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Routing Topology, Termination And Stack up Of High Speed Signals
Session 5 Session Speaker: Ugra Mohan Roy
© M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies
To understand main issues in high speed board routing To develop best topologies and better termination techniques to over come issues on high speed boards Session deals different ways of PCB Stackups, and its advantages and disadvantages
© M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies
Main issues for routing
Routing topologies Rise and fall time degradation Signal Skew Line Termination
Power distribution and de-coupling PCB Stackup Return Path Discontinuities
© M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies
PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Main Issues for Routing: Routing topologies and loading Impedance Rise and fall time degradation Signal Skew (Signal delay difference) Crosstalk Termination Signal return path © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 4 .
Use low skew clock buffers Skew can be compensated with delay lines © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 5 . Always use this topology for critical clock trees.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Point to Point Topology: This is the ideal topology but not very efficient in that it requires a lot of extra buffers.
especially where several lines fan out. Use drivers with low output impedance. Terminate properly at each receiver or reflections will propagate back and forth in the net.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Fan / Star Topology This topology is routing efficient but put heavy load on the driver. Be careful with the high power consumption of many terminated lines © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 6 .
All ends (also driver) should be terminated properly for larger nets The driver will have to drive twice the amount of DC into the termination resistors.Topology This split will cause a 33% negative reflection if all lines are of same impedance.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 T . © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 7 .
PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Daisy Chain The preferred topology for high speed digital. Allow no stubs Keep tap load low. Keep distance between loads so high that the signal can recover. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 8 . Terminate in both ends.
© M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 9 . Since the high frequency components is damped more the signal will show slower rise times at the end of the line.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Rise And Fall Time Degradation Any lossy transmission line acts as a filter which filters the high frequency components first.
use only inner layers. Keeping low signal skew in a clock system is a challenge and there are several effects to consider. so trace lengths must be compensated. Keep every signal trace equally long Use low skew drivers Rise time degradation may pose a problem in calculated delay daisy chains. reduce reflections to zero. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 10 . Signals travel faster at outer layers. Poor decoupling influence rise time. Use only first incident clocking or better.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Signal skew Signal skew is the delay difference at inputs. Or .
Using one small via for several returns. If the new reference plane is a power plane a low inductance decoupling is placed close to the signal via Using split reference planes.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Signal Return Path The high frequency signals follow a mirror image of the trace on the ground plane. this may cause common mode problems. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 11 . Do not degrade this return by: Changing to layers which have another ground-plane without placing a ground-ground via close to the signal via.
be careful to avoid inductor effects.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 How To Design Delay Lines Remember loss Use meander structure. Preferably use inner layers. Keep meander lines at least 4 times the distance to ground plane apart to avoid distortion. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 12 . this reduce distortion and keep inductance low.
PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Line Termination © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 13 .
PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Driven Line And Its Reflection Coefficients Z Z S = 30Ω 0 = 90 Ω Z L =1500Ω 1550 − 90 Γl = 1550 + 90 = 0 .9 30 − 90 Γs = = − 0 .8 30 + 90 © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 14 .
PT 10 Example Computation Of A Bewley Lattice Diagram PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Γs = −0.56 1.5555 2.4 T rac e1 4.9 4.56 R eflec ted w 2.464637 15 © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies .995328 2.24416 ‐1.728 1.832 T rac e2 R eflec ted W ‐1.832 2.2768 R eflec te ‐1.464 Γl = 0.75485 1.614907 ‐0.754586 0.16 2.2768 ‐1.8 2.3824 2.0871 0.0871 0.614 Γs = 30 − 90 30 + 90 Γl = 1550 − 90 1550 + 90 S ourc e end L oad end 2.895795 0.55552 ‐1.71664 1.4 2.
Thevenin termination – Uses two resistors at the end of the line. Very much like a parallel termination but much better at terminating lines at 50 Ohm and below. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 16 .PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Different Types Of Termination Series Termination – Resistor on driver side. Resistor value depend on line impedance and acts as in parallel with input impedance of receiver. Resistor value depends on driver output impedance and line wave impedance. Parallel termination – single resistor at end of line.
if using nonterminated nets do not use data before the reflections have settled. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 17 . On FR-4 this mean that a 1ns rise signal. the longest unterminated line is 5cm. Reflections can cause double triggering. Generally the ideal would be to do a parallel termination in the line impedance Terminate critical lines that are longer than 1/3 of the rise time.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Why Terminate The Signals Termination is a method to match the driver line and receiver in such way that no reflections are generated.
PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Series Termination Used to match driver impedance Slow rise and fall times (Some times good. for instance to achieve low crosstalk) Absorb reflections if matched to line © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 18 .
© M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 19 . It could be also added within the chip. The value of the termination Rt = Xline. The disadvantage is that it loads the signal.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Series Termination Series Termination: A termination is placed near the source.impedance(Zo)-Source output Impedance(Ro) The advantage of using this termination is that it occupies only small space of the board real estate.
© M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 20 . This is because the NMOS and PMOS in output buffer are not balanced.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 What Happens To Reflections When You Put A Series Termination Series termination is always a compromise for CMOS drivers as the output impedance is not the same when the driver is pulling up or down.
PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Parallel Termination The termination of choice for high speed digital. especially for ECL. High power consumption. 100% clean signals possible © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 21 . PECL and other technologies intended for termination.
PT 10 Parallel Termination PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Parallel Termination: It is placing a termination with value of the transmission impedance at the far end of the line. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 22 . A Thevenin equivalent could be used yet it can take more space and loads the signal further. The disadvantage of this termination is its power dissipation.
PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Thevenin Termination Ideal for bus termination or lines with 3-State drivers. Faster switching from 3-state Does NOT correctly terminate the line. 330 Ohm & 220 Ohm is often used. reflections will occur © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 23 .
Design Example Vdd R1 || R 2 = Z 0 R1 = Z 0 VT = Vcc Vcc R2 = Z 0 Vcc − VT VT Gnd R2 VCC R1 + R 2 R1 . The second criteria is the Maximum current sunk by driver must be able to drive the receiver when the output voltage is a 1( high).PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 DC Thevenin Termination. R2 provides a DC path at the termination hence there is An additional Dc power consumption. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 24 .
max R1 R2 (VCC − VOL ) (VoL ) − < I OL .PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Current Driving Requirements For Thevenin Termination (VCC − VOH ) (VOH ) − > I OH .25 © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 25 .max R1 R2 R1 R2 Iohl Ioll 150 150 -0.67 165 135 -26mA 19mA 160 130 Zl=74.1 16.
Low power consumption (No DC consumption) Be careful with inductive capacitors.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 AC Termination AC or RC termination. select capacitors with care. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 26 . better for technologies not intended for termination.
The two capacitors act as DC blocks.AC Termination – Thevenin without DC current PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 The two series capacitors allow the effectiveness of the Thevenin Termination without the DC current flow. Xc > 3Tr/Z0 . The capacitor value can be computed using the criteria that it should act as a DC cutoff. Larger capacitor values can lead to higher power Consumption at higher operating frequencies © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 27 . • This is also called a AC Thevenin termination.
Line Impedance. Outputs – Capacitance Tr 400 *10 −12 1200 −12 Xc = 3 =3 = 10 Z0 75 75 X c = 16 *10 −12 1 = 16 *10 −12 2πfC C = 16 *10 −12 * 2π * 400 *10 6 = 40212 *10 −6 C = 0.PT 10 Capacitance Calculation for AC Termination PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Inputs – Rise time.04 F © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 28 .
Diodes could be used to limit Overshoot and Undershoot. It takes less space and could be incorporated within the chip. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 29 .PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 AC Termination AC Termination: It is placing a termination at the far end in series with a capacitor. Certainly the advantage of the termination would be having more output power which would could unfortunately lead to poorer signal integrity Advantages Active Termination consume less power.
PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Diode Termination Kills large over and undershoot Not generally useful in high-speed systems. (A design needing this type of termination have probably greater problems elsewhere) © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 30 .
• The impedance and sunk current is programmable hence we have Better control of power dissipation. One terminator will terminate a minimum number of lines – say 16. • More expensive that resistors but with volume production terminator costs are less than 1 cent.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Active Termination Via ICs Active termination IC • Typically implemented as on–board SMTs. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 31 .
PT 10 Examples Of Termination Waveforms – Thevenin Vs Series Vs AC. PEMP VSD534/ESE507 SERIES TERMINATION THEVENIN TERMINATION AC PARALLEL TERMINATION © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 32 .
© M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 33 .PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Differential Trace Termination Differential lines also require a termination resistor if the line length exceeds the data rate The termination is placed at the destination To reduce the current consumption AC termination may be used The termination resistor [R] is selected to match the trace impedance [Zo] while the capacitor is selected by: Xc = [3 * Tr] / Zo.
Power Distribution And De-coupling
How to supply the right voltage at the right place at the right time
© M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies
The ground and power system serves two purposes.
First to serve as a return path for the signal. Second to supply the devices with power.
The high frequency components of today is using a lot of power at a low voltage. The result is very high currents. A modern FPGA can draw several amperes the first nanosecond after switching. To meet these challenges one need a low inductance, low resistance and high capacitance power system.
© M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies
Power Supply To PCBs
The system of GND and Power planes must provide stable power to all SOCs on a board. The input voltage as seen by the receiver is affected adversely by ground bounce generated especially by common path noise on the GND plane.
A B B A B D
© M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies
Gate in the middle will switch this noise voltage to its output. When the Gate P switches the current from the battery will charge up the capacitive load. Additional inductance in power plane will generate a noise voltage across the L in power plane.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Impedance Between Power Pins Must Be As Low As Between GND Pins A B P A Y B Q Y A B R Y Return path is through the battery. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 37 .
Closely spaced power planes give a good high frequency.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Why Decoupling The high switching currents in today's components create a need for a local current supply with sufficient charge to avoid a severe voltage drop at the power pins. low inductance decoupling but it can not hold much charge. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 38 . When these resources are exhausted on need larger supplies that are closer than the power supply.
The low impedance path between PWR and GND is provided by the bypass capacitors added. For high frequency the Capacitors act as shorts. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 39 .PT 10 There Must Be A Low Impedance Path Between VDD And GND The bypass capacitors and the separate Power and GND planes ensure the inductive noise will be minimized. A B A Y A B A Y A B A Y PEMP VSD534/ESE507 At DC the capacitors act as high impedance. The nearness of the GND and VDD plane also helps to supplement the bypass capacitors added.
PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Effective Capacitance Provided by PWR and GND Planes A C = 8.854ε r pf d A Area of shared PWR − GND planes (inches 2) d separation between planes in inch ε r = Re lative permittivity 4. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 40 . Power and GND planes add an effective capacitance of 100pF/in2 between VDD and GND.5 for FR − 4 The effective Series resistance of bypass capacitors must be considered in calculating how Effective the bypasses are.
3nH. A 100nF capacitor can have C=84nF. L=1.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 A Capacitor is Not a Capacitor fres = 1 2 π √ LC A capacitor is a passive device dominated by capacitance.13ohm A capacitor is often described with its resonance frequency Different dielectrics NPO. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 41 . R=0. X7R or Z5U have different properties.
To be sure on have to measure the inductance which is difficult To compare two capacitors of same nominal capacitance chose the one with the highest resonance frequency. So called high frequency capacitors is not necessarily less inductive © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 42 .PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 A Capacitor is Not a Capacitor… Usually thin and wide X7R chips is the best choice for decoupling.
100nF) close to the power pin. leaded capacitors is to inductive to be of any help. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 43 . 47μF tantalum) close to the connector power pins.e.PT 10 Selecting Decoupling Capacitors PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Selecting a decoupling capacitor is not easy but some general rules apply: Select the smallest value that is sufficient to decouple the device. 10μF) evenly distributed.e.1µF capacitor for each power pin Use only chip capacitors. If you do not know what is sufficient choose one 100nF /0. the medium values(i. Decouple in levels with the smallest value (i. the higher values (i.e.
Keep distance to pin very SHORT and the trace WIDE. If too high . Do not forget to place decoupling capacitors close to termination resistors. Set the via as close as possible to the capacitor. Calculate inductance. you do not have to mount all of them in production if the system works with less.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Where To Place Decoupling Capacitors Get as close as possible to power and ground pins. One capacitor for every power (and ground) pin is a good rule of thumb. it is important to keep the reference voltages steady.forget the capacitor. preferably in the pad. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 44 .
Remember that digital signals are broad band and that filters are narrow band.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Splitting Power Planes Be very careful with splitting ground planes. keep the split narrow and secure an AC return path. If you have to split. Splits act as slot antennas and will radiate heavily. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 45 . Filters over the gap may cause problems.
1997 © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 46 .PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Microstrip Over a Slotted Ground Plane 1 2 3 4 IEEE Circuits & Devices Nov.
PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 PCB Stack Up © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 47 .
A good stack-up can be very effective in reducing radiation from the loops on the PCB (differential-mode emission).PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 General Aspects On Stack-up PCB stack-up is an important factor in determining the EMC performance of a product. as well as the cables attached to the board (common-mode emission). © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 48 . A poor stack-up can increase the radiation from both of these mechanisms considerably.
The number and types of planes (power and/or ground) used. and The spacing between the layers. The ordering or sequence of the layers. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 49 .PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Board Stack-up Four factors are important with respect to board stack-up considerations: The number of layers.
© M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 50 .PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Board Stack-up (Cont…) In deciding on the number of layers. the following should be considered: The number of signals to be routed and cost Frequency Will the product have to meet Class A or Class B emission requirements Will the PCB be in a shielded or unshielded enclosure The EMC engineering expertise of the design team.
They allow signals to be routed in a microstrip (or stripline) configuration. – These configurations are controlled impedance transmission lines with much less radiation than the random traces used on a two-layer board.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Board Stack-up (Cont…) Multi-layer boards using ground and/or power planes provide significant reduction in radiated emission over two layer PCBs. The ground plane decreases the ground impedance (and therefore the ground noise) significantly. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 51 .
In this way the planes can act as shields and contain the radiation from the high-speed traces. since they will lower the ground (reference plane) impedance of the board and reduce the common-mode radiation. 4. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 52 .PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Board Stack-up (Cont…) Five objectives on Multi-layer Board 1. 5. Signal layers should be tightly coupled (close) to their adjacent planes. Multiple ground planes are very advantageous. 3. A signal layer should always be adjacent to a plane 2. Power and Ground planes should be closely coupled together. High-speed signals should be routed on buried layers located between planes.
The advantages of tight coupling between the signal (trace) layers and the current return planes will more than outweigh the disadvantage caused by the slight loss in interplane capacitance © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 53 .PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Four-Layer Boards The most common four-layer board configuration is as below _____________ Sig. _____________ Ground _____________ Power _____________ Sig.
) Layers are equally spaced Large separation between the signal layer and the current return plane Large separation between the power and ground planes Not sufficient inter-plane capacitance between the adjacent power and ground planes Decoupling will have to be taken care Opt for tight coupling between the signal and the current return plane © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 54 .PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Four-Layer Boards (cont..
and use a large core (>0. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 55 .040") between the power and ground planes _____________ Sig.) PEMP VSD534/ESE507 To improve the EMC performance of a four-layer board is to space the signal layers as close to the planes as possible (<0.010").. _____________ Ground _____________ Power _____________ Sig.PT 10 Four-Layer Boards (cont.
.) Advantages The signal loop areas are smaller and therefore produce less differential mode radiation the tight coupling between the signal trace and the ground plane reduces the plane impedance (inductance) the close trace to plane coupling will decrease the crosstalk between traces Disadvantage For a fixed trace to trace spacing the crosstalk is proportional to the square of the trace height.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Four-Layer Boards (cont. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 56 .
_____________ Sig..PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Four-Layer Boards (cont. _____________ Sig. _____________ Power Advantage The planes on the outer layers provide shielding to the signal traces on the inner layers Disadvantage The ground plane may be cut-up considerably with component mounting pads on a high density PCB an exposed power plane the buried signal layers make board rework difficult if not impossible © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 57 .) _____________ Ground.
_____________ Sig.. The power should be routed as a grid.) _____________ Ground. on the signal layers Advantages The two ground planes produce a much lower ground impedance and hence less common-mode cable radiation The two ground planes can be stitched together around the periphery of the board to enclose all the signal traces in a faraday cage © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 58 . using wide traces.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Four-Layer Boards (cont. _____________ Ground Two outer planes are ground planes and power is routed as a trace on the signal planes./Pwr. _____________ Sig./Pwr.
PT 10 Four-Layer Boards (cont. PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Advantages Still provides for the low ground impedance as a result of two ground planes Disadvantage The planes however do not provide any shielding This configuration satisfies objectives (1)./Pwr./Pwr. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 59 . (2).. and (5) but not objectives (3) or (4). _____________ Ground _____________ Ground _____________ Sig.) _____________ Sig.
________________Signal ________________Signal ________________Ground ________________Power ________________Signal ________________Signal One stack-up NOT to use on a six-layer board is the one shown in the above figure.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Six-Layer Boards Most six-layer boards consist of four signal routing layers and two planes. Why? Cont… © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 60 .
If used. and two of the signal layers (1 and 6) are not adjacent to a plane. at as many locations as possible.PT 10 Why? PEMP VSD534/ESE507 The planes provide no shielding for the signal layers. any unused area on layers 1 and 6 should be provided with "ground fill" and tied into the primary ground plane. or better yet no signals at all (just mounting pads). with vias. are routed on layers 1 and 6. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 61 . The only time this arrangement works even moderately well is if all the high frequency signals are routed on layers 2 and 5 and only very low frequency signals.
PT 10 Six-Layer Boards (cont…) PEMP VSD534/ESE507 With six layers available the principle of providing two buried layers for high-speed signals is easily implemented as shown ________________Mounting Pads/Low Freq. Signals © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 62 . Signals ________________Ground ________________High Freq. Signals ________________High Freq. Signals ________________Power ________________Low Freq.
& 4 but not objectives 3 & 5 Disadvantages main drawback is the separation of the power and ground planes – Due to this separation there is no significant interplane capacitance between power and ground Therefore. 2. Satisfies objectives 1. the decoupling must be designed very carefully to account for this fact © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 63 .PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Six-Layer Boards (cont…) This configuration also provides two surface layers for routing low speed signals.
but a good performing stack-up for a six-layer board is shown ________________Signal(H1) ________________Ground ________________Signal (V1) ________________Signal (H2) ________________Power ________________Signal (V2) H1 indicates the horizontal routing layer for signal 1 V1 indicates the vertical routing layer for signal 1. H2 and V2 represent the same for signal 2 © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 64 .PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Six-Layer Boards (cont…) Not nearly as common.
4. but not 3. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 65 . & • The desired board thickness made up by the use of a thicker center core This configuration satisfies objectives 1 and 2.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Six-Layer Boards (cont…) Advantages Orthogonal routed signals always reference the same plane Disadvantage the signals on layer one and six are not shielded • Therefore the signal layers should be placed very close to their adjacent planes. or 5.
PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Six-Layer Boards (cont…) Another excellent performing six-layer board is shown ________________Ground/ Mounting Pads ________________Signal ________________Ground ________________Power ________________Signal ________________Ground Advantage It provides two buried signal layers and adjacent power and ground planes and satisfies all five objectives Disadvantage It only has two routing layers -.so it is not often used © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 66 .
PT 10 Ten-Layer Boards PEMP VSD534/ESE507 A ten-layer board should be used when six routing layers are required. therefore.062" thick board. Ten-layer boards. usually have six signal layers and four planes. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 67 . Ten-layers is also the largest number of layers that can usually be conveniently fabricated in a 0. Having more than six signal layers on a ten-layer board is not recommended.
.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Ten-Layer Boards (cont…) There are twelve-layer board fabricated as a 0. When properly stacked and routed they can meet all five objectives and will have excellent EMC performance and signal integrity.006" or less on a 0. High layer count boards (ten +) require thin dielectrics (typically 0.062" thick board. but the number of fabricators capable of producing it are limited. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 68 .062" thick board) and therefore they automatically have tight coupling between layers.
________________Signal (high-speed signals & clocks) ________________Signal (high-speed signals & clocks) ________________Pwr.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Ten-Layer Boards (cont…) Ideal stack-up for a ten-layer board is shown ________________Signal (low-speed signals) ________________Gnd. or Pwr. ________________Signal (low-speed signals) © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 69 . ________________Gnd. ________________Signal (high-speed signals & clocks) ________________Signal (high-speed signals & clocks) ________________Gnd.
as well as A tightly coupled power/ground plane pair in the center of the board. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 70 .PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Ten-Layer Boards (cont…) The reason that this stack-up has such good performance is The tight coupling of the signal and return planes. The existence of multiple ground planes. The shielding of the high-speed signal layers. High-speed signals normally would be routed on the signal layers buried between planes (layers 3-4 and 7-8 in this case).
the planes on layers 2 and 9 provide shielding to the highfrequency signal traces on the inner layers. In addition the signals on layers 3 & 4 are isolated from the signals on layers 7 & 8 by the center power/ground plane pair. and layers 7 & 8 (both carrying high-speed signals). as well as pairing layers 3 & 4. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 71 . By paring signals in this manner.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Ten-Layer Boards (cont…) The common way to pair orthogonally routed signals in this configuration would be to pair layers 1 & 10 (carrying only low-frequency signals).
and high-speed address and data buses routed on the other pair. In this way the bus lines are protected. by the intervening planes © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 72 .PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Ten-Layer Boards (cont…) Example High-speed clocks might be routed on one of the pairs. against being contaminated with clock noise.
© M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 73 . The disadvantage.PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Ten-Layer Boards (cont…) Another possibility for routing orthogonal signals on the ten-layer board is to pair layers 1 & 3. these signal layers should be placed very close to their adjacent plane. and layers 8 & 10. In the case of layer pairs 1 & 3 as well as 8 & 10. Therefore. is that if layers 1 and/or 10 have high frequency signals on them there is no inherent shielding provided by the PCB planes. of course. layers 4 & 7. this has the advantage of routing orthogonal signals with reference to the same plane.
PCBs having from four to ten layers. and helps aid in the decoupling of the power bus. there is a number of viable options in each case and some compromise of objectives is usually necessary. © M S Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies 74 .PT 10 PEMP VSD534/ESE507 Stack Up Summary In this section we have discussed various ways to stack-up high-speed. improves signal quality. digital logic. A good PCB stack-up reduces radiation. No one stack-up is best.