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Concept of Triangulation Triangulation is a tool to support the researcher's construction.

It is a process by which the researcher can guard against the accusation that a study's findings are simply an artifact of a single method, a single source, or a single investigator's biases. The function of triangulation is to locate and reveal the understanding of the object under investigation from "different aspects of empirical reality" (Denzin, 1978). Denzin (1978) has identified four basic types of triangulation: 1. Data triangulation: Checking out the consistency of different data sources, i.e. comparing and crosschecking the consistency of information derived at different times and by different means within qualitative methods. For example, compare observational data with the interview data; compare what people say in public with what they say in private; check for consistency of what people say about the same thing over time; compare the perspectives of people from different points of view. However, such comparison does not always mean to find the consistency. Instead, sometimes it helps to study and to understand when and why there are differences. 2. Investigator triangulation: Using several different researchers or evaluators to review the findings in order to reduce potential bias.

3. Theory triangulation: Using multiple perspectives or theories to interpret the data, i.e. examining the data from the perspectives of different stakeholder positions with different theories of actions. 4. Methodological triangulation: Checking out the consistency of findings generated by different datacollection method