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ISRO

pace activities in the country started during early 1960s with the scientific investigation of upper atmosphere and ionosphere over the magnetic equator that passes over Thumba near Thiruvananthapuram using small sounding rockets Realising the immense potential of space technology for national development, Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, the visionary leader envisioned that this powerful technology could play a meaningful role in national development and solving the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station problems of common man. (TERLS), a few meters from the coastline, St Mary Magdalene Church Thus, Indian Space programme born in the church beginning, space activities in the country, concentrated on achieving self reliance and developing capability to build and launch communication satellites for television broadcast, telecommunications and meteorological applications; remote sensing satellites for management of natural resources. The objective of ISRO is to develop space technology and its application to various national tasks. Accordingly, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has successfully operationalised two major satellite systems namely Indian National Satellites (INSAT) for communication services and Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites for management of natural resources; also, Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for launching IRS type of satellites and Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) for launching INSAT type of satellites. The Space Commission formulates the policies and oversees the implementation of the Indian space programme to promote the development and application of space science and technology for the socio-economic benefit of the country. DOS implements these programmes through, mainly Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), North Eastern-Space Applications Centre (NE-SAC) and SemiConductor Laboratory (SCL). The Antrix Corporation, established in 1992 as a government owned company, markets the space products and services

From the beginning, space activities in the country, concentrated on achieving self reliance and developing capability to build and launch communication satellites for television broadcast, telecommunications and meteorological applications; remote sensing satellites for management of natural resources. Accordingly, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has successfully operationalised two major satellite systems namely Indian National Satellites (INSAT) for communication services and Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites for management of natural resources; also, Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for launching IRS type of satellites and Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) for launching INSAT type of satellites.

Satellites INSAT IRS Launch Vehicle PSLV GSLV Satellite Applications SatCom Applications Remote Sensing Applications

VRC

Indian National Satellite (INSAT) System The INSAT series, commissioned in 1983, has today become one of the largest domestic satellites systems in the AsiaPacific region comprising ten satellites in service. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. GSAT-12 GSAT-8 INSAT-4CR INSAT-4B INSAT-4A INSAT-3E INSAT-3A KALPANA-1 INSAT-3C INSAT-2E Launched on July 15, 2011 Launched on May 21, 2011 Launched on Sep 02, 2007 Launched on Mar 12, 2007 Launched on Dec 22, 2005 Launched on Sep 28, 2003 Launched on Apr 10, 2003 Launched on Sep 12, 2002 Launched on Jan 24, 2002 Launched on Apr 03, 1999

Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Satellite System The Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite system is one of the largest constellations of remote sensing satellites in operation in the world today. The IRS programme commissioned with the launch of IRS-1A in 1988 presently includes eleven satellites that continue to provide imageries in a variety of spatial resolutions from better than one metre ranging upto 500 metres. Launched on Oct 12, 2010 by PSLVC18 Launched on Apr 20, 2011 by PSLV2. RESOURCESAT-2 C16 Launched on July 12, 2010 by PSLV3. CARTOSAT-2B C15 Launched on Sept 23, 2009 by PSLV4. OCEANSAT-2 C14 Launched on Apr 20, 2009 by PSLV5. RISAT-2 C12 Launched on Apr 28, 2008 by PSLV6. CARTOSAT-2A C9 Launched on Apr 28, 2008 by PSLV7. IMS-1 C9 Launched on Jan 10, 2007 by PSLV8. CARTOSAT - 2 C7 Launched on May 05, 2005 by PSLV9. CARTOSAT-1 C6 Launched on Oct 17, 2003 by PSLV10. RESOURCESAT-1 C5 Launched on Oct 22, 2001 by PSLV11. TES C3 Launch Vehicles 1. Megha-Tropiques Today, Indian space programme has become self-reliant with the operationalisation of two satellite launch vehicles, Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), mainly for launching IRS class of satellites in polar orbits and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) for launching communication satellites into geo-synchronous transfer orbit. GSLV can carry 2- 2.5 tonne satellite in to 36,000 Kilometer range for geo stationery transfer orbit and India was the sixth

country in the world to have this capability. So far ;


PSLV has nineteen consecutively successful flights out of twenty launches GSLV has four successful flights of seven launches

Satellite Applications Space has become the mainstay of national infrastructure providing vital services. INSAT with more than 210 transponders, is providing tele-communications, television broadcasting, weather forecasting and societal application services such as tele-medicine and tele-education IRS System with Nine satellites in operation is providing data for a variety of application programmes such as Groundwater Prospects Mapping, Crop Acreage and Production Estimation, Potential Fishing Zone Forecast, Biodiversity Characterisation etc., In order to reach space-based services directly to the rural population, nearly 500 Village Resource Centres (VRCs) have been set up in association with NGOs, Institutes and Government Agencies. INSAT Applications The telephone circuit devices through INSAT connect remote inaccessible areas to major cities in India. The launch of INSAT-4A during December 2005, INSAT-4B in and INSAT- 4CR in 2007 have ushered in Direct To Home (DTH) television services in the country. Television reaches 85 percent of India's population via INSAT. Over 200 AIR stations are linked via INSAT network. In the recent years, Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT) have revolutionised our telecommunications sector. INSAT supports over 20,000 VSATs for e-commerce and e-governance. National Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Exchange use VSAT technology across the country for instantaneous transactions. Today exclusive channels are provided for interactive training and Developmental communication including distance learning. India has an exclusive meteorological satellite Kalpana - 1. The imaging instruments (VHRR) & (CCD) collect meteorological data and provide timely warnings on impending cyclones. The data relay transponder in the INSAT system is used for collect real time hydro meteorological data for river monitoring flow forces. The launch of EDUSAT on September 20, 2004 heralded new era in the field of distance education and today, about 35,000 class rooms are in the EDUSAT network providing services at primary, secondary and university levels. The satellite based telemedicine network has expanded its network connecting 375 hospitals (305 remote and rural hospitals including those in Jammu & Kashmir, North Eastern region and Andaman and Nicobar Islands, 13 mobile units and 57 super specialty hospitals in major cities). IRS Applications Imagery taken by Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Satellite System has found application in diverse fields ranging from agriculture to urban planning. Crop health monitoring, crop yield estimation and drought assessment are the significant areas of application in the agriculture and the allied fields. Soil mapping at different scales with relative ease has become a reality. IRS data has also been used for Ground Water potential zone mapping and mineral targeting tasks. The ocean applications of IRS data include potential fishing zone identification and coastal zone mapping. Forest cover mapping, biodiversity characterisation and monitoring of forest fire is now carried out using IRS imagery. IRS spacecraft provide timely inputs to Flood and earthquake damage assessment thereby providing the necessary supportive strength to disaster management. Even in the field of Archaeological survey, the utility of IRS imagery has been well established. The judicious combination of information derived from space based imagery with the ground based socio economic data is leading to a holistic approach for resource monitoring and its management. Village Resource Centre (VRC)

Combining the services offered by INSAT and IRS satellites, a new concept namely Village Resource Centre (VRC) to provide information on natural resources, land and water resources management, tele-medicine, tele-education, adult education, vocational training, health and family welfare programmes has been established. Nearly 500 such VRCs have been established in the country.

Launch Vehicles are used to transport and put satellites or spacecrafts into space. In India, the launch vehicles development programme began in the early 1970s. The first experimental Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-3) was developed in 1980. An Augmented version of this, ASLV, was launched successfully in 1992. India has made tremendous strides in launch vehicle technology to achieve self-reliance in satellite launch vehicle programme with the operationalisation of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV). PSLV represents ISRO's first attempt to design and develop an operational vehicle that can be used to orbit application satellites. While SLV-3 secured for India a place in the community of space-faring nations, the ASLV provided the rites of passage into launch vehicle technology for ISRO. And with PSLV, a new world-class vehicle has arrived. PSLV has repeatedly proved its reliability and versatility by launching 52 satellites / spacecrafts ( 25 Indian and 27 Foreign Satellites) into a variety of orbits so far. ISRO also makes the Rohini series of sounding rockets used by the Indian and international scientific community to launch payloads to various altitudes for atmospheric research and other scientific investigations. These rockets are also used to qualify some of the critical systems used for advanced launch vehicles. Landmark achievements in ISRO's Launch Vehicle Development PSLV has 19 consecutively successful flights out of 20 launches PSLV used for launching a total of 27 satellites for foreign customers under commercial agreements, demonstrating its multi-satellite launch capability PSLV used to launch Space capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-1), Chandrayaan-1 and ISRO's exclusive meteorological satellite, KALPANA-1, proving its versatility GSLV with four successful flights of seven launches can launch 2 to 2.5 tonne satellite into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) Successful testing of indigenously developed cryogenic upper stage on November 15, 2007. ISRO's Launch Fleet at a Glance ISRO developed two experimental satellite launch vehicles, SLV-3 and ASLV Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle(PSLV) commissioned in 1997 Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-Mk I) commissioned after second successful flight in May 2003 GSLV - MK II will use indigenously developed cryogenic Upper Stage GSLV - MK III is under development

SLV-3 Satellite Launch Vehicle-3 (SLV-3), India's first experimental satellite launch vehicle was successfully launched on July 18, 1980 from SHAR Centre Sriharikota, when Rohini satellite, RS-1, was placed in orbit. SLV-3 was a 22 m long, all solid, four stage vehicle weighing 17 tonnes capable of placing 40 kg class payloads in low earth orbit. It employed an open loop guidance (with stored pitch programme) to steer the vehicle in flight along predetermined trajectory. The first experimental flight of SLV-3, in August 1979, was only partially successful. Apart from the July 1980 launch, there were two more launches held in May 1981 and April 1983, orbiting Rohini satellites carrying remote sensing sensors. ASLV Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV) was developed to act as a low cost intermediate vehicle to demonstrate and validate critical technologies. With a lift off weight of 40 tonnes, the 23.8 m tall ASLV was configured as a five stage, all-solid propellant vehicle, with a mission of orbiting 150 kg class satellites into 400 km circular orbits. The strap-on stage consisted of two identical 1m diameter solid propellant motors, Under the ASLV programme four developmental flights were conducted.

The first developmental flight took place on March 24, 1987 and the second on July 13, 1988. ASLV-D3 was successfully launched on May 20, 1992, when SROSS-C (106 kg) was put into an orbit of 255 x 430 km. ASLVD4, launched on May 4, 1994, orbited SROSS-C2 weighing 106 kg. It had two payloads, Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) Experiment and Retarding Potentio Analyser (RPA) and functioned for seven years. ASLV provided valuable inputs for further development. The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle,usually known by its abbreviation PSLV is the first operational launch vehicle of ISRO. PSLV is capable of launching 1600 kg satellites in 620 km sun-synchronous polar orbit and 1050 kg satellite in geo-synchronous transfer orbit. In the standard configuration, it measures 44.4 m tall, with a lift off weight of 295 tonnes. PSLV has four stages using solid and liquid propulsion systems alternately. The first stage is one of the largest solid propellant boosters in the world and carries 139 tonnes of propellant. A cluster of six strap-ons attached to the first stage motor, four of which are ignited on the ground and two are air-lit. The reliability rate of PSLV has been superb. There had been 19 continuously successful flights of PSLV, till October 2011 . With its variant configurations, PSLV has proved its multi-payload, multi-mission capability in a single launch and its geosynchronous launch capability. In the Chandrayaan-mission, another variant of PSLV with an extended version of strap-on motors, PSOM-XL, the payload haul was enhanced to 1750 kg in 620 km SSPO. PSLV has rightfully earned the status of workhorse launch vehicle of ISRO. Typical Parameters of PSLV Lift-off 295 tonne weight 1600 kg in to 620 km Polar Orbit, Pay Load 1060 kg in to Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) Height 44 metre PSLV Milestones PSLV-C18 launched Megha-Tropiques, SRMSat, VesselSat-1 and Jugnu on October 12, 2011 (Successful) PSLV-C17 launched GSAT - 12 on July 15, 2011 (Successful) PSLV-C16 launched RESOURCESAT - 2, YOUTHSAT and X-SAT on April 20, 2011 (Successful) PSLV-C15 launched CARTOSAT-2B, ALSAT-2A, NLS 6.1 & 6.2 and STUDSAT on July 12, 2010 (Successful) PSLV-C14 launched Oceansat - 2 and Six Nanosatellites on September 23, 2009 (Successful) PSLV-C12 launched RISAT-2 and ANUSAT on April 20, 2009 (Successfully) PSLV-C11 launched CHANDRAYAAN-I, on October 22, 2008 (Successful) PSLV-C9 launched CARTOSAT-2A, IMS-1 and Eight nano-satellites on April 28, 2008 (Successful) PSLV-C10 launched TECSAR on January 23, 2008 (Successful) PSLV-C8 launched AGILE on April 23, 2007 (Successful) PSLV-C7 launched CARTOSAT-2, SRE-1, LAPAN-TUBSAT and PEHUENSAT-1 on January 10, 2007 (Successful) PSLV-C6 launched CARTOSAT-1 and HAMSAT on May 5, 2005 (Successful) PSLV-C5 launched RESOURCESAT-1(IRS-P6) on October 17, 2003 (Successful) PSLV-C4 launched KALPANA-1(METSAT) on September 12, 2002 (Successful) PSLV-C3 launched TES on October 22, 2001 (Successful) PSLV-C2 launched OCEANSAT(IRS-P4), KITSAT-3 and DLR-TUBSAT on May 26, 1999 (Successful) PSLV-C1 launched IRS-1D on September 29, 1997 (Successful) PSLV-D3 launched IRS-P3 on March 21, 1996 (Successful) PSLV-D2 launched IRS-P2 on October 15, 1994 (Successful) PSLV-D1 launched IRS-1E on September 20, 1993 (Unsuccessful)

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle(GSLV)-Mark I&II ,is capable of placing INSATII class of satellites (2000 2,500 kg) into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). GSLV is a three stage vehicle GSLV is 49 m tall, with 414 t lift off weight. It has a maximum diameter of 3.4 m at the payload fairing. First stage comprises S125 solid booster with four liquid (L40) strap-ons. Second stage (GS2) is liquid engine and the third stage (GS3) is a cryo stage. The vehicle develops a lift off thrust of 6573 kn. The first flight of GSLV took place from SHAR on April 18, 2001 by launching 1540 kg GSAT-1. It was followed by six more launches , GSLV-D2 on May 8, 2003 (GSAT-2 1825 kg), GSLV-F01 on September 20, 2004 (EDUSAT 1950 kg), GSLV-F02 on July 10, 2006, GSLV-F04 on September 2, 2007 (INSAT-4CR 2130 kg), GSLV-D3 on April 15, 2010 and GSLV-F06 on December 25, 2010. Typical Parameters of GSLV Lift-off 414 tonne weight 2 to 2.5 Tonne in to Geosynchronous Pay Load Transfer Orbit (GTO) Height 49 metre GSLV Milestones GSLV-F06 launched GSAT-5P on December 25, 2010 (Unsuccessful) GSLV-D3 launched GSAT-4 on April 15, 2010 (Unsuccessful) GSLV-F04 launched INSAT-4CR on September 2, 2007 (Successful) GSLV-F02 launched INSAT-4C on July 10, 2006 (Unsuccessful) GSLV-F01 launched EDUSAT(GSAT-3) on September 20, 2004 (Successful) GSLV-D2 launched GSAT-2 on May 8, 2003 (Successful) GSLV-D1 launched GSAT-1 on April 18, 2001 (Successful)

The GSLV-III or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III , is a launch vehicle currently under development by the Indian Space Research Organization. GSLV Mk III is conceived and designed to make ISRO fully self reliant in launching heavier communication satellites of INSAT-4 class, which weigh 4500 to 5000 kg. It would also enhance the capability of the country to be a competitive player in the multimillion dollar commercial launch market. The vehicle envisages multi-mission launch capability for GTO, LEO, Polar and intermediate circular orbits. GSLV-Mk III is designed to be a three stage vehicle, with 42.4 m tall with a lift off weight of 630 tonnes. First stage comprises two identical S200 Large Solid Booster (LSB) with 200 tonne solid propellant, that are strapped on to the second stage, the L110 re-startable liquid stage. The third stage is the C25 LOX/LH2 cryo stage. The large payload fairing measures 5 m in diameter and can accommodate a payload volume of 100 cu m. The development work on Mk III is progressing as per schedule for a launch in 2012. Typical Parameters of GSLV Mark III Lift-off 630 Tonne weight 4 Tonne in to Geosynchronous Pay Load Transfer Orbit (GTO) Height 42.4 metre

Satellites
For the past four decades, ISRO has launched more than 60 satellites for various scientific and technological applications like mobile communications, Direct-to-Home services, meteorological observations, telemedicine, tele-education, disaster warning, radio networking, search and rescue operations, remote sensing and scientific studies of the space. ISRO has established two major space systems, the Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) series for communication, television broadcasting and meteorological services which is Geo-Stationary Satellites, and Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS) system for resources monitoring and management which is Earth Observation Satellites. ISRO has launched many Experimental Satellites which are generally small comparing to INSAT or IRS and Space Missions to explore the space. Geo-Stationary Satellities Earth Observing Satellities

Space Missions All Satellites

Experimental / Small Satellite

Geo-Stationary Satellites
The Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system which are placed in Geo-stationary orbits is one of the largest domestic communication satellite systems in Asia-Pacific region. Established in 1983 with commissioning of INSAT-1B, it initiated a major revolution in Indias communications sector and sustained the same later. INSAT space segment consists of 24 satellites out of which 10 are in service (INSAT-2E, INSAT-3A, INSAT-4B, INSAT-3C, INSAT-3E, KALPANA-1, INSAT-4A, INSAT-4CR,GSAT-8 and GSAT-12) The system with a total of 187 transponders in the C, Extended C and Ku-bands provides services to telecommunications, television broadcasting, weather forecasting, disaster warning and Search and Rescue operations. Launch Date 15.07.2011 Launch Date 21.05.2011

Earth Observation Satellites


Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite system was commissioned with the launch of IRS-1A, in 1988. With eleven satellites in operation, IRS is the largest civilian remote sensing satellite constellation in the world providing imageries in a variety of spatial resolutions, spectral bands and swaths. The data is used for several applications covering agriculture, water resources, urban development, mineral prospecting, environment, forestry, drought and flood forecasting, ocean resources and disaster management. Launch Date 12.10.2011 Launch Date 20.04.2011 RESOURCESAT-2 the eighteenth Remote Sensing satellite built by ISRO. More..

Launch Date 12.07.2010 Cartosat-2B to provide continuity of remote sensing data services to the users of multiple spot scene imageries. More.. Launch Date 23.09.2009 Oceansat-2 is to provide continuity of operational services of Oceansat (IRS-P4) with enhanced application potential. More.. Launch Date 20.04.2009 Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT-2) is capable of taking earth images in all weather. More..

Launch Date 28.04.2008 IMS-1, previously referred to as TWSat (Third World Satellite), is a low-cost microsatellite imaging mission of ISRO. More..

Launch Date 28.04.2008 CARTOSAT - 2A is the thirteenth satellite in the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite series (IRS). More.. Launch Date 10.01.2007 The 680 kg CARTOSAT-2, launched by PSLV-C7 on January 10, 2007, is the twelfth in the Indian Remote Sensing. More.. Launch Date 05.05.2005 CARTOSAT - 1 is the first Indian Remote Sensing Satellite capable of providing in-orbit stereo images. More.. Launch Date 17.10.2003 RESOURCESAT-1 is the tenth satellite of ISRO in IRS series, intended to not only continue the remote sensing More.. Launch Date 26.05.1999 The Technology Experiment Satellite (TES), weighing 1108 kg, was launched on October 22,2001. More.. Launch Date 26.05.1999 "IRS - P4 had an entirely different mission, and its primarily usage was to study the oceans. More.. Launch Date 29.09.1997 IRS - 1D was launched on September 29, 1997 by PSLV - C1. IRS - 1D, a follow on satellite More.. Launch Date 21.03.1996 Remote sensing of earth's natural resources Study of X-ray Astronomy Periodic calibration More.. Launch Date 28.12.1995 IRS-1C is India's second generation operational Remote Sensing Satellite. More.. Launch Date 15.10.1994 First Spacecraft successfully orbited onboard the second developmental flight of PSLV. More.. Launch Date 20.09.1993 The mission was not realised due to problems faced by Launch Vehicle. It was the first More.. Launch Date 29.08.1991 Improved features compared to its predecessor : gyro referencing for better orientation sensing More..

Launch Date 13.07.1988 Carried remote sensing payload of German space agency in addition to Gamma Ray More.. Launch Date 17.03.1988 The First Opetaional Remote Sensing Satellite of India. More.. Launch Date 17.04.1983 Experimental remote sensing satellite launched by SLV-3 More..

Launch Date 20.11.1981 Second experimental remote sensing satellite similar to Bhaskara-1. Provided experience More.. Launch Date 31.05.1981 Experimental remote sensing satellite carrying Landmark Tracker payload More.. Launch Date 07.06.1979 The First Experimental Remote Sensing Satellite built More..

Space Mission
Indian space programme encompasses research in areas like astronomy, astrophysics, planetary and earth sciences, atmospheric sciences and theoretical physics. Balloons, sounding rockets, space platforms and ground-based facilities support these research efforts. A series of sounding rockets are available for atmospheric experiments. Several scientific instruments have been flown on satellites especially to direct celestial X-ray and gamma-ray bursts. Major space missions are Chandrayaan-l and forthcoming Megha - Tropiques. Launch Date 22.10.2008 Chandrayaan-1,India's first mission to Moon, was launched successfully on October 22, 2008 from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota. More.. Launch Date 04.05.1994 Second satellite successfully orbited by ASLV. Working even four years after its launch. More.. Launch Date 20.05.1992 First Indian satellite, launched into a near earth orbit on April 19, 1975, by an Intercosmos rocket of erstwhile USSR. More.. Launch Date 24.03.1987

The satellite was launched onboard the first development a flilght of ASLV. It did not reach the orbit. More.. Launch Date 22.10.2008

Chandrayaan-1, India's first mission to Moon, was launched successfully on October 22, 2008 from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota. The spacecraft was orbiting around the Moon at a height of 100 km from the lunar surface for chemical, mineralogical and photo-geologic mapping of the Moon. The spacecraft carries 11 scientific instruments built in India, USA, UK, Germany, Sweden and Bulgaria. After the successful completion of all the major mission objectives, the orbit has been raised to 200 km during May 2009. Experimental / Small Satellites ISRO has launched many small satellites mainly for the experimental purposes. This experiment include Remote Sensing, Atmospheric Studies, Payload Development, Orbit Controls, recovery technology etc. Launch Date 12.10.2011 The Jugnu nanosatellite, designed by Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur under the guidance of ISRO More.. Launch Date 12.10.2011

The SRMSat developed by the students and faculty of SRM University attempts to address the problem of Global warming and pollution levels in the atmosphere More.. Launch Date 20.04.2011 YOUTHSAT is a joint Indo-Russian stellar and atmoshperic satellite mission More.. Launch Date 12.07.2010 In its seventeenth mission of PSLV carried out from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR (SDSC SHAR) More.. Launch Date 20.04.2009 In its fifteenth mission carried out from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR (SDSC SHAR) More.. Launch Date 10.01.2007 Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE - 1) is a 550 kg capsule intended to demonstrate the More.. Launch Date 18.07.1980 Second experimental remote sensing satellite similar to Bhaskara-1. Provided experience in building More.. Launch Date 10.08.1979 Second experimental remote sensing satellite similar to Bhaskara-1. Provided experience in building More.. Launch Date 19.06.1981 First experimental communication satellite. Provided experience in building and operating More.. Launch Date 19.04.1975 The First Indigenously built Indian Satellites. More.. Ground Facilities India has established a strong infrastructure for executing its space programme. They include facilities for the development of satellites and launch vehicles and their testing; launch infrastructure for sounding rockets and satellite launch vehicles; telemetry, tracking and command network; data reception and processing systems for remote sensing. A number of academic and research institutions as well as industries participate in the Indian Space Programme. Several Indian industries have the expertise to undertake sophisticated jobs required for space systems.

Launch Facility Tracking Facility Data Reception & Dissemination Data Analysis Launch Facility SDSC SHAR has the necessary infrastructure for launching satellite into low earth orbit, polar orbit and geostationary transfer orbit. The launch complexes provide complete support for vehicle assembly, fuelling, checkout and launch operations. Apart from these, it has facilities for launching sounding rockets meant for studying the earth's atmosphere. First Launch Pad The individual stages of PSLV or GSLV, their subsystems and the spacecraft are prepared and checked out in separate facilities before they are sent to launch pad for integration A-76-meter tall mobile service tower (MST) facilitates the vertical integration of the vehicle. The foldable working platforms of MST provide access to the vehicle at various elevations. A massive launch pedestal, made up of steel plates, acts as the base on which the vehicle is integrated.

The spacecraft is integrated to the vehicle in a clean room, set up inside the MST. However, in the case of GSLV, the spacecraft is interfaced with the payload adopter and then encapsulated in the heat shield in the preparation facility itself. The encapsulated assembly is moved to the launch pad for integrating with the 3rd stage of GSLV. The umbilical tower houses the feed lines for liquid propellants and high-pressure gases, checkout cables, and chilled air duct for supplying cool air to the satellite and equipment bay. Second Launch Pad In order to provide redundant facilities for launching the operational PSLVs and GSLVs and also to have quick turn around time for launch, an additional launch pad with associated facilities was constructed. It was designed to accommodate, both the present PSLVs and GSLVs, and also the future launch vehicle configurations such as GSLV-MkIII. As per the integrate, transfer and launch (ITL) concept, based on which the new launch pad and the associated facilities are designed, the entire vehicle is assembled and checked-out on a mobile pedestal in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) and then moved in vertical position to the launch pad on a roll track. Other facilities include, Solid Stage Assembly Building (SSAB) connected to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) by a rail track, Technical Complex-2 (TC2), Spacecraft Preparation Facility, Range Instrumentation facilities comprising tracking, telemetry and tele-command systems. Tracking Facility ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) provides mission support to low-earth orbit satellites as well as launch vehicle missions. ISTRAC has its headquarters and a multi-mission Spacecraft Control Centre at Bangalore. It has a network of ground stations at Bangalore, Lucknow, Sriharikota, Port Blair and Thiruvananthapuram in India besides stations at Mauritius, Bearslake (Russia), Brunei and Biak (Indonesia). ISTRAC activities are organised into network operations, network augmentation, mission operation and spacecraft health monitoring, communications and computers and control centre facilities and development projects. Programme planning and reliability groups support ISTRAC activities. The Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN), commissioned during the year 2008, at Byalalu village near Bangalore forms the Ground segment for providing deep space support for India's prestigious and first Lunar mission, the Chandrayaan1.The technical facilities in IDSN include a 32 metre Deep Space Antenna, an 18 metre Antenna Terminal, an 11 metre Antenna Terminal, Indian Space Science Data Centre (ISSDC) and a Technical Services complex. The IDSN is the first of its kind project in the country that provides ISRO the capability to handle deep space missions of India and also provides cross support to other deep space missions of external space agencies because of its interoperable features and state-of-the-art capabilities. Data Reception & Dissemination National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC) is responsible for remote sensing satellite data acquisition and processing, data dissemination, aerial remote sensing and decision support for disaster management. NRSC has archived a wealth of satellite images from Indian and foreign satellites since 1983. NRSC has its data reception facility at Shadnagar, 65 km from Hyderabad city. The station has four state of the art antenna systems for data reception and archival. The Satellite data processing chain has a user friendly web mechanism to enable users to order data of their requirement. It can facilitate to acquire data pertaining to any part of the globe on user request. The Aerial facility has two Beechcraft aircraft to acquire data utilizing various sensors like Aerial cameras, Laser instrument, Synthetic aperture radar and Magnetometer. The aerial facility has carried out number of studies for mapping and infrastructure planning for towns and cities, Cadastral surveys, canal alignment for interlinking of rivers, Digital elevation model (DEM) applications , Mineral targeting etc., It has also carried out international projects in Maldives & Emirates of Dubai. The Decision Support Centre (DSC) is a single window information provider on major natural disasters like Floods, Agricultural Drought, Forest fires, Cyclones, Earthquakes and Landslides. It provides near real time information to State and Central government for relief, rehabilitation and planning. The DSC also supports International Charter on

Space and Major Disasters and Sentinel Asia. Under this, critical support was extended to Myanmar during Nargis(2008) Cyclone; Indonesian floods(2008) and China earthquake (2008). NRSC also has very sophisticated infrastructure for analysis of satellite data: state-of-art Digital image processing and GIS Lab. Data Analysis Remote sensing data are being used to map/monitor/survey/manage various natural resources of the country under National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS) programmes. Funded by various user ministries and ISRO/DOS, these programmes have been generating valuable spatial data assets and information solutions. Several areas of application such as Agriculture, Soil, Bio-resources and Environment, Ocean Resources, Water Resources, Rural Development, Urban Development, and Disaster Management etc., which are of direct relevance to the nation are executed by ISRO/DOS centers like National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), Space Application Centre (SAC), Regional Remote Sensing Centres (RRSCs), North Eastern - Space Application Centre (NE - SAC) and State Remote Sensing Centers and State/Central Agencies. These centres have sophisticated computer facilities for image analysis and GIS to cater to the users needs and participate actively in areas like disaster management, software development, agro-climatic planning, national drinking water mission, national resources census, large scale mapping, etc, besidgges taking up projects for various ministries and departments.