 8-7 CAPABILITY_NAME Column Details. a CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW command 3. DBMS_MVIEW. Here is an example that explains a simple query which could appear as the defining query in a CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW command.EXPLAIN_VIEW in action.) The EXPLAIN_MVIEW output above shows that fast refresh is not possible in this case because T has no materialized view log. This completes our preparations./ show errors No errors. A list of messages and related text is available at Table 8-8 MV_CAPABILITIES_TABLE Column Details. an existing materialized view. . MV_REPORT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Capable of: REFRESH_COMPLETE Not Capable of: REFRESH_FAST REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT SCOTT.EXPLAIN_MVIEW With a Query DBMS_MVIEW.EXPLAIN_MVIEW can analyze three different types of materialized view code: 1. Now let's see DBMS_MVIEW. set long 5000 select my_mv_capabilities( 'SELECT * FROM T'. 'REFRESH' ) as mv_report from dual . a defining query 2.

rowid. select my_mv_capabilities ( 'CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW MV REFRESH FAST AS SELECT * FROM T' . 'REFRESH' ) as mv_report from dual . For now we will only examine refresh capabilities.EXPLAIN_MVIEW can report on a materialized view's refresh. create materialized view mv refresh fast as select t_key. MV_REPORT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Capable of: REFRESH_COMPLETE REFRESH_FAST REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ONETAB_DML REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ANY_DML This time we see that a materialized view using our simple query could be fast refreshable in all cases. DBMS_MVIEW.EXPLAIN_MVIEW With CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW Now let's create a materialized view log on T and then use EXPLAIN_MVIEW to explain the capabilities of an entire CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW command. rewrite. amt ) including new values .Note that DBMS_MVIEW. DBMS_MVIEW. Rewrite capabilities will be covered in Query Rewrite Restrictions and Capabilities. the insert-only one we saw in the preceding topic REFRESH FAST Categories. create materialized view log on t2 with primary key. create materialized view log on t . sequence ( t_key. max( amt ) amt_max from t2 group by t_key .EXPLAIN_MVIEW With Existing Materialized View For our last example we will explain an existing materialized view. and partition change tracking (PCT) capabilities.

sql file and the CREATE TABLE command at Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide ..Basic Materialized Views . MV_REPORT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Capable of: REFRESH_COMPLETE REFRESH_FAST REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT Not Capable of: REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ONETAB_DML mv uses the MIN or MAX aggregate functions REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ONETAB_DML COUNT(*) is not present in the select list REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ANY_DML see the reason why REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ONETAB_DML is disabled Here we see that fast refresh is available after inserts. 'REFRESH' ) as mv_report from dual . CREATE TABLE MV_CAPABILITIES_TABLE . execute dbms_mview.explain_mview( 'select * from t' ).. -. Note also that the "REFRESH_FAST" capability will appear whenever at least one of the other REFRESH_FAST_% capabilities is available.T = capability is possible -.. delete from mv_capabilities_table ..Using MV_CAPABILITIES_TABLE state the values in MV_CAPABILITIES_TABLE. In actual use we can see the values are really "Y" and "N".F = capability is not possible . POSSIBLE CHARACTER(1). but not other types of DML. Gotcha Both the $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utlxmv. It does not mean the materialized view is fast refreshable in all cases. column possible format a8 . select my_mv_capabilities( 'MV'..POSSIBLE will either be "T" or "F". commit.

---------. insert into t2 values ( 5. Cleanup set long 80 drop materialized view mv . t_key. create materialized view log on t2 with primary key. ROWID T_KEY AMT_MAX -----------------. amt ) including new values .select distinct POSSIBLE from mv_capabilities_table . REFRESH FORCE In REFRESH FAST Categories and DBMS_MVIEW. commit.EXPLAIN_MVIEW we saw an insert-only materialized view which could be fast refreshed after inserts into the base table but needed a complete refresh after other types of DML.EXPLAIN_MVIEW output is saved to a varray. execute dbms_mview. max( amt ) amt_max from t2 group by t_key . however.---------AAAWpLAAEAAAAaMAAA 1 300 AAAWpLAAEAAAAaMAAB 2 250 First let's try an insert and a refresh. select rowid. rowid. POSSIBLE -------Y N The values "T" and "F" are. sequence ( t_key. 500 ). 2. create materialized view mv REFRESH FORCE as select t_key. With these types of materialized views it is often most convenient to let Oracle decide which refresh method is best. It performs a FAST refresh if possible. .refresh( list => 'MV' ). otherwise it performs a COMPLETE refresh. drop materialized view log on t2 . used when DBMS_MVIEW. drop materialized view log on t . The REFRESH FORCE method does just that. amt_max from mv .

---------AAAWpLAAEAAAAaMAAC 1 300 AAAWpLAAEAAAAaMAAD 2 250 In the REFRESH FAST Categories topic we received an "ORA-32314: REFRESH FAST of "SCOTT". delete from t2 where key = 5 . amt_max from mv . ROWID T_KEY AMT_MAX -----------------. create materialized view mv NEVER REFRESH as select * from t .---------AAAWpLAAEAAAAaMAAA 1 300 AAAWpLAAEAAAAaMAAB 2 500 Since the rowids did not change but the AMT_MAX values did we can tell that a FAST refresh was performed. drop materialized view log on t2 . execute dbms_mview.select rowid. KEY ---------1 2 3 4 VAL ----a b c Let's see what happens when we update the base table and then attempt a refresh. Instead Oracle performed a COMPLETE refresh (note how the rowids for each row changed). t_key. . Now let's try a delete followed by a refresh.---------. on our materialized views we can use the NEVER REFRESH method. This time with REFRESH FORCE we did not."MV" unsupported after deletes/updates" error at this point. commit.---------.refresh( list => 'MV' ). t_key. FAST or COMPLETE. select * from mv . Cleanup drop materialized view mv . ROWID T_KEY AMT_MAX -----------------. NEVER REFRESH If for some reason we need to prevent refresh operations of any sort. amt_max from mv . select rowid.

line 2712 ORA-06512: at line 1 Oracle prevented the refresh by raising an error.refresh( 'MV' ). In this case the materialized view's refresh mode can be changed to NEVER REFRESH using the ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW command. execute dbms_mview.) NEVER REFRESH can come in handy though when refresh operations on a materialized view need to be prevented temporarily during maintenance or debugging operations.DBMS_SNAPSHOT".DBMS_SNAPSHOT". . ON DEMAND Up to this point in the tutorial we have always refreshed our materialized views manually with the DBMS_MVIEW.update t set val = upper(val) . This is know as ON DEMAND refreshing and it is the default refresh mode when none is specified in the CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW command.DBMS_SNAPSHOT". line 2537 ORA-06512: at "SYS.refresh( 'MV' ). BEGIN dbms_mview. Cleanup drop materialized view mv . update t set val = lower(val) . line 2743 ORA-06512: at "SYS.REFRESH command. create materialized view mv REFRESH ON DEMAND as select * from t . commit . END. In other words this create materialized view mv as select * from t . commit . I cannot see a practical reason for having a materialized view with NEVER REFRESH set at all times. drop materialized view mv . is equivalent to this. (If you know of any please let me know using the Comments link below. * ERROR at line 1: ORA-23538: cannot explicitly refresh a NEVER REFRESH materialized view ("MV") ORA-06512: at "SYS. To refresh ON DEMAND materialized views we explicitly call one of the following procedures.

val from mv . create materialized view log on t . insert into t values ( 5.REFRESH. Here is an example. 'e' ).---------. This is possible using the ON COMMIT refresh mode. create materialized view mv REFRESH FAST ON COMMIT as select * from t .REFRESH DBMS_MVIEW. commit.REFRESH_ALL_MVIEWS DBMS_MVIEW.----AAAXNGAAEAAAAasAAA 1 a AAAXNGAAEAAAAasAAB 2 b AAAXNGAAEAAAAasAAC 3 c AAAXNGAAEAAAAasAAD 4 Let's see what happens to the view in the course of an insert operation. 'e' ).• • • DBMS_MVIEW. ON COMMIT In some situations it would be convenient to have Oracle refresh a materialized view automatically whenever changes to the base table are committed.----5 e Cleanup drop materialized view mv . ROWID KEY VAL -----------------.REFRESH_DEPENDENT Here is an example that uses DBMS_MVIEW. key. commit. KEY VAL ---------.REFRESH( 'MV' ). insert into t values ( 5. select * from mv where key = 5 . . select * from mv where key = 5 . no rows selected execute DBMS_MVIEW. select rowid. delete from t where key = 5 .

this materialized view is not fast refreshable -. 1. In the following example materialized view MV (created at the top of this page) was created with REFRESH FAST. Let's issue a COMMIT. val. val from mv . Attempting a distributed transaction on its base table. ROWID KEY VAL -----------------. T. -. will therefore raise an error. val. The base tables will never have any distributed transactions applied to them.---------. The materialized view cannot contain object types or Oracle-supplied types. 2. No call to DBMS_MVIEW. val from mv . key.because the materialized view contains an Oracle-supplied type create materialized view mv2 REFRESH FAST ON COMMIT as select key.REFRESH was required. The first case produces an error during the CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW command.select rowid. ROWID KEY VAL -----------------.---------. key. sys_xmlgen( val ) as val_xml from t * ERROR at line 3: ORA-12054: cannot set the ON COMMIT refresh attribute for the materialized view The second case generates an error when a distributed transaction is attempted on the base table.----AAAXNGAAEAAAAasAAA 1 a AAAXNGAAEAAAAasAAB 2 b AAAXNGAAEAAAAasAAC 3 c AAAXNGAAEAAAAasAAD 4 Nothing happend yet. commit. select rowid. as select key. . sys_xmlgen( val ) as val_xml from t .----AAAXNGAAEAAAAasAAA 1 a AAAXNGAAEAAAAasAAB 2 b AAAXNGAAEAAAAasAAC 3 c AAAXNGAAEAAAAasAAD 4 AAAXNGAAEAAAAatAAA 5 e Note how the materialized view was automatically fast refreshed after the COMMIT command. Restrictions Materialized views can only refresh ON COMMIT in certain situations.

KEY ---------1 2 3 4 5 11 12 13 14 15 VAL ----a b c e a b c e -. . alter materialized view mv refresh ON DEMAND . select * from t .Oracle® Database SQL Language Reference: CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW When I first read this I assumed it meant that "REFRESH COMPLETE ON COMMIT" is not allowed. The following examples prove neither is correct however. insert into t select key+10. commit. as the following snippet demonstrates. commit.cleanup test data in preparation for next section delete from t where key >= 5 .insert into t select key+10. some remote DBs may be in-doubt ORA-02051: another session in same transaction failed (REMOTE is a database link which loops back to the current account. commit * ERROR at line 1: ORA-02050: transaction 5.) ON DEMAND materialized views have no such restriction.21. val from T@REMOTE . Gotcha The SQL Language Reference manual says this about the ON COMMIT clause. I also assumed that specifying "REFRESH ON COMMIT" is equivalent to specifying "REFRESH FAST ON COMMIT". "Specify ON COMMIT to indicate that a fast refresh is to occur whenever the database commits a transaction that operates on a master table of the materialized view. val from t .5632 rolled back." -. val from T@REMOTE . create materialized view mv2 REFRESH COMPLETE ON COMMIT as select key. commit .

fast refreshable materialized views on T can no longer be created on T -. In fact. -. val from mv2 . ROWID KEY VAL -----------------.---------. select rowid. Cleanup drop materialized view mv . delete from t where key >= 5 . . 'e' ). when no REFRESH method is specified the default behaviour is "REFRESH FORCE" regardless of whether ON COMMIT is used or not. ROWID KEY VAL -----------------.----AAAXNMAAEAAAAakAAE 1 a AAAXNMAAEAAAAakAAF 2 b AAAXNMAAEAAAAakAAG 3 c AAAXNMAAEAAAAakAAH 4 AAAXNMAAEAAAAakAAI 5 e The fact that all the rowid's in MV2 changed after the INSERT transaction committed confirms that a complete refresh took place during the commit.because it has no materialized view log drop materialized view mv2 . was specified with ON COMMIT. "REFRESH ON COMMIT" is not therefore equivalent to "REFRESH FAST ON COMMIT". key. drop materialized view mv2 . not FAST. val from t . Given these observations I can only conclude the documentation is either in error or misleading when it says "specify ON COMMIT to indicate that a fast refresh is to occur".---------. commit . commit .As we can see the CREATE MATERIALZIED view command succeeded even though COMPLETE. drop materialized view log on t . create materialized view mv2 REFRESH ON COMMIT as select key. val from mv2 . The next example examines the behavior of "REFRESH ON COMMIT" without a specified refresh method.----AAAXNMAAEAAAAakAAA 1 a AAAXNMAAEAAAAakAAB 2 b AAAXNMAAEAAAAakAAC 3 c AAAXNMAAEAAAAakAAD 4 insert into t values ( 5. select rowid. key.

CONSTRAINT_NAME CONSTRAINT_TYPE INDEX_NAME -------------------. create materialized view mv as select key. column constraint_name format a20 column constraint_type format a15 column index_name format a15 select constraint_name. column search_condition format a30 select constraint_name.Constraints System Generated Constraints When a materialized view is created Oracle may add system generated constraints to its underlying table (i. search_condition . which is part of the materialized view also called "MV".--------------SYS_C0019948 P SYS_C0019948 In the next example Oracle automatically adds a check constraint. sequence ( t_key. create materialized view mv refresh fast on commit as select t_key. constraint_type.e. amt ) including new values . describe t2 Name ------------------------------------------------------------------------KEY T_KEY AMT Null? Type -------NOT NULL NUMBER NOT NULL NUMBER NOT NULL NUMBER create materialized view log on t2 with primary key. not to be confused with a base table).--------------. val from t . constraint_type. index_name from user_constraints where TABLE_NAME = 'MV' . drop materialized view mv . In the following example note how Oracle automatically adds a primary key constraint to the table called "MV". the table containing the results of the query. count(*) row_count from t2 group by t_key . rowid.

--------------. When the materialized view is in ON COMMIT mode these constraints effectively constrain the materialized view's base tables. 500 ).from where user_constraints table_name = 'MV' . With materialized views they are declared using a few lines of code and are virtually bullet proof when applied correctly. We will learn more about this powerful multirow validation approach in a .note we used "alter table" here add CONSTRAINT MY_CONSTRAINT CHECK ( ROW_COUNT <= 3 ) DEFERRABLE .MY_CONSTRAINT) violated Implementing multirow validation rules such as this one properly is not possible using check constraints on regular tables. CONSTRAINT_NAME CONSTRAINT_TYPE SEARCH_CONDITION -------------------. commit. select * from t2 . 1. Implementing them using triggers can be difficult if not impossible. CONSTRAINT_NAME -------------------SYS_C0019949 MY_CONSTRAINT CONSTRAINT_TYPE SEARCH_CONDITION --------------. search_condition from user_constraints where table_name = 'MV' .---------.-----------------------------C "T_KEY" IS NOT NULL C ROW_COUNT <= 3 Now any attempt to create more than 3 rows per group in table T2 will generate an error at commit time.-----------------------------SYS_C0019949 C "T_KEY" IS NOT NULL Adding Your Own Constraints If necessary we can create our own constraints on materialized view tables in addition to the ones Oracle may add. commit * ERROR at line 1: ORA-12008: error in materialized view refresh path ORA-02290: check constraint (SCOTT. select constraint_name. KEY T_KEY AMT ---------.---------10 1 100 20 1 300 30 1 200 40 2 250 50 2 150 alter table mv -. insert into T2 values ( 5. Let's see this in action by creating a check constraint on MV. constraint_type.

uniqueness . val from t . create materialized view mv as select key. Curiously enough an ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW command would have worked too. not to be confused with a base table).future SQL Snippets tutorial so stay tuned! In the mean time Ask Tom "Declarative Integrity" has some good information on the subject.e. Constraints. the table containing the results of the query.-----------------------------C "T_KEY" IS NOT NULL C ROW_COUNT <= 3 C row_count < 4 The Oracle manual page for ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW however does not indicate that constraints can be added this way. ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW mv add constraint my_second_constraint check ( row_count < 4 ) deferrable . column index_name format a15 column column_name format a15 select index_name . search_condition from user_constraints where table_name = 'MV' . In the following example note how Oracle automatically adds an index to implement the system generated primary key we saw in the preceding topic.column_name from user_indexes i inner join user_ind_columns ic . Until the documentation says this is legal it is best to use ALTER TABLE. Cleanup drop materialized view mv . ic. select constraint_name. constraint_type. Indexes When a materialized view is created Oracle may add system generated indexes to its underlying table (i. Gotcha When we created MY_CONSTRAINT above we use an ALTER TABLE command. drop materialized view log on t2 . i. CONSTRAINT_NAME -------------------SYS_C0019949 MY_CONSTRAINT MY_SECOND_CONSTRAINT CONSTRAINT_TYPE SEARCH_CONDITION --------------.

INDEX_NAME UNIQUENES COLUMN_NAME COLUMN_EXPRESSION --------------. .--------. INDEX_NAME UNIQUENES COLUMN_NAME --------------.column_name . See Nulls and Equality: SQL Only for additional info. ic. i. create materialized view mv refresh fast on commit as select t_key.) Adding Your Own Indexes We can add out own indexes to MV just as we would a regular table.column_expression from user_indexes i inner join user_ind_columns ic left outer join user_ind_expressions ie using ( index_name ) using ( index_name ) where ic. rowid.using ( index_name ) where i. ie.table_name = 'MV' .----------------------------------I_SNAP$_MV UNIQUE SYS_NC00003$ SYS_OP_MAP_NONNULL("T_KEY") (Note that SYS_OP_MAP_NONNULL is an undocumented Oracle function.uniqueness . column column_expression format a35 select index_name . COUNT(*) ROW_COUNT from t2 group by t_key . sequence ( t_key.table_name = 'MV' . create materialized view log on t2 with primary key. Do not attempt to use it in your own code.--------------. In the following example we will add an index on the T_KEY column. drop materialized view mv . amt ) including new values .--------------SYS_C0019959 UNIQUE KEY In the next example Oracle automatically generates a function based index.--------.

i.access("T_KEY"=2) .table_name = 'MV' .---------2 2 Execution Plan ---------------------------------------------------------Plan hash value: 2793437614 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| Id | Operation | Name | Rows | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time | -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| 0 | SELECT STATEMENT | | 1 | 26 | 2 (0)| 00:00:01 | | 1 | MAT_VIEW ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID| MV | 1 | 26 | 2 (0)| 00:00:01 | |* 2 | INDEX RANGE SCAN | MY_INDEX | 1 | | 1 (0)| 00:00:01 | -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Predicate Information (identified by operation id): --------------------------------------------------2 . T_KEY ROW_COUNT ---------.create index MY_INDEX on mv ( T_KEY ) . select index_name . INDEX_NAME --------------I_SNAP$_MV MY_INDEX UNIQUENES --------UNIQUE NONUNIQUE COLUMN_NAME --------------SYS_NC00003$ T_KEY To confirm that Oracle uses our index in queries let's turn SQL*Plus's Autotrace feature on and execute a query.column_name from user_indexes i inner join user_ind_columns ic using ( index_name ) where i. set autotrace on explain set linesize 95 select * from mv where t_key = 2 . ic.uniqueness .

---------1 300 2 250 faster than its equivalent query. max( amt ) as amt_max FROM T2 group by t_key order by t_key . sequence ( t_key. T_KEY AMT_MAX ---------. amt_max FROM MV order by t_key . Such materialized views make queries like this select t_key. Cleanup drop materialized view mv . select t_key. create materialized view mv refresh fast on commit as select t_key. MAX( AMT ) AMT_MAX from t2 group by t_key . drop materialized view log on t2 . create materialized view log on t2 with primary key. amt ) including new values . T_KEY AMT_MAX ---------. ENABLE QUERY REWRITE Materialized views can be useful for pre-calculating and storing derived values such as AMT_MAX in the following snippet.Note ----.---------1 300 2 250 . rowid.dynamic sampling used for this statement Note how the optimizer chose an INDEX RANGE SCAN from MY_INDEX in step 2.

'MV' ) .gather_table_stats( user. max( amt ) as amt_max FROM T2 group by t_key order by t_key . Finally we can confirm Oracle will use the materialized view in queries by turning SQL*Plus's Autotrace feature on. Next we collect statistics on the materialized view to help Oracle optimize the query rewrite process. (See Gotcha . T_KEY AMT_MAX ---------. To see it in action we first need to make the materialized view available to Query Rewrite like this.ORA-00439 below if you encounter an ORA-00439 error at this step.Wouldn't it be nice if Oracle could use the information in MV to resolve this last query too? If your database has a feature called Query Rewrite available and enabled this happens automatically. execute dbms_stats. set autotrace on explain set linesize 95 select t_key.) Note that materialized views which do not include the ENABLE QUERY REWRITE clause will have Query Rewrite disabled by default.---------1 300 2 250 Execution Plan ---------------------------------------------------------Plan hash value: 446852971 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| Id | Operation | Name | Rows | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| 0 | SELECT STATEMENT | | 2 | 14 | 4 (25)| 00:00:01 | | 1 | SORT ORDER BY | | 2 | 14 | 4 (25)| 00:00:01 | | 2 | MAT_VIEW REWRITE ACCESS FULL| MV | 2 | 14 | 3 (0)| 00:00:01 | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . alter materialized view mv ENABLE QUERY REWRITE .

. T_KEY AMT_MAX ---------. alter session set QUERY_REWRITE_ENABLED = FALSE . If you attempt to use ENABLE QUERY REWITE in an Oracle database where the feature is not enabled you will receive an ORA-00439 error. a more expensive approach than simply selecting pre-calculated column values from MV is. select t_key.---------1 300 2 250 Execution Plan ---------------------------------------------------------Plan hash value: 50962384 --------------------------------------------------------------------------| Id | Operation | Name | Rows | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time | --------------------------------------------------------------------------| 0 | SELECT STATEMENT | | 5 | 130 | 4 (25)| 00:00:01 | | 1 | SORT GROUP BY | | 5 | 130 | 4 (25)| 00:00:01 | | 2 | TABLE ACCESS FULL| T2 | 5 | 130 | 3 (0)| 00:00:01 | --------------------------------------------------------------------------Note ----.Note how the optimizer chose to access MV for its pre-calculated MAX(AMT) values in line 2 even though the query itself made no mention of MV.dynamic sampling used for this statement Note how the optimizer chose to access T2 this time.ORA-00439 The materialized view query rewrite feature is not available in Oracle XE and some other Oracle configurations. count(amt) as amt_count from t2 group by t_key . count(*) as row_count . Without the Query Rewrite feature the execution plan would look like this. create materialized view mv2 refresh fast on commit ENABLE QUERY REWRITE as select t_key . Gotcha . Each time this query is executed it has to recalculate MAX(VAL) from the information in T2 for each group. max( amt ) as amt_max FROM T2 group by t_key order by t_key .

create materialized view mv ENABLE QUERY REWRITE as select key.g. First lets look at a simple. Attempting to violate these restrictions results in an error. an expression containing the USER pseudo column or the SYSTIMESTAMP function. single table materialized view with query rewrite disabled. val.from t2 * ERROR at line 9: ORA-00439: feature not enabled: Materialized view rewrite Cleanup alter session set query_rewrite_enabled = true . Query Rewrite Restrictions and Capabilities Restrictions Materialized views with the following characteristics cannot have query rewrite enabled: • the defining query references functions which are not DETERMINISTIC • an expression in the defining query is not repeatable. set long 5000 select my_mv_capabilities( 'MV'. create materialized view mv DISABLE QUERY REWRITE as select key. MV_REPORT . e. drop materialized view log on t2 . set autotrace off drop materialized view mv . In EXPLAIN_MVIEW we used a utility called MY_MV_CAPABILITIES to explore a materialized view's refresh capabilities. as select key. 'REWRITE' ) as mv_report from dual . In the snippets below we will use this same utility to explore rewrite capabilities. USER from t . USER from t * ERROR at line 3: ORA-30353: expression not supported for query rewrite Capabilities A few different materialized view query rewrite capabilities exist. val from t . val.

alter materialized view mv ENABLE QUERY REWRITE . 'REWRITE' ) as mv_report from dual . select my_mv_capabilities( 'MV'. drop materialized view mv . select my_mv_capabilities( 'MV'. val from T@REMOTE . but not others. MV_REPORT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Capable of: REWRITE REWRITE_FULL_TEXT_MATCH REWRITE_PARTIAL_TEXT_MATCH REWRITE_GENERAL Now all rewrite capabilities are available. MV_REPORT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .------------------------------------------------------------------------------Not Capable of: REWRITE REWRITE_FULL_TEXT_MATCH query rewrite is disabled on the materialized view REWRITE_PARTIAL_TEXT_MATCH query rewrite is disabled on the materialized view REWRITE_GENERAL query rewrite is disabled on the materialized view This materialized view obviously has no rewrite capabilities available to it. If the materialized view happened to referenced a remote table then some rewrite capabilities would be available. create materialized view mv enable query rewrite as select key. 'REWRITE' ) as mv_report from dual . (Descriptions of each capability name are available at Table 8-7 CAPABILITY_NAME Column Details.) Enabling query rewrite on the materialized view changes this.

key = t2. t2. select * from t .key t2_key .t_key .key t_key .---------10 1 100 20 1 300 30 1 200 40 2 250 50 2 150 create materialized view mv as select t.Capable of: REWRITE REWRITE_PARTIAL_TEXT_MATCH REWRITE_GENERAL Not Capable of: REWRITE_FULL_TEXT_MATCH T mv references a remote table or view in the FROM list Cleanup drop materialized view mv . KEY T_KEY AMT ---------. Materialized views can also be created on multi-table queries to store the pre-calculated results of expensive join operations.val t_val . KEY ---------1 2 3 4 VAL ----a b c select * from t2 .amt t2_amt from t. t. . Join Queries So far in this tutorial we have only seen materialized views based on a single table. t2 where t.---------. Here is a simple example. t2.

) to be fast refreshable certain restrictions beyond the General Restrictions on Fast Refresh must be met. t_val. sequence ." -.from Refreshing Materialized Views: Tips for Refreshing Materialized Views Without Aggregates "After you create the materialized view. then having an index on each of the join column rowids in the detail table will enhance refresh performance greatly. drop materialized view mv .---------a 10 100 a 20 300 a 30 200 b 40 250 b 50 150 REFRESH FAST For a materialized view with only joins (no aggregates. unions. Whenever I need to create this type of materialized view in an application I use the code below as a starting point to remind me of the requirements. They are as follows. Oracle Database needs the statistics generated by this package to optimize query rewrite. t2_key. T_KEY ---------1 1 1 2 2 T_VAL T2_KEY T2_AMT ----.select t_key.from CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW. sequence . "If a materialized view contains joins but no aggregates. etc. These additional restrictions are: • materialized view logs with rowids must exist for all of the defining query's base tables • the SELECT clause cannot contain object type columns • the defining query cannot have a GROUP BY clause or aggregates • rowid columns for each table instance in the FROM clause must appear in the SELECT clause. create materialized view log on t2 with rowid.---------. -. subqueries." -. create materialized view log on t with rowid. create materialized view mv . because this type of materialized view tends to be much larger than materialized views containing aggregates. t2_amt from mv . you must collect statistics on it using the DBMS_STATS package. The Prototype Applying these restrictions and recommendations to our test case above yields the following prototypical materialized view with joins.from Restrictions on Fast Refresh on Materialized Views with Joins Only In addition to these restrictions there are some recommended practices for using join queries.

t_key . MY_MV_CAPABILITIES. Whenever we create a fast refreshable view we should use our EXPLAIN_MVIEW utility. . .key t2_key t2. t_val. t2_amt from mv . MV_REPORT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Capable of: REFRESH_COMPLETE REFRESH_FAST REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ONETAB_DML REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ANY_DML Now let's test drive our new MV.gather_table_stats( user.rowid t2_row_id from t.key t_key t. here are MV's initial contents. create index mv_i1 on mv ( t_row_id ) . 'REFRESH' ) as mv_report from dual .refresh fast on commit enable query rewrite as select t. create index mv_i2 on mv ( t2_row_id ) . 'MV' ) .---------. T_KEY ---------1 1 1 2 T_VAL T2_KEY T2_AMT ----. t2 where t. . .val t_val t2. execute dbms_stats. . select t_key. t2_key.key = t2. set long 5000 select my_mv_capabilities( 'MV'. to confirm it can be refreshed in all required situations.rowid t_row_id t2.amt t2_amt t.---------a 10 100 a 20 300 a 30 200 b 40 250 . First.

commit. create materialized view mv2 refresh fast as . update t set val = upper(val) .---------. select t_key.ANSI Join Syntax When we attempt to create a materialized view with the ANSI join syntax equivalent of the defining query used above we are surprisingly rewarded with an ORA error. 'REWRITE' ) as mv_report from dual . select my_mv_capabilities( 'MV'. t2_amt from mv . MV_REPORT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Capable of: REWRITE REWRITE_FULL_TEXT_MATCH REWRITE_PARTIAL_TEXT_MATCH REWRITE_GENERAL Gotcha .---------A 10 100 A 20 300 A 30 200 B 40 250 B 50 150 C 60 300 Both changes are reflected in MV. as expected. Query Rewrite Materialized views containing joins can be used by the query rewrite facility (see ENABLE QUERY REWRITE).2 b 50 150 Now let's do some DML on both base tables and see the effect on MV. t_val. 3. 300 ) . t2_key. T_KEY ---------1 1 1 2 2 3 T_VAL T2_KEY T2_AMT ----. insert into t2 values ( 60.

An examination of the EXPLAIN_MVIEW results for this case points to some behind-the-scenes transformations with ANSI syntax which may be causing the limitation. select my_mv_capabilities ( 'create materialized view mv2 refresh fast as select t. ( T.val t_val t2.key t_key . t. 'REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT' ) as mv_report from dual .rowid t_row_id .1 explains that it is really an undocumented limitation of fast refresh materialized views.T_KEY )' .key t_key t. select t. MV_REPORT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Not Capable of: REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT inline view or subquery in FROM list not supported for this type MV REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT inline view or subquery in FROM list not supported for this type MV REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT view or subquery in from list .KEY = T2.T_KEY ) * ERROR at line 12: ORA-12015: cannot create a fast refresh materialized view from a complex query While this behaviour appears to be a bug at first glance. t2. t2. . Metalink note 420856. .key t2_key t2.amt t2_amt . .key t2_key .rowid t2_row_id from T INNER JOIN T2 ON ( T..rowid t_row_id t2.KEY = T2.rowid t2_row_id from T INNER JOIN T2 ON . .val t_val . t2.T_KEY ) T INNER JOIN T2 ON ( T. t.KEY = T2.amt t2_amt t.

insert into t2 select * from t2_backup . etc. select * from mv order by t_key . delete t .---------10 1 100 20 1 300 30 1 200 40 2 250 50 2 150 create materialized view mv as select t_key t_key .) to be fast refreshable certain restrictions beyond the General Restrictions on Fast Refresh must be met.---------. delete t2 . These . Here is a simple example. insert into t select * from t_backup . subqueries.---------1 600 2 400 REFRESH FAST For a materialized view with only aggregates (no joins. commit. unions. drop materialized view log on t2 . Aggregate Queries In addition to materialized views based on join queries. T_KEY AMT_SUM ---------. SUM(AMT) AMT_SUM from t2 group by t_key . KEY T_KEY AMT ---------. select * from t2 order by key . materialized views containing aggregate functions are also possible.Cleanup drop materialized view mv . drop materialized view log on t .

COUNT. VARIANCE. Materialized Views with Aggregates: Requirements for Refresh Fast After Any DML Aggregate COUNT(expr) MIN(expr) MAX(expr) SUM(expr) SUM(col) AVG(expr) Additional Aggregates Required COUNT(*) COUNT(*) COUNT(*) COUNT(*) COUNT(expr) COUNT(*) SUM(expr) SUM(expr*expr) SUM(expr*expr) "col" must have a NOT NULL constraint Optional Aggregates Note defining query must have no WHERE clause defining query must have no WHERE clause COUNT(*) COUNT(expr) COUNT(*) STDDEV(expr) COUNT(expr) SUM(expr) COUNT(*) VARIANCE(expr) COUNT(expr) SUM(expr) (For insert-only materialized views see Table 8-2 Requirements for Materialized Views with Aggregates.) Oracle recommends including the Optional Aggregates expressions to obtain the most efficient and accurate fast refresh of the materialized view.additional restrictions are fully documented at Restrictions on Fast Refresh on Materialized Views with Aggregates. STDDEV. Recommendations . For our current test case the most significant restrictions are these. AVG. and updates. • all base tables must have materialized view logs that: o "Contain all columns from the table referenced in the materialized view." o "Specify with ROWID and INCLUDING NEW VALUES." • aggregates in the defining query must be either SUM. deletes. MIN. or MAX • the defining query's SELECT clause must contain all the columns listed in the GROUP BY clause In addition to these restrictions some additional columns may be required in the defining query to allow it to be fast refreshable in all cases." o "Specify the SEQUENCE clause if the table is expected to have a mix of inserts/direct-loads. The table below summarized these requirements.

The Prototype Applying these restrictions and recommendations to our test case above yields the following prototypical materialized view with aggregates. create materialized view mv refresh fast on commit enable query rewrite as select t_key . create materialized view log on t2 with rowid. MV_REPORT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Capable of: . sequence ( t_key. drop materialized view mv . Additionally we also expect that our GROUP BY columns will often be specified in WHERE or JOIN clauses. count(amt) as amt_count from t2 group by t_key . 'MV' ) . To improve the performance of such queries we will therefore add indexes to our materialized view's GROUP BY columns. sum(amt) as amt_sum . amt ) including new values . Whenever I need to create this type of materialized view in an application I use the code below as a starting point to remind me of the requirements. Oracle Database needs the statistics generated by this package to optimize query rewrite.gather_table_stats( user. MY_MV_CAPABILITIES." -.The recommendation about gathering statistics that we saw in the Join Queries topic also applies to materialized views with aggregates. 'REFRESH' ) as mv_report from dual . execute dbms_stats.from CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW. set long 5000 select my_mv_capabilities( 'MV'. "After you create the materialized view. create index mv_i1 on mv ( t_key ) . Whenever we create a fast refreshable view we should use our EXPLAIN_MVIEW utility. to confirm it can be refreshed in all required situations. count(*) as row_count . you must collect statistics on it using the DBMS_STATS package.

T_KEY AMT_SUM ROW_COUNT AMT_COUNT ---------. 300 ) . First. select * from mv order by t_key . insert into t2 values ( 60.---------1 600 3 3 2 0 2 2 3 300 1 1 Both changes are reflected in MV.---------.---------1 600 3 3 2 400 2 2 Now let's do some DML on the base table and see the effect on MV. as expected. MV_REPORT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .---------. 3. Query Rewrite Materialized views containing aggregates can be used by the query rewrite facility (see ENABLE QUERY REWRITE). select * from mv order by t_key . update t2 set amt = 0 where t_key = 2 . T_KEY AMT_SUM ROW_COUNT AMT_COUNT ---------.REFRESH_COMPLETE REFRESH_FAST REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ONETAB_DML REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ANY_DML Now let's test drive our new MV. commit. 'REWRITE' ) as mv_report from dual .---------. alter materialized view mv enable query rewrite . here are MV's initial contents.---------. select my_mv_capabilities( 'MV'.

T_KEY AMT_SUM ---------. sum(amt) as amt_sum -count(*) as row_count .---------1 600 2 0 3 300 Let's try an INSERT. but what happens if we do not include these columns? Let's find out. 3.Capable of: REWRITE REWRITE_FULL_TEXT_MATCH REWRITE_PARTIAL_TEXT_MATCH REWRITE_GENERAL Gotcha .---------1 600 2 0 3 1200 .Insert-Only Materialized Views On Commit We know that COUNT(*). T_KEY AMT_SUM ---------. -count(amt) as amt_count from t2 group by t_key . insert into t2 values ( 70. commit . and sometimes COUNT(expr). select * from mv2 order by t_key . select * from mv2 order by t_key . 900 ) . create materialized view mv2 refresh fast on commit enable query rewrite as select t_key . must be included in our materialized views for them to be fast refreshable in all cases.

After all.---------1 600 2 0 3 1200 Oops. until I re-read the page a third time and followed up on this seemingly inconsequential little comment. 'c' ) select * from mv2 order by t_key . In topic REFRESH FAST Categories we saw how an insert-only ON DEMAND materialized view similar to this one raised an error when we attempted to fast refresh it manually after a DELETE transaction. execute DBMS_MVIEW. select * from mv2 order by t_key . So we've confirmed we have another insert-only materialized view. The materialized view did not refresh on commit and no errors were generated. except this time we won't get any warnings or errors if a commit fails to trigger a fast refresh. T_KEY AMT_SUM ---------.Looks good. The manual page for CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW did not mention insert-only materialized views so I had no clue to their existence. .---------2 0 3 1200 That's a little better.REFRESH. When I first learned materialized views I stumbled across this behaviour by accident and found it puzzling. all the rows for T_KEY = 1 were deleted from T2 but the group still appears in MV2.REFRESH( 'MV2'. The view was fast refreshed after the transaction committed. 3 rows deleted. Let's try synchronizing MV2 manually using DBMS_MVIEW. Commit complete. delete from t2 where t_key = 1 . commit. when one creates a materialized view specifying that it should REFRESH FAST ON COMMIT it seems reasonable to assume it will always refresh fast on commit. T_KEY AMT_SUM ---------. Let's see how our ON COMMIT version behaves after a DELETE.

MV_REPORT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Capable of: REFRESH_COMPLETE REFRESH_FAST REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT Not Capable of: REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ONETAB_DML AMT_SUM SUM(expr) without COUNT(expr) REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ONETAB_DML COUNT(*) is not present in the select list REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ANY_DML see the reason why REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ONETAB_DML is disabled The report tells us MV2 is fast refreshable after insert. drop materialized view mv2 . select my_mv_capabilities( 'MV2'. refer to Oracle Database Advanced Replication and Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide. commit.EXPLAIN_MVIEW utility is when working with fast refreshable materialized views. but not after other types of DML." -. 'REFRESH' ) as mv_report from dual . This is how to recognize an insert-only materialized view. For instructions on actually implementing the refresh. . as we saw earlier.from CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW This eventually lead me to learn about insert-only refreshing and how indispensable the DBMS_MVIEW. Let's see what DBMS_MVIEW. So the lesson here is do not assume materialized views created with REFRESH FAST ON COMMIT will always refresh fast on commit. insert into t2 select * from t2_backup . drop materialized view log on t2 .EXPLAIN_MVIEW to see whether or not it is an "insert-only" materialized view."(The REFRESH clause) only sets the default refresh options.EXPLAIN_MVIEW has to say about MV2. delete t2 . Cleanup drop materialized view mv . Always check it with DBMS_MVEW.

select t_key t_key .---------.---------. T_KEY AMT_MAX T2_KEY_OF_AMT_MAX ---------. sequence ( key. For example. amt.EXPLAIN_MVIEW) tells us about our query. amt ) including new values . T_KEY AMT KEY ---------. key from t2 order by t_key. key . t_key. Now let's see what the MY_MV_CAPABILITIES utility (created in topic DBMS_MVIEW.Nested Materialized Views Sometimes a single materialized view will not meet our requirements.----------------1 300 20 2 250 40 (T2_KEY_OF_AMT_MAX identifies the KEY value associated with the highest AMT value in each group. create materialized view log on t2 with rowid .) As always the first step is to create a materialized view log on T2. set long 5000 select . given this base table select t_key. max(key) keep ( dense_rank last order by amt ) as t2_key_of_amt_max from t2 group by t_key .---------1 100 10 1 200 30 1 300 20 2 150 50 2 250 40 say we wanted a fast refreshable materialized view defined with the following query. max(amt) amt_max . amt.

max(amt) from t2 group by t_key . max(amt) amt_max . select my_mv_capabilities( 'select t_key t_key . max(key) as t2_key_of_amt_max from t2 where ( t_key. MIN and MAX (see Restrictions on Fast Refresh on Materialized Views with Aggregates). t2. STDDEV. Let's try writing the query using a subquery instead of LAST.amt ) in ( select t_key. 'REFRESH' ) as mv_report from dual . MV_REPORT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Capable of: REFRESH_COMPLETE Not Capable of: REFRESH_FAST REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT aggregate function nested within an expression REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ONETAB_DML see the reason why REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT is disabled REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ONETAB_DML mv uses the MIN or MAX aggregate functions REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ANY_DML see the reason why REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ONETAB_DML is disabled Though not entirely obvious from the report. COUNT.my_mv_capabilities( 'select t_key t_key . VARIANCE. AVG. max(amt) amt_max . max(key) keep ( dense_rank LAST order by amt ) as t2_key_of_amt_max from t2 group by t_key' . it turns out our query is not fast refreshable because the LAST aggregate function which we used to implement T2_KEY_OF_AMT_MAX is not one of the fast refreshable aggregates SUM.

'REFRESH' ) as mv_report from dual . MV_REPORT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Capable of: REFRESH_COMPLETE Not Capable of: REFRESH_FAST REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT subquery in mv REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ONETAB_DML see the reason why REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT is disabled REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ONETAB_DML mv uses the MIN or MAX aggregate functions REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ANY_DML see the reason why REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ONETAB_DML is disabled It looks like a subquery will not work either. Perhaps an analytic approach will work? select my_mv_capabilities( 'select distinct t_key t_key . max( amt ) over ( partition by t_key ) as amt_max . last_value( key ) over ( partition by t_key order by amt range between unbounded preceding and unbounded following ) as t2_key_of_amt_max from t2' .) group by t_key' . MV_REPORT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Capable of: REFRESH_COMPLETE . 'REFRESH' ) as mv_report from dual .

• If REFRESH FAST is specified then all materialized views in any chain related to the materialized view must also specify REFRESH FAST. which is a bit of a relief actually since the technique is rather crass. must each have materialized view logs. find the highest KEY value per AMT 3. . can be based on table T2 and can be refreshed independently of each other. which we will call MV3. Note the term "Nested Materialized View" does not refer to MV1 and MV2. • The defining query must contain joins or aggregates. which we will call MV1 and MV2. However the materialized view for step 3. For nested materialized views they are these. • The base materialized views must contain joins or aggregates. Materialized views like MV3 are called "Nested Materialized Views". We need to rethink our approach. • All base objects. Fortunately Oracle allows for a materialized view like MV3 and automatically manages the refresh order when all three views are refreshable on commit. even though they could be thought of as being "nested" within MV3. will need to be based on MV1 and MV2 and will need to refresh after they do. before creating a type of materialized view we have not tried before we must be aware of its restrictions. regardless of whether they are tables or materialized views. Restrictions and Recommendations As always. are treated as tables. whether they are tables or materialized views. Since deriving the desired result set is conceptually a three step process 1. join the results of steps (1) and (2) together on the AMT column perhaps three separate materialized views would work? The materialized views for steps 1 and 2. Note that all base objects in a nested materialized view. find the highest AMT value 2.Not Capable of: REFRESH_FAST REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT DISTINCT clause in select list in mv REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT DISTINCT clause in select list in mv REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT window function in mv REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ONETAB_DML see the reason why REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT is disabled REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ANY_DML see the reason why REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ONETAB_DML is disabled This last approach did not work either.

row_count ) including new values . amt_max. max(key) max_key_per_amt . amt_count. count(*) row_count from t2 group by t_key . amt . create materialized view log on mv2 with rowid . 'REFRESH' ) as mv_report from dual . select my_mv_capabilities( 'MV1'. count(amt) amt_count . create materialized view log on mv1 with rowid . create materialized view MV1 refresh fast on commit as select t_key . sequence ( t_key. MV_REPORT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Capable of: REFRESH_COMPLETE REFRESH_FAST REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ANY_DML create materialized view MV2 refresh fast on commit as select t_key . amt . count(*) row_count from t2 group by t_key. sequence . max(amt) amt_max .We are now ready to craft our three step solution.

MV_REPORT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Capable of: REFRESH_COMPLETE REFRESH_FAST REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ANY_DML create materialized view MV3 refresh fast on commit as select mv1. MV_REPORT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Capable of: REFRESH_COMPLETE REFRESH_FAST REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_INSERT REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ONETAB_DML REFRESH_FAST_AFTER_ANY_DML .amt . mv1. max_key_per_amt. mv2. mv2 where mv1. 'REFRESH' ) as mv_report from dual . select my_mv_capabilities( 'MV3'.t_key = mv2.rowid mv2_rowid from mv1. mv2. mv1. row_count ) including new values .t_key and mv1.max_key_per_amt as t2_key_of_amt_max . select my_mv_capabilities( 'MV2'.rowid mv1_rowid . 'REFRESH' ) as mv_report from dual .t_key .amt_max = mv2.amt_max .( t_key.

3. amt_max. 550 ). update t2 set amt = 650 where key = 60 . It matches the results returned by the first query we tried which used the LAST function. insert into t2 values ( 60. T_KEY AMT_MAX T2_KEY_OF_AMT_MAX ---------. insert into t2 values ( 70. 450 ). T_KEY AMT KEY ---------.We finally have a fast refreshable materialized view solution. First we perform a few mixed DML transactions. commit. update t2 set amt = 300 where key = 30 . the nested one. amt. select t_key.---------.---------. Mission accomplished. contains the correct results. commit. t2_key_of_amt_max from mv3 order by t_key . Now let's put all three materialized views through their paces. amt_max.----------------1 300 20 2 250 40 Good. select t_key.---------1 100 10 1 300 20 1 300 30 2 150 50 2 250 40 3 650 60 Now we check MV3 to see if it contains the correct info. Cleanup . Let's confirm that MV3.---------. delete from t2 where key = 70 . amt.----------------1 300 30 2 250 40 3 650 60 It does. key . T_KEY AMT_MAX T2_KEY_OF_AMT_MAX ---------. select t_key. key from t2 order by t_key. 3. t2_key_of_amt_max from mv3 order by t_key .

commit. 2. drop materialized view mv3 . 2. 1. 'a' 'b' 'c' null ). . Cleanup . insert into t2 select * from t2_backup . insert into insert into insert into insert into insert into commit. 3. 40. t2 t2 t2 t2 t2 into into into into t t t t values values values values primary key ( ( ( ( 1.drop materialized view mv1 . Setup Run the code on this page in SQL*Plus to create the sample tables. 4. 20. drop materialized view log on t2 . data. etc. create table t ( key number . create table t2 ( key number . create table t2_backup as select * from t2 . delete t2 . primary key not null references t not null values values values values values ( ( ( ( ( 10. used by the examples in this section. 30. ). 100 300 200 250 150 ) ) ) ) ) . 1. 1. . ). ). create table t_backup as select * from t . 2. drop materialized view mv2 . val varchar2(5) ) . 50. t_key number . . amt number ) . . insert insert insert insert commit.

drop table t2_backup . drop table t2 . procedures.MV_CAPABILITIES_TABLE is an Oracle table. exit . etc. To clear session state changes (e. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------.Run the code on this page to drop the sample tables. drop function my_mv_capabilities . do not drop it from your schema -. and VARIABLE commands) exit your SQL*Plus session after running these cleanup commands.WARNING!! --.use it ------------------------------------------------------------------------------drop table mv_capabilities_table . drop table t . created in earlier parts of this section. those made by SET.g.unless you specifically created it for this tutorial and no longer wish to -. COLUMN. drop table t_backup .

null ] = sum(num_val)[any.'n/a'.any] . 'n/a' ) as group_2 ) measures( num_val ) rules ( num_val[ 'Total 1 . null.'a2'] . null ] = sum(num_val)[any.A + a2'. null ] = sum(num_val)[any.'C').MODEL Clause This section presents tutorials on the MODEL clause of the SELECT command. the MODEL clause is a powerful feature that gives you the ability to change any cell in the query's result set using data from any other cell (similar to the way a spreadsheet works).group_1 in ('A'. null.group_1 <> 'A'. group_2 . set null "" select case when key like 'Total%' then key else null end as total . nvl( group_1. null. create a report containing ad-hoc totals like this.n/a'. For example. num_val[ 'Total 2 .any] . nvl( group_2.a1 + a3'.any] + sum(num_val)[any.A + C'. It also adds procedural features to SQL previously available only through PL/SQL calls. with MODEL you can take a simple table like this KEY -----1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 GROUP_1 ---------A A A B B B C C GROUP_2 ---------a1 a2 a3 a1 a2 a3 a1 a2 a1 a2 DATE_VAL NUM_VAL ---------. 'n/a' ) as group_1 .------2005-01-01 100 2005-06-12 200 300 2006-02-01 2006-06-12 300 2005-01-01 100 2006-06-12 100 2005-02-01 2005-02-01 200 800 and. group_1 . num_val from t model dimension by ( cast(key as varchar2(20)) as key .'A'. with a single command. num_val[ 'Total 3 . null ] = . num_val[ 'Total 4 . null. Introduced in Oracle 10g.

a1 + a3 GROUP_2 NUM_VAL ---------.A + C Total 2 .800 (This last technique is explained fully in another section of SQL Snippets at Rows to String: MODEL Method 1.200. inefficient. GROUP_1 ---------A B C (null) STRING ---------------------------------------100.'a3')] ) order by group_1 .A + a2 Total 3 .sum(num_val)[any. TOTAL GROUP_1 -------------------.------a1 100 a2 200 a3 300 a1 a2 300 a3 100 a1 100 a2 a1 200 a2 800 700 1700 1000 800 You can also use MODEL'S procedural features to produce results that are difficult.---------A A A B B B C C n/a n/a Total 1 . set null "(null)" column string format a40 select group_1. total nulls first .300 100.group_2 in ('a1'. or impossible to do with a non-MODEL SELECT command. substr( string.n/a Total 4 .) . 2 ) as string from t where num_val is not null model return updated rows partition by ( group_1 ) dimension by ( row_number() over (partition by group_1 order by num_val) as position ) measures ( cast( num_val as varchar2(65) ) as string ) -. Here is an example.300 100 200. group_2 .' || string[iteration_number+1] ) order by group_1 .1.Note 1 rules upsert iterate( 6 ) until ( presentv(string[iteration_number+2].0) = 0 ) ( string[0] = string[0] || '.any.

Though powerful, the MODEL clause is also somewhat complex and this can be intimidating when you read about it for the first time. The tutorials to follow will therefore present very simple MODEL examples to help you quickly become comfortable with its many features. Before continuing it is important to know that everything in the MODEL clause is evaluated after all other clauses in the query, except for SELECT DISTINCT and ORDER BY. Knowing this will help you better understand the examples in this section's tutorials.

DIMENSION BY
In this tutorial we learn about the DIMENSION BY component of the MODEL clause. DIMENSION BY specifies which columns in a SELECT statement are dimension columns, which for our purposes can be thought of as any column that serves to identify each row in the result of a SELECT statement. By default, the dimension columns in a MODEL clause must produce a unique key for the result set. See the Oracle® Database Data Warehousing Guide 10g Release 2 (10.2) - Glossary for a formal definition. Before we begin please note that, on its own, DIMENSION BY has little visible effect on the output of the SELECT statement. Most of the examples below would produce the same result as one with no MODEL clause at all. This is because we are not trying to manipulate the results just yet. We are simply seeing how to specify our dimension columns, which is a precursor for learning to manipulate results in subsequent pages. Consider the following table.
select key, key_2, group_1, group_2, num_val from t order by key ; KEY -----1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 KEY_2 ----T-1 T-2 T-3 T-4 T-5 T-6 T-7 T-8 T-9 T-10 GROUP_1 ---------A A A B B B C C GROUP_2 NUM_VAL ---------- ------a1 100 a2 200 a3 300 a1 a2 300 a3 100 a1 100 a2 a1 200 a2 800

We see that KEY, KEY_2, and (GROUP_1, GROUP_2) all uniquely identify each row in the table. They are therefore dimension column candidates. To let Oracle know which column(s) we plan to use as dimensions we compose a MODEL clause like this. (Ignore the MEASURES and RULES clauses for now. We will explore those later.)

select key, num_val from t model DIMENSION BY ( KEY ) measures ( num_val ) rules () order by key ; KEY NUM_VAL ------ ------1 100 2 200 3 300 4 5 300 6 100 7 100 8 9 200 10 800

Multiple Dimensions If needed, you can define more than one dimension column, as this example shows.
select group_1, group_2, num_val from t model DIMENSION BY ( GROUP_1, GROUP_2 ) measures ( num_val ) rules () order by group_1, group_2 ; GROUP_1 ---------A A A B B B C C GROUP_2 NUM_VAL ---------- ------a1 100 a2 200 a3 300 a1 a2 300 a3 100 a1 100 a2 a1 200 a2 800

You can even include columns in the DIMENSION BY clause which are not required to uniquely identify each result row.
select key, date_val, num_val from t model DIMENSION BY ( KEY, DATE_VAL ) -- date_val not required to uniquely identify row measures ( num_val ) rules () order by key ; KEY -----1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 DATE_VAL NUM_VAL ---------- ------2005-01-01 100 2005-06-12 200 300 2006-02-01 2006-06-12 300 2005-01-01 100 2006-06-12 100 2005-02-01 2005-02-01 200 800

Aliasing You cannot use SELECT clause aliases in DIMENSION BY. Here are some examples of aliases that will cause errors.
select KEY AS KEY_3, num_val from t model dimension by ( KEY_3 ) measures ( num_val ) rules () ; dimension by ( KEY_3 ) * ERROR at line 7: ORA-00904: "KEY_3": invalid identifier

select KEY * 10 AS KEY_3, num_val from t model

num_val from t model dimension by ( KEY_3 ) measures ( num_val ) rules () . select KEY_3. KEY_3 NUM_VAL ---------. dimension by ( KEY_3 ) measures ( num_val ) rules () dimension by ( KEY_3 ) * ERROR at line 7: ORA-00904: "KEY_3": invalid identifier select ROWNUM AS KEY_3.. num_val . num_val from t model DIMENSION BY ( KEY AS KEY_3 ) measures ( num_val ) rules () order by key_3 .------1 100 2 200 3 300 4 5 300 6 100 7 100 8 9 200 10 800 select KEY_3. dimension by ( KEY_3 ) * ERROR at line 7: ORA-00904: "KEY_3": invalid identifier You can however alias such expressions directly in DIMENSION BY.

select group_2. if your DIMENSION BY columns do not give you a unique key for your result set you will get an error.------1 100 2 200 3 300 4 5 300 6 100 7 100 8 9 200 10 800 Uniqueness By default.from t model DIMENSION BY ( KEY * 10 AS KEY_3 ) measures ( num_val ) rules () order by key_3 . KEY_3 NUM_VAL ---------. KEY_3 NUM_VAL ---------. num_val from . num_val from t model DIMENSION BY ( ROWNUM AS KEY_3 ) measures ( num_val ) rules () order by key_3 .------10 100 20 200 30 300 40 50 300 60 100 70 100 80 90 200 100 800 select KEY_3.

2) . which for our purposes can be thought of as any column containing a measurable quantity like a price or a length. This is explained further in Expressions and Cell References.group_2 is not unique Note that UNIQUE SINGLE REFERENCE affects the types of RULES you can define. GROUP_2 NUM_VAL ---------. . num_val from t model UNIQUE SINGLE REFERENCE dimension by ( group_2 ) measures ( num_val ) rules () order by group_2 .t model DIMENSION BY ( GROUP_2 ) -.Glossary for a formal definition.------a1 100 a1 100 a1 200 a1 a2 800 a2 200 a2 300 a2 a3 300 a3 100 -.group_2 is not unique measures ( num_val ) rules () order by group_2 . t * ERROR at line 5: ORA-32638: Non unique addressing in MODEL dimensions This rule can be relaxed somewhat by specifying UNIQUE SINGLE REFERENCE. See the Oracle® Database Data Warehousing Guide 10g Release 2 (10. MEASURES In this tutorial we learn about the MEASURES component of the MODEL clause. select group_2. MEASURES specifies which columns in a SELECT are measure columns.

group_2.------2005-01-01 100 2005-06-12 200 300 2006-02-01 2006-06-12 300 2005-01-01 100 2006-06-12 100 2005-02-01 2005-02-01 200 800 If we decide to use KEY as our sole dimension column. We are simply seeing how to specify our measure columns. on its own. Most of the examples below would produce the same result as one with no MODEL clause at all. KEY -----1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 GROUP_1 ---------A A A B B B C C GROUP_2 ---------a1 a2 a3 a1 a2 a3 a1 a2 a1 a2 DATE_VAL NUM_VAL ---------. KEY NUM_VAL -----.------1 100 2 200 3 300 4 5 300 6 100 . select key. then all other columns are available for use as measure columns. num_val from t order by key . group_1. num_val from t model dimension by ( key ) MEASURES ( NUM_VAL ) rules () order by key . This is because we are not trying to manipulate the results just yet. To let Oracle know we want to use the NUM_VAL column as our measure we can compose a MODEL clause like this.Before we begin please note that. MEASURES has little visible effect on the output of the SELECT statement. select key. which is a precursor to manipulating the results. Before we see MEASURES in action first consider the following table. date_val. We will see how to actually manipulate our output when we explore the RULES clause in subsequent tutorials.

KEY -----1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 DATE_VAL NUM_VAL ---------.------------ . select key. KEY NUM_VAL NUM_VAL_2 DATE_VAL_2 NOTE -----. num_val_2.------. like this. date_val_2.---------.---------. SYSDATE AS DATE_VAL_2 .------2005-01-01 100 2005-06-12 200 300 2006-02-01 2006-06-12 300 2005-01-01 100 2006-06-12 100 2005-02-01 2005-02-01 200 800 You can define measures using constants and expressions instead of simple column names.7 8 9 10 100 200 800 If we want to include more measure columns we do it like this. 'A BRIEF NOTE' AS NOTE ) rules( ) order by key . num_val. date_val. num_val from t model dimension by ( key ) MEASURES ( DATE_VAL. NUM_VAL ) rules () order by key . select key. note from t model dimension by ( key ) MEASURES ( num_val . NUM_VAL * 10 AS NUM_VAL_2 .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 100 200 300 300 100 100 200 800 1000 2007-02-28 A BRIEF 2000 2007-02-28 A BRIEF 3000 2007-02-28 A BRIEF 2007-02-28 A BRIEF 3000 2007-02-28 A BRIEF 1000 2007-02-28 A BRIEF 1000 2007-02-28 A BRIEF 2007-02-28 A BRIEF 2000 2007-02-28 A BRIEF 8000 2007-02-28 A BRIEF NOTE NOTE NOTE NOTE NOTE NOTE NOTE NOTE NOTE NOTE .

select group_key . Ignoring Nulls According to the SQL Reference Manual section on Aggregate Functions: All aggregate functions except COUNT(*) and GROUPING ignore nulls. You can use the NVL function in the argument to an aggregate function to substitute a value for a null.---------. given a table with values like this GROUP_KEY ---------Group-1 Group-1 Group-2 Group-2 Group-2 Group-2 Group-2 Group-3 Group-3 Group-3 VAL ---------(null) (null) a a z z (null) A A Z aggregate functions like MAX . For all the remaining aggregate functions.---------. count_all_rows . and COUNT will return values that for the most part ignore nulls. COUNT never returns null. like these. min_val . count_distinct_val GROUP_KEY MAX_VAL MIN_VAL COUNT_ALL_ROWS COUNT_VAL COUNT_DISTINCT_VAL ---------.-------------. max_val . if the data set contains no rows. Techniques for generating results that ignore nulls and results that include nulls are highlighted. but returns either a number or zero.Nulls Nulls and Aggregate Functions This tutorial demonstrates how aggregate functions deal with null values. MIN .-----------------Group-1 (null) (null) 2 0 0 . count_val . then the function returns null. MAX( VAL ) MIN( VAL ) COUNT( * ) COUNT( VAL ) COUNT( DISTINCT VAL ) from t1 group by group_key order by group_key . or contains only rows with nulls as arguments to the aggregate function.---------. This means that.

Group-2 Group-3 z Z a A 5 3 4 3 2 2 Note how MAX_VAL contains the same results for Group-2 and Group-3.-------------------(null) 1 a 3 A 2 For the MAX and MIN cases it helps to take the statement "all aggregate functions except COUNT(*) and GROUPING ignore nulls" with a grain of salt. and COUNT(DISTINCT .) however. Two of them are the FIRST and LAST functions. we sometimes need results that take nulls into account. MIN. Fortunately for us there are aggregate functions in addition to COUNT(*) and GROUPING which do not ignore nulls. GROUP_KEY MAX_VAL MIN_VAL . GROUP_KEY ---------Group-1 Group-2 Group-3 MAX_VAL ---------(null) (null) Z MIN_VAL COUNT_DISTINCT_VAL_1 ---------. Including Nulls For mathematical aggregate functions like AVG. select group_key. which we can use as follows to give us MAX and MIN results that include nulls. Note also that only COUNT_ALL_ROWS returned a count that included null values. using the same test data as above GROUP_KEY ---------Group-1 Group-1 Group-2 Group-2 Group-2 Group-2 Group-2 Group-3 Group-3 Group-3 VAL ---------(null) (null) a a z z (null) A A Z we may wish to produce results like these. MAX( VAL ) KEEP ( DENSE_RANK LAST ORDER BY VAL ) max_val . MIN( VAL ) KEEP ( DENSE_RANK FIRST ORDER BY VAL ) min_val from t1 group by group_key order by group_key .. even though Group-2 contains null VAL values and Group-3 does not. The other two versions of COUNT() ignored null values. For example. For aggregate functions like MAX.. and SUM including nulls in the calculation is of little practical use. MEDIAN.

-------------------Group-1 1 1 Group-2 3 3 Group-3 2 2 Be careful with the DUMP approach though since DUMP's output is truncated at 4000 characters. GROUP_KEY COUNT_DISTINCT_VAL_1 COUNT_DISTINCT_VAL_2 ---------. COUNT( DISTINCT VAL ) + MAX( NVL2(VAL. DENSE_RANK and RANK Two more aggregate functions where including nulls in the calculation may be necessary are the DENSE_RANK and RANK functions. DENSE_RANK and RANK include nulls by default.---------Group-1 Group-2 Group-3 ---------(null) (null) Z ---------(null) a A For the COUNT( DISTINCT VAL ) case two possible approaches for including nulls are demonstrated below. COUNT( DISTINCT DUMP(VAL) ) count_distinct_val_1 . . For example. given test data like this (analytic value rankings are included for clarity) GROUP_KEY ---------Group-1 Group-1 Group-2 Group-2 Group-2 Group-2 Group-2 Group-3 Group-3 Group-3 VAL VAL_DENSE_RANK VAL_RANK ---------.---------(null) 1 1 (null) 1 1 a a z z (null) A A Z 1 1 2 2 3 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 5 1 1 3 The following results show how the aggregate versions of DENSE_RANK and RANK do not ignore nulls. Fortunately. select group_key.1) ) count_distinct_val_2 from t1 group by group_key order by group_key .-------------------. select group_key .-------------. as with FIRST and LAST. If the VAL column contained values whose DUMP output is truncated then the results can be incorrect.0.

'z' ) ) min_val . GROUP_KEY NULL_DENSE_RANK_WITHIN_GROUP NULL_RANK_WITHIN_GROUP ---------. are these. may infer that aggregate functions can be made to treat null values the same way they treat nonnull values by simply using NVL to substitute nulls with some non-null value. GROUP_KEY ---------Group-1 Group-2 Group-3 MAX_VAL ---------z z Z MIN_VAL COUNT_DISTINCT_VAL ---------. DECODE( MAX( NVL( VAL. RANK( NULL ) WITHIN GROUP ( ORDER BY VAL ) null_rank_within_group from t1 group by group_key order by group_key . say we choose to substitute all null values with a 'z'.---------------------Group-1 1 1 Group-2 3 5 Group-3 3 4 Gotchas Some people reading these two sentences from the manual All aggregate functions except COUNT(*) and GROUPING ignore nulls. like this.---------------------------. MAX( VAL ) ) max_val . '~'. min( NVL( VAL.-----------------z 1 a 2 A 2 Note how none of the columns above contain the desired results which.-------------------(null) 1 a 3 A 2 A simple application of NVL clearly will not do then. 'z' ) ) count_distinct_val from t1 group by group_key order by group_key . For example. GROUP_KEY ---------Group-1 Group-2 Group-3 MAX_VAL ---------(null) (null) Z MIN_VAL COUNT_DISTINCT_VAL_1 ---------. . You can use the NVL function in the argument to an aggregate function to substitute a value for a null. select group_key . 'z' ) ) max_val . '~' ) ). select group_key . Taking the NVL idea a little further programmers sometimes employ more complex solutions such as this one. count( distinct NVL( VAL. A simple application of this logic can lead to trouble however. NULL. as you will recall.DENSE_RANK( NULL ) WITHIN GROUP ( ORDER BY VAL ) null_dense_rank_within_group . max( NVL( VAL.

decode( max( nvl(val. '~' ) ) count_distinct_val from t1 where group_key in ( 'Group-4'. 'Group-5' ) group by group_key order by group_key . incorrect results. select group_key . max( val ) ) max_val . null insert into t1 values ( 10. GROUP_KEY ---------Group-4 Group-5 MAX_VAL ---------(null) ~~~ MIN_VAL COUNT_DISTINCT_VAL ---------.DECODE( MIN( NVL( VAL. '~'. '~' ) ). insert into t1 values ( 10. decode( min( nvl(val. '~'. null ). '~' ) ) count_distinct_val from t1 group by group_key order by group_key . given this data insert into t1 values ( 10. '~'. 'Group-4'. ). null. 'Group-5'.-------------------~ 2 ~~~ 2 but using the NVL approach gives us these. . min( val ) ) min_val . insert into t1 values ( 10. these solutions will fail if such values are ever inserted into the table. GROUP_KEY ---------Group-1 Group-2 Group-3 MAX_VAL ---------(null) (null) Z MIN_VAL COUNT_DISTINCT_VAL ---------. 'Group-5'. NULL.-----------------(null) 1 a 3 A 2 Without some mechanism to ensure '~' and strings that sort higher than '~' never appear in VAL however. MIN( VAL ) ) min_val . 'Group-4'. '~' ). '~' ) ). For example. null. '~' ) ). '~~~' ). count( distinct nvl( val.-----------------(null) 1 (null) 2 To avoid these gotchas simply use the non-NVL alternatives presented under "Including Nulls" above. COUNT( distinct NVL( VAL. the results should be GROUP_KEY ---------Group-4 Group-5 MAX_VAL ---------(null) (null) MIN_VAL COUNT_DISTINCT_VAL_1 ---------.

OR with IS NULL While a bit cumbersome. this basic solution is the easiest to understand and implement. However. C1 --1 2 3 4 C2 ---------A A (null) (null) C3 ---------A B A (null) If we attempt a SELECT statement like the following we will only get row 1. in SQL. C1 --1 4 C2 ---------A (null) C3 ---------A (null) begin for r in ( select * from t ) loop . select * from t where c2 = c3 . if you need a query that returns row 1 and row 4 then try one of the solutions in the subtopics to follow. select * from t where ( C2 = C3 OR ( C2 IS NULL AND C3 IS NULL ) ). If this is the behavior you need.Nulls and Equality In SQL you should always consider the effect of null values when comparing two values for equality (or any type of comparison for that matter). then read no further. a null is not considered to be equal to or unequal to any value (including another null). C1 C2 C3 --. Consider a table where two of its columns can contain null values.---------.---------1 A A Row 4 is not returned because. SQL + PL/SQL These techniques work in both SQL and PL/SQL. select * from t.

commit. C1 --1 4 C2 ---------A (null) C3 ---------A (null) One problem with this solution is that the replacement value "x". .C3 IS NULL ) ) then dbms_output. insert into t values( 5.if ( R. 'x' ) = nvl( c3. 'x' ) .-------------------------------------C1 NUMBER C2 VARCHAR2(10) . end. or whatever value you choose to use.C2 = R. / Row 1 contains matching values. If we look at the table definition for T desc t Name Null? Type ---------------------------------------------. null ). C1 --1 4 5 C2 ---------A (null) x C3 ---------A (null) (null) The trick to making this solution bullet proof is to choose a replacement value that can never appear in either of the columns being compared. select * from t where nvl( c2. end if.C2 IS NULL AND R. Row 4 contains matching values. might be inserted into columns C2 or C3 some day. 'x'. 'x' ) .C3 OR ( R. end loop.c1 || ' contains matching values.put_line( 'Row ' || r. like this. This would cause a SELECT statement that has been working properly until that day to all of a sudden start returning the wrong answer.' ). select * from t where nvl( c2. 'x' ) = nvl( c3. NVL The following NVL approach is a popular one.

'12345678901' ) . C1 --1 4 C2 ---------A (null) C3 ---------A (null) begin for r in ( select * from t ) loop if SAME( R.C2.' ). / select * from t where SAME( C2. select * from t where nvl( c2. end loop. Any replacement value larger than 10 characters is therefore guaranteed to never appear in either column (assuming the sizes of C2 or C3 are never expanded).C3 VARCHAR2(10) we see that values in C2 and C3 can be at most 10 characters long. create function SAME( p_1 in varchar2.c1 || ' contains matching values. R. C3 ) = 'Y' . end if. end.put_line( 'Row ' || r. . .C3 ) = 'Y' then dbms_output. end. C1 --1 4 C2 ---------A (null) C3 ---------A (null) Custom Function If you do these comparisons frequently you may wish to create a custom database function like this one. '12345678901' ) = nvl( c3. p_2 in varchar2 ) return varchar2 is begin return ( case when p_1 is null and p_2 is null then 'Y' when p_1 = p_2 then 'Y' else 'N' end ).

the output of the DUMP function is truncated at 4000 characters. SQL Only The following techniques. Unlike the "=" operator. one for DATE values. unfortunately only work in SQL commands.' as result from dual where DUMP( LPAD( 'A'. 'Y'. one for VARCHAR2 values. not PL/SQL commands. C1 --1 4 C2 ---------A (null) C3 ---------A (null) DUMP Another approach uses the DUMP function. Here is an example. With this approach however one function is required for comparing NUMBER values./ Row 1 contains matching values. while more compact than the solutions presented in SQL + PL/SQL . DECODE treats two nulls as equivalent. C3. select 'Oops! This row should not be returned. 4000 ) ) . . RESULT -------------------------------------Oops! This row should not be returned. If the values being compared produce truncated DUMP output then the comparison can produce false positives. DECODE One approach uses the DECODE function. To return rows where two columns contain the same value we can therefore use a command like the following. One. 'N' ) = 'Y' . C1 --1 4 C2 ---------A (null) C3 ---------A (null) This approach has a couple of limitations however. 4000) ) = DUMP( LPAD( 'B'. select * from t where DECODE( C2. select * from t where DUMP(C2) = DUMP(C3) . Row 4 contains matching values. etc.

select 'Oops! This row should be returned. C1 --1 4 C2 ---------A (null) C3 ---------A (null) As with the other solutions on this page. VARCHAR2. C2 and C3 must be the exact same datatype for the comparison to work. dump( 'A' ) as char_val from t where c1 = 1 .Two. VARCHAR2_VAL -----------------------------CHAR_VAL -----------------------------Typ=1 Len=1: 65 Typ=96 Len=1: 65 SYS_OP_MAP_NONNULL Another approach that some have proposed uses the undocumented function SYS_OP_MAP_NONNULL. The "typ=" part of the DUMP output for both terms differs because column C2 is datatype 1.' as result from t where dump( c2 ) = dump( 'A' ) . but it is not. CHAR. SYS_OP_MAP_NONNULL does not work in PL/SQL. no rows selected Examining the output of DUMP shows why this occurs. begin for r in ( select * from t ) loop . and the literal 'A' is datatype 96. column varchar2_val format a30 column char_val format a30 fold_before select dump( c2 ) as varchar2_val . Comparing compatible datatypes such as VARCHAR2 and CHAR will fail to match any rows. select * from t where SYS_OP_MAP_NONNULL( C2 ) = SYS_OP_MAP_NONNULL( C3 ) .

C2 ) = SYS_OP_MAP_NONNULL( R. . end if. 4000 ) ) . .c1 || ' contains matching values. their behavior or availability can change at any time making them a risky thing to include in your code. used by the examples in this section. select * * ERROR at line 1: ORA-01706: user function result value was too large While undocumented features such as this one are compelling. 'A' 'B' 'A' null ).if ( SYS_OP_MAP_NONNULL( R. ). data. create table t ( c1 number .C3 ) ) then dbms_output. 3. end loop. c3 varchar2(10) ). c2 varchar2(10) . Setup Run the code on this page in SQL*Plus to create the sample tables. Be sure to read Using SQL Snippets ™ before executing any of these setup steps.put_line( 'Row ' || r. insert insert insert insert into into into into t t t t values( values( values( values( 1. 2. . column 10: PLS-00201: identifier 'SYS_OP_MAP_NONNULL' must be declared ORA-06550: line 6. 'A' 'A' null null . They also make support and maintenance harder for others who need to work with your code and are not familiar with the feature. ). etc. ). 4000 ) ) = SYS_OP_MAP_NONNULL( LPAD( 'B'. .C3 ) ) * ERROR at line 6: ORA-06550: line 6. 4. end.C2 ) = SYS_OP_MAP_NONNULL( R. / if ( SYS_OP_MAP_NONNULL( R. . column 5: PL/SQL: Statement ignored It also has a length limitation. select * from dual where SYS_OP_MAP_NONNULL( LPAD( 'A'.' ).

drop function same . drop table t . procedures.g.commit. set null '(null)' set numformat 99 set serveroutput on Cleanup Run the code on this page to drop the sample tables. Be sure to read Using SQL Snippets ™ before executing any of these setup steps. and VARIABLE commands) exit your SQL*Plus session after running these cleanup commands. those made by SET. COLUMN. exit . To clear session state changes (e. etc. created in earlier parts of this section.

.Integer Series Generators Sometimes. DAY_OF_WEEK VAL ----------.---------0 1 100 2 3 300 4 400 5 500 6 If you expect to write lots of queries that use the same series of integers and they are based on real world phenomena then creating a table like DAYS_OF_THE_WEEK can be the best solution. having a way to create a series of integers greatly simplifies certain queries. if your data looks like this: select * from t . For example.---------0 1 100 2 3 300 4 400 5 500 6 It would be useful to have a table with the numbers 0 to 6 in it so you could write an outer join query like this. DAY_OF_WEEK VAL ----------. t.val from days_of_the_week d left outer join t using ( day_of_week ) order by day_of_week . select day_of_week.---------1 100 3 300 4 400 5 500 and you want a report that looks like this DAY_OF_WEEK VAL ----------.

or for a system you do not have CREATE TABLE privileges on. You can create such a table like this. Since this table only has a single indexed column we specified organization index to make this an Index-Organized table and save storage space. The feature graph below will help you decide which method is best for you. Table created. Feature Intege MOD r Table EL Y N ROWNUM Type CONNECT CUB Pipelined + a Big Construct BY LEVEL E Function Table or Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y N Y Pure SQL solution. One of the most straightforward ways to generate a series of integers is by adding a generic integer table to your application.Occassionally however. end loop. you may need a different set of integers just for one specific query.. The tutorials in this section demonstrate a few of them. end. create table integers ( integer_value integer primary key ) organization index . generic techniques for generating integers. / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Other techniques are discussed in the topics listed in the menu to the left. Integer Table Method This tutorial demonstrates how to generate a series of integers using a generic integer table. Fortunately there are flexible. To load the table a simple loop like the following will do the trick.Small Numbers and Performance Comparison . for adhoc reports. commit.Large Numbers pages. 10 loop insert into integers values ( i ). no custom objects N required Works in versions Y prior to 10g Performance comparison charts for all these methods are available at the end of the section on the Performance Comparison . begin for i in -5 . . In these cases it may be impractical or impossible to create a dedicated table that meets your needs.

integer_value .val from integers i left outer join t on ( i. DAY_OF_WEEK VAL ----------.---------0 1 100 2 3 300 4 400 5 500 6 MODEL Method This tutorial demonstrates how to generate a series of integers using the MODEL clause of the SELECT command. when you need a specific series of integers you can use the INTEGERS table like this. select i.day_of_week ) where i. select * from integers .We used -5 and 10 as the limits of our series in this example. t. INTEGER_VALUE -------------5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Later.integer_value as day_of_week . (You can learn more about MODEL at SQL Features Tutorials: MODEL . In practice you would choose limits that anticipate the smallest and largest integers you will ever need.integer_value = t.integer_value between 0 and 6 order by i.

Clause.) This technique only works with Oracle versions starting at 10g. Other techniques are discussed in the tutorials listed in the menu to the left. With this technique you can generate a series of integers starting at "1" using a query like this.
select integer_value from dual where 1=2 model dimension by ( 0 as key ) measures ( 0 as integer_value ) rules upsert ( integer_value[ for key from 1 to 10 increment 1 ] = cv(key) ) ; INTEGER_VALUE ------------1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Chaning the INCREMENT value lets us control the difference between successive values in the series.
select integer_value from dual where 1=2 model dimension by ( 0 as key ) measures ( 0 as integer_value ) rules upsert ( integer_value[ for key from 2 to 10 INCREMENT 2 ] = cv(key) ) ; INTEGER_VALUE ------------2 4 6 8 10

We can use bind variables to make the solution more generic.
variable v_first_key variable v_last_key variable v_increment execute :V_FIRST_KEY execute :V_LAST_KEY execute :V_INCREMENT number number number := 1 := 5 := 2

select key, integer_value from dual where 1=2 model dimension by ( 0 as key ) measures ( 0 as integer_value ) rules upsert ( integer_value[ for key from :V_FIRST_KEY to :V_LAST_KEY increment 1 ] = nvl2( integer_value[cv()-1], integer_value[cv()-1] + :V_INCREMENT, cv(key) ) ) ; KEY INTEGER_VALUE ---------- ------------1 1 2 3 3 5 4 7 5 9

When v_last_key is NULL or less than v_first_key no rows are returned.
execute :v_first_key := 1 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. execute :v_last_key := null

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. / no rows selected execute :v_last_key := 0 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. / no rows selected execute :v_last_key := -5 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. / no rows selected

Day of the Week Case Study

We can apply this technique to the day of the week scenario presented at the start of this chapter as follows.
select day_of_week , t.val from ( select day_of_week from dual where 1=2 model dimension by ( 0 as key ) measures ( 0 as day_of_week ) rules upsert ( day_of_week[ for key from 0 to 6 increment 1 ] = cv(key) ) ) i left outer join t using ( day_of_week ) order by day_of_week ; DAY_OF_WEEK VAL ----------- ---------0 1 100 2 3 300 4 400 5 500 6

Gotchas

Descending Series
If you need a descending series of integers this attempt will not work.
select integer_value from dual where 1=2 model dimension by ( 0 as key ) measures ( 0 as integer_value ) rules upsert ( integer_value[ for key FROM 3 TO 1 increment 1 ] = cv(key) ) ; no rows selected

Instead, do it this way
select integer_value from dual

where 1=2 model dimension by ( 0 as key ) measures ( 0 as integer_value ) rules upsert ( integer_value[ for key from 3 to 1 DECREMENT 1 ] = cv(key) ) ORDER BY INTEGER_VALUE DESC ; INTEGER_VALUE ------------3 2 1

or this way.
select integer_value from dual where 1=2 model dimension by ( 0 as key ) measures ( 0 as integer_value ) rules upsert ( integer_value[ for key from 1 TO 3 INCREMENT 1 ] = cv(key) ) ORDER BY INTEGER_VALUE DESC ; INTEGER_VALUE ------------3 2 1

WHERE 1=2
It is important to note that everything in the MODEL clause is evaluated after all other clauses in the query, except for SELECT DISTINCT and ORDER BY. Using the WHERE 1=2 clause ensures the query starts with an empty result set when MODEL rules are first applied to the rows returned by the SELECT ... FROM ... WHERE portion of the query. While it would be possible to omit the WHERE 1=2 clause using an approach like this
select integer_value from dual model dimension by ( 1 as key ) measures ( 1 as integer_value ) rules upsert ( integer_value[ for key from 1 to 10 increment 1 ] = cv(key) ) ; INTEGER_VALUE ------------1 2 3

4 5 6 7 8 9 10

this query causes the result set to always contain at least one row both before and after the MODEL rules are applied. This is not a problem for queries that always return one or more rows like this one,
select key, integer_value from dual model dimension by ( 4 as key ) measures ( 4 as integer_value ) rules upsert ( integer_value[ for key from 4 to 8 increment 1 ] = cv(key) ) ; KEY INTEGER_VALUE ---------- ------------4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8

but if the code is later parameterized and the TO bound is ever null or less than the FROM bound then the query will incorrectly return 1 row instead of the required zero rows for these cases.
variable v_first_key variable v_last_key number number

execute :v_first_key := 3 execute :v_last_key := 0 select key, integer_value from dual model dimension by ( :v_first_key as key ) measures ( :v_first_key as integer_value ) rules upsert ( integer_value[ for key from :v_first_key to :v_last_key increment 1 ] = cv(key) ) ; KEY INTEGER_VALUE ---------- ------------3 3

RETURN UPDATED ROWS

An alternative to using WHERE 1=2 would be to instead include a RETURN UPDATED ROWS clause, like this
select integer_value from dual model RETURN UPDATED ROWS dimension by ( 1 as key ) measures ( 1 as integer_value ) rules upsert ( integer_value[ for key from 1 TO 3 increment 1 ] = cv(key) ) ; INTEGER_VALUE ------------1 2 3 select integer_value from dual model RETURN UPDATED ROWS dimension by ( 1 as key ) measures ( 1 as integer_value ) rules upsert ( integer_value[ for key from 3 TO 0 increment 1 ] = cv(key) ) ; no rows selected

but using WHERE 1=2 to ensure the query always starts with an empty set seems like a cleaner way to work than starting with one row and then relying on RETURN UPDATED ROWS to return that row in some cases but not others.

INCREMENT and Bind Variables
Unlike the FROM and TO bounds, we cannot use a variable in the INCREMENT value (as tested in 10g).
variable v_first_key variable v_last_key variable v_increment execute :v_first_key execute :v_last_key execute :v_increment number number number := 1 := 9 := 2

select key, integer_value from dual where 1=2 model dimension by ( 0 as key ) measures ( 0 as integer_value ) rules upsert

ROWNUM ---------1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 We can apply this technique to our day of the week scenario as follows. select rownum from all_objects where rownum <= 10 .( integer_value[ for key from :v_first_key to :v_last_key INCREMENT :v_increment ] = cv(key) ) . The data dictionary view ALL_OBJECTS is a popular choice for this method. if you need a series of 10 integers then you need to find a table or view that will always have at least 10 rows in it. The Solution Once you have identified a table with a sufficient number of rows simply select ROWNUM from it to generate the required integer series. like this. Other techniques are discussed in the tutorials listed in the menu to the left. Prerequisites Before using this solution you need to find a table with at least as many rows in it as the number of integers you need to generate. ( integer_value[ for key from :v_first_key to :v_last_key INCREMENT :v_increment ] ERROR at line 8: ORA-32626: illegal bounds or increment in MODEL FOR loop * ROWNUM + a Big Table Method This tutorial demonstrates how to generate a series of integers using the ROWNUM pseudocolumn and any available table with as many rows in it as the number of integers required.val from ( select rownum . I.1 as day_of_week . select day_of_week .e. t.

With this technique you can generate a series of integers starting at "1" using a query like this. Applying the technique to a table with two rows.---------0 1 100 2 3 300 4 400 5 500 6 CONNECT BY LEVEL Method This tutorial demonstrates how to generate a series of integers using a novel application of the CONNECT BY clause first posted by Mikito Harakiri at Ask Tom "how to display selective record twice in the query?". yields some insight into how such queries work. Other techniques are discussed in the tutorials listed in the menu to the left. those that do not use the PRIOR operator. LEVEL ---------1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Queries Without PRIOR The query above is a special case of a more general type of query. break on level duplicates skip 1 column path format a10 . "a" and "b". DAY_OF_WEEK VAL ----------. select level from dual connect by level <= 10 .from all_objects where rownum <= 7 ) i left outer join t using ( day_of_week ) order by day_of_week .

This effect may be useful where an exponentially increasing number of output rows is required. clear breaks variable v_total_rows number execute :v_total_rows := 0 select level from dual connect by level <= :v_total_rows . . key t4 level <= 3 level. If the number of rows is set with a bind variable whose value can be 0. Variables The original syntax for this technique works fine when the number of rows is hardcoded to a value greater than or equal to 1. Note there is some debate about whether queries without PRIOR in the CONNECT BY clause are legal or not. path . See Multiple Integer Series: CONNECT BY LEVEL Method for more details and an example.select from connect by order by LEVEL ---------1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 level. or null however. The effect also proves useful in situations where more than one integer series is required from a single query. '/' ) as path. This is discussed further in the "Gotchas" section below. negative. It always generates at least one row in these cases. sys_connect_by_path( key. the technique may not work as expected. PATH ---------/a /b /a/a /a/b /b/a /b/b /a/a/a /a/a/b /a/b/a /a/b/b /b/a/a /b/a/b /b/b/a /b/b/b KEY --a b a b a b a b a b a b a b Without a CONNECT BY condition that uses PRIOR it appears Oracle returns all possible hierarchy permutations.

no rows selected execute :v_total_rows := -5 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. / LEVEL ---------1 1 row selected. / LEVEL ---------1 1 row selected. execute :v_total_rows := null PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.LEVEL ---------1 execute :v_total_rows := -5 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. execute :v_total_rows := 0 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. / no rows selected execute :v_total_rows := null . A simple WHERE clause fixes this behaviour. select from WHERE connect level dual :V_TOTAL_ROWS >= 1 by level <= :v_total_rows .

That is the Question .---------0 1 100 2 3 300 4 400 5 500 6 Gotchas To Use PRIOR or Not to Use PRIOR.1 as day_of_week from dual connect by level <= 7 ) i left outer join t using( day_of_week ) order by day_of_week . / no rows selected execute :v_total_rows := 3 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. t.val from ( select level . Day of the Week Case Study In the next snippet we apply the technique to the day of the week scenario we examined in prior tutorials. select day_of_week . DAY_OF_WEEK VAL ----------. / LEVEL ---------1 2 3 3 rows selected.PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Volder). select level from dual connect by level <= 10 and PRIOR DBMS_RANDOM. but the PL/SQL call it contains makes it perform worse (from Re: Creating N Copies of a Row using "CONNECT BY CONNECT_BY_ROOT" . The fact the CONNECT BY clause works without error in Oracle 10g and some 9i versions somewhat supports this view." -. seemingly equivalent to the CONNECT BY LEVEL <= 10 solution. as dictated by this statement in the SQL Reference Manual "in a hierarchical query. ERROR: ORA-01436: CONNECT BY loop in user data The following variation may be more legal than the original solution since it includes a PRIOR condition and does not produce a CONNECT BY loop. one expression in condition must be qualified with the PRIOR operator to refer to the parent row.Oracle® Database SQL Reference 10g Release 2 (10. ERROR: ORA-01436: CONNECT BY loop in user data select level from dual connect by level <= 10 AND PRIOR 1 = 1 .2) Others argue that this statement is a documentation bug. select level from dual connect by level <= 10 AND PRIOR DUMMY = DUMMY .VALUE IS NOT NULL . do not produce the desired 10 rows of output (as tested in Oracle 10g). Note that the following queries.Laurent Schneider argues in his blog post Bible of Oracle that a clause like CONNECT BY LEVEL <= 10 is an illegal construct since it has no expressions qualified with the PRIOR operator. LEVEL ---------1 2 3 4 5 6 .

may help (I have not tested this). I have not tested these myself but here are some posts that describe problems. LEVEL ---------1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9 rows selected. • • Ask Tom "how to display selective record twice in the query?" Ask Tom "Can there be an infinite DUAL?" .minor simplification CONNECT BY Generator Rules | Ask Mr. have been reported in Oracle versions earlier than 10. Tom Kyte. or variations of it. Ed In Oracle 9i. Laurent Schneider and other posters at these threads. be aware there is a risk the technique may not work in future versions. as in this snippet. Acknowledgements Mikito Harakiri. if you try the CONNECT BY LEVEL technique and get a single row when expecting muliple rows.2. LEVEL ---------1 putting the query in an inline view. Issues Issues with this technique.7 8 9 10 The jury is still out on using CONNECT BY LEVEL to generate integers.Weird Results (bug?) Ask Tom "how to display selective record twice in the query?". select * from (select level from dual connect by level < 10) . like this select level from dual connect by level < 10 . • • • • Ask Tom "Can there be an infinite DUAL?" . Until there is a definitive answer.Weird results Ask Tom "Can there be an infinite DUAL?" .

11 12 13 14 15 16 To return 9 rows: select rownum from ( select 1 ROWNUM ---------1 2 . 2 ) ) . 3. 2. 2. 3 ) ) . ROWNUM ---------1 2 3 4 To return 8 rows (2^3): select rownum from ( select 1 from dual group by cube( 1.CUBE Method This tutorial demonstrates how to generate a series of integers using the CUBE clause of the SELECT statement. 4 ) 10 ) . Other techniques are discussed in the tutorials listed in the menu to the left. Here are some examples that generate a series of integers using CUBE. To return 4 rows (2^2): select rownum from ( select 1 from dual group by cube( 1. ROWNUM ---------1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 To return 16 rows (2^4): ROWNUM ---------1 2 3 4 select rownum 5 from 6 ( 7 select 1 8 from dual 9 group by cube( 1.

with days_of_the_week as ( select rownum .val from days_of_the_week left outer join t using ( day_of_week ) order by day_of_week . 3. 2.---------0 1 100 2 3 300 4 400 5 500 6 For more details about how this method works see CUBE . Gotchas Number of Arguments in CUBE Ensure the numeric literal in the WHERE clause is less than or equal to 2^(number of CUBE arguments). 2. select rownum as integer_value from ( select 1 from t2 group by cube ( 1.will only generate 2^2 rows . 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 We can apply this technique to our day of the week scenario with this query. t. 3 ) ) where rownum <= 7 ) select day_of_week . as in this example which attempts to generate 7 integers but only succeeds in generating 4.from dual group by cube( 1. otherwise you will not get the correct number of rows.Explained. 2 ) -. 4 ) ) where rownum <= 9 . DAY_OF_WEEK VAL ----------.1 as day_of_week from ( select 1 from dual group by cube( 1.

. and then turn it into an integer series generator for the values 1 to 4.-----.---------x y 42 . ROWNUM ---------1 1 1 1 CUBE Method .. 6. cube( 1.can only be <= 4.. transform it into a query that uses CUBE the traditional way.Explained To understand how the integer series generator described in the CUBE Method tutorial works we will start with a simple query. C1 C2 C3 -----. select rownum from t2 group by cube( 1. . select c1. c2. or 1 in this query. 2. select rownum * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00979: not a GROUP BY expression select rownum from t2 group by rownum. 2 ) . C2 . 2 ) .) set null "(null)" select * from t2 .) where rownum <= 7 -. sum( c3 ) as sum_c3 from t2 GROUP BY C1. (Read the Oracle manual page on the CUBE grouping operation first if you are not already familiar with this feature.---------x y 42 C1 C2 SUM_C3 -----. 7. not 5. 3.-----. INTEGER_VALUE ------------1 2 3 4 Inline View Attempting to use rownum without the inline view will cause errors or incorrect results.

3. sum( c3 ) as sum_c3 from t2 group by CUBE( c1. I like to use arguments like 1.5.see Note 1 1 . c2 ) . 1 AS ANY_LITERAL from t2 group by cube( c1. 1 or 'a'. INTEGER_VALUE ------------1 2 3 4 INTEGER_VALUE ------------1 2 3 Note 1: In this technique it does not matter what literals you use in the arguments to CUBE. Two literals will give you four rows (2^2). C1 -----(null) (null) x x C1 -----(null) (null) x x C2 SUM_C3 -----. 2 ) ) where ROWNUM <= 3 .---------(null) 42 y 42 (null) 42 y 42 C2 ANY_LITERAL -----. 2 ) ). c2.7 because it is . c2 ). 2 ) -. 1 ---------1 1 1 1 1 select 1 ---------from t2 1 group by CUBE ( 1. 1 1 select ROWNUM AS INTEGER_VALUE from ( select 1 from t2 group by cube ( 1.6. select rownum as integer_value from ( select 1 from t2 group by cube ( 1. You could use arguments like 1. four literals will give you sixteen rows (2^4). c2 ). SELECT 1 from t2 group by cube ( c1.4.----------(null) 1 y 1 (null) 1 y 1 select c1.'b' and still get the same number of rows. The important part is how many literals you include.2. c2.select c1. etc. three literals will give you eight rows (2^3).

8. like 10 or 20. If you do not have privileges to create a type like this see Setup . you can use a simple query like this one. Type Constructor Expression Method This tutorial demonstrates how to generate a series or set of integers using Type Constructor Expressions for collection types.2.easier to tell there are 7 arguments (which produce 2^7 rows) with this approach than with an argument list like 1.1.1.4.4. select column_value from table( integer_table_type( 1.1. Prerequisites This solution requires a nested table type or varry type.9.1. COLUMN_VALUE -----------1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 This method is unique from the others in this section in that it lends itself well to creating sets of non-sequential integers as well as sequential series.1.10 ) ) . Other techniques are discussed in the tutorials listed in the menu to the left. COLUMN_VALUE -----------1 1 4 4 . We will use one called INTEGER_TABLE_TYPE created in the Setup topic for this section.5.4.1.3.8.Note 1. select column_value from table( integer_table_type( 1.4. desc integer_table_type integer_table_type TABLE OF NUMBER(38) The Solution If you need a manageable number of integers.7.6.1.10 ) ) .

4 8 10

Applying the technique to our day of the week scenario yields this query.
select i.column_value as day_of_week , t.val from table( integer_table_type( 0,1,2,3,4,5,6 ) ) i left outer join t on ( i.column_value = t.day_of_week ) order by i.column_value ; DAY_OF_WEEK VAL ----------- ---------0 1 100 2 3 300 4 400 5 500 6

If you require more integers than you care to list in a type constructor expression see the Type Constructor + Cartesian Product tutorial for a variation of this technique. Gotchas If we specify more than 999 arguments in a type constructor it will generate a ORA-00939: too many arguments for function error (as tested in Oracle 10g).

Type Constructor + Cartesian Product Method
This tutorial demonstrates how to generate a series of integers using Type Constructor Expressions for collection types and Cartesian Products. Other techniques are discussed in the tutorials listed in the menu to the left. Prerequisites This solution requires a nested table type or varry type. We will use one called INTEGER_TABLE_TYPE created in the Setup topic for this section. If you do not have privileges to create a type like this see Setup - Note 1.
desc integer_table_type integer_table_type TABLE OF NUMBER(38)

The Solution

If you require a large number of integers then listing them all in a type constructor expression, like the solutions in the Type Constructor Expression Method tutorial, may be difficult or impossible. In this case you can use a Cartesian product with your type constructor expressions to generate a large number of rows with a small amount of code. Here are some examples. This query returns 9 rows (3x3).
ROWNUM ---------1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

select rownum from table( integer_table_type( 1,2,3 ) ) i1, table( integer_table_type( 1,2,3 ) ) i2 ;

This query returns 12 rows (3x4).
ROWNUM ---------1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

select rownum from table( integer_table_type( 1,2,3 ) ) i1, table( integer_table_type( 1,2,3,4 ) ) i2 ;

A query like this can return up to 10,000 rows (10^4), though we won't prove this by diplaying them all here. Listing 15 of them should suffice.
ROWNUM ---------1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

with i as ( select * from table ( integer_table_type( 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 ) ) ) select rownum from i,i,i,i where rownum <= 15 ;

How Cartesian Products Work When you do not specify a join between tables Oracle combines each row of one table with each row in the other to produce every possible row combination. This produces a result set with
(number of rows in Table 1) x (number of rows in Table 2)

rows in it. The following query illustrates this.
select rownum , i1.column_value i1_column_value, i2.column_value i2_column_value from table( integer_table_type( 1,2 ) ) i1, table( integer_table_type( 10,20,30 ) ) i2 ; ROWNUM I1_COLUMN_VALUE I2_COLUMN_VALUE ---------- --------------- --------------1 1 10 2 1 20 3 1 30 4 2 10 5 2 20 6 2 30

Pipelined Function Method
This tutorial demonstrates how to generate a series of integers using a Pipelined Function. Other techniques are discussed in the tutorials listed in the menu to the left. Prerequisites This solution requires a nested table type or varry type. We will use one called INTEGER_TABLE_TYPE created in the Setup topic for this section. If you do not have privileges to create a type like this see Setup - Note 1.
desc integer_table_type integer_table_type TABLE OF NUMBER(38)

You will also need the following custom database function.
create function integer_series ( p_lower_bound in number, p_upper_bound in number ) return integer_table_type pipelined as begin

for i in p_lower_bound .. p_upper_bound

/ The Solution Now that we have our prerequisites in place. select * from table( integer_series(-5.column_value = t. t.day_of_week ) order by i. end loop.7) ) .column_value . DAY_OF_WEEK VAL ----------.loop pipe row(i).column_value as day_of_week .---------0 1 100 2 3 300 4 400 5 500 6 .val from table( integer_series(0. end. here is how you use the INTEGER_SERIES function. return. COLUMN_VALUE ------------5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 We can apply this technique to our day of the week scenario with this query. select i.6) ) i left outer join t on ( i.

680 redo size 2. Statistics The following table shows database statistics where values for one method differ by more than 100 from another method.Performance Comparison .684 2.684 sorts (rows) 2.071 2.072 196.536 131.684 2.144 262.072 2.072 327.071 2.608 65.464 65.072 131.464 See Statistics Descriptions for a description of each metric.144 262.608 65.144 327.144 262.640 2.684 2.684 2.-----------.536 131. Latch Gets The following table shows total latch gets for each method.071 2.464 65.680 session pga memory 196.071 2.144 262.-----------------------------Elapsed Time (1/100 sec) 3 3 3 2 5 262 3 4 session pga memory max 262.Small Numbers The following tables show performance metrics for one run each of the eight integer series generation techniques described in the preceeding tutorials.-----------.744 2. Integer ROWNUM CONNECT BY Type Type Constructor Pipelined METRIC_NAME Table MODEL + Big Table LEVEL CUBE Constructor + Cartesian Product Function ---------------------------------------.076 session uga memory 0 0 0 0 0 65.199 2. .144 262.684 2.----------------------.081 2.-----------.144 262. See the log file from these tests for more details. • Integer Table Method • MODEL Method • ROWNUM + a Big Table Method • CONNECT BY LEVEL Method • CUBE Method • Type Constructor Expression Method • Type Constructor + Cartesian Product Method • Pipelined Function Method Each run generated a series of integers from 1 to 100.-----------.

----------------------.Integer ROWNUM CONNECT BY Type Type Constructor Pipelined METRIC_NAME Table MODEL + Big Table LEVEL CUBE Constructor + Cartesian Product Function ---------------------------------------.-----------.-----------.-----------------------------cache buffers chains 206 163 221 163 163 1.-----------.-----------.208 181 249 row cache objects 136 96 129 87 84 135 114 171 library cache 92 77 86 80 77 113 89 179 shared pool 70 25 26 24 25 85 29 45 session idle bit 56 55 56 55 55 56 55 57 library cache pin 50 43 48 43 43 57 45 89 library cache lock 26 20 28 20 20 40 25 72 enqueues 23 16 17 16 16 26 16 20 enqueue hash chains 22 16 16 16 16 26 16 18 shared pool simulator 12 9 7 9 9 16 10 17 object queue header operation 8 12 12 12 12 305 12 15 redo allocation 8 8 8 8 8 18 8 8 cache buffers lru chain 7 6 6 6 6 396 6 7 SQL memory manager workarea list latch 6 10 6 6 6 73 6 6 session allocation 6 2 4 3 2 2 2 6 sort extent pool 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 session switching 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 kks stats 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 simulator hash latch 4 0 10 0 0 134 0 1 simulator lru latch 4 0 10 0 0 130 0 1 PL/SQL warning settings 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 compile environment latch 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 object stats modification 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 library cache lock allocation 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 .

dml lock allocation 1 1 1 1 FOB s.242 632 986 .o list latch 0 1 0 0 OS process 0 3 0 0 messages 0 1 0 40 channel operations parent latch 0 1 0 18 channel handle pool latch 0 1 0 0 OS process allocation 0 1 0 0 process allocation 0 1 0 0 process group creation 0 1 0 0 checkpoint queue latch 0 0 0 269 redo writing 0 0 0 13 active checkpoint queue latch 0 0 0 13 loader state object freelist 0 0 0 12 virtual circuit buffers 0 0 0 9 virtual circuit queues 0 0 0 7 parallel query alloc buffer 0 0 0 4 user lock 0 0 0 4 session timer 0 0 0 3 library cache load lock 0 0 0 2 virtual circuits 0 0 0 2 active service list 0 0 0 2 library cache pin allocation 0 0 0 1 resmgr:actses active list 0 0 0 1 XDB unused session pool 0 0 0 1 KMG MMAN ready and startup request latch 0 0 0 1 resmgr:free threads list 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 -----------.----------------------.-----------.-----------.-----------------------------sum 757 575 709 575 559 3.-----------.

888 6 39 72 + Big .Techniques that use a small number of latches scale better than techniques that use a large number of latches.------------------.----------------------.533.680 session logical reads 6.072 0 262.-----------Elapsed Time (1/100 sec) 59 349 68 67 57 544 session pga memory max 262.-----------.964 4.144 327. Integer ROWNUM CONNECT BY Type Constructor Pipelined METRIC_NAME Table MODEL Table LEVEL + Cartesian Product Function ---------------------------------------. Performance Comparison .879 45 6.608 65.964 261.128 262. See the log file from these tests for more details. Statistics The following table shows database statistics where values for one method differ by more than 100 from another method.964 session pga memory 196.031. Warning: Results on your own systems with your own data will differ from these results. • Integer Table Method • MODEL Method • ROWNUM + a Big Table Method • CONNECT BY LEVEL Method • Type Constructor + Cartesian Product Method • Pipelined Function Method Each run generated a series of integers from 1 to 100.984 261.616 262.840 6 6.784.000. Run your own tests and average the results from multiple runs before making performance decisions.-----------. Note that the Type Constructor Expression Method technique was excluded from this comparison because it can only be used to generate up to 999 different values.964 2.Large Numbers The following tables show performance metrics for one run each of six integer series generation techniques described in the preceeding tutorials.144 2.252 261.144 4.016.144 327. The CUBE Method technique was excluded from this test because it failed to complete in under 10 minutes. Results will even differ from one set of test runs to the next on the same machine.536 131.927 45 78 111 consistent gets 6.680 session uga memory max 261.

consistent gets from cache 6.375 13.840 72 6.377 simulator lru latch 424 172 461 0 0 1 simulator hash latch 424 172 461 0 0 1 row cache objects 139 96 129 87 132 171 cache buffers lru chain 106 522 6 6 6 7 library cache 92 83 85 79 119 20.------------------.consistent read gets 6.----------------------.-----------cache buffers chains 13.172 object queue header operation 79 365 12 12 15 18 checkpoint queue latch 55 237 0 0 11 43 library cache pin 50 49 48 43 54 13.-----------.464 37 34 34 34 65.-----------.822 5 6.375 13. Integer ROWNUM CONNECT BY Type Constructor Pipelined METRIC_NAME Table MODEL Table LEVEL + Cartesian Product Function ---------------------------------------.376 13.464 6.658 29 29 29 0 6 0 0 311 309 309 0 See Statistics Descriptions for a description of each metric.860 0 0 buffer is not pinned count 0 0 22 DB time 27 37 22 CPU used when call started 27 35 22 CPU used by this session 27 35 21 session uga memory 0 0 65.946 836 13.375 13.888 6 39 no work . Latch Gets The following table shows total latch gets for each method.376 13.417 shared pool 47 20 18 17 45 49 library cache lock 30 24 30 22 34 79 enqueues 21 96 17 16 16 100 + Big .927 163 196 258 session idle bit 13.

enqueue hash chains 16 16 16 messages 4 0 8 shared pool simulator 6 9 16 redo allocation 8 8 8 SQL memory manager workarea list latch 6 6 6 channel operations parent latch 0 0 6 session allocation 4 2 2 session switching 4 4 4 sort extent pool 4 4 4 kks stats 2 2 2 PL/SQL warning settings 3 3 3 redo writing 0 0 1 active checkpoint queue latch 0 0 1 compile environment latch 2 1 1 object stats modification 1 2 1 library cache lock allocation 1 1 1 dml lock allocation 1 1 1 session timer 0 0 1 KMG MMAN ready and startup request latch 0 0 1 object queue header heap 0 0 0 JS queue state obj latch 0 0 0 active service list 0 0 0 qmn task queue latch 0 0 0 In memory undo latch 0 0 0 OS process allocation 1 0 0 resmgr:actses active list 0 0 0 resmgr:schema config 0 0 0 kwqbsn:qsga 0 0 0 99 48 17 12 140 29 6 4 4 2 3 8 1 3 1 2 1 2 1 0 36 10 0 2 2 1 1 0 20 10 10 9 6 6 6 4 4 4 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 97 28 9 12 144 22 2 4 4 2 3 7 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 36 10 4 2 1 1 1 1 .

Warning: Results on your own systems with your own data will differ from these results. Run your own tests and average the results from multiple runs before making performance decisions.o list latch 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 -----------.633 13.136 Techniques that use a small number of latches scale better than techniques that use a large number of latches. .----------------------.089 48.447 28.883 16.-----------sum 28.------------------.-----------.Shared B-Tree 0 0 library cache load lock 0 0 library cache pin allocation 0 0 mostly latch-free SCN 0 0 undo global data 0 0 lgwr LWN SCN 0 0 Consistent RBA 0 0 FOB s. Results will even differ from one set of test runs to the next on the same machine.879 14.

Here is an example of how this is done using the Integer Table Method technique.---------a (null) b 0 c 1 d 2 e 3 we sometimes need queries that generate results like these KEY QTY INTEGER_VALUE --. create table integers ( integer_value integer primary key ) organization index . Join Method Many of the single series solutions presented earlier can be easily adapted to generate multiple series with a simple join. integers integers integers integers integers values values values values values ( ( ( ( ( 1 2 3 4 5 ). insert into insert into insert into insert into insert into commit. ). Sometimes many different integer series are required in the same query. given a data table like this KEY QTY --.2.2" but the row where KEY='e' needs the series "1.3".---------. ). . For example.------------a (null) (null) b c d d e e e 0 (null) 1 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 2 1 2 3 where a row like the one where KEY='d' needs the integer series "1.Multiple Integer Series The preceding topics showed how to generate a single series of integers. ). ). The subtopics in this section demonstrate various ways to accomplish this.

integer_value <= t3.---------.---------.qty ) order by key.4.2.qty ) order by key. . integer_value from t3 left outer join integers on ( integers. qty.set null "(null)" break on key duplicates skip 1 select key. integer_value .3.column_value <= t3. column_value as integer_value from t3 left outer join table( integer_table_type(1. select key.------------a (null) (null) b c d d e e e 0 (null) 1 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 2 1 2 3 In both queries note that we first generate more integers than required and then filter out the excess values via a join condition. KEY QTY INTEGER_VALUE --. qty.------------a (null) (null) b c d d e e e 0 (null) 1 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 2 1 2 3 With the Type Constructor Expression Method technique it would look like this. KEY QTY INTEGER_VALUE --.5) ) integers on ( integers. integer_value .

---------. set null "(null)" break on key duplicates skip 1 select key. key2. integer_value from t3 model PARTITION BY ( KEY ) dimension by ( 1 as key2 ) measures ( qty.---------.------------a 1 (null) (null) b c d d e e e 1 1 1 2 (null) 1 2 (null) 3 (null) 0 (null) 1 2 3 1 1 2 1 2 3 CONNECT BY LEVEL Method With the CONNECT BY LEVEL approach there is also no need to use the Join Method. qty. Multiple integer series can be created using a query like this one (the PATH column is included to illustrate how the query works) set null "(null)" break on key duplicates skip 1 column path format a10 .MODEL Method With MODEL queries there is no need to use the join technique described in Join Method. integer_value . We can generate multiple series by applying a FOR loop to each row in the base table with the aid of a PARTITION BY clause. cast( null as integer ) as integer_value ) rules ( integer_value[ FOR KEY2 FROM 1 TO QTY[1] INCREMENT 1 ] = cv(key2) ) order by key. KEY KEY2 QTY INTEGER_VALUE --.

KEY QTY INTEGER_VALUE PATH --. qty.---------. integer_value . '/' ) as path from t3 where qty >= 1 connect by KEY = CONNECT_BY_ROOT KEY and level <= t3. Gotchas . like the rows with KEY in ( 'a'. KEY QTY INTEGER_VALUE PATH --. sys_connect_by_path( key.---------c 1 1 /c d d e e e 2 2 3 3 3 1 /d 2 /d/d 1 /e 2 /e/e 3 /e/e/e Note these approaches will not work for rows where no integer series is required. qty. 'b' ).---------.---------c 1 1 /c d d e e e 2 2 3 3 3 1 /d 2 /d/d 1 /e 2 /e/e 3 /e/e/e or this approach (only possible on version 10g or greater) select key. integer_value .select key. level as integer_value.qty order by key. level as integer_value.------------. '/' ) as path from t3 where qty >= 1 connect by KEY = PRIOR KEY and prior dbms_random.------------. sys_connect_by_path( key.qty order by key.value is not null and level <= t3.

"In a hierarchical query. level as integer_value from t3 start with qty >= 1 connect by KEY = CONNECT_BY_ROOT KEY and level <= t3. This is because it violates two restrictions documented at Hierarchical Query Operators: 1." The fact that the query above contradicts the documentation yet works without error in 10g suggests a bug in either the documentation or the SQL engine. ERROR at line 1: ORA-03113: end-of-file on communication channel ERROR: ORA-03114: not connected to ORACLE From the . select key. On my system the following variation of the CONNECT_BY_ROOT query raised some rather severe ORA errors casting further doubt on the technique's reliability (do not run this query on your own systems).qty order by key.trc file: ORA-07445: exception encountered: core dump [ACCESS_VIOLATION] [__VInfreq__msqopnws+2740] [PC:0x30E2580] [ADDR:0x2C] [UNABLE_TO_READ] [] . "You cannot specify (CONNECT_BY_ROOT) in the START WITH condition or the CONNECT BY condition." 2. qty. integer_value .The CONNECT_BY_ROOT technique may not work without error in all cases and it may not work in Oracle versions beyond 10g. one expression in the CONNECT BY condition must be qualified by the PRIOR operator.

Bulk collect is the bulk binding syntax for select statements.Bulk Collect Executing sql statements in plsql programs causes a context switch between the plsql engine and the sql engine. In order to reduce the number of these context switches we can use a feature named bulk binding. 6 loop . 2 3 rec1 c1%rowtype. Here is a simple test case to compare the performance of fetching row by row and using bulk collect to fetch all rows into a collection. One of the things i usuallly come accross is that developers usually tend to use cursor for loops to process data. End. SQL> insert into t_all_objects select * from t_all_objects. insert. --process rows.. 3332 rows created. Loop. End loop. Exit when c1%notfound. Fetch c1 into r1. open it. COUNT(*) ---------213248 SQL> declare cursor c1 is select object_name from t_all_objects. fetch from it row by row in a loop and process the row they fetch. ---replicated a couple of times SQL> select count(*) from t_all_objects. 4 begin 5 open c1. SQL> create table t_all_objects as select * from all_objects. Bulk binding is available for select. SQL> r 1* insert into t_all_objects select * from t_all_objects 6664 rows created. Too many context switches may degrade performance dramatically. Bulk binding lets us to transfer rows between the sql engine and the plsql engine as collections. delete and update statements. Table created. Rec1 c1%rowtype.. Declare Cursor c1 is select column_list from table_name>. They declare a cursor. Begin Open c1.

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 fetch c1 into rec1. 9 10 11 end.count loop 10 null. 14 15 16 end.07 . SQL> declare 2 cursor c1 is select object_name from t_all_objects. 3 type c1_type is table of c1%rowtype..32 As can be clearly seen.rec1. Elapsed: 00:00:44. 12 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. When there are many rows to process. exit when c1%notfound. 5 begin 6 open c1. Elapsed: 00:00:05. bulk collecting the rows shows a huge performance improvement over fetching row by row.75 SQL> declare 2 cursor c1 is select object_name from t_all_objects. 13 end loop. / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 4 rec1 c1_type. 7 8 fetch c1 bulk collect into rec1. 17 / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. end. 12 exit when c1%notfound. process those rows and fetch again. The above method (which fetched all the rows) may not be applicable to all cases. we can limit the number of rows to bulk collect. 3 type c1_type is table of c1%rowtype. null. 5 begin 6 open c1. Elapsed: 00:00:04. 4 rec1 c1_type. 9 for i in 1. 7 loop 8 fetch c1 bulk collect into rec1 limit 200. Otherwise process memory gets bigger and bigger as you fetch the rows. end loop. 11 end loop.

However.000 rows from a cursor or performs that many similar UPDATE statements will most likely benefit from bulk binds.45 0 0 1 rows -------0 1 0 -------1 .-------. so you need to ask yourself if the improved runtime performance will justify the expense.Deciding When to Use Bulk Binds PL/SQL code that uses bulk binds will be slightly more complicated and somewhat more prone to programmer bugs than code without bulk binds. COMMIT. END LOOP.-------. A PL/SQL program that reads a dozen rows from a cursor will probably see no noticeable benefit from bulk binds.-------.---------. However. Consider the following excerpts from a TKPROF report: ************************************************************************ DECLARE CURSOR c_orders IS SELECT order_id.currency_code). currency_code. END. The discussion of the TKPROF reports will help you see how to interpret TKPROF output in order to assess the impact of bulk binds on your application. The same goes for a program that issues five or six UPDATE statements.04 0 0 1 10.-------10.60 11.00 0.00 0 0 0 -------. Running both versions of the code through SQL trace and TKPROF will yield reports from which you may derive a wealth of information. v_amount_usd NUMBER. A Simple Program With and Without Bulk Binds In this section we will look at a simple program written both with and without bulk binds. No universal rule exists to dictate when bulk binds are worthwhile and when they are not.---------. amount_local /* no bulk bind */ FROM open_orders. We'll look at TKPROF reports that demonstrate the impact bulk binds can have. a program that reads 1. call count ------. BEGIN FOR r IN c_orders LOOP v_amount_usd := currency_convert (r.-----Parse 1 Execute 1 Fetch 0 ------.amount_local.-------0. If you have the luxury of time.05 0.order_id. the cost of adding a few lines of code is so slight that I would lean toward using bulk binds when in doubt.40 0 0 0 0. r.55 11. you can test your code both with and without bulk binds.-----total 2 cpu elapsed disk query current -------.-------. UPDATE open_orders /* no bulk bind */ SET amount_usd = v_amount_usd WHERE order_id = r.

amount_local /* no bulk bind */ FROM open_orders call count ------.-----Parse 1 Execute 30286 Fetch 0 ------. TYPE t_num_array IS TABLE OF NUMBER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. please recognize it is for illustrative purposes only. LOOP FETCH c_orders BULK COLLECT INTO v_order_ids.19 7. requiring 30.00 0.-------.-------1.10 0 30393 0 -------.) The PL/SQL engine used 10. v_amounts_local t_num_array.286 times.33 1 60576 31022 rows -------0 30286 0 -------30286 As you can see. Now consider the following excerpts from another TKPROF report: ************************************************************************ DECLARE CURSOR c_orders IS SELECT order_id. amount_local /* bulk bind */ FROM open_orders. TYPE t_char_array IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(10) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. v_amounts_local LIMIT 100.-------0.19 7.00 0.-------.287 fetch calls against the cursor. The UPDATE statement was executed 30.10 0 30393 0 rows -------0 0 30286 -------30286 ************************************************************************ UPDATE open_orders /* no bulk bind */ SET amount_usd = :b2 WHERE order_id = :b1 call count ------. EXIT WHEN v_row_count = c_orders%ROWCOUNT.08 CPU seconds.************************************************************************ SELECT order_id.00 0 0 0 0.00 0 0 0 7.-------. (The code borders on being silly. BEGIN OPEN c_orders. v_currency_codes.00 0.08 1.-------.00 0 0 0 1. . using 7.---------.---------. There were 30.-------.-------.32 1 60576 31022 0.---------.-----total 30289 cpu elapsed disk query current -------. currency_code. v_row_count NUMBER := 0. v_amounts_usd t_num_array.-------. this is a very simple program that does not use bulk binds.393 logical reads and 1. currency_code.-----total 30287 cpu elapsed disk query current -------.-----Parse 1 Execute 1 Fetch 30287 ------.00 0. v_order_ids t_num_array.55 CPU seconds to run this code (this figure does not include CPU time used by the SQL engine). v_currency_codes t_char_array.---------.-------0.-------.08 1.19 CPU seconds.-------7.00 0 0 0 -------.

48 0. There were only 303 fetch calls against the cursor instead of 30.---------.-------. bringing logical reads down from 30...v_order_ids.00 0 0 0 0.00 0.-----total 2 cpu elapsed disk query current -------.63 0.-------0.-----total 305 cpu elapsed disk query current -------. . reducing CPU time from 7.19 seconds to 3.v_order_ids.-------.-------.00 0 0 0 -------.38 0 30895 31021 0.62 0 0 0 0.286.-----Parse 1 Execute 1 Fetch 0 ------. COMMIT.66 0 0 0 rows -------0 1 0 -------1 ************************************************************************ SELECT order_id.60 seconds.---------.59 0 4815 0 -------.60 0. but works with data 100 rows at a time instead of one row at a time.v_row_count := c_orders%ROWCOUNT.-------0.00 0 0 0 3. CLOSE c_orders.-------0.75 seconds.00 0.---------.---------.75 8.48 0.-------.287.count UPDATE open_orders /* bulk bind */ SET amount_usd = v_amounts_usd(i) WHERE order_id = v_order_ids(i).-------.-------0. currency_code.00 0.75 8.08 seconds to 0.00 0 0 0 -------.-------.00 0.count LOOP v_amounts_usd(i) := currency_convert (v_amounts_local(i).-------0.00 0. We can see that CPU time used by the PL/SQL engine has reduced from 10.03 0. FORALL i IN 1.815 and CPU time down from 1.00 0 0 0 0. END LOOP. amount_local /* bulk bind */ FROM open_orders call count ------.-------3.-------.-------.-----Parse 1 Execute 303 Fetch 0 ------. FOR i IN 1.-------. v_currency_codes(i)).38 0 30895 31021 rows -------0 30286 0 -------30286 This code uses bulk binds to do the same thing as the first code sample.-------.-----Parse 1 Execute 1 Fetch 303 ------.03 0 0 0 0.---------. call count ------.393 to 4. END.55 seconds to 0.-------. END LOOP.59 0 4815 0 rows -------0 0 30286 -------30286 ************************************************************************ UPDATE open_orders /* bulk bind */ SET amount_usd = :b1 WHERE order_id = :b2 call count ------. The UPDATE statement was executed only 303 times instead of 30.48 seconds.---------.-------.-----total 304 cpu elapsed disk query current -------.

and can offer significant performance improvements for certain types of programs. The Oracle Call Interface has supported array processing for 15 years or more. Just remember that SQL trace can inflate the perceived benefit. execute. the benefit is not truly as rosy as it appears in these TKPROF reports. Conclusion Bulk binds allow PL/SQL programs to interact more efficiently with the SQL engine built into Oracle.In this example it would appear that bulk binds were definitely worthwhile – CPU time was reduced by about 75%. enabling your PL/SQL programs to use less CPU time and run faster. . It is nice to see this benefit available to PL/SQL programmers as well. and fetch calls to the SQL engine. and the increased efficiency it brings is well understood. Since bulk binds reduce the number of SQL calls. and logical reads by 50%. SQL trace adds much less overhead to code that uses bulk binds. elapsed time by 50%. The SQL trace facility imparts an overhead that is proportional to the number of parse. PL/SQL bulk binds are not hard to implement. Although bulk binds are indeed beneficial here. Thus using bulk binds in your PL/SQL programs can certainly be worth the effort. the savings were about 25% when SQL trace was not enabled. While these TKPROF reports suggest that in this example bulk binds shaved about 50% off of the elapsed time. This is still a significant savings.

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