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California Polytechnic State University Electrical Engineering Department

EE 302 Classical Control Systems

Spring 2010

C. Arthur (Art) MacCarley


Electrical Engineering Department and Computer Engineering Program California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Copyright 2012, Art MacCarley

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California Polytechnic State University Electrical Engineering Department

EE 302 Summary of Course Topics


Introduction to feedback control Basic servo control concept Examples of feedback control systems Control system configurations System Modeling Some mathematics preliminaries Review of kinematic physics Analysis of second order kinematic and electrical systems Modeling a simple rotational kinematic system: the Motomatic Nonlinear system behavior and linear models When can nonlinear effects be ignored? Review of linear differential equations Solution by calculus The characteristic equation and eigenvalues Homogeneous solution Particular solution by method of undermined coefficients The annihilation operator The zero input and zero state response Review of the Laplace transform Definition and review of axioms Transforms of simple time functions Differential equation solution by Laplace Handling non-zero initial conditions Inverse transformation and the partial fraction expansion Signals v.s. systems - can you tell the difference? Transfer functions, continuous and discrete The impulse and pulse response Convolution and multiplication of transforms Graphical system representation Block diagrams Block diagram reduction Signal flow graphs Reduction of signal flow graphs
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California Polytechnic State University Electrical Engineering Department

System time response Measurement of transient response metrics Transient response metrics directly from transfer function Initial and final value theorems Steady state error System type number
Steady state tracking errors: position, velocity and acceleration

Stability Types of stability


Asymptotic BIBO Stability in the sense of Lyapunov

Relationship to eigenvalues Routh-Hurwitz stability test Stable range of parameters from Routh-Hurwitz The S-plane and system response characterization The root locus Graphical root locus plotting techniques Dominant pole approximation Estimation of second order characteristics from dominant poles Frequency response Magnitude and phase vs log frequency plots The Bode approximation Bode plotting methods
Simple poles and zeros Complex conjugate poles Poles at zero

Frequency response metrics Open and close loop system plots Phase and gain stability margins Compensator design Design objectives - time and frequency response Phase lead compensation and the lead compensator Design using the root locus to improve transient response Design using Bode plots to improve phase and gain margin Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) control Effects of disturbances and parameter variations (if time permits)
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California Polytechnic State University Electrical Engineering Department

Rejection of external disturbances and noise Sensitivity to parameter variations Sensitivity factors Cost functions and the optimization problem (if time permits) Integral squared error (ISE) Integral absolute error (IAE) Integral time weighed errors (ITSE and ITAE) State equation models for linear systems (if time permits) Multiple-input and multiple-output systems Generation of state equations from transfer functions
Controller canonical form, all pole plant Controller canonical form, plant with zeros Observer canonical form (optional)

Representation as a vector/matrix equation Characteristic equation and stability from the system matrix Preview of modern control theory

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California Polytechnic State University Electrical Engineering Department

Feedback Control Systems, An Overview


A continuous time servocontrol system: (Single Input, Single Output) r(t) r(s)

e(t) e(s)

Gs(s)

u(t) u(s)

Gp(s)

y(t) y(s)

G(s)

Closed Loop:

H(s) =

y(s) r(s)

1 + GsGp(s)

GsGp(s)

A Unity-Gain feedback control loop.

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California Polytechnic State University Electrical Engineering Department

Examples of Control Systems

Deep Space Network antennas use many control systems to track spacecraft traveling more than 16 billion kilometers from Earth. (Courtesy of NASA/JPL)

Biomedical applications including systems to simulate the neural control of human hand movements in the development of an anatomically correct prosthetic hand. (Courtesy Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University)

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California Polytechnic State University Electrical Engineering Department

Examples of Control Systems (contd.)


Digital control systems are extensively used to determine the flight characteristics and basic aspects of aircraft operations of the X-45A Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle, particularly the command and control link between the aircraft and the missioncontrol station. (Courtesy of Boeing Phantom Works)

Advanced control systems are used to monitor and control the parameters of an electron accelerator, such as electron gun filament voltage, magnetron current, beam current, vacuum pressure and radiation exposure. (Courtesy of Idaho Accelerator Center)

Robotic manipulators aid in the automated manufacturing processes for composite aerospace components. (Courtesy of Cincinnati Machine)

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California Polytechnic State University Electrical Engineering Department

Unmanned Aircraft Landing Control System

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California Polytechnic State University Electrical Engineering Department

Robots Complex Control Systems Robot - From the Slav. robotnik, 'workman'; O. Slavrobu 'servant'. & Russ. robota, 'work'. From the 1920 play.' R.U.R.' (Rossum's Universal Robots), by the Czech novelist Karel Capek.

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California Polytechnic State University Electrical Engineering Department

Control systems in manufacturing: industrial robots

A Kawasaki industrial robot

Building your new Beemer

Two robots welding the frame of a truck.

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California Polytechnic State University Electrical Engineering Department

Environmental Applications
A Tracking Solar Collector

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